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1

It is time for a more integrated bio-psycho-social approach to ADHD.  

PubMed

The role of psychosocial factors in perpetuating and predisposing towards the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been neglected within the field of child mental health. Clinicians, when told that a child had a diagnosis of ADHD, have been found to underestimate the presence of psychosocial factors, and are less likely to ask about the possibility of neglect or abuse. This article details the considerable research showing links between ADHD symptoms and parental mental illness, child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attachment disorders and other environmental factors. Recent neuro-biological findings showing the impact on brain development of early abuse and attachment concerns are cited. The implications of these findings both for clinicians, and at policy level, are discussed, and the reasons underlying the need for a more integrated Bio-Psycho-Social approach to ADHD are outlined. PMID:23104966

Richards, Louise Marie-Elaine

2013-10-01

2

Employing a community based participatory research approach to bear witness: psycho-social impact of the 2010 earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  

PubMed

We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C

2014-12-01

3

Psycho-social effects of traffic noise exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a study of psycho-social effects of exposure to high levels of road traffic noise is presented. A questionnaire was constructed to evaluate not only annoyance reactions and sleep disturbance effects of noise, but also more long-term effects on psycho-social well-being (PSW). PSW was evaluated by 26 questions concerning depression, relaxation, activity, passivity, general well-being and social orientation. The postal questionnaire was answered by 151 persons in a quiet city area and 97 persons in an area exposed to an Leq level of 72 dB(A). The results showed that a higher proportion of those who lived in the noisy area in apartments with windows facing the street more often felt depressed. Those who had windows facing the courtyard, in the noisy area, however, were not more depressed that those who lived in the quiet area. Methodological difficulties in this type of study are also discussed in the paper.

Öhrström, E.

1991-12-01

4

Psycho-social training for man in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the international manned space station various international and national space agencies are already participating with the Russian MIR programme with short, medium, and long term presence on the MIR station. Although selection criteria for all crew include careful psychological screening, with some effort also regarding team build-up, this has proved insufficient; moreover, little or no effort is expended in the area of psycho-social- or team training. This paper propounds the authors' thesis that, in addition to the steps already being taken, psycho-social training is essential for long-duration flight. A concrete proposal is made for such a training program, with an overview of how such a program will look like; examples of past applications are given.

Kass, R.; Kass, J. R.

1999-11-01

5

Effect of asthma in childhood on psycho-social problems in the family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The responsibility for treating children with asthma has gradually shifted from the medical health service to the family and parents, which may cause new psycho-social problems in the family. This study aimed at describing the psycho-social effects on families having a child with asthma, and at determining whether a relation exists between the medical severity of disease and psycho-social

Dan Gustafsson; Niclas Olofsson; Florence Andersson; Berit Lindberg; Jens Schollin

2002-01-01

6

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS  

E-print Network

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Colleen on an earlier draft. #12;1 EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL of children, and investments in human capital, such as education and work experience, largely determined

Shyy, Wei

7

Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences. PMID:21240548

Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

2011-06-01

8

[Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].  

PubMed

This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work. PMID:25546541

Martínez, Carlos

2014-01-01

9

Effect Of Bio-Psycho-Social Changes On Older Consumers: Implications For Product Design And Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued rapid growth of the mature adult (over the age of 65) population and the tremendous variability in the needs, lifestyles, and demographic characteristics of this segment is creating lucrative opportunities for product designers marketers. This paper describes the evolving needs of mature adults especially due to the bio-psycho-social changes that accompany the aging process. By interfacing the gerontological

Monica Nandan

2008-01-01

10

The Relationship Between Hypertension and Psycho-Social Functioning in Young Black Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is mainly concerned with relating psycho-social functioning (i.e. family life, like or dislike for school or occupation, self concept, job stability, environmental stress, and adaptability to depressive reactions/frustrations) to primary hypertension in young black men. (AM)

Pierre, Thelma

1976-01-01

11

Psycho-Social Issues in Females Study of Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationship between psycho-social factors with females study of science and technology course at the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria and its counseling implications. Three research questions and hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The subjects for the study comprised 240 undergraduate female students…

Iyabo, Omoniyi Mary Banke; Oke, Oloruntegbe Kunle

2012-01-01

12

Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

2014-01-01

13

Impacts of hazardous technology: The psycho-social effects of restarting TMI-1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an evaluation of the psycho-social impacts of hazardous technology. Using a multiple research strategy, the authors show the possible effects of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island. The book includes background information concerning environmental policy, the accident and restart issues, and forecasted impacts and implications for environmental management. The topic, however, extends well beyond that of TMI and nuclear power. Linkages are made with other environmental problems including chemical accidents such as Bhopal and waste disposal problems such as Love Canal.

Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.; Bolin, R.

1987-01-01

14

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON PSYCHO-SOCIAL BELIEF IN RURAL LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA RESIDENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of imp...

15

Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners in supportive interventions. Interventions aimed at improving sexual functioning should include elements aimed at improving physical quality of life and sexual communication, with a focus on psychological wellbeing also being important for women with cancer. PMID:24673768

2014-01-01

16

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

17

The psycho-social malaise of migrant private carers in Italy: a rampant, but hidden health demand.  

PubMed

Despite having become an essential part of the national welfare system, the Italian private care market has developed in a situation of institutional disengagement. As a consequence, this sector, which has a high presence of female migrant workers, is currently characterised by serious flaws. What are the consequences for the psycho-social well-being of migrant private carers (MPCs)? This article highlights and analyses the high correlation between migrant women's involvement in the Italian private care market and their manifestations of psycho-social malaise, the latter being one of the main factors motivating the access to health services for MPCs employed in Italy. Based on qualitative data collected in Italy in 2009-2010: 32 in-depth interviews to MPCs, a focus group discussion involving seven MPCs, and 23 semi-structured interviews to providers working in close contact with MPCs, mostly in health services, it describes how the malaise of MPCs is generated, and how it is interpreted and expressed (or not expressed) by them. In particular, it investigates the social dynamics determining the latent nature of this phenomenon, and its tendency to work silently on MPCs' subjectivities without coming to the attention of health services, which are therefore not able to prevent or limit its negative consequences. Nevertheless, this article also shows that this malaise sometimes surfaces in the health service (albeit too rarely, or too late) and how it is generally managed by health providers. In particular, a timely encounter with the health system involving  the simple externalisation and acknowledgement of this psycho-social malaise can have a crucial therapeutic value, meaningfully helping to prevent it from becoming a serious condition. On this basis, the importance is highlighted of creating channels for facilitating the meeting between this pressing but unexpressed health need and the institutions in charge of the health of society. PMID:25265445

Sarli, Annavittoria

2014-01-01

18

Obesity and body mass index (BMI) in relation to life-style and psycho-social aspects.  

PubMed

Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample of Italian subjects, which also assesses the relationship between obesity and psychological health. We hypothesize that obesity is related to many factors, such as life-style, behavioral, socio-economic, and psychological aspects. The sample was made up of 107 obese and non-obese subjects, aged 50-74. All participants were given a multidimensional assessment, which included anthropometric, psycho-social and life-style evaluation. As per the protocol a structured life-style questionnaire designed to gather information on anthropometric measurements, socio-economic factors, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and food intake. The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) for the evaluation of a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology; the Binge Eating Scale (BES) for the assessment of disorders in the eating habits were administered. BMI was associated with age and education, socio-economic status and smoking in both genders. Psychological factors for obesity differed between overweight men and women. In conclusion, obesity and non-obesity appear as two different entities in some aspects. The increase in the prevalence of obesity in elderly subjects could lead to disability and age-related diseases. For this reason, greater insight of the factors related to the development of obesity is required to develop treatment strategies weight-loss prevention programs. PMID:19836633

Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Tirabassi, G; Faloia, E; Boscaro, M; Polito, A; Ciarapica, D; Zaccaria, M; Mocchegiani, E

2009-01-01

19

Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion.  

PubMed

Purpose of this study was to correlate results from a survey on otitis media and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. This survey investigated prevalence of otitis media (OM) in our territory, influence on development of language and personality and social costs. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory is a suitable test to differentiate state anxiety caused by a specific event [in this case, otitis media with effusion (OME)] from a trait anxiety (anxious personality) in parents and caregivers. The otitis media study was conducted, retrospectively, in two primary public schools in Colle Val D'Elsa (Siena) on 252 children (6-11 years old). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test had been administered to the parents or caregivers of 20 paediatric outpatients (4-12 years, mean 6.8) at the ENT Department of Siena University. The results of the OM survey showed a correlation between OM and difficulties in speech and reading, delayed answering and limited vocabulary. All these problems improved as children grew up. On the other hand, psycho-social development appeared to be more problematic even in the 4th and 5th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or caregivers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly concerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or caregivers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an anxious personality. These findings could be helpful in understanding the real severity of symptoms. The two proposed tests could provide complementary data to evaluate children with OME: the OM survey can be used as a screening test to detect children with non-symptomatic OME, to establish whether delayed language development may be associated with OME, to predict prognosis and children's quality of life as well as social costs of OME; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test can be used to reveal a state or a trait anxiety in parents and caregivers in order to better understand their point of view. Parents' and caregivers' personality has a marked influence on the impact of OME on the children's quality of life. Quality of life in children with otitis media with effusion is one of the most important parameters to be taken into consideration on account of the possible correlation with problems in development. PMID:16749604

Bellussi, L; Mandalà, M; Passàli, F M; Passàli, G C; Lauriello, M; Passali, D

2005-12-01

20

[Complex psycho-social intervention program complementing conventional antitumor therapy -- promising results].  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive, complex psycho-social intervention program, operating on different levels of spiritual plane, life management and behavioural health, among women with breast cancer. The general objective of the study was to help in coping, promote cognitive and emotional processing, encourage psychological and spiritual growth, improve the quality of life, and reduce the chances of remission. The research has been carried out in Budapest at the Radiology Diagnostic Department of the National Oncology Institute, involving 173 women treated for malignant breast tumour (C50) (experimental group: n=86, control group: n=87). Thirty-four women from the experimental group participated in the complex intervention program. We carried out two tests: one before the start and one after the end of the program. Research tools: Shortened Beck Depression Inventory, Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Benefit Finding Questionnaire. The women participating the experimental program showed a significant positive change in comparison to the control group: in anxiety F (1, 65)=6.021, p=0.017; in depression: F(1, 72)=4.347, p=0.041; in experience of personal control: F(1, 69)=7.346, p=0.008; in EORTC General Health/Quality of Life Subscale F(1, 78)=7.531, p=0.008; in EORTC physical functioning F(1, 78)=4.874, p=0.014; in EORTC fatigue F(1, 78)=15.060, p=0.000; in BR23 body-image F(1, 79)=8.828, p=0.004; in BR23 arm symptoms F(1, 78)=7.229, p=0.009; in benefit finding F(1, 80)=21.171, p=0.000, and in posttraumatic growth F(1, 31)=24.186, p=0.000). The program has proven effective, its widespread use in practice is recommended. PMID:23236595

Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Rigó, Adrien; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Szabó, Eva; Kovács, Dorottya; Sebestyén, Arpád; Balogh, Béla; Prezenszki, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Melánia

2012-12-01

21

The Treatment of Father-Daughter Incest: A Psycho-Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP) in San Jose, California. Based on the theory and methods of Humanistic Psychology, the program provides counseling to sexually abused children and their families. (SB)

Giarretto, Henry

1976-01-01

22

Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

2012-01-01

23

Evaluating the efficacy of psycho-social interventions for informal carers of cancer patients: a systematic review of the research literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition that informal cancer carers experience unmet needs and psychological distress has led to the development of a range of psycho-social interventions. The efficacy of such interventions is examined through a systematic review of the research literature, following National Health and Medical Research Council and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Of 13 level II randomised controlled trials (RCTs), only eight showed significant

Jane Maria Ussher; Janette Perz; Yasmin Hawkins; Marita Brack

2009-01-01

24

Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

2012-01-01

25

The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male

M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard

1992-01-01

26

Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms—A pilot survey among persons exposed to high levels of road traffic noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high levels of road traffic noise during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by 63 persons during three consecutive days. It was found that both sleep quality and mood (social orientation, activity, wellbeing and extroversion) were depressed in the noisy area as compared with a control area. Symptoms of tiredness, headache and nervous stomach disorders were more frequent. A significant relationship between sensitivity to noise and sleep quality was also found. From this pilot study hypotheses may be formulated about a relationship between environmental noise and different psycho-social and medical symptoms. It is suggested that similar studies on a larger scale are performed to elucidate long-term effects of noise.

Öhrström, E.

1989-08-01

27

Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students

Sheila Sheu; Huey-Shyan Lin; Shiow-Li Hwang

2002-01-01

28

Why Do Some People Do “More” to Mitigate Climate Change than Others? Exploring Heterogeneity in Psycho-Social Associations  

PubMed Central

The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized—and differentiated from common mitigation behavior—as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change—but not in motivational or socio-demographic links—with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

2014-01-01

29

Exploring the Psycho-Social Therapies Through the Personalities of Effective Therapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several specific research approaches are compared with regard to cost-effectiveness, types of disorders to which they best respond, general strategies, and therapist personality. Replicated findings include: (1) support for both the functional reversal and semantic reversal of the "A-B Scale;" (2) characterization of therapists who are effective…

Dent, James K.; Furse, George A.

30

Chronic Widespread Pain Drawn on a Body Diagram is a Screening Tool for Increased Pain Sensitization, Psycho-Social Load, and Utilization of Pain Management Strategies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain, (CWP) drawn by patients on a body diagram, could be used as a screening tool for increased pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilization of pain management strategies. The triage questionnaires of 144 adults attending a chronic pain outpatients' clinic were audited and the percentage pain surface area (PPSA) drawn on their body diagrams was calculated using the "rule of nines" (RON) method for burns area assessment. Outcomes were measured using the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) and other indices and compared using a nonrandomized, case-control method. It was found that significantly more subjects with CWP (defined as a PPSA ? 20%) reported high (? 19) PD-Q scores (suggesting pain "sensitization" or neuropathic pain) (P = 0.0002), "severe" or "extremely severe" anxiety scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items Questionnaire (P = 0.0270), ? 5 psycho-social stressors (P = 0.0022), ? 5 significant life events (P = 0.0098), and used ? 7 pain management strategies (PMS) (P < 00001), compared to control subjects with a lower PPSA. A Widespread Pain Index score ? 7 (OR = 11.36), PD-Q score ? 19 (OR = 4.46) and use of ? 7 PMS (OR = 5.49) were independently associated with CWP. This study demonstrates that calculating PPSA on a body diagram (using the RON method) is a valid and convenient "snapshot" screening tool to identify patients with an increased likelihood of pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilizing pain management resources. PMID:25469881

Visser, Eric J; Ramachenderan, Jonathan; Davies, Stephanie J; Parsons, Richard

2014-12-01

31

When treatment success is not as black and white as a radiograph: the bio/psycho/social impact of chronic osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

This case report is from Malawi Beit CURE international Hospital (BCIH), a center of excellence for the management of chronic osteomyelitis (COM) in children. Currently minimal evidence based data exists on the long term outcomes for treatment of bone defects following COM. Few studies evaluating outcomes are based solely on clinical parameters. This case study highlights the often-debilitating outcome after treatment and hence the need for further research to find the most effective treatment to create treatment guidelines. It particularly demonstrates the importance of the bio/psycho/social impact of long-term morbidity and disability, which must be considered alongside clinical outcomes in evaluation.

Yoward, Freya Jane; Bury, Sarah Lucy

2014-01-01

32

Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period  

PubMed Central

Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

2015-01-01

33

The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2014-01-01

34

Psycho-social factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES In the US, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) holds tremendous promise for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among these men. However, many psycho-social components must be addressed in order to effectively implement this prevention tool among BMSM. METHODS We assessed PrEP knowledge and use, health care access experiences, race-based medical mistrust, sexual partners and behaviors, and drug and alcohol use among 699 men attending a community event in the southeastern US. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use PrEP. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-eight men reported being BMSM and HIV negative status. Among these men, 60% reported being willing to use PrEP. Lack of being comfortable with talking to a health care provider about having sex with men, not having discussed having sex with a man with a health care provider, race-based medical mistrust, and alcohol consumption and substance use were all identified as barriers to willingness to use PrEP. Sexual risk taking, including number of sex partners and STI diagnosis, was not associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS Findings from the current paper demonstrate the importance of acknowledging the role of various psycho-social factors in the uptake of PrEP. It is imperative that we prioritize research into better understanding these barriers as the failure to do so will impede the tremendous potential of this prevention technology. PMID:25001553

Eaton, Lisa A.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

2015-01-01

35

A bio-psycho-social exercise program (RÜCKGEWINN) for chronic low back pain in rehabilitation aftercare - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is strong, internationally confirmed evidence for the short-term effectiveness of multimodal interdisciplinary specific treatment programs for chronic back pain. However, the verification of long-term sustainability of achieved effects is missing so far. For long-term improvement of pain and functional ability high intervention intensity or high volume seems to be necessary (> 100 therapy hours). Especially in chronic back pain rehabilitation, purposefully refined aftercare treatments offer the possibility to intensify positive effects or to increase their sustainability. However, quality assured goal-conscious specific aftercare programs for the rehabilitation of chronic back pain are absent. Methods/Design This study aims to examine the efficacy of a specially developed bio-psycho-social chronic back pain specific aftercare intervention (RÜCKGEWINN) in comparison to the current usual aftercare (IRENA) and a control group that is given an educational booklet addressing pain-conditioned functional ability and back pain episodes. Overall rehabilitation effects as well as predictors for compliance to the aftercare programs are analysed. Therefore, a multicenter prospective 3-armed randomised controlled trial is conducted. 456 participants will be consecutively enrolled in inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation and assigned to either one of the three study arms. Outcomes are measured before and after rehabilitation. Aftercare programs are assessed at ten month follow up after dismissal form rehabilitation. Discussion Special methodological and logistic challenges are to be mastered in this trial, which accrue from the interconnection of aftercare interventions to their residential district and the fact that the proportion of patients who take part in aftercare programs is low. The usability of the aftercare program is based on the transference into the routine care and is also reinforced by developed manuals with structured contents, media and material for organisation assistance as well as training manuals for therapists in the aftercare. Trial Registration Trial Registration number: NCT01070849 PMID:21083918

2010-01-01

36

Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders  

PubMed Central

A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

2015-01-01

37

Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

1975-01-01

38

The Travelling Idea of Looking After Children: Conditions for moulding a systematic approach in child welfare into three national contexts—Australia, Canada and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking After Children (LAC) is an approach (care philosophy and working tools) used to assess the psycho-social development of children being cared for by child welfare agencies. It is an international initiative that was developed in England and then travelled and was translated into other contexts, most notably Australia, Canada and Sweden. This paper presents findings from an open-ended question

Lennart Nygren; Ulf Hyvönen; Evelyn Khoo

2009-01-01

39

Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

2012-01-01

40

[Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

41

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy of the addition of a psycho-social intervention to standard-of-care services in reducing attrition and improving attendance among first-time users of methadone maintenance treatment in China.  

PubMed

Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an important means of HIV control, MMT clinics commonly have high attrition rates. The randomized controlled trial investigated the relative efficacy of adding a psycho-social intervention to the standard-of-care MMT in reducing attrition and non-attendance among first-time newly admitted MMT users in China (n = 288). Social workers implemented this three-phase intervention that was based on a behavioral maintenance theory. It also involved participants' family members and rectified some MMT-related misconceptions. As compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significantly lower likelihood of attrition (HR = 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80), lower estimated probability of attrition at Month 12 (0.35 vs. 0.55), and higher median number of days of attendance (Month 6: 147 vs. 91 days, p < 0.001; end-date: 225 vs. 142 days, p < 0.001). Further psycho-social services and translational research are warranted. PMID:23413126

Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Xu, Huifang; Zhong, Ying; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Yuteng; Fan, Lirui; Ling, Wenhua

2013-07-01

42

UNDERSTANDING THE CUMULATIVE AFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL STRESSORS THAT THREATEN THE POHLIK-LAH AND NER-ER-NER LIFEWAY: THE YUROK TRIBE?S APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

First, this project compiled potential chemical/toxin contaminants that might contribute as risk factors to humans in the project’s research area and then sought to correlate them with established negative health outcomes within the Tribal Membership. Outcomes include...

43

A Psycho-Social Study of Outstanding Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an ex post facto analysis of the life histories of 24 Olympic female champions which attempts to determine events and variables in the psychological and social driving forces behind outstanding achievement in sports. The data was gathered by (a) personal interviews, (b) the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and (c) a data…

Balazs, Eva K.

44

Identity, Home and Asylum: A PsychoSocial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores through a psychoanalytic perspective the construction of 'whiteness' vis-à-vis Others in contemporary Britain. It is a tentative theoretical exploration of the subject of a three-year research project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council of the United Kingdom. The nature of immigration and asylum has changed over the past decade and different forms of hostility have

Simon Clarke; Steve Garner

45

Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown

1993-01-01

46

Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

Kane, M.S.

1993-01-01

47

PsychoSocial Consequences of Secondary Infertility in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had

Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali

48

Psycho?social profile of abused children in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child abuse in one form or other, has manifested in almost all societies. But the recognition of child abuse as a social problem is a recent phenomenon in Inaia and therefore, research is still in its infancy. Present paper reviews the child abuses in India under the areas of different forms of child abuse, marital issues involved, parent child interactions,

Aparajita Chowdhury; Sagarika Pattnaik; Archana Patro

1994-01-01

49

Major Psycho-Social Problems and the Psychiatric Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations made at institutes and workshops conducted by the National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT) are included in this publication. Drug abuse, alcoholism, crisis intervention, mental retardation, and mental health manpower were the themes for these presentations: (1) "Mental Health Trends in California" by G. Duffy, (2) "The…

National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

50

Some PsychoSocial Aspects of Old People Living Outside Their Families in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and ninety four elderly subjects were studied, 133 of whom were living away from their families, in the only old people's home and in the only psychiatric hospital in Kuwait. They were compared to 61 consecutive elderly subjects atten ding a psychiatric out-patient clinic. Psychiatric, social and clinical characteristics of subjects admitted and those living with their families

T. H. Malasi; S. M. El-Hilu; I. A. Mirza; M. F. El-Islam

1988-01-01

51

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis,

I Christopher McManus; Hannah M Mitchison; Eddie MK Chung; Georgina F Stubbings; Naomi Martin

2003-01-01

52

Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification. PMID:20046402

2008-01-01

53

Automatic Collection, Analysis, Access, and Archiving of Psycho/Social Behavior by Individuals and Groups  

E-print Network

the profound concerns that exist about the quality-of-care (QoC) and quality-of-life (QoL) of this frailest has captured more than 13,000 hours of video and audio recordings of life in the shared spaces of a nursing home dementia unit, by using 23 ceiling-mounted cameras, 24 hours a day for 25 days, ensuring

Stevens, Scott M.

