Sample records for challenges-a psycho-social approach

  1. It is time for a more integrated bio-psycho-social approach to ADHD.

    PubMed

    Richards, Louise Marie-Elaine

    2013-10-01

    The role of psychosocial factors in perpetuating and predisposing towards the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been neglected within the field of child mental health. Clinicians, when told that a child had a diagnosis of ADHD, have been found to underestimate the presence of psychosocial factors, and are less likely to ask about the possibility of neglect or abuse. This article details the considerable research showing links between ADHD symptoms and parental mental illness, child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attachment disorders and other environmental factors. Recent neuro-biological findings showing the impact on brain development of early abuse and attachment concerns are cited. The implications of these findings both for clinicians, and at policy level, are discussed, and the reasons underlying the need for a more integrated Bio-Psycho-Social approach to ADHD are outlined. PMID:23104966

  2. Psycho-social reflections on craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Partridge, James

    2010-05-01

    Psychologists are now increasingly involved in understanding the challenges faced by people who experience facial disfigurements from many causes (congenital, traumatic, oncological, iatrogenic, neurological, ophthalmological or dermatological). This article describes how the author has combined the lessons of his personal recovery after severe facial burns with the rigorous science of psychological research to enable improved psycho-social support and interventions to be developed, through a UK not-for-profit (Changing Faces) and in formal health care services. It suggests that against the background of a culture that is less-than-positive about disfigurement, anyone who experiences it needs access to a range of support, advice, counselling and social skills training to enable them to live full, confident lives. PMID:20083216

  3. Justifying Educational Acquaintance with the Moral Horrors of History on Psycho-Social Grounds: "Facing History and Ourselves" in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive…

  4. Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.

    PubMed

    Licanin, Ifeta; Redzi?, Amira

    2005-02-01

    It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

  5. Psycho-social issues related to counseling bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Lourea, D N

    1985-01-01

    An increasing number of persons who experience bisexual feelings or behaviors are seeking professional counseling. This article explores the psycho-social issues related to counseling individuals and couples concerned about their own or their partner's feelings, fantasies, or behaviors with both men and women, and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of adopting a bisexual identity or developing a bisexual life-style. The steps for helping individuals to differentiate problems, handle confusion, and conceptualize bisexuality are outlined. The counseling process with bisexuals includes developing support systems, examining internalized homophobia and sex-role stereotyping, helping them deal with heterosexual concerns, and with issues which affect partners when one or both is bisexual. PMID:4056394

  6. Evaluation of psycho-social support to parents with an infant born preterm.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Birgitta Sandén; Pehrsson, Gunnel

    2002-03-01

    The birth of a preterm child is a trauma that causes crisis reactions in parents. The hypothesis was that parents need psycho-social support in order to manage this trauma. Psycho-social support was defined as both medical and social information, processing the emotional feelings, social support and starting the bonding process. The aim of the study was to explore the type and frequency of psycho-social support to parents of preterm children born during 1991, 1994 and 1997 in a Swedish university hospital. 47 parents answered a questionnaire based on previous focus group interviews. The children were born in gestation weeks 23-7. Medical and social information was more frequent during the first period of intensive care than later on during the care process. Contact frequency concerning feelings and emotional reactions was low and decreased over time. All parents were helped to start the bonding process. One-third of the parents reported long-term psychological problems due to the birth of the preterm child, while only a few reported financial (15%), practical (13%) or social (9%) long-term problems. Conclusions were that from a crisis theory perspective psycho-social support, defined as regular medical information also ought to be initiated later on in the care process and that increased emotional support concerning crisis reactions is desirable in order to process the feelings raised by the trauma. PMID:12036174

  7. Psycho-Social Issues in Females Study of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyabo, Omoniyi Mary Banke; Oke, Oloruntegbe Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psycho-social factors with females study of science and technology course at the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria and its counseling implications. Three research questions and hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The subjects for the study comprised 240 undergraduate female students…

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON PSYCHO-SOCIAL BELIEF IN RURAL LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA RESIDENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of imp...

  9. Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners in supportive interventions. Interventions aimed at improving sexual functioning should include elements aimed at improving physical quality of life and sexual communication, with a focus on psychological wellbeing also being important for women with cancer. PMID:24673768

  10. Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

  11. Why Do Some People Do “More” to Mitigate Climate Change than Others? Exploring Heterogeneity in Psycho-Social Associations

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized—and differentiated from common mitigation behavior—as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change—but not in motivational or socio-demographic links—with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

  12. The Role of Lifestyle and Psycho-Social Factors in Predicting Changes in Body Composition in Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Norris, Shane A.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Crowther, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether lifestyle and psycho-social factors determine changes in body composition over 10 years in a population of black African females with a high prevalence of obesity. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 430 women at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat mass and fat free soft tissue mass, and simple anthropometric measures were taken at both time points. Data on physical activity (PA), diet, smoking, and alcohol intake were collected at baseline. Body size dissatisfaction and body size discrepancy were determined at baseline using the feel minus ideal (FID) index and the perceived minus actual weight status discrepancy score (PAD), respectively. Results All body composition measurements increased over 10 years (p<0.0005). Two distinct groups of overweight/obese females were identified using PAD and FID: one that was content with their body size and one that wished to be leaner. Vigorous PA at baseline was inversely associated with absolute changes in all measures of adiposity. In subjects who underestimated their body size at baseline (74.0% of the study population) changes in total and peripheral levels of body fat were less than in subjects who correctly identified their body size. In the group that underestimated body size, more women wanted to be leaner than in the group who knew their body size (60.1% vs 47.5%, p<0.05). Conclusions Underestimation of body size is common and is associated with a lower gain in total body adiposity and a prevalent desire to lose weight. PMID:26171972