54

Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)

Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others

1979-01-01

55

Adolescent dietary patterns are associated with lifestyle family psycho-social factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/ Objectives: Dietary intake during adolescence contributes to lifelong eating habits and the development of early risk factors for disease in adulthood. Few studies have examined the dietary patterns of adolescents and the social and environmental factors that may affect them during this life stage. The present study describes dietary patterns in a cohort of adolescents and examines their associations

Gina L Ambrosini; Wendy H Oddy; Monique Robinson; Therese A OSullivan; Beth P Hands; Nick H de Klerk; Sven R Silburn; Stephen R Zubrick; Garth E Kendall; Fiona J Stanley; Lawrence J Beilin

2009-01-01

56

Information-Seeking Behaviour and PsychoSocial Interactions during the Genetic Testing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the information-seeking behaviour (ISB) of women attending cancer genetic consultations at which the possibility of BRCA testing is considered. We focused here specifically on ISB apart from the cancer genetic consultation, i.e. on what complementary sources of information about genetic testing were consulted and what factors were involved in this

C. Cypowyj; F. Eisinger; M. Morin; A. Mogoutov; H. Sobol; C. Julian-Reynier

2003-01-01

57

The adolescent sexual world and AIDS prevention: a democratic approach to programme design in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to redress the under-representation of adolescent attitudes in AIDS prevention programme design and to discuss the implications of a democratic sexuality education approach within a health promotion context. The study surveyed the attitudes of adolescents (average age 16 years) on sex-related topics such as culture, marriage, sexual behaviour and sex education, identified similarities and differences in attitudes according to gender and socio-economic environments, and examined sources of students' knowledge of selected sex-related topics. Questionnaires were completed by 3429 secondary school students from different backgrounds. Findings showed significant differences in attitude related to gender and socio-economic settings and also in sources of information. The study drew on a democratic sexuality education approach. Using this approach, adolescents review ideological perspectives and decide which are most appropriate for them as guides in making decisions about their own lives. This type of education is fully consistent with the principles of democratic living and gives guidance to teenagers who are trying to decide how to live a healthy life. Study results suggest that programmers would be well advised to collect information from the adolescents' psycho-social-economic environment and link it with good governance and civil society strategies in developing AIDS prevention programmes that involve the adolescent in making lifestyle decisions. To achieve a more supportive environment for AIDS prevention, this approach can link adolescent attitudes and health promotion action to advocate for public policy reform, gender equality, multi-dimensional partnerships and social marketing. PMID:11356751

Schatz, P; Dzvimbo, K P

2001-06-01

58

A closer look at the FTEM framework. Response to "More of the same? Comment on 'An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach'".  

PubMed

The Foundations, Talent, Elite and Mastery (FTEM) framework was designed through the lens of a world leading high-performance sport agency to assist sporting stakeholders operationalise and research their whole of sport development pathways (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 31, 1319-1331). In response to the commentary by MacNamara and Collins (2013) (Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2013. 855805), it was possible to document many inaccurate, false and misleading statements based on inattentive reading of the original article. We reinforce that: FTEM is a holistic framework of sport and athlete development and not a surrogate for a talent identification ( TID) model; bio-psycho-social components of development are liberally embedded throughout the FTEM framework; and the combined research and applied insights of development practitioners provide strong ecological validity for the consideration of stakeholders looking to explore applied approaches to athlete pathway management. PMID:24289172

Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R

2014-01-01

59

Meeting the Energy Challenge -A White Paper on Energy  

E-print Network

alternatives to such fuels. 1 For example, Meeting the Energy Challenge (MEC) announces or is relatedMeeting the Energy Challenge - A White Paper on Energy: Implications for Wales An Overview of Key Aspects of the Energy White Paper 2007 Professor Karen Morrow, CEELP, Swansea University 15 August 2007 1

Martin, Ralph R.

60

The meanings of menopause: identifying the bio-psycho-social predictors of the propensity for treatment at menopause  

E-print Network

as a result of the abrupt reduction of estrogen, and women who have treatment for breast cancer may also enter a premature menopause during initial treatment for their malignancy (Goodwin, Ennis, Pritchard, Trudeau, & Hood, 1999). Pathophysiology... ………………………………………………. 8 Chapter 3: Coping with symptoms……………………………………………………. 20 Chapter 4: The social construction of menopause…………………………………….. 38 Chapter 5: Objectives, hypotheses and methodology…………………………………. 49 Chapter 6: Analytical strategy and data preparation...

Rubinstein, Helena

2013-11-12

61

Revisiting "Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp": A Nationwide Study of Ability Grouping and Psycho-Social Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We revisit Harry L. Gracey's perspective of kindergarten as academic boot camp where, at school entry, children acquire the student role through a structured program of activities. We provide further insights into the crucial mechanisms of socialization that occur in U.S. kindergartens by examining the relationship between within-class ability…

Catsambis, Sophia; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

2012-01-01

62

An evaluation of in-patient alcohol\\/drug treatment using psycho-social functioning and substance use criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis conducted an evaluation of Australian alcohol\\/drug treatment effectiveness by examining the interaction of client psychosocial and substance use characteristics with the characteristics of two different treatment programmes of different durations and operating from different philosophical positions. Information was gathered from clients in treatment at various stages of their engagement with their programmes of choice with the aim of

Mario Antony Farina

1998-01-01

63

“We Are Not Disposable“: “Psychiatric”\\/PsychoSocial Disabilities, Survivor Knowledge, and Audre Lorde’s Critique of Market Fundamentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Disability and Dependence track.\\u000aAudre Lorde: “In a society where the good is defined in terms of profit rather than in terms of human need, there must always be some group of people who, through systematized oppression, can be made to feel surplus, to occupy the position of the dehumanized inferior.”\\u000aPeople with disabilities,

Carol J. Moeller

2010-01-01

64

Development and Implementation of the Culturally Competent Program with Cambodians: The Pilot Psycho-Social-Cultural Treatment Group Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Southeast Asians (SEAs) came to the United States as refugees after the fall of Saigon in 1975. Among SEAs, Cambodians were known to be the most traumatized ethnic group with severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, a conceptual framework of culturally competent practice for Cambodians is still in the early stages of development. The current pilot study sought to

Meekyung Han; Miguel Valencia; Yeon Soo Lee; Judy De Leon

2012-01-01

65

Piloting a Psycho-Social Intervention for Incarcerated Women With Trauma Histories: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations.  

PubMed

Trauma and related mental health disorders are common among incarcerated women, but empirically sound mental health interventions are lacking in prisons. Implementing such interventions is fraught with legal and logistical barriers. These barriers can be particularly detrimental for trauma-specific interventions given the unique needs of trauma survivors, yet there is little documentation of these issues or how to address them. This study describes a pilot study of an 8-week, strengths-based, trauma-focused intervention for 26 incarcerated women. Women reported considerable mental health problems and trauma. The study highlights the importance of adapting stringent research methodologies for prison-based trauma interventions. For instance, women with trauma were reluctant to participate in an intervention advertised as trauma-based. Moreover, a randomized wait list control design was unfeasible because women wanted the support of their friends when discussing trauma and could not control their schedules 9 weeks in advance. Ultimately, this work may inform future efforts to implement effective trauma-based interventions behind prison walls. PMID:23804649

Liebman, Rachel E; Burnette, Mandi L; Raimondi, Christina; Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Merle, Patricia; Cerulli, Catherine

2013-06-26

66

Communication in cancer care: psycho-social, interactional, and cultural issues. A general overview and the example of India  

PubMed Central

Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate, and sensitive cancer care. PMID:25452741

Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Strohschein, Fay J.; Saraf, Gayatri; Loiselle, Carmen G.

2014-01-01

67

A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

Phillips, Susi Erika

68

The WOMBAT Challenge A "Hounds and Hares" Exercise for Cosmology  

E-print Network

The Wavelength-Oriented Microwave Background Analysis Team (WOMBAT) is constructing microwave skymaps which will be more realistic than previous simulations. Our foreground models represent a considerable improvement: where spatial templates are available for a given foreground, we predict the flux and spectral index of that component at each place on the sky and estimate the uncertainties in these quantities. We will produce maps containing simulated Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies combined with all major expected foreground components. The simulated maps will be provided to the cosmology community as the WOMBAT Challenge, a "hounds and hares" exercise where such maps can be analyzed to extract cosmological parameters by scientists who are unaware of their input values. This exercise will test the efficacy of current foreground subtraction, power spectrum analysis, and parameter estimation techniques and will help identify the areas most in need of progress.

Gawiser, E; Jaffe, A; Baker, J C; Balbi, A; Davis, M; Hanany, S; Holzapfel, W; Moustakas, L; Robinson, J; Scannapieco, E S; Smoot, G F; Silk, J; Gawiser, Eric; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Jaffe, Andrew; Baker, Joanne C.; Balbi, Amedeo; Davis, Marc; Hanany, Shaul; Holzapfel, William; Moustakas, Leonidas; Robinson, James; Scannapieco, Evan; Smoot, George F.

1998-01-01

69

The WOMBAT Challenge: A "Hounds and Hares" Exercise for Cosmology  

E-print Network

The Wavelength-Oriented Microwave Background Analysis Team (WOMBAT) is constructing microwave skymaps which will be more realistic than previous simulations. Our foreground models represent a considerable improvement: where spatial templates are available for a given foreground, we predict the flux and spectral index of that component at each place on the sky and estimate the uncertainties in these quantities. We will produce maps containing simulated Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies combined with all major expected foreground components. The simulated maps will be provided to the cosmology community as the WOMBAT Challenge, a "hounds and hares" exercise where such maps can be analyzed to extract cosmological parameters by scientists who are unaware of their input values. This exercise will test the efficacy of current foreground subtraction, power spectrum analysis, and parameter estimation techniques and will help identify the areas most in need of progress.

Eric Gawiser; Douglas Finkbeiner; Andrew Jaffe; Joanne C. Baker; Amedeo Balbi; Marc Davis; Shaul Hanany; William Holzapfel; Leonidas Moustakas; James Robinson; Evan Scannapieco; George F. Smoot; Joseph Silk

1998-12-11

70

Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.  

PubMed

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2010-09-01

71

Being Proactive to Increasing Supply Chain Security Challenges: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach  

E-print Network

severe damage beyond the cost to human life (DHS report, 2007; Narasimhan and Talluri, 2009). Globalization, the threat of terrorism, and the increasingly complex nature of criminal activities have made the security of end-to-end supply chains much... years (i.e., the September 11 terrorist attacks, the 2005 Madrid Subway Explosion, the 2008 Mumbai attacks) They are events that arise havoc for supply chains. A report from the Department of Commerce?s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) documented...

Lu, Guanyi

2013-07-24

72

When to Challenge a Call in Tennis: A Markov Decision Process Approach  

E-print Network

strategic behavior in some game states. For example, in some states it is not optimal for very weak or very), cricket (Clarke, 1988), and curling (Willoughby and Kostuk, 2012), to cite just a few relevant examples

Hasenbein, John

73

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

2010-01-01

74

Climate Change and the Energy Challenge: A Pragmatic Approach for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been arguing that it (and the rest of the developing world) should incur no expense in controlling emissions that cause climate change. In the face of heightened concerns about rapid climate change, that argument is increasingly losing force - both in the fundamental arithmetic of climate change, and in the political reality that important western partners will increasingly

Varun Rai; David G Victor

2009-01-01

75

Why evidence-based medicine is an insufficient approach to physical and rehabilitation medicine. Antithesis.  

PubMed

When philosophers of science demolished the myth of objectivity in the early decades of the 20th century, they undermined the theoretical certainty that a knowledge system comes from the cumulative development of scientific observations: here we find a criticality inherent to evidence-based medicine in relation to its claim of universality and objectivity. EBM relies on quantitative statistical models to define a treatment's effectiveness, and it has an universal character: the treatment effect is measured against the global characteristics of the general population rather than the individuals. Contemporary cognitive neuroscience takes a naturalized approach to mind and behavior, opening new inroads into investigating consciousness, motor image, bodily awareness, and intention. Common to these issues is the emphasis on the importance the person, with his or her own biology and history, as a unique and unrepeatable entity. Hence, its original aim to protect patients against arbitrary treatment notwithstanding, EBM has become largely inadequate to serve physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) owing to the peculiarities of its historical and narrative contents. PRM, because of its unique knowledge base, can be fully considered a science anchored in the basic sciences that underlie rehabilitation procedures. Accordingly, PRM exists within a mutual relationship with physics and biology, from which the biomedical model (well represented by EBM) originates, and is interrelated with other disciplines such as philosophy or psychology, from which the bio-psycho-social model was developed in the 1980s, leading to a comprehensive approach to health and disease. Further critical points in clinical practice include: how to translate evidence into clinical decision making; the inability to generalize experimental evidence because most studies involve selected patient samples. Despite the more than 20 years of EBM, long-established therapeutic approaches lacking scientific evidence still survive in rehabilitation. We must strive for an integrative approach to EBM, which would enable PRM, by virtue of its multifaceted theoretical and methodological approaches to persons with disability, to take the lead in redefining biomedical knowledge and, by applying this understanding, put its science into clinical practice and, perhaps, more generally, into outlining a new "ideal of science". PMID:25192186

Saraceni, V

2014-10-01

76

Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna

2013-01-01

77

Evaluation of psycho-social training for speech therapists in oncology. Impact on general communication skills and empathy. A qualitative pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a psychosocial training programme for speech therapists on their performance skills in patient-therapist communication in general and empathy in particular. Twenty-three speech therapists were interviewed in a pseudo-randomised controlled trial. Communication skills were tested using questionnaires with open questions. Respondents were asked to find adequate replies to clinical vignettes. The vignettes briefly described a patient's physical state and contained a statement from the patient expressing some distress. Answers were coded with qualitative content analysis. Communication skills improved considerably in terms of frequency of conducive communication (especially empathy) and width of conducive communicative repertoire. Negative communication preferences were reduced. Psychosocial training for speech therapists can improve communication skills manifestly and is therefore recommended for further use. PMID:20658222

Ullrich, Peter; Wollbrück, Dorit; Danker, Helge; Singer, Susanne

2011-06-01

78

SaveDisney.com and Activist Challenges: A Habermasian Perspective on Corporate Legitimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a Habermasian framework for evaluating and generating challenges to organizational legitimacy. The launch of the SaveDisney.com web site represents an innovative example of an Internet-based activist public successfully challenging a corporation's legitimacy and advocating for changes in corporate governance. Legitimacy research has focused on strategies used by organizations to build legitimacy (e.g., Dowling & Pfeffer, 1975; Metzler,

Sarah Bonewits Feldner; Rebecca J. Meisenbach

2007-01-01

79

Reasons for Living and Hoping: The Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States. Proceedings from the Multi-Disciplinary, Inter-Religious Conference on the Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States (Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents proceedings of a conference convened to identify the unmet spiritual and other non-material needs of Southeast Asian refugee children and youth and to offer recommendations to strengthen present programs and policies. Participants included leaders in the refugee community, clergy of several faiths, organizational…

International Catholic Child Bureau, Inc., New York, NY.

81

76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...support regional innovation and sustainable economic prosperity. Knowing that regional innovation clusters provide a globally proven approach for developing economic prosperity, this new, multi-agency initiative creates an unprecedented platform for...

2011-04-27

82

The Clinical Response to Gluten Challenge: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to identify, evaluate and summarize all relevant studies reporting on the clinical response to gluten challenge by adult or pediatric patients with suspected or diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet. We evaluated the effect of gluten challenge on changes in symptoms, intestinal mucosa histology, and serum antibodies. A systematic electronic search was performed for studies published as of 1966 using PubMed and Scopus databases. In the reviewed studies, doses ranged from 0.2 to 30 g/day of wheat gluten or comprised a gluten-containing diet. The onset of symptoms upon gluten intake varied largely from days to months and did not parallel serum antibody or histological changes. Within 3 months of gluten challenge, 70%–100% of pediatric CD patients became positive for AGA-IgA and EMA-IgA antibodies and 50%–70% for AGA-IgG. A limited number of trials suggest that no more than half of adult patients developed positive AGA-IgA, EMA-IgA, tTG-IgA or DGP-IgA/IgG titers. Approximately 50%–100% of pediatric and adult patients experienced mucosal relapse of gluten provocation within 3 months, which was preceded by increased mucosal intra-epithelial lymphocytes within several days of challenge. A 3-month high-dose gluten challenge should be suitable to diagnose the majority of CD patients. In some cases prolonged challenge may be needed to verify diagnosis. Combination testing for antibodies and mucosal histology may fasten the diagnosis. PMID:24284613

Bruins, Maaike J.

2013-01-01

83

A Transcontinental Challenge --A Test of DNA Barcode Performance for 1,541 Species of Canadian Noctuoidea  

E-print Network

A Transcontinental Challenge -- A Test of DNA Barcode Performance for 1,541 Species of Canadian, comprehensive, diagnostic use of DNA barcodes for the Canadian fauna of noctuoids or ``owlet'' moths 30,000 sequences. When viewed from a Canada-wide perspective, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate

Garzón-Orduña, Ivonne

84

Technology convergence and regulatory challenge: a case from Korean digital media broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to survey the current convergence of broadcasting and telecommunication, examine the policy questions that arise in Korea and present a review of current regulation in this field. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From a technical perspective, the convergence between telecommunications and broadcasting is emerging as both industries move towards digital standards. Yet, from a policy-making perspective, convergence seems

Dong-Hee Shin

2005-01-01

85

Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems  

PubMed Central

Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems—a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then describes a case study in which we mapped proprietary medication codes from an electronic health record to SNOMED-CT and the UMLS Metathesaurus. The goal was to create a polyhierarchical classification system for querying an i2b2 clinical data warehouse. We found that three methods were required to accurately map the majority of actively prescribed medications. Only 62.5% of source medication codes could be mapped automatically. The remaining codes were mapped using a combination of semi-automated string comparison with expert selection, and a completely manual approach. Compound drugs were especially difficult to map: only 7.5% could be mapped using the automatic method. General challenges to mapping across terminological systems include (1) the availability of up-to-date information to assess the suitability of a given terminological system for a particular use case, and to assess the quality and completeness of cross-terminology links; (2) the difficulty of correctly using complex, rapidly evolving, modern terminologies; (3) the time and effort required to complete and evaluate the mapping; (4) the need to address differences in granularity between the source and target terminologies; and (5) the need to continuously update the mapping as terminological systems evolve. PMID:22750536

Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer; Chute, Christopher G.; Johnson, Todd R.

2015-01-01

86

Why did an effective Dutch complex psycho-social intervention for people with dementia not work in the German healthcare context? Lessons learnt from a process evaluation alongside a multicentre RCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The positive effects of the Dutch Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia programme on patients' daily functioning were not found in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) in Germany. Objectives To evaluate possible effect modification on the primary outcome within the German RCT with regard to (1) participant characteristics, (2) treatment performance and (3) healthcare service utilisation; and (4) to

S. Voigt-Radloff; M. J. L. Graff; R. Leonhart; M. Hull; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; M. J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen

2011-01-01

87

Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

1997-01-01

88

APPEARANCE-BASED CML APPROACH FOR A HOME STORE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the appearance-based robot localization in static en- vironments is not really challenging. A number of methods, as for example Monte Carlo Localization, can solve this task more or less good. In this paper, we present a novel omnivision-based Concurrent Map-building and Localiza- tion (CML) approach which is able to localize a mobile robot in complex and dynamic environments and

Alexander Koenig; Steffen Mueller; Horst-Michael Gross

2005-01-01

89

Health data use, stewardship, and governance: ongoing gaps and challenges: a report from AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of personal health data are being collected and made available through existing and emerging technological media and tools. While use of these data has significant potential to facilitate research, improve quality of care for individuals and populations, and reduce healthcare costs, many policy-related issues must be addressed before their full value can be realized. These include the need for widely agreed-on data stewardship principles and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate data silos and protect patient privacy. AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting brought together healthcare academics, policy makers, and system stakeholders (including representatives of patient groups) to consider these topics and formulate recommendations. A review of a set of Proposed Principles of Health Data Use led to a set of findings and recommendations, including the assertions that the use of health data should be viewed as a public good and that achieving the broad benefits of this use will require understanding and support from patients. PMID:24169275

Hripcsak, George; Bloomrosen, Meryl; FlatelyBrennan, Patti; Chute, Christopher G; Cimino, Jim; Detmer, Don E; Edmunds, Margo; Embi, Peter J; Goldstein, Melissa M; Hammond, William Ed; Keenan, Gail M; Labkoff, Steve; Murphy, Shawn; Safran, Charlie; Speedie, Stuart; Strasberg, Howard; Temple, Freda; Wilcox, Adam B

2014-01-01

90

Preliminary report: Biomedical considerations for future manned space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavioral, psychological, and sociological aspects of space travel, particularly with emphasis on longer duration missions, are discussed along with the biomedical aspects of space flight. These factors may strongly interact with the various psycho-social factors and as such they stand as an immensely important area of concern in and of themselves. A foundation for understanding weightlessness related medical problems through a discussion of the history of symptoms reported specific details on the major areas of concern and approaches to their investigation are presented. Also, discussion is given to the possibility of various countermeasures. Some indication of the effects of various biomedical changes in performance are also covered.

Akins, F. R.

1978-01-01

91

A model for the role of defined spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training.  

PubMed

The current bio-psycho-social approach in South African psychiatry refers to Engel's extended model of health care. It forms the basis of the existing collaboration between medicine, nursing, psychology, occupational therapy and social work. Psychiatry also has to bridge the multi-cultural, multi-religious and spiritual diverse reality of everyday practice. It has become important to establish how, within accepted boundaries, spirituality should be incorporated into the model for practice. Referring to methods described for nursing theory development, a defined core concept was used to construct a model. It may contribute to the discourse on spirituality in local psychiatry, health and mental health. PMID:23099614

Janse van Rensburg, Bernard A B R; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris P H; Szabo, Christopher P

2014-04-01

92

Is there a Role of Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India?  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in medical care have improved the survival of newborn babies born with various problems. Despite this death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an inevitable reality. For babies who are not going to “get better,” the health care team still has a duty to alleviate the physical suffering of the baby and to support the family. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to relieve the physical, psycho social, and spiritual suffering of patients and their families. Palliative care provision in the Indian NICU settings is almost nonexistent at present. In this paper we attempt to “build a case” for palliative care in the Indian NICU setting. PMID:21976849

Dighe, Manjiri P; Muckaden, Maryann A; Manerkar, Swati A; Duraisamy, Balaji P

2011-01-01

93

Is there a Role of Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India?  

PubMed

Recent advances in medical care have improved the survival of newborn babies born with various problems. Despite this death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an inevitable reality. For babies who are not going to "get better," the health care team still has a duty to alleviate the physical suffering of the baby and to support the family. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to relieve the physical, psycho social, and spiritual suffering of patients and their families. Palliative care provision in the Indian NICU settings is almost nonexistent at present. In this paper we attempt to "build a case" for palliative care in the Indian NICU setting. PMID:21976849

Dighe, Manjiri P; Muckaden, Maryann A; Manerkar, Swati A; Duraisamy, Balaji P

2011-05-01

94

Curriculum: Which Approach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum has two major approaches, technical and scientific approach and the nontechnical-nonscientific approach. Both are different and distinct. Schools need to distinguish which approach is suited for their students.

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2010-01-01

95

Energy challenges a central theme.  

PubMed

HEJ looks forward to some of the highlights at next month's Healthcare Estates 2014 conference and exhibition in Manchester, set to be the year's largest gathering of personnel from the UK healthcare engineering and estates management sector under one roof. PMID:25282994

2014-09-01

96

Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.  

PubMed

Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. PMID:22632902

Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

2012-08-01

97

[The construction of a "good death" at different stages of life: reflections on the palliative care approach for adults and children].  

PubMed

This article deals with the vision of Palliative Care leading to a "good death" for adults and children. The differences and similarities between the care of adults and children are examined based on the scrutiny of textbooks, manuals and articles, as well as the observation of courses and congresses within the specialty, which focus on patients diagnosed as "beyond therapeutic cure possibilities." Health teams seek to provide care for the "bio-psycho-social-spiritual totality" of the patients and their family members, to offer "quality of life," with full autonomy and control of their symptoms. In accordance with the palliative care model, the social actors involved in care must accept the end of life inevitability. It is a question of ensuring a "good death," "with dignity," peaceful, accepted, transparent and socially shared, with the support of a multi-professional team. It is a complex configuration, as various factors and circumstances come into play. This is especially true in the case of children, when a paradox arises, since terminal illness at this stage of life - so highly valued in contemporary Western culture - constitutes a social drama. PMID:23989572

Menezes, Rachel Aisengart; Barbosa, Patricia de Castro

2013-09-01

98

[Surgical approaches in rhinoplasty].  

PubMed

In the first step of rhinoplasty, the surgical approach will expose through different types of incisions and dissection planes the osteocartilaginous framework of the nasal pyramid prior to performing actions to reduce or increase the latter. This exposure can be performed by a closed approach or by an external approach--the choice depends on the type of nose and the habits of the surgeon. Far from being opposites, closed and external approaches are complementary and should be known and mastered by surgeons performing rhinoplasty. PMID:25213490

Nguyen, P S; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

2014-12-01

99

Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii) human and social…

McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.

2007-01-01

100

Prevention programs for refugees: An interface for mental health and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psycho-social adjustment problems. Prevention programs based on public mental health principles are needed for refugees, but few exist, and none have been evaluated empirically to determine if they lower rates of illness or other psycho-social problems. This paper explores impediments to

Carolyn L. Williams

1989-01-01

101

Approaches to Truancy Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

102

Modular Approach for Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

103

The NLERAP Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the start, NLERAP has been based on two major premises: one is that a sociocultural and sociopolitical approach to learning is more effective than a traditional approach, particularly in the case of populations that have historically been marginalized through their education; and the second is that research is more meaningful and inclusive…

Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Irizarry, Jason

2012-01-01

104

Extended transsphenoidal approach.  

PubMed

The authors have developed an extended transsphenoidal approach with submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy for resection of tumors located in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region that are difficult to remove via the conventional transsphenoidal approach. Surgery was performed using this approach in 14 patients with large pituitary adenomas, three patients with craniopharyngiomas, and one patient with a meningioma of the tuberculum sellae. The submucosal dissection of the nasal septum used in the conventional transsphenoidal approach was extended to the superior lateral wall of the nasal cavity to expose the bony surface of the superior turbinate lying under the nasal mucosa. Submucosal posterior ethmoidectomy widened the area visualized through the conventional transsphenoidal approach both superiorly and laterally. This provided a safer and less invasive access to lesions in the cavernous sinus or the suprasellar region through the sphenoid sinus. Using this approach the authors encountered no postoperative complications, such as olfactory disturbance, cranial nerve palsy, or arterial injury. In this article the authors present the surgical methods used in this approach. PMID:11702890

Frank, G; Pasquini, E; Mazzatenta, D

2001-11-01

105

The case study approach.  

PubMed

The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

Crowe, Sarah; Cresswell, Kathrin; Robertson, Ann; Huby, Guro; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz

2011-01-01

106

Approaches to Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

107

ECOTOXICOLOGY: PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

In today's chemical-oriented society, any student of ecology must be cognizant of the potential for environmental toxicants to alter the balances and relationships among the plants, animals and biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem. Ecotoxicology: roblems and Approaches" provides...

108

Editor's Note: Approaching Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students approach adaptations lessons, keep in mind that according to research, most lower-elementary school students are still forming a basic understanding of how animals survive in their environments. For example, many students understand a simple f

Linda Froschauer

2010-01-01

109

Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... include techniques performed by a practitioner (such as acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and massage therapy) and natural products ( ... herbs, probiotics, and fish oil). Some approaches, including acupuncture and yoga, originated in Eastern countries such as ...

110

Ten practice redesign approaches.  

PubMed

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val

2013-01-01

111

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

112

The electronic approach VSCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

Hladky, Mark

113

Technical approach document  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1989-12-01

114

Emphasis: Different Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this publication either deal with one of a variety of topics involved under the broad heading of the teaching of English or, more specifically, concern the different approaches to the teaching of literature. Titles are "The Psychology of Remediation"; "Non-Standard Negro Dialect: Myth or Reality"; "The Teaching of Pronunciation in the…

Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

1974-01-01

115

Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

2008-01-01

116

Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

2009-01-01

117

Islamic approach in counseling.  

PubMed

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

2014-02-01

118

New Ideas and Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

Lukov, V. A.

2014-01-01

119

Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew

1999-01-01

120

USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

121

Try the Inductive Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When science teachers pass up the use of an inductive approach in their teaching, they miss a golden opportunity to improve their chances of attaining one of their avowed and highly regarded objectives of science teaching--the development of ability to use

Clarence H. Boeck

2000-01-01

122

NEW APPROACHES: Toppling trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explains a novel way of approaching centripetal force: theory is used to predict an orbital period at which a toy train will topple from a circular track. The demonstration has proved useful in A-level, GNVQ and undergraduate Physics and Engineering schemes.

Parry, Malcolm

1998-03-01

123

Phenomenological Approach to Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking to determine the training methods that can most effectively develop highly proficient performance, this report describes the molecular analytic techniques currently used in the Air Force (the instructional systems (ISD) approach based on breaking a complex task into discrete steps) and presents the limitations of these techniques for…

Klein, Gary A.

124

Approaching cancer pain relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is defined as an unpleasant experience—it is subjective and achieving pain relief is achieving a change in the patient's experience. There needs to be an adequate concept of a human person (an ecological model will be discussed) and a logical process for approaching pain relief in an individual patient (e.g. the plan used in the Sydney Institute of Palliative

J. Norelle Lickiss

2001-01-01

125

Adopting a Pluricentric Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

van Kerckvoorde, Colette

2012-01-01

126

Variation of types of alcoholism: review and subtypes identified in Han Chinese.  

PubMed

Alcoholism, as it has been hypothesized, is caused by a highly heterogeneous genetic load. Since 1960, many reports have used the bio-psycho-social approach to subtype alcoholism; however, no subtypes have been genetically validated. We reviewed and compared the major single-gene, multiple-gene, and gene-to-gene interaction studies on alcoholism published during the past quarter-century, including many recent studies that have made contributions to the subtyping of alcoholism. Four subtypes of alcoholism have been reported: [1] pure alcoholism, [2] anxiety/depression alcoholism, [3] antisocial alcoholism, and [4] mixed alcoholism. Most of the important studies focused on three genes: DRD2, MAOA, and ALDH2. Therefore, our review focuses on these three genes. PMID:24080236

Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lu, Ru-Band

2014-01-01

127

Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.  

PubMed

The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. PMID:25698688

Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

2015-03-01

128

[The range of adolescent medicine].  

PubMed

Adolescent medicine is situated "in between" and "on the borders of" different areas of medical specialisations: psychiatry, gynaecology, preventive medicine, paediatrics and internal medicine (and their respective subspecialties).The specificity of adolescent medicine is the evaluation of clinical situations with a particular consideration of the successive stages of the adolescent bio-psycho social development (puberty, identity construction, modifications of the relations to the peer-groups and the family). A special interest goes also to preventive aspects, especially concerning experimental and risk behaviours. The medical approach to adolescents requires a particular attention to psychosocial aspects when confronted with somatic complaints and inversely a good somatic evaluation in front of adolescents suffering from complexes psychosocial situations. PMID:24168803

Caflisch, Marianne

2013-11-01

129

Internet Training for Nurse Aides to Prevent Resident Aggression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evaluate Internet training to help Nurse Aides decrease resident aggression. Design Randomized treatment and control design; pre-post assessment. Setting The study was conducted entirely on the Internet. Participants Nurse Aides; N=62 Intervention Internet based interactive training using video modeling and mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment participants. Results MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.001) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with large effect sizes; it was well received by the users. Conclusions Interactive training is an effective approach to shaping appropriate staff reactions to aggressive resident behaviors. The training can effectively be delivered on the Internet. In this research, it was both valued and well received by study participants. PMID:17931576

Blair Irvine, A.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Billow, Molly; Seeley, John R.

2007-01-01

130

Mitochondrial Diseases: Therapeutic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is\\u000a woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review,\\u000a we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice\\u000a and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of

Salvatore DiMauro; Michelangelo Mancuso

2007-01-01

131

Approaches to quantum cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Different proposals for the wave function of the Universe are analyzed, with an emphasis on various forms of the tunneling proposal. The issues discussed include the equivalence of the Lorentzian path integral and outgoing-wave-proposals, the definitions of the outgoing waves and of superspace boundaries, topology change, and the corresponding modification of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Also discussed are the generic'' boundary condition and the third quantization approach.

Vilenkin, A. (Tufts Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States))

1994-08-15

132

Halitosis: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To summarize the experience in our halitosis clinic, emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach.Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients with a primary complaint of halitosis were evaluated. Their health was established by a questionnaire, by clinical examination, and by laboratory analysis. Halitosis was evaluated organoleptically by a dentist and an otolaryngologist (odds ratio [OR] = 5.7). The volatile sulfide levels were measured

Hannah Ben-Aryeh; Gershon Horowitz; Dan Nir; Dov Laufer

1998-01-01

133

Disability: a welfarist approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species’ functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability. PMID:22140353

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

2011-01-01

134

Student Approaches to Achieving Understanding--Approaches to Learning Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a phenomenographic study that investigates students' approaches to achieving understanding. The results are based on interviews, addressing physiological phenomena, with 16 medical students in a problem-based curriculum. Four approaches--sifting, building, holding and moving--are outlined. The holding and moving approaches

Fyrenius, Anna; Wirell, Staffan; Silen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

135

Abortion: Approaches from Virtue  

E-print Network

Abortion: Approaches from Virtue Eric M. Rovie Washington University in St. Louis It is a platitude that the issue of abortion polarizes people into extreme positions. In this paper, I explore the oft-neglected gray area between the pro...-life stance and pro-choice views. In particular, I am interested in the fact that some defenders of abortion rights claim that they could or would never have one themselves. Similarly, I am struck by the fact that advocates of the right to choose often...

Rovie, Eric M.

136

The collaboratory approach  

SciTech Connect

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

137

Clinical approach to neurorheumatology.  

PubMed

Rheumatologic conditions are an important cause of both central and peripheral nervous system pathology. A thorough evaluation for an underlying rheumatologic process is an important component of a patient presenting with neurologic symptoms. In this review, the authors present an approach to evaluating rheumatologic conditions, focusing primarily on the history and physical examination. They focus on the most specific signs and symptoms that may help the neurologist assess whether an underlying rheumatologic process is present. In addition, they discuss the interpretation of such findings with an eye toward narrowing the differential diagnosis and directing further testing. PMID:25369432

Miloslavsky, Eli M; Cho, Tracey A

2014-09-01

138

Disneyland in Hong Kong — Green Challenge (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-1999, the Walt Disney Company and the Hong Kong Government were involved in intense discussions about the possibility of building the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park on Lantau Island. This case presented detailed information about the proposed theme park and the associated decision making process with a particular emphasis on sustainable development. It also lays out the characteristics of

Terence Tsai; Shubo Philip Liu

2011-01-01

139

Afghanistan's Opium Challenge: A Decentralized Solution  

E-print Network

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Afghanistan since 2003 is the largest producer of illicit opium in the world. In 2011, it produced 5,800 metric tons of opium from approximately 131,000 hectors cultivated land - an increase...

Masjidi, Shamroz Khan

2012-05-31

140

The VSEPR Challenge: A Student's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To solve the challenge of learning VSEPR molecules in three dimensions, a high school student leverages her passion for 3D computer animation to develop a creative solution. This article outlines the process and story behind the creation of her unique video. (Contains 1 figure.)

Jennings, Ashley S.

2010-01-01

141

Onychomycosis: updates and management challenges. A review.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a fungal infection which affects the nail unit. It was previously thought to be just a cosmetic problem, but presently, it is regarded as a major public health issue because of the impact on the quality of life of the patients.A etiologic factors identified in onychomycosis include increasing age,immunosuppression, occupation and genetics. Management of onychomycosisis both pharmacological and non pharmacological. Pretreatment counseling is important in patients with fungal nail infections and this should include probable length of therapy, possible side effects of treatment and the expenses involved.Patients should be educated on proper nail care and the fact that no treatment isI 00% effective. Presently, combination therapy is advocated for the management of onychomycosis. This is a review of the epidemiology, clinical types,investigations and current considerations in the management of onychomycosis. PMID:25167597

Ayanlowo, O; Oladele, R O

2014-06-01

142

Accepting the Utopian Challenge: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) allows institutions to achieve the goals required for student learning and success. The purpose of this paper is to address recommendations for the implementation of SoTL that should have relevant input from students. These include, but are not limited to, better communication, evaluation, continuing…

Carman, Breanna R.

2013-01-01

143

Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

Akhtar, Saeed

2015-01-01

144

A Little Area Challenge: A Sod Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As partners in a professional development project, the authors jumped at the opportunity to use a real-life problem to engage elementary and middle school teachers in a one-day exploration of the concept of area. "Length times width"--a common response to the question, "What is area?"--is a rote formulaic expression that applies only to certain…

Myers, Perla L.; Pelak, Colleen N.

2012-01-01

145

Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.  

PubMed

We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

Song, Miri

2014-03-01

146

Teaching Failure Analysis: Two Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two instructional methodologies are described in this article: (1) a case study approach is advocated for the relevance and motivation it provides, and (2) a lecture and group study approach in which behavioral objectives must be met. (CP)

Smith, C. O.; Bourgault, R. F.

1976-01-01

147

Children and Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer about external links Menu Children and Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction Key Points Patterns ... care. Top Patterns in the Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Children According to the 2012 National ...

148

Paying for Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer about external links Menu Paying for Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction Spending on Complementary ... sources for additional information. Top Spending on Complementary Health Approaches in the United States According to the ...

149

Two approaches to human rights  

E-print Network

Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

Holland, Sean Jamison

2009-01-01

150

Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429

2013-01-01

151

A Systematic Review of the Health and Social Effects of Menstrual Hygiene Management  

PubMed Central

Background Differing approaches to menstrual hygiene management (MHM) have been associated with a wide range of health and psycho-social outcomes in lower income settings. This paper systematically collates, summarizes and critically appraises the available evidence. Methods Following the PRISMA guidelines a structured search strategy was used to identify articles investigating the effects of MHM on health and psycho-social outcomes. The search was conducted in May 2012 and had no date limit. Data was extracted and quality of methodology was independently assessed by two researchers. Where no measure of effect was provided, but sufficient data were available to calculate one, this was undertaken. Meta-analysis was conducted where sufficient data were available. Results 14 articles were identified which looked at health outcomes, primarily reproductive tract infections (RTI). 11 articles were identified investigating associations between MHM, social restrictions and school attendance. MHM was found to be associated with RTI in 7 papers. Methodologies however varied greatly and overall quality was low. Meta-analysis of a subset of studies found no association between confirmed bacterial vaginosis and MHM (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.52–2.24). No other substantial associations with health outcomes were found. Although there was good evidence that educational interventions can improve MHM practices and reduce social restrictions there was no quantitative evidence that improvements in management methods reduce school absenteeism. Conclusion The management of menstruation presents significant challenges for women in lower income settings; the effect of poor MHM however remains unclear. It is plausible that MHM can affect the reproductive tract but the specific infections, the strength of effect, and the route of transmission, remain unclear. There is a gap in the evidence for high quality randomised intervention studies which combine hardware and software interventions, in particular for better understanding the nuanced effect improving MHM may have on girls’ attendance at school. PMID:23637945

Sumpter, Colin; Torondel, Belen

2013-01-01

152

Bio-psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease in a rural population on Crete, Greece: formulating a hypothesis and designing the SPILI-III study  

PubMed Central

Background In 1988, the SPILI project was established in order to evaluate the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile of the inhabitants of Spili, in rural Crete, Greece. The first reports from this project revealed that against the unfavourable risk factors' profile observed, only a few men with a previous myocardial infarction were encountered. A follow-up study (SPILI II) was performed twelve years after the initial examination, and the unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile was re-confirmed. Presentation of the Hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis formulated on the basis of previous research to investigate if dynamic psycho-social determinants, including social coherence of the local community, religiosity and spirituality, are protective against the development of coronary heart disease in a well-defined population. Testing the Hypothesis A follow-up examination of this Cretan cohort is currently being performed to assess the link between psychosocial factors and CVD. Psychosocial factors including sense of control, religiosity and spirituality are assessed in together with conventional CVD risk factors. Smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as dietary habits and activity levels are recorded. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, as well as ultrasound measurement of carotid intima media thickness, a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis, will also be measured. Implications of the hypothesis tested The issue of the cardio-protective effect of psycho-social factors would be revisited based on the results of this Cretan cohort; nevertheless, further research is needed across different sub-populations in order to establish a definite relationship. A comprehensive approach based on the aspects of bio-social life may result in more accurate CVD risk management. PMID:20937097

2010-01-01

153

Effectiveness of secondary prevention and treatment interventions for crack-cocaine abuse: A comprehensive narrative overview of English-language studies.  

PubMed

There are an estimated several million crack-cocaine users globally; use is highest in the Americas. Most crack users are socio-economically marginalized (e.g., homeless), and feature elevated risks for morbidity (e.g., blood-borne viruses), mortality and crime/violence involvement, resulting in extensive burdens. No comprehensive reviews of evidence-based prevention and/or treatment interventions specifically for crack use exist. We conducted a comprehensive narrative overview of English-language studies on the efficacy of secondary prevention and treatment interventions for crack (cocaine) abuse/dependence. Literature searches (1990-2014) using pertinent keywords were conducted in main scientific databases. Titles/abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and full studies were included in the review if involving a primary prevention/treatment intervention study comprising a substantive crack user sample. Intervention outcomes considered included drug use, health risks/status (e.g., HIV or sexual risks) and select social outcome indicators. Targeted (e.g., behavioral/community-based) prevention measures show mixed and short-term effects on crack use/HIV risk outcomes. Material (e.g., safer crack use kit distribution) interventions also document modest efficacy in risk reduction; empirical assessments of environmental (e.g., drug consumption facilities) for crack smokers are not available. Diverse psycho-social treatment (including contingency management) interventions for crack abuse/dependence show some positive but also limited/short-term efficacy, yet likely constitute best currently available treatment options. Ancillary treatments show little effects but are understudied. Despite ample studies, pharmaco-therapeutic/immunotherapy treatment agents have not produced convincing evidence; select agents may hold potential combined with personalized approaches and/or psycho-social strategies. No comprehensively effective 'gold-standard' prevention/treatment interventions for crack abuse exist; concerted research towards improved interventions is urgently needed. PMID:25662894

Fischer, Benedikt; Blanken, Peter; Da Silveira, Dartiu; Gallassi, Andrea; Goldner, Elliot M; Rehm, Jürgen; Tyndall, Mark; Wood, Evan

2015-04-01

154

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-09-01

155

Substance misuse teaching in undergraduate medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of the undergraduate medical curriculum were conducted to identify the methods used to teach substance misuse. Using a previously devised toolkit, 19 curriculum co-ordinators then mapped the actual teaching sessions that addressed substance misuse learning objectives. Results Substance misuse teaching was delivered primarily in psychiatry modules but learning objectives were also found in other areas such as primary care placements and problem-based learning. On average, 53 teaching sessions per medical school focused on bio-psycho-social models of addiction whereas only 23 sessions per medical school focused on professionalism, fitness to practice and students’ own health in relation to substance misuse. Many sessions addressed specific learning objectives relating to the clinical features of substance dependence whereas few focused on iatrogenic addiction. Conclusions Substance misuse teaching is now inter-disciplinary and the frequent focus on clinical, psychological and social effects of substance misuse emphasises the bio-psycho-social approach underlying clinical practice. Some areas however are not frequently taught in the formal curriculum and these need to be addressed in future changes to medical education. PMID:24533849

2014-01-01

156

An environmental approach  

SciTech Connect

The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

Geerling, C.

1996-11-01

157

Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

Koczo, Steve

1996-01-01

158

Pelvic Exenteration: Surgical Approaches  

PubMed Central

Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted. PMID:23346506

2012-01-01

159

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

SciTech Connect

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz [Research and Development, Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

2014-05-27

160

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

2014-05-01

161

Piecewise Linear Approach: a New Approach in Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interest . High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable 1 and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and

Janusz Starzyk

162

Skull base approaches in neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy. PMID:20602753

2010-01-01

163

Approaches to refractory epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

Engel, Jerome

2014-01-01

164

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

2012-06-01

165

Compressors simultaneously approach surge  

SciTech Connect

A control algorithm has been developed to allow control of parallel gas compressors so that they unload simultaneously to their surge control limits. Equations describing the algorithm, the S Criteria, are given along with a description of how the control system operates. A description and the operating characteristics of the concept, used on an offshore gas compression station, are discussed. The first installment of this two-part article discussed the advantages of simulation control to the surge limit, and compared the concept with other common control methods. There are many possible algorithms for simultaneous approach to the surge control lines of centrifugal compressors. Obviously, each algorithm depends on measuring the distance from the operating point to the surge control line. Because compressors may differ in capacity and characteristics, the absolute distance of the operating point from the surge control line is not useful. The authors recommend using a dimensionless number expressing the relative distance from the surge control line. This measurement technique will now be incorporated into a control algorithm. The algorithm that will be described here is called the ''S'' Criteria.'' It is one possible method of improved control. The S Criteria was developed and patented by one of the authors.

Staroselsky, N.; Ladin, L.

1986-11-10

166

Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1? and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint

2008-01-01

167

COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach  

PubMed Central

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

2006-01-01

168

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

2012-01-01

169

Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.  

PubMed

We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:25622889

Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

2015-03-01

170

The supervisory approach: a critique  

E-print Network

. As a result of legal impotence, political weakness, lack of skill or perverse incentives, many countries implementing a supervisory approach such as Basel 2 risk impoverishing and corrupting themselves. Thirdly, a shift towards process-oriented... from a ‘regulatory approach’ to a ‘supervisory approach’ (eg Mishkin, 2000). Mishkin says that the Federal Reserve’s guidelines to examiners from 1993 onwards began to reflect this shift in thinking. The change has also been termed ‘process-oriented...

Ward, Jonathan

2002-01-01

171

Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss two approaches to obtain neutron detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, a uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focused through a pinhole, and streaked. Calculations show that 20-ps time resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated

C. L. Wang; R. Kalibjian; M. S. Singh; J. D. Wiedwald; D. E. Campbell; E. M. Campbell; M. D. Cable; W. R. Graves; R. A. Lerche; R. H. Price; D. G. Stearns; G. A. Mourou; S. G. Prussin

1985-01-01

172

New Approaches to Final Cooling  

E-print Network

A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

Neuffer, David

2015-01-01

173

Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.  

PubMed

Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

Valero, Teresa

2014-01-01

174

Panniculitides, an algorithmic approach.  

PubMed

The issue of inflammatory diseases of subcutis and its mimicries is generally considered a difficult field of dermatopathology. Yet, in my experience, with appropriate biopsies and good clinicopathological correlation, a specific diagnosis of panniculitides can usually be made. Thereby, knowledge about some basic anatomic and pathological issues is essential. Anatomy differentiates within the panniculus between the fatty lobules separated by fibrous septa. Pathologically, inflammation of panniculus is defined and recognized by an inflammatory process which leads to tissue damage and necrosis. Several types of fat necrosis are observed: xanthomatized macrophages in lipophagic necrosis; granular fat necrosis and fat micropseudocysts in liquefactive fat necrosis; mummified adipocytes in "hyalinizing" fat necrosis with/without saponification and/or calcification; and lipomembranous membranes in membranous fat necrosis. In an algorithmic approach the recognition of an inflammatory process recognized by features as elaborated above is best followed in three steps: recognition of pattern, second of subpattern, and finally of presence and composition of inflammatory cells. Pattern differentiates a mostly septal or mostly lobular distribution at scanning magnification. In the subpattern category one looks for the presence or absence of vasculitis, and, if this is the case, the size and the nature of the involved blood vessel: arterioles and small arteries or veins; capillaries or postcapillary venules. The third step will be to identify the nature of the cells present in the inflammatory infiltrate and, finally, to look for additional histopathologic features that allow for a specific final diagnosis in the language of clinical dermatology of disease involving the subcutaneous fat. PMID:23900158

Zelger, B

2013-08-01

175

Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach  

PubMed Central

The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

1999-01-01

176

Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

2013-01-01

177

Bethe ansatz approach to quench dynamics in the Richardson model  

SciTech Connect

By instantaneously changing a global parameter in an extended quantum system, an initially equilibrated state will afterwards undergo a complex nonequilibrium unitary evolution whose description is extremely challenging. A nonperturbative method giving a controlled error in the long time limit remained highly desirable to understand general features of the quench induced quantum dynamics. In this paper we show how integrability (via the algebraic Bethe ansatz) gives one numerical access, in a nearly exact manner, to the dynamics resulting from a global interaction quench of an ensemble of fermions with pairing interactions (Richardson's model). This possibility is deeply linked to the specific structure of this particular integrable model which gives simple expressions for the scalar product of eigenstates of two different Hamiltonians. We show how, despite the fact that a sudden quench can create excitations at any frequency, a drastic truncation of the Hilbert space can be carried out therefore allowing access to large systems. The small truncation error which results does not change with time and consequently the method grants access to a controlled description of the long time behavior which is a hard to reach limit with other numerical approaches.

Faribault, Alexandre [Department of Physics, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Calabrese, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Caux, Jean-Sebastien [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-09-15

178

Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

Hayes, D.F. [ed.

1998-07-01

179

Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

Chacko, George K., Ed.

180

[Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].  

PubMed

During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit. PMID:20347457

Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

2010-01-01

181

DATA-DRIVEN APPROACHES TO  

E-print Network

IN 2001 · Natural language processing is done at several levels - Phonetics: speech sounds I canDATA-DRIVEN APPROACHES TO NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Guy De Pauw #12;Data-Driven Approach to Natural Language Processing - CURRENT TRENDS IN AI VUB 20/4/2012 WHO AM I? http://aflat.org/guy · Born

Steels, Luc

182

Intrusion Detection: A Bioinformatics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of detecting masquerading, a security attack in which an intruder assumes the identity of a legitimate user. Many approaches based on Hidden Markov Models and various forms of Finite State Automata have been proposed to solve this problem. The novelty of our approach results from the application of techniques used in bioinformatics for a pair-wise

Scott E. Coull; Joel W. Branch; Boleslaw K. Szymanski; Eric Breimer

2003-01-01

183

Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

184

An Experimental Approach To… Everything!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

2014-01-01

185

Adolescent Suicide: An Ecological Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an ecological approach to enhance our understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to the increased risk for suicide among adolescents. The ecological approach allows exploration of how adolescent suicide is determined by multiple factors related to the adolescent's personal history or ontogenic…

Ayyash-Abdo, Huda

2002-01-01

186

A Demographic Approach to Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of demography provide a means of combining the ecological approach to population growth with the genetical approach to natural selection. We have utilized the demographic theory of natural selection developed by Norton and Charlesworth to analyze life history schedules of births and deaths for populations of genotypes in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Our populations illustrate a stable genetic equilibrium, an

Wyatt W. Anderson; Takao K. Watanabe

1997-01-01

187

A Systems Approach to Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systematic approach to teaching provides a method for the functional organization and development of instruction. This method applies to preparation of materials for classroom use, as well as for print and non-print media. Inputs to the systems approach include well defined objectives, analysis of the intended audience, special criteria…

Kelly, Robert E.

188

Project Approach: Teaching. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of the action research chronicled (in English and Chinese) in this book was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the Project Approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the Project Approach, focusing on…

Ho, Rose

189

Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.  

PubMed

Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25363806

Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

2014-12-01

190

Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance  

PubMed Central

Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25363806

Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

2014-01-01

191

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

192

[Psychology of patient management: evaluation and quality assurance of psychosocial management in pediatric oncology].  

PubMed

Since the introduction of health-care reform in Germany, quality assurance of inpatient care is required. In paediatric oncology this also includes quality assurance measures of psycho-social care. Care Psychology deals with the development, testing and continual improvement of high-quality psycho-social care. Based on clinical experience, scientific knowledge and ascertained requirements a handbook and manual of service delivery of psycho-social care is formulated and tested in everyday practice. Service performance analyses are carried out, and verified improvements are re-tested in practice. This, as well as additional attempts, should lead to total quality management (TQM) of psycho-social care in paediatric oncology according to the criteria of the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM). PMID:9156631

Kusch, M; Labouvie, H; Jäger, R S; Bode, U

1997-02-01

193

79 FR 38779 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...access-promoting technology in social environments in paragraph...the RERC focus its research and development activities...applicants from proposing research and development on...the RERC to conduct research regarding psycho-social factors, such as...

2014-07-09

194

68 FR 44059 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Center must conduct qualitative and quantitative research, including the development...and chapter 6, Research on Social Roles. (e) Community...a) Psycho-social Factors Affecting...Center must conduct research and training...

2003-07-25

195

Working Papers / Documents de travail WP 2014 -Nr 29  

E-print Network

premium reects other labor market advantages of taller workers, including psycho-social dimensions. We conditions, earnings, occupation, happiness. JEL Classi...cation : I15, J24, O15 Acknowledgements : Bargain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

NGO/INGO Centered Approach: An Alternative Approach to Development  

E-print Network

charismatic leader. The leader is usually involved in various activities of the organization including fund raising, planning, coordinating as well as implementing. Their plan depends upon the availability of donation. Thus, long term visions are often missing... NGO/INGO CENTERED APPROACH: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT Harihar Ghimire' A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a social organization motivated to work in sectors like religion, socio­ cultural, economic, educational, environment, women...

Ghimire, Harihar

2003-01-01

197

Piecewise linear approach: a new approach in automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interests. High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) data set was used to study robustness and sensitivity issues related to 1D model-based ATR development and performance. The model is built based on the statistic analysis of the training data and the dependence of the HRR signature on the azimuth is considered. The dependence is approximated by a linear regression algorithm to construct the templates of targets, which gives this approach the name of piecewise linear approach (PWL). Compared with the 1D model-based ATR approach developed by the Wright Laboratory, results are presented demonstrating an increase of about 10% in the correct identification probability of known targets when declaration probability Pdec is above 85% while maintaining a low time-cost.

Zeng, YuJing; Starzyk, Janusz A.

2000-08-01

198

OBESITY AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN RELATION TO LIFE-STYLE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample

F. Marcellini; C. Giuli; R. Papa; G. Tirabassi; E. Faloia; M. Boscaro; A. Polito; D. Ciarapica; M. Zaccaria; E. Mocchegiani

2009-01-01

199

Ovarian cancer and medical art therapy : drawing on experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the experiences of ten women diagnosed with ovarian cancer through their engagement In medical art therapy. The literature revealed few studies that examined the psycho-social experiences of women with ovarian cancer. No studies explored the use of art therapy as a tool to identifY the women's psycho-social needs. The purpose of this study was to contribute to

Anna S. Petterson

2007-01-01

200

Headaches and Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... complementary health approaches for both. Tension Headaches and Migraines: What’s the Difference? Tension headaches —the most common ... too little, miss meals, or drink alcoholic beverages. Migraine headaches —which affect about 12 percent of Americans— ...

201

Four Approaches to Entrepreneurship II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four approaches to teaching advanced entrepreneurship in current use are as follows: (1) advanced options such as franchises and buyouts and international entrepreneurship; (2) preentrepreneurship courses; (3) starting a business; and (4) structured experience. (JOW)

Meyer, Earl C.; Nauta, Tom

1994-01-01

202

Diakoptical approach in telecommunication engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

Oksana Yevsyeyeva

2010-01-01

203

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

204

Neuroethological Approach to Understanding Intelligence  

E-print Network

The neuroethology is an interdisciplinary study among artificial intelligence, biology and robotics to understand the animal behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We argue that the neuroethological approach helps understand the general artificial intelligence.

Daeeun Kim

205

The opportunistic approach to disinflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the theoretical foundations of a new approach to monetary policy. Proponents of this approach hold that when inflation is moderate but still above the long-run objective, the Fed should not take deliberate anti-inflation action, but rather should wait for external circumstances-such as favorable supply shocks and unforeseen recessions-to deliver the desired reduction in inflation. While waiting for

Athanasios Orphanides; David W. Wilcox

1996-01-01

206

BFV approach to geometric quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gauge-invariant approach to geometric quantization is developed. It yields a complete quantum description for dynamical systems with non-trivial geometry and topology of the phase space. The method is a global version of the gauge-invariant approach to quantization of second-class constraints developed by Batalin, Fradkin and Fradkina (BFF). Physical quantum states and quantum observables are respectively described by covariantly constant

E. S. Fradkin; V. Ya. Linetsky

1994-01-01

207

An Approach to Plantwide Optimization  

E-print Network

AN APPROACH TO PLANTWIDE OPTIMIZATION RAVI NATH, BILL A WORSHAM, DALE J. LIBBY Union Carbide Corporation Houston, NlSTRACT Optimization of individual processing units as well as the energy systems has become common place in the processing... are obtained when the processing units and the plant energy system are optimized jointly, in which case the 'transfer prices' become superfluous. A MlLP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) based approach for plant wide optimization is presented...

Nath, R.; Worsham, B. A.; Libby, D. J.

208

A New Approach to the Approach to Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider a gas confined to the left half of a container. Then remove the wall separating the two parts. The gas will start spreading and soon be evenly distributed over the entire available space. The gas has approached equilibrium. Why does the gas behave in this way? The canonical answer to this question, originally proffered by Boltzmann, is that the system has to be ergodic for the approach to equilibrium to take place. This answer has been criticised on different grounds and is now widely regarded as flawed. In this paper we argue that these criticisms have dismissed Boltzmann's answer too quickly and that something almost like Boltzmann's answer is true: the approach to equilibrium takes place if the system is epsilon-ergodic, i.e. ergodic on the entire accessible phase space except for a small region of measure epsilon. We introduce epsilon-ergodicity and argue that relevant systems in statistical mechanics are indeed espsilon-ergodic.

Frigg, Roman; Werndl, Charlotte

209

Systems Science Approach to Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

210

Anomaly Detection Using Behavioral Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioral approaches, which represent normal/abnormal activities, have been widely used during last years in intrusion detection and computer security. Nevertheless, most works showed that they are ineffective for detecting novel attacks involving new behaviors. In this paper, we first study this recurring problem due on one hand to inadequate handling of anomalous and unusual audit events and on other hand to insufficient decision rules which do not meet behavioral approach objectives. We then propose to enhance the standard decision rules in order to fit behavioral approach requirements and better detect novel attacks. Experimental studies carried out on real and simulated http traffic show that these enhanced decision rules improve detecting most novel attacks without triggering higher false alarm rates.

Benferhat, Salem; Tabia, Karim

211

33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.202 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach....

2010-07-01

212

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

213

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches have appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles, and molecular systems. In this Account the author will describe some of the approaches that my own group has taken to the design of chemical systems for artificial photosynthesis.

Meyer, T.J. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-05-01

214

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

215

Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module deals with identifying the characteristics of radiation versus advection fog events, determining which process is dominating, and applying that understanding when making ceiling and visibility forecasts. A forecast approach using a decision tree is also discussed. This decision tree outlines the basic steps involved in applying a thorough forecast approach to fog and stratus events. The module is based on live teletraining sessions offered in 2003 as part of the Distance Learning Aviation Course 1 (DLAC1) on Fog and Stratus Forecasting.

COMET

2004-07-15

216

Id analysis and technical approaches.  

PubMed

The author argues that the technical advances stemming from Freud's (1923) introduction of the structural theory permit a more naturalistic and specific approach to analyzing unconscious conflict, thus facilitating id analysis. The earlier topographical technique underestimated the role of suggestion; often, it entailed interference with patients' capacity for self-observation, as well as with the exploration of their own drive derivatives. In order to illustrate the type of id material obtainable with a contemporary ego psychology approach, the author presents clinical vignettes and commentaries. It is recognized that clarifications, defense interpretations, and Gray's close-process interventions may need to be adapted to different cultural milieus. PMID:18386663

Paniagua, Cecilio

2008-01-01

217

Terra Harvest mission programming approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terra Harvest is a DIA sponsored program that is developing a next generation architecture for Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) interoperability. One key element of this program is a mission programming methodology that allows standardization of the work flow required to program an UGS system. This technology is a key enabler needed to standardize the user experience. This paper describes the requirements for the Terra Harvest mission system and summarizes the different approaches that were considered for the mission system. This paper also describes the implementation of the JavaScript-based approach for mission programming that was selected for use in the Terra Harvest system.

Kovach, Jesse B.

2012-06-01

218

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches have appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles,

Thomas J. Meyer

1989-01-01

219

Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

Stark, Richard B., Ed.

220

A Backward Approach to Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sciences, the National Science Education Standards further emphasize that learning science is an inquiry-based process; therefore, teaching methods should be inquiry-based. Use a backwards design approach to ensure that academic standards are met during student-centered, inquiry-based investigations for daily class activities, classroom discussions, and assessment of student understanding.

Sher Hendrickson

2006-01-01

221

Perspective Engineering Approaches to Illuminating  

E-print Network

of neurons and nervous systems, recent advances have leveraged the self-assembly capabilities of stem tube-like ellipsoids or neurospheres useful for studying neu- ral stem cell biology (Reynolds and WeissNeuron Perspective Engineering Approaches to Illuminating Brain Structure and Dynamics Karl

Schnitzer, Mark

222

Preference Rankings An Axiornatic Approach  

E-print Network

CHAPTER II Preference Rankings An Axiornatic Approach 1. The problem. Let us consider the problern of ranking a set of objects. Suppose that ten experts are each asked to rank a set of 50 objects in order of preference. To allow a maximum amount of freedom, we will allow ties in the rankings. We are then supposed

Fitelson, Branden

223

Tiedeman's Approach to Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic to Tiedeman's approach to career development and decision making is the assumption that one is responsible for one's own behavior because one has the capacity for choice and lives in a world which is not deterministic. Tiedeman, a cognitive-developmental theorist, views continuity of development as internal or psychological while…

Harren, Vincent A.

224

Thoracoscopy: a collaborative surgical approach.  

PubMed

Perioperative nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and pharmacists are meeting the challenge of decreasing thoracic surgical patients' length of hospital stay with thoracoscopy. This innovative alternative to traditional thoracotomy procedures has been achieved through an attentive team approach using the fundamental perioperative skills of assessment, positioning, safety, and sharing of knowledge. PMID:7647761

Brand, A F

1995-07-01

225

Methods: An Integrated Interdisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several articles explain the integrated interdisciplinary approach used in Hawaii's PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities) program, which prepares educators to teach students of culturally diverse backgrounds. After an overview of PETOM, the articles look at the mathematics, science, art, and social studies modules. (SM)

Hao, Ramona Newton; And Others

1993-01-01

226

Community Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches  

E-print Network

to require preparation of an environmental impact statement. When an environmental impact statement, then the environmental impact statement will discuss all of these effects on the human environment. #12;PrioritiesCommunity Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches #12;1960s · 1964 Title VI of Civil Rights Act of 1964

Minnesota, University of

227

A Holistic Approach to Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopts a holistic approach to grading, using seven foundation concepts that are essential to every business communication, regardless of genre. Argues that such assignments more clearly simulate the response of supervisors, clients, customers, and other readers in the business world. (SG)

Schullery, Nancy M.

2003-01-01

228

Design approaches for taming complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the essential characteristics of system complexity and simplicity and we describe a set of general design heuristics to address complexity. We distinguish inherent, irreducible complexity from perceived complexity. We illustrate a little theory of complexity with examples drawn from ultra-large-scale systems: telephony, the Internet, and the power grid. We then show how a toolkit of design approaches that

Rick Kazman; Philippe Kruchten

2012-01-01

229

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

230

Control: Organizational and Economic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational design often focuses on structural alternatives such as matrix, decentralization, and divisionalization. However, control variables (e.g., reward structures, task characteristics, and information systems) offer a more flexible approach. The purpose of this paper is to explore these control variables for organizational design. This is accomplished by integration and testing of two perspectives, organization theory and economics, notably agency theory.

Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

1985-01-01

231

A possibilistic approach to clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clustering problem is cast in the framework of possibility theory. The approach differs from the existing clustering methods in that the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values can be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes, i.e., the compatibilities of the points with the

Raghu Krishnapuram; James M. Keller

1993-01-01

232

The information-processing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information-processing (IP) approach to perception and cognition arose as a reaction to behaviourism. This reaction mainly concerned the nature of explanation in scientific psychology. The “standard” account of behaviour, phrased in strictly external terms, was replaced by a “realist” account, phrased in terms of internal entities and processes. An analysis of the theoretical language used in IP psychology shows

A. H. C. van der Heijden; Sarah Stebbins

1990-01-01

233

Antenna design: a crystallographical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this thesis was to design a switched beam antenna by applying the principles of crystallography. The main benefit of this approach is that simple design equations can be derived from crystallography and readily applied to the design of a steerable beam antenna. Before using equations from crystallography in an antenna design, the equations are first verified. One

Luke MacVicker Snow

2011-01-01

234

Computational Approaches to Drug Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rational approach to pharmaceutical drug design begins with an investigation of the relation- ship between chemical structure and biological activity. Information gained from this analysis is used to aid the design of new, or improved, drugs. Primary considerations during this investigation are the geometric and chemical characteristics of the molecules. Computational chemists who are involved in rational drug design

Paul W. Finn; Lydia E. Kavraki

1999-01-01

235

Ethnic Studies: Issues and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a comprehensive definition of the field of ethnic studies, covering both major issues in the field and its theoretical and methodological approaches. It traces the origins and evolution of the discipline in the United States and maps its domain. Some of the current issues addressed include affirmative action, illegal/legal…

Yang, Philip Q.

236

Colonic Drug Delivery: Prodrug Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colon is largely being investigated as a site for administration of protein and peptides, which are degraded by digestive enzymes in the upper GIT. Also for local diseases of the colon, drug administration to the site of action can not only reduce the dose to be administered, but also decrease the side effects. One of the approaches used for

V. R. Sinha; Rachna Kumria

2001-01-01

237

Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and illustrate using data from insects an integrative approach to modelling animal nutrition. This framework enables the unification within simple geometrical models of several nutritionally relevant measures. These include: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required to be ingested and allocated to growth by an animal over a given time period (the intake and growth targets, respectively);

D. Raubenheimer; S. J. Simpson

1999-01-01

238

Dexterous Manipulation: A Geometric Approach  

E-print Network

Dexterous Manipulation: A Geometric Approach (A Survey Paper) Bhubaneswar Mishra Courant Institute the theory of dexterous manipulation. In particular, we discuss the models of robot hands and analysis connection between the problems of dexterous manipulation and some classical results in combinatorial

Mishra, Bud

239

Pilot Innovative Approaches to Funding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seventh recommendation in ACTE's postsecondary reform position statement is to pilot innovative approaches to funding. Public postsecondary providers are expected to fulfill a number of educational missions linked to separate funding streams, such as academic coursework, workforce education and training, distance education and research. These…

Hyslop, Alisha

2008-01-01

240

LNG decision making approaches compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard zones associated with LNG handling activities have been a major point of contention in recent terminal development applications. Debate has reflected primarily worst case scenarios and discussion of these. This paper presents results from a maximum credible event approach. A comparison of results from several models either run by the authors or reported in the literature is presented. While

Robin Pitblado; John Baik; Vijay Raghunathan

2006-01-01

241

Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.

242

Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

Palmer, James C.

2014-01-01

243

Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essays in this volume represent an approach to human knowledge that has had a profound influence on many recent thinkers. Popper breaks with a traditional commonsense theory of knowledge that can be traced back to Aristotle. A realist and fallibilist, he argues closely and in simple language that scientific knowledge, once stated in human language, is no longer part

Karl R. Popper

1979-01-01

244

TREATMENT SYSTEMS AN INTEGRATED APPROACH  

E-print Network

for on-site management and treatment of effluent and solid waste 3. Provide for surface water attenuation, especially during storm events Provide surface water attenuation, treatment and recycling CaptureECOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF WASTE AND WASTE WATER

Heal, Kate

245

Information Hiding: A Generic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Privacy and security over communication channels are of primary concerns. Due to their complexity and diversity, th ere is a need for continuous improvements of the adopted solutions. In this study, we consider two o f the adopted ones, namely, steganogrphy and cryptography and propose a new information hiding system. Approach: The proposed system was based on a

Riad jabri; Boran Ibrahim; Hadi Al-Zoubi

2009-01-01

246

Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options.

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

247

New management approaches for gastroparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of patients with gastroparesis is challenging. Although the syndrome has multiple causes and knowledge of the pathophysiology and natural history is far from complete, a number of common management principles can be applied. The relatively poor correlation between upper-gastrointestinal symptoms and disordered gastric emptying represents a major difficulty in the therapeutic approach, and evidence to support the efficacy of

Michael Horowitz; Christopher K Rayner

2005-01-01

248

Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are introduced. (LMO)

Whitman, Charles

1986-01-01

249

Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

Mauderly, J L

1993-01-01

250

of Schizophrenia New Approaches to  

E-print Network

The Nature of Schizophrenia New Approaches to Research and Treatment Lyman C. Wynne Professor Transmission Chapter 6 A Genetic Perspective on Schizophrenia Kenneth K. Kidd, Ph.D. GENES AND ENVIRONMENT Genetic studies of schizophrenia can be both challenging and frustrating to a geneticist: challenging

Kidd, Kenneth

251

Modeling approaches for active systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal

Sven Herold; Heiko Atzrodt; Dirk Mayer; Martin Thomaier

2006-01-01

252

Comparative Psychology: An Epigenetic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…

Greenberg, Gary

1987-01-01

253

Aluminum anodization process modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose approach for modeling thin aluminum film anodization in three dimensions using variation of coupled lattice map on volumetric grid, which is capable of capturing porous and nonporous aluminum oxide growth and electrochemical polishing modes. Model derivation is based on Parkhutik and Shershulsky understandings. Numerical simulation results for various initial conditions are shown and compared to experimental data.

Belov, Alexey N.; Vorobiev, Maksim I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.; Shevyakov, Vasiliy I.

2014-12-01

254

A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

2014-05-01

255

A Freudian Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

Gartner, Sandra L.

256

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

Ramvi, Ellen

2012-01-01

257

Pluralistic Approaches to Art Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…

Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.

258

Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the field of educational evaluation. Each approach is reviewed in terms of the work of its major proponents. The dominant forms of qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic…

Fetterman, David M.

259

Hybrid Nanorobotic Approaches to NEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic manipulation at the nanometer scale is a promising technology for structuring, characterizing and assembling nano building blocks into nanoelec- tromechanical systems (NEMS). Combined with recently developed nanofab- rication processes, a hybrid approach to building NEMS from individual car­ bon nanotubes (CNTs) and SiGe\\/Si nanocoils is described. Nanosensors and nanoactuators are investigated from experimental, theoretical, and design per­ spectives.

Bradley J. Nelson; Lixin Dong; Arunkumar Subramanian; Dominik J. Bell

2005-01-01

260

Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project

A. T. Watkins

2000-01-01

261

Curriculum Evaluation: An Historical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical background on curriculum evaluation including terms as they were introduced is presented. The historical approach provides a sense of continuity and direction, and historical perspectives offer necessary references for future curriculum study. Curriculum evaluation at the turn of this century emphasized the testing and measurement…

Tellep, Michele M.

262

Draft for consultation Partnership approaches  

E-print Network

Acknowledgements Production of this document has been made possible by the ongoing funding of the Timber TransportDraft for consultation Partnership approaches in timber haulage: collected experience The Timber Transport Toolkit: Hauling timber on the public highway #12;2 | P a g e Draft for consultation

263

Stress Management: A Rational Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

Reeves, Cecil

264

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

265

Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

Monaghan, John

2007-01-01

266

A pragmatic approach to adaptive antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for efficient computation of adaptive weights in phased-array antennas. The fundamental philosophical differences between adaptive antennas and adaptive signal-processing methodology are also delineated. This approach, unlike the conventional statistical techniques, eliminates the requirement for an interference covariance matrix, and represents a rethinking of the entire conventional approach to adaptive processing. This approach provides greater

Tapan K. Sarkar; Jinwan Koh; Raviraj Adve; Richard A. Schneible; Michael C. Wicks; Seungwon Choi; Magdalena Salazar Palma

2000-01-01

267

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

268

Supersymmetric approach to excited states.  

PubMed

We present here a supersymmetric (SUSY) approach for determining excitation energies within the context of a quantum Monte Carlo scheme. By using the fact that SUSY quantum mechanics gives rises to a series of isospectral Hamiltonians, we show that Monte Carlo ground-state calculations in the SUSY partners can be used to reconstruct accurately both the spectrum and states of an arbitrary Schrodinger equation. Since the ground state of each partner potential is nodeless, we avoid any "node" problem typically associated with the Monte Carlo technique. Although we provide an example of using this approach to determine the tunneling states in a double-well potential, the method is applicable to any 1D potential problem. We conclude by discussing the extension to higher dimensions. PMID:19919079

Bittner, Eric R; Maddox, Jeremy B; Kouri, Donald J

2009-12-31

269

Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

2003-01-01

270

Snow metamorphism: a fractal approach  

E-print Network

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapour and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameter. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution o...

Carbone, Anna; Frigo, Barbara; Turk, Christian; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036103

2010-01-01

271

Approaches to neuroscience data integration  

PubMed Central

As the number of neuroscience databases increases, the need for neuroscience data integration grows. This paper reviews and compares several approaches, including the Neuroscience Database Gateway (NDG), Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and Entrez Neuron, which enable neuroscience database annotation and integration. These approaches cover a range of activities spanning from registry, discovery and integration of a wide variety of neuroscience data sources. They also provide different user interfaces for browsing, querying and displaying query results. In Entrez Neuron, for example, four different facets or tree views (neuron, neuronal property, gene and drug) are used to hierarchically organize concepts that can be used for querying a collection of ontologies. The facets are also used to define the structure of the query results. PMID:19505888

Lim, Ernest; Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Marenco, Luis; Holford, Matthew E.; Morse, Thomas M.; Mutalik, Pradeep; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

2009-01-01

272

Different approaches of spectral analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

Lacoume, J. L.

1977-01-01

273

BRST Approach to Hamiltonian Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BRST formulation of cohomological Hamiltonian mechanics is presented. In the\\u000apath integral approach, we use the BRST gauge fixing procedure for the\\u000apartition function with trivial underlying Lagrangian to fix symplectic\\u000adiffeomorphism invariance. Resulting Lagrangian is BRST and anti-BRST exact and\\u000athe Liouvillian of classical mechanics is reproduced in the ghost-free sector.\\u000aThe theory can be thought of as a

A. K. Aringazin; V. V. Arkhipov; A. S. Kudusov

1998-01-01

274

Recommended approach to sofware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of guideline for an organized, disciplined approach to software development, based on data collected and studied for 46 flight dynamics software development projects. Methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements analysis and ends with acceptance testing are described; maintenance and operation is not addressed. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and the products produced and their reviews are presented.

Mcgarry, F. E.; Page, J.; Eslinger, S.; Church, V.; Merwarth, P.

1983-01-01

275

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1999-04-09

276

Experimental Approaches at Linear Colliders  

E-print Network

This report summarises the activity of the E3 working group "Experimental Approaches at Linear Colliders". The group was charged with examining critically the physics case for a linear collider of energy of order 1 TeV as well as the cases for higher energy machines, assessing the performance requirements and exploring the viability of several special options. In addition it was asked to identify the critical areas where R&D is required.

Marco Battaglia; Ian Hinchliffe; John Jaros; James Wells

2002-01-09

277

Industrial Beamline Technologies And Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes industrial charged particle beamline technologies and design approaches. Beamlines accommodate myriad constraints in the radioisotope production, electron beam processing, and ion implantation market segments, and some very strange yet interesting solutions result. In this paper, a detailed look at a particular injection beamline solution gives some sense of the complexity of research and development required, and the sophistication of the beamline solutions that are utilized. A brief review of beamline applications in each industrial segment follows.

Dehnel, M. P.

2011-06-01

278

Therapeutic approaches to diastolic dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive abnormalities of passive stiffness or active relaxation of the myocardium that impair ventricular filling during\\u000a diastole may be an important contributor to the development of heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction.\\u000a In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved\\u000a ejection fraction, highlighting potential therapeutic approaches and exploring the

Rajesh Janardhanan; Akshay S. Desai; Scott D. Solomon

2009-01-01

279

Diagrammatic approach to quantum search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a simple diagrammatic approach for estimating how a randomly walking quantum particle searches on a graph in continuous time, which involves sketching small weighted graphs with self-loops and considering degenerate perturbation theory's effects on them. Using this method, we give the first example of degenerate perturbation theory solving search on a graph whose evolution occurs in a subspace whose dimension grows with N.

Wong, Thomas G.

2015-03-01

280

Nonpharmaceutical approaches to pain management.  

PubMed

A nonpharmaceutical approach to managing pain is one that does not employ a medication. The use of such approaches, in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of multimodal methods to managing pain, is becoming more popular as evidence is emerging to support their use. Cold therapy, for one, is used to reduce the inflammation and tissue damage seen in acute injuries and can be very effective at reducing acute pain. Incorporating the use of superficial heat therapy when treating pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions is often employed as heat increases blood flow, oxygen delivery, and tissue extensibility. Acupuncture is gaining acceptance in veterinary medicine. Research is confirming that release of endogenous endorphins and enkephalins from the application of needles at specific points around the body can effectively control acute and chronic pain. The use of 2 newer therapies-extracorporeal shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma-represent an attempt to eliminate the causes of pain at the tissue level by promoting tissue healing and regeneration. Reviewed in this article, these therapies are intended to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of a multimodal approach to pain management. PMID:25103886

Corti, Lisa

2014-03-01

281

Ecosystem approaches to human health.  

PubMed

The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function. PMID:11426267

Nielsen, N O

2001-01-01

282

A Novel Shape Parameterization Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a novel parameterization approach for complex shapes suitable for a multidisciplinary design optimization application. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft objects animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in a similar manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminated plate structures) and high-fidelity analysis tools (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling). This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, and camber. The results are presented for a multidisciplinary design optimization application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, performance, and a simple propulsion module.

Samareh, Jamshid A.

1999-01-01

283

Neuromodulation: Selected approaches and challenges  

PubMed Central

The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The “wiring” of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromoduation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes have proven effective in modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture as well as in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing “misfiring” neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us. PMID:23190025

Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A.; Tass, Peter A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H.; Andrews, Russell J.

2012-01-01

284

Alternative systematic approaches to training  

SciTech Connect

This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

Not Available

1995-01-01

285

An abstract approach to music.  

SciTech Connect

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

286

A Computational Approach for Model Update of an LS-DYNA Energy Absorbing Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and its contractors are working on structural concepts for absorbing impact energy of aerospace vehicles. Recently, concepts in the form of multi-cell honeycomb-like structures designed to crush under load have been investigated for both space and aeronautics applications. Efforts to understand these concepts are progressing from tests of individual cells to tests of systems with hundreds of cells. Because of fabrication irregularities, geometry irregularities, and material properties uncertainties, the problem of reconciling analytical models, in particular LS-DYNA models, with experimental data is a challenge. A first look at the correlation results between single cell load/deflection data with LS-DYNA predictions showed problems which prompted additional work in this area. This paper describes a computational approach that uses analysis of variance, deterministic sampling techniques, response surface modeling, and genetic optimization to reconcile test with analysis results. Analysis of variance provides a screening technique for selection of critical parameters used when reconciling test with analysis. In this study, complete ignorance of the parameter distribution is assumed and, therefore, the value of any parameter within the range that is computed using the optimization procedure is considered to be equally likely. Mean values from tests are matched against LS-DYNA solutions by minimizing the square error using a genetic optimization. The paper presents the computational methodology along with results obtained using this approach.

Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

2008-01-01

287

EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.  

PubMed

The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage. PMID:21730041

Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

2011-09-01

288

Approaches for modeling magnetic nanoparticle dynamics.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoparticles are useful biological probes as well as therapeutic agents. Several approaches have been used to model nanoparticle magnetization dynamics for both Brownian as well as Neel rotation. Magnetizations are often of interest and can be compared with experimental results. Here we summarize these approaches, including the Stoner-Wohlfarth approach and stochastic approaches including thermal fluctuations. Non-equilibrium-related temperature effects can be described by a distribution function approach (Fokker-Planck equation) or a stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation). Approximate models in several regimes can be derived from these general approaches to simplify implementation. PMID:25271360

Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

2014-01-01

289

Novel therapeutic approaches for haemophilia.  

PubMed

The major therapy for haemophilia is plasma derived or recombinant clotting factors which are evolving steadily to increase potency, stability and half-life. Research in the area of haemophilia therapeutics, however, is not restricted only to modifications in the recombinant products, but alternate therapeutic strategies are being developed which are in different phases of experimental and clinical trials. This chapter reviews the diverse molecular innovations which are being developed for alternate therapeutic approaches in haemophilia. The data is mainly extracted from the literature and the Conference abstracts. Some of the novel therapeutic approaches include inhibition of anticoagulant pathway factors (activated protein C, antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor) by monoclonal antibodies, peptide inhibitors, DNA or RNA aptamers, use of variant coagulation factors (factor Xa, factor Va) which are more resistant to inactivation or enzymatically more active and antibody-mediated therapy including a humanized anti-factor IXa/X bispecific antibody mimicking factor VIII. Other approaches include nonsense mutation suppression, induction of prothrombotic microparticles by P-selectin-immunoglobulin chimeras, suppression of fibrinolytic potential either by antifibrinolytics or by the use of mutant molecules of fibrinolytic inhibitors. Few products are proposed as 'stand alone' treatment for haemophilia, while a few can be used as adjuvant therapies to recombinant factors with an aim to reduce the amount of factor intake. All efforts are underway to produce an alternate, novel drug for haemophilia which will have an increased half-life, subcutaneously injectable, non-immunogenic and effective both in the presence and absence of inhibitors. PMID:25521966

Shetty, S; Ghosh, K

2015-03-01

290

Supervision: a 'fresh eyes' approach.  

PubMed

As recent reports question the safety of some maternity services and of the accuracy of identifying risk factors in midwifery practice, this article advocates the use of 'fresh eyes' reviews of our own practice, that of our peers and the practice within our organisations. If, as the literature indicates, there is no evidence of sustained transformational change through compliance as opposed to commitment, then our engagement and motivation to adopt 'fresh eyes' approaches to our practice, may lead to improved patient outcomes, including rates of mortality. PMID:22324129

Paeglis, Carol

2012-01-01

291

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

SciTech Connect

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

292

Approach to Mars Field Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

1998-01-01

293

Approach to adolescent suicide prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to suicide prevention in youth. SOURCES OF INFORMATION A literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and evaluation studies or program evaluation, adolescent. MAIN MESSAGE Youth suicide might be prevented by earlier recognition and treatment of mental illness. Family physicians can and should screen for mental illness in youth; there are many diagnostic and treatment resources available to assist with this. CONCLUSION Earlier detection and treatment of mental illness are the most important ways family physicians can reduce morbidity and mortality for youth who are contemplating suicide. PMID:20705879

Kostenuik, Marcia; Ratnapalan, Mohana

2010-01-01

294

Enamel microabrasion: a new approach.  

PubMed

Enamel microabrasion is a proven method of removing superficial intrinsic enamel discoloration defects. The method is safe, easily performed, and causes no discomfort for the patient. A new commercially available microabrasion system has been introduced by Ultradent Products Inc. In addition, a new tooth isolation material is available, along with a visible light-activated in-office hydrogen peroxide solution. This article describes these new products and documents tooth-color correction for two young patients using this new tooth-color correction approach. PMID:11326505

Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

2000-01-01

295

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1994-05-01

296

Nanoparticle approaches against bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infections still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infections. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle-enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle-based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. PMID:25044325

Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

2014-01-01

297

Modeling approaches for active systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control concepts (e.g. adaptive controllers) are more convenient. If other elements (e.g. signal amplifiers or filters) in the signal paths have a significant influence on the transfer functions, they must be modeled as well by an adequate transfer function model. All the different models described above are implemented into one typical active system simulation. Afterwards, experiments will be performed to verify the simulations.

Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

2006-03-01

298

An approach to space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

1990-01-01

299

A rational approach to dementia.  

PubMed Central

Dementia is a common problem facing all medical practitioners and it frequently results in hospitalization and death. This review provides a framework for dealing with dementia in clinical practice that is based on both traditional concepts and recent advances in the understanding of the problem. Distinguishing at the bedside between dementia and other disorders of intellect is emphasized. The main causes of dementia and their clinical characteristics are reviewed and a rational approach to definitive diagnosis is developed. Simple, effective symptomatic forms of therapy are described. PMID:159118

Ropper, A H

1979-01-01

300

Evolutionary Approach for Model Refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approaches for finite element model topology and parameter adjustment are investigated. Genetic algorithms are one form of directed random search. The form of direction is based on Darwin's 'survival of the fittest' theories. In this paper, an advancement in GA theory is proposed and evaluated to enhance GA search characteristics. The GA-based model refinement process makes use of experimental data to evolve a better correlated finite element model. The model refinement problem is formulated such that the sensitivity of the update to the presence of either analytical or experimental closely spaced modes of vibration is reduced.

Zimmerman, David C.; Yap, Keng; Hasselman, Timothy

1999-07-01

301

33 CFR 167.203 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern approach. 167.203 Section 167.203 Navigation...Atlantic East Coast § 167.203 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Southern...

2010-07-01

302

WHY ROZENZWEIG-STYLE MIDRASHIC APPROACH  

E-print Network

of a midrash. In general, traditional Judaism follows a logic-style approach, where the objective is to derive and in the accepted oral teachings. However, in addition to this logical approach, in traditional Judaism

Kreinovich, Vladik

303

Exhaustible Resource Depletion: A Modified Graphical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a graphical analysis of the exhaustible resource depletion problem. Applies Hotelling's "r percent rule" as a new approach that operates in an "N"-period context. Includes two figures illustrating the approach. (CFR)

Tisato, Peter

1995-01-01

304

Testing multifield inflation: A geometric approach  

E-print Network

We develop an approach for linking the power spectra, bispectrum, and trispectrum to the geometric and kinematical features of multifield inflationary Lagrangians. Our geometric approach can also be useful in determining ...

Peterson, Courtney M.

305

Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.

2008-01-01

306

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in service...

2014-10-01

307

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in service...

2012-10-01

308

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in service...

2013-10-01

309

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in service...

2010-10-01

310

49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Inspection and Tests § 236.377 Approach locking. Approach locking shall be tested when placed in service...

2011-10-01

311

Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach  

E-print Network

Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach Alexander Todorov, Sean G. Baron, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple

Todorov, Alex

312

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles, and molecular system. The chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis are based on a series of well-established chemical principles, the development of an extensive supporting synthetic chemistry, and the discovery of new catalytic systems and the principles by which they operate. It is impressive that nearly all of the background chemistry and photochemistry has appeared within the last 10-15 years. It seems inevitable that, with continued progress in this area, devices of the type implied here, or at least having some of their features, will be successfully constructed. Even if they have no economic value, the ability to incorporate the broadly based set of ideas required to deal with making them will be impressive demonstration of the growing high technology capabilities of modern chemistry.

Meyer, T.J.

1989-05-01

313

The acousto-ultrasonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

Vary, Alex

1987-01-01

314

Can dynamical systems approach turbulence?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review some ideas and methods from dynamical systems theory and discuss applications, actual and potential, to the study of fully developed turbulent flows in an open system: the wall region of a boundary layer. After a brief account of applications to a closed flow system, the approach I concentrate on attempts a marriage between statistical methods and deterministic dynamical systems, both orderly and chaotic. Specifically, coherent structures are identified with combinations of certain basis functions using the proper orthogonal decomposition. A relatively low dimensional ordinary differential equation describing the dynamical interactions of a set of these spatially organized structures is then derived by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting system is optimal in the sense that it retains the greatest turbulent kinetic energy, in a time averaged sense, among all projections of the same dimension. The model is analyzed using the methods of dynamical systems and symmetries are found to play a crucial rôle. In particular, structurally and asymptotically stable heteroclinic cycles emerge as a common feature in models of various dimensions and orbits attracted to these cycles lead to solutions exhibiting intermittent, violent "events," which appear to reproduce key features of the bursting process. I speculate on the validity of this approach, the "understanding" of turbulent processes it offers and on how some of the gaps in the procedure might be bridged. I do not suggest that this is the only way in which dynamical systems methods can be used, but it is one which seems worth pursuing.

Holmes, Philip

315

Fast approach for toner saving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

2011-01-01

316

Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.  

PubMed

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-01

317

A Game Theoretic Approach to . . .  

E-print Network

We consider the following expander-based compressive sensing (e-CS) problem: Given ? ? R M×N (M < N), which is the adjacency matrix of an expander graph, and a vector y ? R M, we seek to find a vector x ? with at most k-nonzero entries such that x ? = arg min?x?0?k ?y ? ?x?1, whenever it exists (k ? N). Such problems are not only nonsmooth, barring naive convexified sparse recovery approaches, but also are NP-Hard in general. To handle the non-smoothness, we provide a saddle-point reformulation of the e-CS problem, and propose a novel approximation scheme, called the game-theoretic approximate matching estimator (GAME) algorithm. We then show that the restricted isometry property of expander matrices in the ?1-norm circumvents the intractability of e-CS in the worst case. GAME therefore finds a sparse approximation ˆx to optimal solution such that ?x ? ? ˆx?1 = O(?y ? ?x ? ?1). We also propose a convex optimization approach to e-CS based on Nesterov smoothing, and discuss its (dis)advantages.

Sina Jafarpour; Volkan Cevher; Robert E. Schapire

318

Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

Bonometti, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

319

Approaches to antiviral drug development.  

PubMed Central

At present, only a few drugs have been approved by the FDA for therapy of viral infections in humans. There is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity, as well as drugs to treat viral diseases for which no drug or vaccine is currently available. Two approaches for development of antiviral drugs are described--an empirical strategy and a rational strategy--with several examples of each. Although many compounds have potent antiviral activity in cell culture, only a small fraction of these will go on to become antiviral drugs for use in humans. At this time, only seven synthetic compounds and alpha interferon have been approved by the FDA for therapy of viral infections in humans. None of these approved drugs are without toxicities, however, and hence there is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity, as well as for drugs to treat viral diseases for which no drug or vaccine is currently available. Two approaches for the development of antiviral drugs--the empirical and the rational strategies--and their applications and future directions are discussed. PMID:2773516

Prusoff, W. H.; Lin, T. S.; August, E. M.; Wood, T. G.; Marongiu, M. E.

1989-01-01

320

Diploma thesis Nonequilibrium Green functions approach to  

E-print Network

Diploma thesis Nonequilibrium Green functions approach to ionization processes by David Hochstuhl.4. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 8. Dyson

Bonitz, Michael

321

Arnold Schwarzenegger NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE RECLAMATION AND REUSE OF POWER PLANT: Sahimi, Muhammad and Theodore T. Tsotsis. 2005. Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse of Power of the University of Southern California. The report is entitled Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse

322

Edith Kaplan and the Boston Process Approach.  

PubMed

The history including some of the intellectual origins of the Boston Process Approach and some misconceptions about the Boston Process Approach are reviewed. The influence of Gestalt psychology and Edith Kaplan's principal collaborators regarding the development of the Boston Process Approach is discussed. PMID:23984756

Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Ashendorf, Lee; Bauer, Russell M; Bowers, Dawn

2013-01-01

323

[Narrative Approach to Moral Development.] Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and narrative, relativistic, approaches to moral development--which are seemingly opposed--may be integrated, each addressing an aspect of moral concerns. Explains how the approaches may address different aspects of theories of self, stresses the need for better interpretive rationale in…

Puka, Bill

1996-01-01

324

Anxious Uncertainty and Reactive Approach Motivation (RAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects.

Ian McGregor; Kyle Nash; Nikki Mann; Curtis E. Phills

2010-01-01

325

Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

2003-01-01

326

The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students. The…

Stinner, Arthur

2006-01-01

327

Preferences for Three Theoretically Derived Counseling Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined differences in potential-client preference and believed effectiveness for counseling approaches. Analyses of responses to randomly ordered same-client, same-problem tapes of each approach indicated that the behavioral approach was significantly more highly preferred and believed more effective than either the client-centered or…

Holen, Michael C.; Kinsey, William M.

1975-01-01

328

Statistical and structural approaches to texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness, structural element, gray tone cooccurrence, run lengths, and autoregressive models. We discuss and generalize some structural approaches to texture based on more complex primitives than gray tone.

R. M. Haralick

1979-01-01

329

Managing information systems security: a soft approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of reported computer security problems suggests that the highly structured and technical traditional approaches to the management of IS security do not appear to be successful. This paper presents the Orion Strategy, a participative approach to the planning and management of information security in organisations. The details of this approach are discussed along with an overview of

Helen L. James

1996-01-01

330

10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy...SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of...

2010-01-01

331

49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

2010-10-01

332

A benchmark approach for baseball evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a new analytical approach for baseball evaluation, referred to as “A Benchmark Approach”, by combining DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) with OERA (Offensive Earned-Run Average). An important feature of the proposed approach is that it can select a best performer among many baseball players and their ranking scores. The DEA is an evaluation technique of various entities in

Toshiyuki Sueyoshi; Kenji Ohnishi; Youichi Kinase

1999-01-01

333

Three approaches to heuristic search in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different approaches to heuristic search in networks are analyzed. In the first approach, as formulated initially by Hart, Nilsson, and Raphael, and later modified by Martelli, the basic idea is to choose for expansion that node for which the evaluation function has a minimum value. A second approach has recently been suggested by Nilsson. In this method, in contrast

A. Bagchi; A. Mahanti

1985-01-01

334

A Conditional Approach to Projecting Farm Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an approach for developing conditional projections of the U.S. farm structure. The traditional approach to projecting the distribution of farms by size uses a Markov model with stationary (constant) transition probabilities. Although a useful tool for extrapolation of current trends, the stationary Markov approach cannot…

Smith, Matthew G.

335

Vector glueball: An algebraic approach  

SciTech Connect

The J/sup P//sup C/ = 1/sup --/ vector glueball is considered in addition to the usual SU/sub F/(4) multiplet consisting of rho, K/sup */, ..omega.., phi, D/sup */, F/sup */, and J/psi using an algebraic approach consistent with QCD. We calculate the glueball mass to be approx. =1.75 GeV and its width to be approx. >3 MeV. It mixes substantially with J/psi. The vector glueball decays copiously into rho..pi.. and K/sup */K-bar when compared to its decay into KK-bar. The ..delta..I = 1 isovector radiative decays of the vector mesons are predicted. In addition GAMMA(K/sup *//sup 0/..-->..K/sup 0/+..gamma..) is predicted to be 138 keV. We neglect intermultiplet mixing.

Slaughter, M.D.; Oneda, S.

1987-02-01

336

Synthetic approaches for noncentrosymmetric molybdates.  

PubMed

The use of second-order Jahn-Teller active Mo (VI) centers and chiral organic amines is discussed as an approach to crystallographic noncentrosymmetry. Several series of reactions, conducted under mild hydrothermal conditions, were designed to probe important reaction variables. Correlations between reagent and solvent concentrations and the molybdate structure were investigated using composition space analysis, which allows for the isolation of specific reaction variables. The effects of amine structure variation were probed using multiple series of related amines, which consisted of either linear diamines or ethylenediamine derivatives. The addition of fluoride results in the loss of amine-based structural variations. Chiral organic amines were used to demonstrate the viability of using such components to control the three-dimensional symmetry in new materials. The synthesis, structure, and characterization of eight new organically templated polyoxomolybdates and polyoxofluoromolybdates are reported. PMID:18821818

Hubbard, Desmond J; Johnston, Alexander R; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Sarjeant, Amy Narducci; Norquist, Alexander J

2008-10-01

337

Diffraction operators in paraxial approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

2014-07-01

338

Dietary Approaches to Prevent Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Elevated blood pressure arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors and the interactions of these factors. A substantial body of evidence from animal studies, epidemiologic studies, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that certain dietary patterns and individual dietary elements play a prominent role in the development of hypertension. Changes in diet can lower blood pressure, prevent the development of hypertension, and reduce the risk of hypertension-related complications. Dietary strategies for the prevention of hypertension include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing potassium intake, and adopting an overall dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet or a Mediterranean diet. In order to reduce the burden of blood pressure-related complications, efforts that focus on environmental and individual behavioral changes that encourage and promote healthier food choices are warranted. PMID:24091874

Bazzano, Lydia A.; Green, Torrance; Harrison, Teresa N.

2015-01-01

339

Molecular approaches in obesity studies  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity as one of the most health concerns has increased globally. This kind of disease has been accounted for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, different types of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer. Obesity is a multifactorial disease that both environmental factors and genetics play important role in its susceptibly. In molecular biology, characterization of the adipocyte secretome is important in signaling to other organs and in regulating energy balance for evaluating underlines mechanism. Since better understanding of this disease lead to both preventive and post treatment of obesity which is achieved by molecular evaluations, this review underlies the importance of some molecular approaches in the field of obesity. PMID:24834284

Vafaee, Reza; Azodi, Taghi; Omidi, Roghiyeh; Gilanchi, Samira; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Khodarahmi, Reza

2013-01-01

340

Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

2013-01-01

341

Optical Approach to Gravitational Redshift  

E-print Network

An optical approach begins by interpreting the gravitational redshift resulting to a change in the relative velocity of light due to the medium of propagation in the gravitational field. The discussion continues by pointing out an agreement in structure between the equation for rays in geometrical optics and the geodesic equation of general relativity. From their comparison we learn that the path of rays should be given by the relation $ds^2=n^2(r)dr^2+r^2d\\theta^2$, not by $ds^2=dr^2+r^2d\\theta^2$, in a medium with spherical symmetry of refractive index $n(r)$. The development of an optical analogy suggests introducing $n^2(r)$ in place of $g_{rr}$ as an optical version of the Schwarzschild metric. In form and content, $n^2(r)$ is different from $g_{rr}$. The optical point of view replaces the general-relativity explanations in terms of time and gravitation.

Y. G. Yi

2012-04-12

342

Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions. PMID:24790643

Menon, Laila

2014-01-01

343

Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism. PMID:22392950

Imel, Erik A.

2012-01-01

344

LED instrument approach instruction display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

1979-01-01

345

Bayesian Approach to Network Modularity  

PubMed Central

We present an efficient, principled, and interpretable technique for inferring module assignments and for identifying the optimal number of modules in a given network. We show how several existing methods for finding modules can be described as variant, special, or limiting cases of our work, and how the method overcomes the resolution limit problem, accurately recovering the true number of modules. Our approach is based on Bayesian methods for model selection which have been used with success for almost a century, implemented using a variational technique developed only in the past decade. We apply the technique to synthetic and real networks and outline how the method naturally allows selection among competing models. PMID:18643711

Hofman, Jake M.; Wiggins, Chris H.

2009-01-01

346

[Pathogenetic approaches to treating constipations].  

PubMed

Constipation affects 15-25% of people. Its mechanisms are various. There are constipations due to intestinal dyskinesia (functional constipation, irritated bowel syndrome), slow transit (colonic inertia), and muscular apparatus discoordination ensuring defecation (dyssynergic defecation). The treatment of different types of constipation uses prokinetics (type 4 serotonin receptor agonists, chlorine channels activators and guanylate cyclase C channel activators) or spasmolytics, among which pinaverium bromide (dicetel) has demonstrated its high efficacy. Biofeedback therapy or surgical techniques may be used. There is a need to prescribe laxatives in any type of constipation. A pathogenetic approach to treating constipation is most efficient. The paper characterizes stimulant, osmotic, volume, and emollient laxatives and agents stimulating the urge to defecate. It also gives the data of meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of different drug groups. Particular emphasis is laid of the effect of lactulose and its first preparation--duphalac. PMID:25306754

Luzina, E V

2014-01-01

347

Legal approaches to injury prevention.  

PubMed

Injury prevention can be achieved, but it will require a fundamental reexamination of our approach to injury causation. We must learn to examine the manufacturing and marketing practices of companies that produce the products associated with children's injuries, for these are the real culprits in our national childhood injury plague. Most importantly, we must learn to demand from industry that it take injury prevention seriously. If it refuses to do so it must face the consequences before the American system of justice. Legal advocacy can be a valuable tool in this effort. The legal system provides the means to pierce the corporate veil of secrecy and to learn how and why products are made of hazardous design. Under the light of public scrutiny, culprit companies can be made to pay the price for producing hazardous products. Only in this manner will industry be given the incentive to increase product safety. PMID:3975090

Swartz, E M

1985-02-01

348

Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

Barton, Russell R.

349

Forearm Approach for Percutaneous Coronary Procedures  

PubMed Central

This article gives contemporary review on the forearm approach for percutaneous diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures. Advantages and disadvantages as well as practical issues and current controversies regarding both radial and ulnar artery approach are discussed throughout the paper. Having in mind advantages of forearm approach in terms of safety and comfort over the traditional femoral approach, as well as the rapid development of invasive technology in the past years, it will probably become the default vascular approach for all percutaneous coronary procedures in the near future. PMID:24554806

Stajic, Zoran; Romanovic, Radoslav; Tavciovski, Dragan

2013-01-01

350

Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia. PMID:24219006

Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

2014-05-01

351

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section...Pacific West Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A...

2010-07-01

352

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2012-07-01

353

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2013-07-01

354

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2011-07-01

355

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2014-07-01

356

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ New Approaches/ New Films  

E-print Network

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ NEW FILMS New Approaches/ New An International Conference on New Approaches to Representing the Holocaust in Cinema Held in Conjunction with Prof Ribbat (Universität Paderborn) #12;THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES

Hellebrand, Sybille

357

Surgical approaches to tinnitus treatment: A review and novel approaches  

PubMed Central

Background: Tinnitus, a profoundly widespread auditory disorder, is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of external stimulation. The aim of this work is to review the various surgical treatment options for tinnitus, targeting the various disruption sites along the auditory pathway, as well as to indicate novel neuromodulatory techniques as a mode of tinnitus control. Methods: A comprehensive analysis was conducted on published clinical and basic neuroscience research examining the pathophysiology and treatment options of tinnitus. Results: Stereotactic radiosurgery methods and microvascular decompressions are indicated for tinnitus caused by underlying pathologies such as vestibular schwannomas or neurovascular conflicts of the vestibulocochlear nerve at the level of the brainstem. However, subsequent hearing loss and secondary tinnitus may occur. In patients with subjective tinnitus and concomitant sensorineural hearing loss, cochlear implantation is indicated. Surgical ablation of the cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve, or dorsal cochlear nucleus, though previously suggested in earlier literature as viable treatment options for tinnitus, has been shown to be ineffective and contraindicated. Recently, emerging research has shown the neuromodulatory capacity of the somatosensory system at the level of the trigeminal nerve on the auditory pathway through its inputs at various nuclei in the central auditory pathway. Conclusion: Tinnitus remains to be a difficult disorder to treat despite the many surgical interventions aimed at eliminating the aberrant neuronal activity in the auditory system. A promising novel neuromodulatory approach using the trigeminal system to control such a bothersome and difficult-to-treat disorder deserves further investigation and controlled clinical trials. PMID:22140639

Soleymani, Teo; Pieton, David; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Miller, Patrick; Gorgulho, Alessandra A.; Pouratian, Nader; De Salles, Antonio A.F.

2011-01-01

358

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

359

Two approaches to physics tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania

360

Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard and its associated risks in this highly dynamic environment. However, these risks are contextualised in relation to other, often more pressing, social concerns. We therefore argue for a more deliberative and reflexive approach to landslide risk management which avoids singular framings of what the problem and hence the solution might be. We suggest that this can only be achieved through interdisciplinary collaboration and the privileging of different knowledge types. Key words: Nepal; landslide; vulnerability; risk perception; interdisciplinary research

Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

2010-05-01

361

Teaching Programming to Novices: A Review of Approaches and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different approaches to teaching introductory programming are reviewed: the incremental approach, the sub-language approach, and the mini-language approach. The paper analyzes all three approaches, providing a brief history of each and describing an example of a programming environment supporting this approach. In the incremental approach,…

Brusilovsky, P.; And Others

362

Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and some of our findings from their application. For example, our research has demonstrated that maculas of adult mammals retain the property of synaptic plasticity. Ribbon synapses increase numerically and undergo changes in type and distribution (p<0.0001) in type II hair cells after exposure to microgravity for as few as nine days. The finding of macular synaptic plasticity is pertinent to the clinic, and may help explain some. balance disorders in humans. The software used in our investigations will be demonstrated for those interested in applying it in their own research.

Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

363

The Wonder Approach to learning  

PubMed Central

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L’Ecuyer, Catherine

2014-01-01

364

Approach to chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headaches (CDH) is a descriptive term used for patients who experience headaches on at least 15 days or more out of the month; for at least 3 months, irrespective of the underlying headache etiology. It is a syndrome that affects many people, usually with an underlying primary headache disorder, leading to a reduction in quality of life. The two most common underlying primary headaches are migraines and tension-type headaches. The prevalence is about 4%, and research is emerging on risk factors and comorbidities. The first step when approaching a patient with chronic daily headaches is to rule out secondary causes. Once that is done, the goal is to effectively reduce the days of headache through preventive treatment as well as complementary therapies. This also often involves limiting the use of abortive therapy to avoid medication-overuse headaches (MOH). The pathophysiology, although not fully understood, is thought to be related to central sensitization along with "neurogenic inflammation." Chronic daily headaches can be difficult to treat and at times require a tertiary specialized center. PMID:25637288

Sheikh, Huma U

2015-03-01

365

Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.

2009-09-01

366

MOND using a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOND has been proposed as a viable alternative to the dark matter hypothesis. In the original MOND formulation [1], a modification of Newtonian Dynamics was brought about by postulating new equations of particle motion at extremely low accelerations, as a possible explanation for the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies. In this paper, we attempt a different approach to modify the usual force laws by trying to link gravity with the probabilistic aspects of quantum mechanics [2]. In order to achieve this, one starts by replacing the classical notion of a continuous distance between two elementary particles with a statistical probability function, ?. The gravitational force between two elementary particles then can be interpreted in terms of the probability of interaction between them. We attempt to show that such a modified gravitational force would fall off a lot slower than the usual inverse square law predicts, leading to revised MOND equations. In the limit that the statistical aggregate of the probabilities becomes equal to the usual inverse square law force, we recover Newtonian/Einstein gravity.[3pt] [1] Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365 [2] Goradia, S. 2002, .org/pdf/physics/0210040

Raut, Usha

2009-05-01

367

Approaches Towards Endogenous Pancreatic Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of pancreatic regeneration in mammals has been well documented. It has been shown that pancreatic tissue is able to regenerate in several species of mammal after surgical insult. This tissue is also known to have the potential to maintain or increase its ?-cell mass in response to metabolic demands during pregnancy and obesity. Since deficiency in ?-cell mass is the hallmark of most forms of diabetes, it is worthwhile understanding pancreatic regeneration in the context of this disease. With this view in mind, this article aims to discuss the potential use in clinical strategies of knowledge that we obtained from studies carried out in animal models of diabetes. Approaches to achieve this goal involve the use of biomolecules, adult stem cells and gene therapy. Various molecules, such as glucagon-like peptide-1, ?-cellulin, nicotinamide, gastrin, epidermal growth factor-1 and thyroid hormone, play major roles in the initiation of endogenous islet regeneration in diabetes. The most accepted hypothesis is that these molecules stimulate islet precursor cells to undergo neogenesis or to induce replication of existing ?-cells, emphasizing the importance of pancreas-resident stem/progenitor cells in islet regeneration. Moreover, the potential of adult stem cell population from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, liver, spleen, or amniotic membrane, is also discussed with regard to their potential to induce pancreatic regeneration. PMID:17491691

Banerjee, Meenal; Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

2005-01-01

368

Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C

2013-04-01

369

Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

370

Computational Complexity - A Modern Approach  

E-print Network

Not to be reproduced or distributed without the authors ’ permissioniiTo our wives — Silvia and RavitivAbout this book Computational complexity theory has developed rapidly in the past three decades. The list of surprising and fundamental results proved since 1990 alone could fill a book: these include new probabilistic definitions of classical complexity classes (IP = PSPACE and the PCP Theorems) and their implications for the field of approximation algorithms; Shor’s algorithm to factor integers using a quantum computer; an understanding of why current approaches to the famous P versus NP will not be successful; a theory of derandomization and pseudorandomness based upon computational hardness; and beautiful constructions of pseudorandom objects such as extractors and expanders. This book aims to describe such recent achievements of complexity theory in the context of more classical results. It is intended to both serve as a textbook and as a reference for self-study. This means it must simultaneously cater to many audiences, and it is carefully designed with that goal. We assume essentially no computational background and very minimal mathematical background, which we review in Appendix A. We have also provided a web site for this book at

Sanjeev Arora; Boaz Barak

2009-01-01

371

Direct approach to modeling epistasis.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have recently been conducted in humans and domesticated animals and plants to locate and identify chromosomal regions or genes (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) to select individuals with superior performance and qualities. QTL or genetic effects, including epistatic effects, can be defined at the genotypic (functional) and gene (statistical) levels. In the past, the functional or statistical genetic effects have been defined indirectly, and genotypic values were expressed as linear functions of additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic effects. In this chapter, we propose to reverse the thinking and define genetic effects as linear functions of genotypic values. The direct definition of functional genetic effects is straightforward for well-known gene action models [e.g., unweighted (UW), F2, and F? models]. However, the direct definition of statistical genetic effects is based on Fisher's concept of average excess, which is closely related to the well-known concept of the average effect of a gene substitution. These definitions can be easily extended to cases of two or more loci as long as the loci are independent of each other. Two numerical examples are used to illustrate the properties of the direct approach. PMID:25403532

Yang, Rong-Cai

2015-01-01

372

The Wonder Approach to learning.  

PubMed

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine

2014-01-01

373

Diagnostic approach to Cushing disease.  

PubMed

In Cushing disease, a pituitary corticotroph neoplasm causes secondary adrenal hypercortisolism. This condition has known morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need for an efficient and accurate diagnostic approach. An 11 p.m. salivary cortisol level is a modern, simple initial screening tool for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Confirmation with a 24-hour urinary free cortisol test and/or a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test may subsequently be performed. Patients with repeatedly equivocal results should be reevaluated after several months or undergo a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test following low-dose dexamethasone suppression to help rule out pseudo-Cushing states. The presence of low morning serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels then distinguishes primary adrenal hypercortisolism from Cushing disease and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. Patients with moderate ACTH levels can undergo CRH stimulation testing to clarify the underlying disease because those with an ACTH-independent disorder have blunted subsequent ACTH levels. Once ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia is detected, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary gland can be performed to detect a pituitary neoplasm. Normal or equivocal MR imaging results revealing small pituitary lesions should be followed up with inferior petrosal sinus sampling, a highly specific measure for the diagnosis of Cushing disease in experienced hands. If necessary, body imaging may be used in turn to detect sources of ectopic ACTH. PMID:17961030

Gross, Bradley A; Mindea, Stefan A; Pick, Anthony J; Chandler, James P; Batjer, H Hunt

2007-01-01

374

Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

A.T. Watkins

2000-06-28

375

Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert

2014-01-01

376

A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.

2000-01-01

377

A Functional Approach to External Graph Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach for designing external graph algorithms and use it to design simple external algorithms for computing connected compo- nents, minimum spanning trees, bottleneck minimum spanning trees, and maxi- mal matchings in undirected graphs and multi-graphs. Our I\\/O bounds compete with those of previous approaches. Unlike previous approaches, ours is purely functional—without side effects—and is thus amenable

James Abello; Adam L. Buchsbaum; Jeffery R. Westbrook

1998-01-01

378

A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

SciTech Connect

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

2009-01-01

379

Multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows by using unsteady or pseudo-unsteady methods is presented. This approach is based on a general technique of connecting together two domains in which hyperbolic systems (that may differ) are solved with the aid of compatibility relations associated with these systems. Some examples of this approach's application to calculating transonic flows in ideal fluids are shown, particularly the adjustment of shock waves. The approach is then applied to treating a shock/boundary layer interaction problem in a transonic channel.

Cambier, L.; Chazzi, W.; Veuillot, J. P.; Viviand, H.

1982-01-01

380

Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

1995-01-01

381

Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

SciTech Connect

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chrisochoides, N. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Kohl, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

382

Conjugate field approaches for active array compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches for calculating the compensating feed array complex excitations are namely, the indirect conjugate field matching (ICFM) and the direct conjugate field matching (DCFM) approach. In the ICFM approach the compensating feed array excitations are determined by considering the transmitting mode and the reciprocity principle. The DCF, in contrast calculates the array excitations by integrating directly the induced surface currents on the reflector under a receiving mode. DCFM allows the reflector to be illuminated by an incident plane wave with a tapered amplitude. The level of taper can effectively control the sidelobe level of the compensated antenna pattern. Both approaches are examined briefly.

Acosta, R. J.

1989-07-01

383

A Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach is described for aeropropulsion system assessment. To demonstrate this approach, the technical performance of a wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine (i.e. engine net thrust, specific fuel consumption, and engine weight) is assessed. The assessment accounts for the uncertainties in component efficiencies/flows and mechanical design variables, using probability distributions. The results are presented in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and sensitivity analyses, and are compared with those from the traditional deterministic approach. The comparison shows that the probabilistic approach provides a more realistic and systematic way to assess an aeropropulsion system.

Tong, Michael T.

2000-01-01

384

Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression.

Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.'

In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim.

The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

2006-01-01

385

Integrated Approach to Malaria Control  

PubMed Central

Malaria draws global attention in a cyclic manner, with interest and associated financing waxing and waning according to political and humanitarian concerns. Currently we are on an upswing, which should be carefully developed. Malaria parasites have been eliminated from Europe and North America through the use of residual insecticides and manipulation of environmental and ecological characteristics; however, in many tropical and some temperate areas the incidence of disease is increasing dramatically. Much of this increase results from a breakdown of effective control methods developed and implemented in the 1960s, but it has also occurred because of a lack of trained scientists and control specialists who live and work in the areas of endemic infection. Add to this the widespread resistance to the most effective antimalarial drug, chloroquine, developing resistance to other first-line drugs such as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and resistance of certain vector species of mosquito to some of the previously effective insecticides and we have a crisis situation. Vaccine research has proceeded for over 30 years, but as yet there is no effective product, although research continues in many promising areas. A global strategy for malaria control has been accepted, but there are critics who suggest that the single strategy cannot confront the wide range of conditions in which malaria exists and that reliance on chemotherapy without proper control of drug usage and diagnosis will select for drug resistant parasites, thus exacerbating the problem. An integrated approach to control using vector control strategies based on the biology of the mosquito, the epidemiology of the parasite, and human behavior patterns is needed to prevent continued upsurge in malaria in the endemic areas. PMID:11932233

Shiff, Clive

2002-01-01

386

Personalized medicine approaches in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy affects 50 million persons worldwide, a third of whom continue to experience debilitating seizures despite optimum anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment. Twelve-month remission from seizures is less likely in female patients, individuals aged 11-36 years and those with neurological insults and shorter time between first seizure and starting treatment. It has been found that the presence of multiple seizures prior to diagnosis is a risk factor for pharmacoresistance and is correlated with epilepsy type as well as intrinsic severity. The key role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of resistant epilepsy is becoming clear. Our work in this area suggests that high-mobility group box 1 isoforms may be candidate biomarkers for treatment stratification and novel drug targets in epilepsy. Furthermore, transporter polymorphisms contributing to the intrinsic severity of epilepsy are providing robust neurobiological evidence on an emerging theory of drug resistance, which may also provide new insights into disease stratification. Some of the rare genetic epilepsies enable treatment stratification through testing for the causal mutation, for example SCN1A mutations in patients with Dravet's syndrome. Up to 50% of patients develop adverse reactions to AEDs which in turn affects tolerability and compliance. Immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to AED therapy, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, are the most serious adverse reactions and have been associated with polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Pharmacogenetic screening for HLA-B*15:02 in Asian populations can prevent carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. We have identified HLA-A*31:01 as a potential risk marker for all phenotypes of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity with applicability in European and other populations. In this review, we explore the currently available key stratification approaches to address the therapeutic challenges in epilepsy. PMID:25338670

Walker, L E; Mirza, N; Yip, V L M; Marson, A G; Pirmohamed, M

2015-02-01

387

Physics in an Interdisciplinary Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizing information in a rigid system does not fit the necessity of shaping a general culture with the pupils de declared objective of any educational system. The contribution of each school subject is expressed not by what is specific to it, but by what it shares with other school subjects, what is generalized and transferable. It is on the basis of this general culture that we can achieve profound specializations with efficient and lasting results for the spiritual and material life of the individual and of the society which supports and integrates hem. A first situation which must be solved theoretically is to specify the objective and to define interdisciplinary. According to the dictionary of pedagogy, interdisciplinary is "a report of interpretation (cooperation- coordination) among the school subjects, among the structures of the educational content corresponding to the modern organization of the type of institute of education." Interdisciplinary does not mean only dealing with a phenomenon simultaneously from the points of view of several, but also a integrated and integral approach of this each science bringing its own conceptual system, way of thinking and specific methods of research and representation. In order to achieve a good interdisciplinary some exigencies have to be observed: •the teacher should have a thorough general cultural •the teacher should know the methodology of his particular discipline well but also the methodology of the other subjects in the curriculum area •the pupils should be aware of the existence of interdisciplinary of the school subjects •the achieving of some programs with themes of an interdisciplinary character.

Mirela, Bulgariu

2010-01-01

388

Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1995-01-01

389

Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1993-01-01

390

Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

Milton, Kim

2012-05-01

391

Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians’ awareness of the psycho-social dimension of disease, and of the impact of peer influence and role modeling, seems promising in this regard, too. Stress and well-being seem to be closely related to physician empathy, and their modulation must take into account individual, social, and organizational factors. Further research should investigate whether or how these hypothetical conclusions can deepen our understanding of the determinants of physician empathy in order to help its promotion. PMID:24952736

2014-01-01

392

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

393

Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

2001-01-01

394

Natural Resource Assessment: An Approach to Science Based Planning in National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge—a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

Mahan, Carolyn G.; Vanderhorst, James P.; Young, John A.

2009-06-01

395

Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.  

PubMed

Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results. PMID:23848726

Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

2013-06-01

396

Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge-a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

Mahan, C.G.; Vanderhorst, J.P.; Young, J.A.

2009-01-01

397

Approach to design neural cryptography: A generalized architecture and a heuristic rule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

2013-06-01

398

Psychoeducational Drama: An Improvisational Approach to Outreach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of theatrical techniques combined with factual information creates dynamic, memorable programming on sensitive subjects while enhancing audience awareness and providing information. Psychoeducational Drama (PED) is an effective and powerful approach to educational programming. A model for PED, techniques, and uses of the approach in…

Caso, David S.; Finkelberg, Sarah L.

1999-01-01

399

A New Teaching Approach: The Feedback Lecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describing a newly created instructional approach developed at Oregon State University focuses on discussions of the process, a guided design decision-making strategy used by a team of instructors to design and develop the product, i.e., the feedback lecture approach, which is examined both in its developmental stage and in its measured…

Osterman, Dean N.; Coffey, Betty

400

The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

401

Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

2012-01-01

402

Changing Approaches to Teaching: A Relational Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the conceptions of teaching and learning of a group of 24 lecturers in first-year college physics and chemistry in Australia, and how those conceptions related to their approaches to teaching. Strong relations were found between conceptions of teaching and approaches to teaching, though relations between conceptions of teaching and…

Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

1996-01-01

403

Computer-Based Training: An Institutional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of issues related to computer-assisted learning (CAL) and computer-based training (CBT) describes approaches to electronic learning; principles underlying courseware development to support these approaches; and a plan for creation of a CAL/CBT development center, including its functional role, campus services, staffing, and equipment…

Barker, Philip; Manji, Karim

1992-01-01

404

Marine Protected Areas A Multidisciplinary Approach  

E-print Network

Marine Protected Areas A Multidisciplinary Approach Edited by JOACHIM CLAUDET National Centerfor boundaries (Russ and Alcala 1996; Claudet et al., 2006; Chapter 2), as well as regional increases outside; Stewart-Oaten, 1996a, Mari11e Protected Areas: A Multidisciplinary Approach, ed. Joachim Claudet

Osenberg, Craig W.

405

An Integrated Approach to Pupil Personnel Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a multifaceted approach to pupil personnel services wherein the school psychologists, the school social worker and non-professional personnel combined efforts to provide maximum service with limited financial resources. Includes several case studies with discussion of how each was approached. (Author/HMV)

Breyer, Norman L.; And Others

1974-01-01

406

A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley\\/Milner-stylepolymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subjectreduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the useof rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approacheasily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages thatprovide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar

1991-01-01

407

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

408

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

409

Near-Field Photometry: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to near-field photometry and describes a novel nearfieldgoniophotometer and illuminance calculation method. The approach is based onhelios, which is a rationalization of the luminance concept for volume sources. Thegoniophotometer measures the three-dimensional vector field of light surrounding aluminaire rather than any of its intrinsic properties. The calculation method can predictthe illuminance at any point

Ian Ashdown

1992-01-01

410

A targeting approach for ecosystem protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Critical Ecosystems Team of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, has developed an approach to prioritize and target ecologically high-quality areas for enhanced environmental protection in the Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Using this approach, we intend to employ a pro-active strategy to protect the environment by protecting and restoring natural ecosystems

Amy T. Mysz; Charles G. Maurice; Robert F. Beltran; Kendra A. Cipollini; John P. Perrecone; Karen M. Rodriguez; Mary L. White

2000-01-01

411

Food protein functionality: A comprehensive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food protein functionality has classically been viewed from the perspective of how single molecules or protein ingredients function in solutions and form simple colloidal structures. Based on this approach, tests on protein solutions are used to produce values for solubility, thermal stability, gelation, emulsifying, foaming, fat binding and water binding to name a few. While this approach is beneficial in

E. Allen Foegeding; Jack P. Davis

2011-01-01

412

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

413

Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

2012-01-01

414

Learning Centers: A Personalized Approach to Mainstreaming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides information about using learning centers in mainstreamed home economics classrooms. The initial chapter introduces the rationale for the approach and presents a three-stage model depicting an integrational approach to mainstreaming. Chapter 2 outlines typical characteristics and recommendations for accommodating students with…

Babich, Betsy; Thompson, Cecelia

415

The Continued Development of the Structural Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief discussion of traditional Latin textbooks is followed by a survey of the first attempts at new materials (emphasizing integration of audiovisual aids and texts) at the William Penn Charter School and at the University of Michigan. The body of the article considers the structural approach, using "Latin: A Structural Approach" (1957) and…

Sweet, Waldo E.

1967-01-01

416

Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

Walker, Melanie

2005-01-01

417

PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach  

E-print Network

analysis (Klein, 2002; Yuan et al., 2006) to name a 1 #12;few. As concerning the latter application, PCRPREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov Model Nadia Lalam Department

Patriksson, Michael

418

Rough Set Approach to Incomplete Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we present Rough Set approach to reasoning in incomplete information systems. We propose reduction of knowledge that eliminates only that information, which is not essential from the point of view of classification or decision making. In our approach we make only one assumption about unknown values: the real value of a missing attribute is one from the

Marzena Kryszkiewicz

1998-01-01

419

Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

Lindquist, David H.

2011-01-01

420

A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

Tassa, Tamir

2007-01-01

421

Social approach to pain in laboratory mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recently demonstrated that pain behavior in the mouse can be modulated by the presence of a conspecific, but what remains unclear is whether such pain behavior can serve the function of soliciting social approach. Using a novel social approach paradigm, we tested mice in various dyadic or triadic conditions, including “jailed” mice—some in pain via intraperitoneal injection

Dale J. Langford; Alexander H. Tuttle; Kara Brown; Sonya Deschenes; David B. Fischer; Amelia Mutso; Kathleen C. Root; Susana G. Sotocinal; Matthew A. Stern; Jeffrey S. Mogil; Wendy F. Sternberg

2010-01-01

422

Thematic Approaches to Teaching Rhetorical Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a thematic approach to teaching criticism--based on frequent, integrated writing tasks--accommodates the constraints found in the typical undergraduate course on rhetorical criticism. Illustrates this approach with reference to two themes: Ronald Reagan's discourse and the rhetoric of war and peace. (MM)

Henry, David; Sharp, Harry, Jr.

1989-01-01

423

A neural network approach to ordinal regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinal regression is an important type of learning, which has properties of both clas- sication and regression. Here we describe a simple and eective approach to adapt a traditional neural network to learn ordinal categories. Our approach is a generaliza- tion of the perceptron method for ordinal regression. On several benchmark datasets, our method (NNRank) outperforms a neural network classication

Jianlin Cheng

2007-01-01

424

Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel data approach is advocated and implemented for studying growth convergence. The familiar equation for testing convergence is reformulated as a dynamic panel data model and different panel data estimators are used to estimate it. The main usefulness of the panel approach lies in its ability to allow for differences in the aggregate production function across economies. This leads

Nazrul Islam

1995-01-01

425

A classification approach for anatomical regions segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a supervised pixel-based classifier approach for segmenting different anatomical regions in abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) studies is presented. The approach consists of three steps: texture extraction, classifier creation, and anatomical regions identification. First, a set of co-occurrence texture descriptors is calculated for each pixel from the image data sample; second, a decision tree classifier is built using

Mikhail Kalinin; Daniela S. Raicu; Jacob D. Furst; David S. Channin

2005-01-01

426

A Qualitative Approach Computer Sign Language  

E-print Network

A Qualitative Approach to Computer Sign Language Recognition Derek Eugen Lyons Magdalen College Trinity Term 2002 A Qualitative Approach to Computer Sign Language Recognition Abstract This thesis concerns itself with the problem of Computer Sign Language Recogni- tion (CSLR). We may conceptualize

Oxford, University of

427

The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension approach to second language education emphasizes acquisition of listening comprehension prior to and as a vehicle for acquisition of other language skills. The following articles on this approach are collected here: (1) "Nonlinear Learning and Language Teaching" (Winitz); (2) "Aital cal aprene las lengas…

Winitz, Harris, Ed.

428

Neuropsychological approach to identifying risky driving behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving is a complex behavior that can be affected by an individual's emotional and cognitive status, and the environment. Since a neuropsychological approach is useful in identifying the complex combination of factors that may cause risky driving behaviors, and because subjective perceptions may misguide the decision-making process, this approach based on brain wave indexes was examined. The merit of this

Mikio DANNO; Akio WAKABAYASHI

2010-01-01

429

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

430

Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered

W. Robb MacLellan; Yibin Wang; Aldons J. Lusis

2012-01-01

431

Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

2007-01-01

432

Applying Dynamic Evaluation Approach in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to implement a newly proposed evaluation method (Dimitropoulos, 1999), that is, the dynamic evaluation approach in the field of education. The dynamic approach was applied in order to evaluate the Olympic Education Program in Greece. The results of the present field study were encouraging. Dynamic evaluation…

Grammatikopoulos, V.; Koustelios, A.; Tsigilis, N.; Theodorakis, Y.

2004-01-01

433

Mass Media and Socialization: Theoretic Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the major theoretical approaches to the study of socialization, with an emphasis on media effects. The three major bodies of literature studied are the major theoretic approaches utilized in the general area of developmental psychology, the theoretical paradigms evident in studies dealing more specifically with child…

Gordon, Thomas F.

434

A practical approach to credit scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a DEA-based approach to credit scoring. Compared with conventional models such as multiple discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis, and neural networks for business failure prediction, which require extra a priori information, this new approach solely requires ex-post information to calculate credit scores. For the empirical evidence, this methodology was applied to current financial data of external audited

Jae H. Min; Young-chan Lee

2008-01-01

435

The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

2004-01-01

436

Preventing Traumatic Stress: Public Health Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based approaches to the primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) focus on the prevention of the stressor itself. Policy decisions also consider ways to allocate resources to best reduce potential damage from traumatic stressors and to ameliorate any resulting harm. A balance between broad risk prevention approaches and narrower treatment and recovery strategies can redistribute the risk of exposure

Susan B. Sorenson

2002-01-01

437

Robot Motion Planning: A Distributed Representation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot's configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is consider ably faster than previous path planners and solves prob lems for robots with many more degrees

Jérôme Barraquand; Jean-Claude Latombe

1991-01-01

438

A Network Approach to Curriculum Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for an alternative approach to quality assurance in New Zealand universities that locates evaluation not with external auditors but with members of the teaching team. In the process, aspects of network theories are introduced as the basis for an approach to quality assurance. From this, the concept of networks is extended to…

Jordens, J. Zoe; Zepke, Nick

2009-01-01

439

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches B.C. Eatona, a Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Abstract Hydraulic. One approach to hydraulic geometry considers temporal changes at a single location due to variations

Eaton, Brett

440

An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.

2012-01-01

441

Image coding approach based on image decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textures in many images or video scenes are difficult to code because of the large amount of visible detail. This paper proposes an image coding approach to solve this problem, in which we incorporate image decomposition and texture synthesis technology into the image coding framework. The key idea of our approach is to first decompose the original image into cartoon

Yunhui Shi; Yanli Hou; Baocai Yin; Wenpeng Ding

2010-01-01

442

Teaching Science through a Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott

2008-01-01

443

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01

444

A modular approach toward extremely large apertures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural\\/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

A. A. Woods Jr.

1981-01-01

445

A modular approach toward extremely large apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

Woods, A. A., Jr.

1981-02-01

446

Contrasting Theoretical Approaches to Intergroup Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current forum is designed to assess the strengths and weaknesses of social identity, social dominance, and system justification as theoretical approaches to the study of inter- group relations. Each of these approaches tries to account for variation in the develop- ment of ingroup cohesion and outgroup antipathy among individual group members, across groups, and in different societies—three levels at

Leonie Huddy

2004-01-01

447

A relational approach to monitoring complex systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring is an essential part of many program development tools, and plays a central role in debugging, optimization, status reporting, and reconfiguration. Traditional monitoring techniques are inadequate when monitoring complex systems such as multiprocessors or distributed systems. A new approach is described in which a historical database forms the conceptual basis for the information processed by the monitor. This approach

Richard T. Snodgrass

1988-01-01

448

SPATIAL APPROACH TO PLANNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT DEFINES THE SPATIAL APPROACH TO PLANNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SUGGESTS A MORE NATURAL APPROACH TO A LESS RESTRICTED ARCHITECTURE. ONE OF THE TWO BASIC ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE SPATIAL CONCEPT IS THE HORIZONTAL SCREEN WHICH KEEPS THE SUN AND RAIN OFF, LETS IN LIGHT, KEEPS OUT SUN HEAT, RETAINS ROOM HEAT, AND…

BELLOMY, CLEON C.; CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.

449

Statistical approach to discharge bearing currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical approach, which enables the prediction of the risk of the appearance of discharge bearing currents in a given drive that can damage the motor bearings. Using such an approach, the drives for the decisive but expensive, long-term destructive investigations can be selected. A comparative analysis is presented to

Robert Smolenski; Adam Kempski; Jacek Bojarski

2010-01-01

450

An Ecological Approach to Learning Dynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New approaches to emergent learner-directed learning design can be strengthened with a theoretical framework that considers learning as a dynamic process. We propose an approach that models a learning process using a set of spatial concepts: learning space, position of a learner, niche, perspective, step, path, direction of a step and step…

Normak, Peeter; Pata, Kai; Kaipainen, Mauri

2012-01-01

451

Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

Mysak, Edward D.

452

Economic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms  

E-print Network

Economic Approaches to Understanding Scientific Norms Michael Strevens To appear in Episteme of formal methods, proponents of the economic approach offer what are in substantive terms profoundly invokes a special scientific method for truth-finding--in its most austere form, noth- ing more than

Strevens, Michael

453

The Potential of the Portfolio Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite some encouraging signs that education reform efforts are raising achievement in one school here and another there, such piecemeal approaches have not yet yielded positive systemic results. To achieve districtwide improvement, a growing number of school systems are adopting a "portfolio approach" to district governance by replacing the…

Cavanna, Anthony; Olchefske, Joseph; Fleischman, Steve

2006-01-01

454

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF TRASH  

E-print Network

approach to clas- sify different types of trash (non-lint, non-fiber material) in ginned cotton. Pieces description. The main use of cotton is in textile industry; for that purpose, we only need cotton fiber calledA GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF TRASH IN GINNED COTTON Murali Siddaiah , Michael A

Kreinovich, Vladik

455

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF TRASH  

E-print Network

approach to clas­ sify different types of trash (non­lint, non­fiber material) in ginned cotton. Pieces description. The main use of cotton is in textile industry; for that purpose, we only need cotton fiber calledA GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF TRASH IN GINNED COTTON Murali Siddaiah 1 , Michael A

Kreinovich, Vladik

456

Green Homebuilding By Design- a Systems Approach  

E-print Network

Seminar proposal: Green Homebuilding By Design ? a Systems Approach Subtitle: Connecting the dots between high performance design & appropriate ?vetted out? green building strategies Brief... expectations, climatically appropriate passive solar design, US energy independence and global warming. ? Clearly articulate the relative value of thoughtful programming and a systems approach to passive solar design. ? Prioritize and apply high...

Pfeiffer, P. L.

457

Visual Approaches to Global Health Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

Visual Approaches to Global Health Course Syllabus Instructor: Jonathan Smith, E: jonathan.p.smith@yale.edu P: 706.402.6297 Overview Visual Approaches to Global Health is a novel global health course offered, where students will learn to analyze global health issues through the prism of film and media. Students

458

Does management's approach impede service quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this article is to examine the impact of management's approach on the effectiveness of service quality operations. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews with multiple managerial actors at different hierarchical levels and archival sources, the findings suggest two alternative paths of management's approach regarding service quality. One of the paths distils customer confidence, aims to fulfil customer requirements

Ebrahim Soltani; Bradley Barnes; Jawad Syed; Ying-Ying Liao

2011-01-01

459

Does management's approach impede service quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this article is to examine the impact of management's approach on the effectiveness of service quality operations. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews with multiple managerial actors at different hierarchical levels and archival sources, the findings suggest two alternative paths of management's approach regarding service quality. One of the paths distils customer confidence, aims to fulfil customer requirements

Ebrahim Soltani; Bradley Barnes; Jawad Syed; Ying-Ying Liao

2012-01-01

460

A perceptually motivated approach for speech enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new perceptually motivated approach is proposed for enhancement of speech corrupted by colored noise. The proposed approach takes into account the frequency masking properties of the human auditory system and reduces the perceptual effect of the residual noise. This new perceptual method is incorporated into a frequency-domain speech enhancement method and a subspace-based speech enhancement method. A better power

Yi Hu; Philipos C. Loizou

2003-01-01

461

BIOMIMETIC APPROACH TO ADVANCED SPACE MISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, parking, transfer, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and

Carlo Menon; Tobias Seidl; Michael Broschart

462

Teaching Mathematical Induction: An Alternative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experience using a new approach to teaching induction that was developed by the Mathematical Methods in High School Project. The basic idea behind the new approach is to use induction to prove that two formulas, one in recursive form and the other in a closed or explicit form, will always agree for whole numbers. (KHR)

Allen, Lucas G.

2001-01-01

463

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the design options and procedures that accompany this methodological choice. Discussions

Vicki L. Plano Clark; Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas; Susan L. Churchill; Denise ONeil Green; Amanda L. Garrett

2008-01-01

464

Maximising sponsorship opportunities: a brand model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that maximise sponsorship opportunities and that enable a successful relationship between a sponsor and a sponsored party. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a review of the literature and takes a case study approach. The paper first identifies the classic aspects of sponsor relationships and then

Nicolas Renard; Lionel Sitz

2011-01-01

465

An Agile Course-Delivery Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

Capellan, Mirkeya

2009-01-01

466

Nanoscale Material Approaches to Thermoelectric Energy Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale material approaches -- superlattices, nano dots and second phase nano-inclusions -- have become the dominant approach to enhancing the figure of merit (ZT) in thermoelectric materials for various energy conversion applications. The primary mechanism for improvement has been the significant reduction in lattice thermal conductivity through phonon scattering processes in nanoscale materials, which are not fully understood, without affecting

Rama Venkatasubramanian

2009-01-01

467

A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta

468

Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

Zou, You-Long; Hu, Fa-Long; Zhou, Can-Can; Li, Chao-Liu; Dunn, Keh-Jim

2013-12-01

469

The Structural Approach to Modeling Credit Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this article we present a survey of recent developments in the structural approach to modeling of credit risk. We first\\u000a review some models for measuring credit risk based on the structural approach. We then discuss the empirical evidence in the\\u000a literature on the performance of structural models of credit risk.

Jing-zhi Huang

470

Evaluation and Opportunities in Overtraining Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overtraining (OT) as a sports phenomenon can be caused by stressors on various levels (physical, emotional, psychological, and social) and evokes responses on these levels. This study evaluated research and new opportunities in the field of OT by introducing an integrated multidisciplinary approach, based on the single and multistressors approach.…

Roose, Jolanda; de Vries, Wouter R.; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Backx, Frank J. G.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.

2009-01-01

471

An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated  

E-print Network

, anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations

Fisher III, John

472

Efficient MRF approach to document image enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markov random field (MRF) based approaches have been shown to perform well in a wide range of applications. Due to the iterative nature of the algorithm, the computational cost of such applications is normally high. In the context of document image analysis, where numerous documents have to be processed, this computational cost may become prohibitive. We describe a novel approach

Tayo Obafemi-ajayi; Gady Agam; Ophir Frieder

2008-01-01

473

Fusion Approach to Finding Opinions in Blogosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a fusion approach to finding opinion about a given target in blog postings. We tackled the opinion blog retrieval task by breaking it down to two sequential subtasks: on- topic retrieval followed by opinion classification. Our opinion retrieval approach was to first apply traditional IR methods to retrieve on-topic blogs, and then boost the ranks

Kiduk Yang; Alejandro Valerio; Hui Zhang; Weimao Ke

2007-01-01

474

[Is a genetic approach to insomnia possible?].  

PubMed

The genetic approach of the sleep-wake cycle allowed the identification of several genes involved in the paradoxical sleep regulation and in narcolepsy. Concerning insomnia, a genetic study is more complex. Insomnia is indeed a wakefulness disorder defined by non quantitative biological parameters. The genetic approach of insomnia needs a more precise definition. PMID:11924039

Valatx, J L

2001-11-01

475

Two approaches to teaching transformational lesson planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching teachers to write lessons that exemplify transformational curriculum is vitally important, yet challenges face early childhood teacher educators who attempt this task. Two approaches for writing lesson plans are outlined, and the benefits of these planning approaches are described. Students become more knowledgeable about different types of objectives, about national standards and benchmarks, and about developmentally appropriate practice, emergent

Karl F. Wheatley

2002-01-01

476

The frontotemporal (pterional) approach: an historical perspective.  

PubMed

The frontotemporal, so-called pterional, approach has evolved with the contribution of many neurosurgeons over the past century. It has stood the test of time and has been the most commonly used transcranial approach in neurosurgery. In its current form, drilling the sphenoid wing as far down as the superior orbital fissure with or without the removal of the anterior clinoid, thinning the orbital roof, and opening the Sylvian fissure and basal cisterns are the hallmarks of this approach. Tumoral and vascular lesions involving the sellar/parasellar area, anterior and anterolateral circle of Willis, middle cerebral artery, anterior brainstem, upper basilar artery, insula, basal ganglia, mesial temporal region, anterior cranial fossa, orbit, and optic nerve are within the reach of the frontotemporal approach. In this article, we review the origins, evolution, and modifications of the frontotemporal approach and update the discussion of some of the related derivative procedures. PMID:22472552

Altay, Tamer; Couldwell, William T

2012-08-01

477

The Norwegian approach to integrated quality development.  

PubMed

The UK NHS quality proposals require all NHS organisations to develop an "integrated approach " to quality. In other countries, health care organisations are also working to ensure that the many different quality methods and systems used in health organisations do not duplicate or conflict with each other. The question this paper addresses is "what would an integrated approach to quality look like and how might managers and clinicians develop such an approach in their organisation?" The findings from the Norwegian total quality management experiment in six hospitals were that TQM could not be applied in its pure form in public health care services to ensure integration. The paper draws on this research to describe these hospitals' approach to integrate the different projects and systems which were stimulated by their initial quality programmes. The paper describes the "integrated quality development" approach which characterised these programmes. PMID:11547821

Ovretveit, J

2001-01-01

478

Candidate Gene Identification Approach: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Although it has been widely applied in identification of genes responsible for biomedically, economically, or even evolutionarily important complex and quantitative traits, traditional candidate gene approach is largely limited by its reliance on the priori knowledge about the physiological, biochemical or functional aspects of possible candidates. Such limitation results in a fatal information bottleneck, which has apparently become an obstacle for further applications of traditional candidate gene approach on many occasions. While the identification of candidate genes involved in genetic traits of specific interest remains a challenge, significant progress in this subject has been achieved in the last few years. Several strategies have been developed, or being developed, to break the barrier of information bottleneck. Recently, being a new developing method of candidate gene approach, digital candidate gene approach (DigiCGA) has emerged and been primarily applied to identify potential candidate genes in some studies. This review summarizes the progress, application software, online tools, and challenges related to this approach. PMID:17998950

Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

2007-01-01

479

Solubility approach for modeling waste glass liquidus  

SciTech Connect

The liquidus temperature of a waste glass (the temperature at which the system glass + crystalline material is in equilibrium with the amorphous glass of the same composition) often is a measure of the solubility of a specific component in the waste in the base glass. A new approach toward predicting the liquidus temperatures of waste glasses has been developed based on solubility. The approach predicts liquidus temperature as well as more complicated expressions developed by other researchers. At the same time, simple process control limits can be easily derived from this model, which is difficult to do with other approaches. While the approach is not applicable to all waste glass components, it can be used for important species such as nickel-iron spinel, chromium oxide, and probably plutonium dioxide. The approach also has led to two new techniques for determining liquidus of waste glass systems.

Plodinec, M.J.

1999-07-01

480

Energy management - The delayed flap approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.

1976-01-01

481

A modified approach of POMDP-based dialogue management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies the theory of information space for a study of dialogue management in major approaches, ranging from the classical approach based upon finite state machine to the most recent approach using partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). After identifying the problems of current approaches, this paper proposes a modified approach of POMDP-based dialogue management. This new approach introduces

Xiaobu Yuan; Libian Bian

2010-01-01

482

XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Approach Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV- 15 tiltrotor aircraft performing approach operations for a variety of different approach profile configurations. This flight test program was conducted jointly by NASA, the U.S. Army, and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) in June 1997. The XV-15 was flown over a large area microphone array, which was deployed to directly measure the noise footprint produced during actual approach operations, The XV- 15 flew realistic approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad. Aircraft tracking and pilot guidance was provided by a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and a flight director system developed at BHTT. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. A discussion of the approach profile design philosophy is provided. Five different approach profiles are discussed in detail -- 3deg., 6 deg., and 9 deg. approaches, and two very different 3 deg. to 9 deg. segmented approaches. The approach profile characteristics are discussed in details, followed by the noise footprints and handling qualities. Sound exposure levels are also presented on an averaged basis and as a function of the sideline distance for a number of up-range distances from the landing point. A comparison of the noise contour areas is also provided. The results document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, and indicate the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

Conner, David; Marcolini, Michael A.; Decker, William A.; Cline, John H.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Nicks, Colby O.; Klein, Peter D.

1999-01-01

483

XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Approach Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft performing approach operations for a variety of different approach profile configurations. This flight test program was conducted jointly by NASA, the U.S. Army, and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) in June 1997. The XV-15 was flown over a large area microphone array, which was deployed to directly measure the noise footprint produced during actual approach operations. The XV-15 flew realistic approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad. Aircraft tracking and pilot guidance was provided by a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and a flight director system developed at BHTI. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. A discussion of the approach profile design philosophy is provided. Five different approach profiles are discussed in detail -- 3 deg., 6 deg., and 9 deg. approaches, and two very different 3 deg. to 9 deg. segmented approaches. The approach profile characteristics are discussed in detail, followed by the noise footprints and handling qualities. Sound exposure levels are also presented on an averaged basis and as a function of the sideline distance for a number of up-range distances from the landing point. A comparison of the noise contour areas is also provided. The results document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, and indicate the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

Conner, David A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Decker, William A.; Cline, John H.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Nicks, Colby O.; Klein, Peter D.

1999-01-01

484

Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway) is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal) were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central) pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change. PMID:25254100

Voet, Caroline; le Polain de Waroux, Bernard; Forget, Patrice; Deumens, Ronald; Masquelier, Etienne

2014-01-01

485

Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

2012-01-01

486

Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

Isaacs, Barbara

2012-01-01

487

Understanding the HighScope Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring all areas…

Wiltshire, Monica

2011-01-01

488

Understanding the Reggio Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Second Edition. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Reggio Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Reggio Approach. Analysing the essential elements of the Reggio Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice, this new edition is fully updated with the latest…

Thornton, Linda; Brunton, Pat

2009-01-01

489

Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined the role of approach and avoidance motivation in models of personality. Specifically, it examined the hypothesis that approach and avoidance temperaments represent the foundation of several basic dimensions espoused in the trait adjective, affective disposition, and motivational system approaches to personality. Factor analytic support for the hypothesis was obtained in Studies 1, 2, and 6; measures

Andrew J. Elliot; Todd M. Thrash

2002-01-01

490

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

491

Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early…

Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane

2011-01-01

492

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

493

Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach infrachiasmatic corridor.  

PubMed

An extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is required for skull base lesions extending to the suprasellar area. Inferior approach using the infrachiasmatic corridor allows access to the lesions through the tumor growth that is favorable for the extended transsphenoidal approaches. Infrachiasmatic corridor is a safer route for the inferior approaches that is made up by basal arachnoid membrane and Liliequist's membrane with its leaves (diencephalic and mesencephalic leaf). This area extends from the optic canal and tuberculum sella to the corpus mamillare. We performed extended endoscopic approach using the infrachiasmatic corridor in 52 cases, including tuberculum sella meningiomas (n:23), craniopharyngiomas (n:16), suprasellar Rathke's cleft cyst (n:6), pituitary adenoma (n:2), fibrous dysplasia (n:1), infundibular granulosa cell tumor (n:2), and epidermoid tumor (n:2). Total resection was achieved in 17 of 23 (74%) with tuberculum sellae meningioma using infrachiasmatic approach. Twenty patients presented with visual disorders and 14 of them improved. There were two postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakages and one transient diabetes insipidus and one permanent diabetes insipidus. Sixteen patients were operated on by the infrachiasmatic approach for craniopharyngiomas. Improvement was reached in seven of eight patients presented with visual disorders. Complete tumor resection was performed in 10 of 16 cases and cyst aspiration in 4 cases, and there were remnants in two cases. Postoperative CSF leakage was seen in two patients. Infrachiasmatic corridor provides an easier and safer inferior route for the removal of middle midline skull base lesions in selected cases. PMID:25301446

Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Koc, Kenan; Cabuk, Burak

2015-01-01

494

Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects starting from diseases in animal species or from organ systems or other objectives (e.g. food safety); it also tackles training of skills for problem solving and self-learning. Combined approaches include elements of the disciplinary approach and those of other methods. A combined approach of teaching veterinary parasitology, including basic disciplinary teaching of at least 70-90 h, and additional problem-oriented education, was recently proposed in a resolution by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP News Lett. 5 (1) 3-4]. In 1999, a new curriculum has been established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Berne, originally planned as a combination of organ-focused and problem-based approach. This model was soon identified to cause problems in teaching some disciplines, including infectious diseases. Conversely, the short-term experiences with this combined approach also confirmed some advantages of problem-oriented teaching in other, mainly clinical domains. Nevertheless, closer interdisciplinary contact and collaboration--especially in elective teaching--was enforced between paraclinical and clinical teaching by reforming the curriculum. However, it turned out that large student numbers in relation to the resources of manpower, rooms and finances limited the workability of the curriculum. Therefore, further and probably continuous improvement of the curriculum is necessary. PMID:12354454

Gottstein, B; Eckert, J

2002-10-01

495

Reliability-oriented multi-objective optimal decision-making approach for uncertainty-based watershed load reduction.  

PubMed

Water quality management and load reduction are subject to inherent uncertainties in watershed systems and competing decision objectives. Therefore, optimal decision-making modeling in watershed load reduction is suffering due to the following challenges: (a) it is difficult to obtain absolutely "optimal" solutions, and (b) decision schemes may be vulnerable to failure. The probability that solutions are feasible under uncertainties is defined as reliability. A reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) decision-making approach was proposed in this study for optimal decision making with stochastic parameters and multiple decision reliability objectives. Lake Dianchi, one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China, was examined as a case study for optimal watershed nutrient load reduction to restore lake water quality. This study aimed to maximize reliability levels from considerations of cost and load reductions. The Pareto solutions of the ROMO optimization model were generated with the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, demonstrating schemes representing different biases towards reliability. The Pareto fronts of six maximum allowable emission (MAE) scenarios were obtained, which indicated that decisions may be unreliable under unpractical load reduction requirements. A decision scheme identification process was conducted using the back propagation neural network (BPNN) method to provide a shortcut for identifying schemes at specific reliability levels for decision makers. The model results indicated that the ROMO approach can offer decision makers great insights into reliability tradeoffs and can thus help them to avoid ineffective decisions. PMID:25688523

Dong, Feifei; Liu, Yong; Su, Han; Zou, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

2015-05-15

496

Genuine Progress, Greater Challenges: A Decade of Teacher Effectiveness Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, the debate about American education was like a bad marriage. The arguments were about everything but the core issue--instructional quality. The other issues--education finance, school choice, standards--all matter, but are secondary to the importance of effective instruction. In the labor-intensive education field, effective instruction…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti

2014-01-01

497

Education Grand Challenge: A New Kind of Liberal Education  

E-print Network

childhood onwards we all need to play with toys, be they bricks, dolls, construction kits, .... scientific, or collecting pictures and text produced from others, for entertainment, scrap-books or school projects

Sloman, Aaron

498

Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. The phrase cloud computing originated from the diagrams used to\\u000a symbolize the internet. Cloud computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the grid Computing\\u000a paradigm, and other relevant technologies such as utility computing, cluster computing, and distributed systems in general.\\u000a With the development of cloud computing,

Amandeep Verma; Sakshi Kaushal

499

The Diversity Challenge: A Collection of Model Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model programs designed to promote diversity within the West Valley-Mission Community College District (WVMCCD) in California are discussed and described in this report. First, an introductory chapter, "The Importance of Cultural Issues to Higher Education," by Gustavo A. Mellander and Fred Prochaska, reviews the diversity recommendations of the…

Mellander, Gustavo A., Ed.; Prochaska, Fred, Ed.

500

“Internal root resorption: An endodontic challenge”: A case series  

PubMed Central

Management of internal root resorption is a challenge to the endodontists. It may occur in cases with chronic pulpal inflammation, following caries or due to trauma in the form of an accidental blow. Most cases of internal root resorption are seen in anterior teeth, due to their susceptibility to trauma. However, it may be seen in posterior teeth, most likely because of carious involvement of the pulp. Early diagnosis, removal of the cause, proper treatment of the resorbed root is mandatory for successful treatment outcome. This paper is an attempt to summarize the knowledge on internal root resorption and present various cases, which were successfully managed with different treatment modalities. PMID:25506152

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-01-01