  13. Correlation of etho-social and psycho-social data from "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    Studies of social groups under isolation and confinement for the needs of space psychology were mostly limited by questionnaires completed with batteries of subjective tests, and they needed to be correlated with video recordings for objective analyses in space ethology. The aim of the present study is to identify crewmembers' behavioral profiles for better understanding group dynamics during a 520-day isolation and confinement of the international crew (n=6) participating to the "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation. We propose to correlate data from PSPA (Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes) computerized test, sociometric questionnaires and color choices test (Luscher test) used to measure anxiety levels, with data of video analysis during group discussion (GD) and breakfast time (BT). All the procedures were implemented monthly - GD, or twice a month - BT. Firstly, we used descriptive statistics for displaying quantitative subjects' behavioral profiles, supplied with a software based-solution: the Observer XT®. Secondly, we used Spearmen's nonparametric correlation analysis. The results show that for each subject, the level of non-verbal behavior ("visual interactions", "object interactions", "body interaction", "personal actions", "facial expressions", and "collateral acts") is higher than the level of verbal behavior ("interpersonal communication in Russian", and "interpersonal communication in English"). From the video analyses, dynamics profiles over months are different between the crewmembers. From the correlative analyses, we found highly negative correlations between anxiety and interpersonal communications; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment" and anxiety level. We also found highly significant positive correlations between the sociometric parameter "popularity in working environment" and interpersonal communications, and facial expressions; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment " and interpersonal communications, and facial expressions. As a whole, the findings show high importance of ethological investigations with video monitoring for assessment of group behavior in extreme environment. At the same time, correct interpretation of the video recording results requires their comparison with the results of classical socio-psychological methods. We discuss about the different approaches: objective vs. subjective; active vs. discursive; exhaustive vs. restrictive; descriptive vs. introspective.

  14. Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

  15. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  16. Prevalence of Malocclusion and its Psycho-Social Impact among 12 To 15-Year-old School Children in Lucknow City

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; GV, Jagannatha; Narang, Ridhi; Biswas, Gautam; Sood, Poonam; Garg, Aarti; Narayan, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial aesthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. Anterior malocclusion can have an impact on the overall facial appearance. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its psycho-social impact among 12 to 15 yrs old school children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of collection of information for psychosocial assessment using a questionnaire and clinical examination of malocclusion. Data regarding psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was collected using a Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) given by Klages et al., (2006). Results: 15.57% children belonged to the definite malocclusion category and 5.41% to the handicapped malocclusion category. The mean Dental self confidence score differed significantly among both male (p?0.001) and female children (p?0.001) across the age groups. The mean Social impact score did not differ significantly among both male (p?0.31) and female children (p?0.12) across the age groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that dental aesthetics had a significant impact on the psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. PMID:25478444

  17. Computer-Aided Visualization of Psycho-Social Structures (Peace as an Evolving Balance of Conceptual and Organizational Relationships).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Anthony J. N.

    The problem of peace is considered to be ecological. Ecology is the study of the complex interrelationships between organisms and their environments. To clarify this approach, three major types of social complexity--organizational, problem, and conceptual--are briefly reviewed together with their interactions and their effect on the individual. A…

  18. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  19. Identification, assessment and management of food-related microbiological hazards: historical, fundamental and psycho-social essentials.

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Weenk, G H; Morris, G P; Struijk, C B

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological risk assessment aimed at devising measures of hazard management, should take into account all perceived hazards, including those not empirically identified. It should also recognise that safety cannot be "inspected into" a food. Rather hazard management should be the product of intervention strategies in accordance with the approach made mandatory in the EU Directive 93/43 and the USDA FSIS Pathogen Reduction HACCP system; Final Rule. It is essential too that the inherent variability of the biological attributes affecting food safety is recognised in any risk assessment. The above strategic principles may be conceptualised as a four-step sequence, involving (i) identification and quantification of hazards; (ii) design and codification of longitudinally integrated ("holistic") technological processes and procedures to eliminate, or control growth and metabolism of, pathogenic and toxinogenic organisms; (iii) elaboration of microbiological analytical standard operating procedures, permitting validation of "due diligence" or responsible care, i.e. adherence to adopted intervention strategies. This should be supported by empirically assessed reference ranges, particularly for marker organisms, while the term "zero tolerance" is refined throughout to tolerable safety limit; (iv) when called for, the need to address concerns arising from lay perceptions of risk which may lack scientific foundation. In relation to infectious and toxic hazards in the practical context the following general models for quantitative holistic risk assessment are presented: (i) the first order, basic lethality model; (ii) a second approximation taking into account the amount of food ingested in a given period of time; (iii) a further adjustment accounting for changes in colonization levels during storage and distribution of food commodities and the effects of these on proliferation of pathogens and toxin production by bacteria and moulds. Guidelines are provided to address: (i) unsubstantiated consumer concern over the wholesomeness of foods processed by an innovative procedure; and (ii) reluctance of small food businesses to adopt novel strategies in food safety. Progress here calls for close cooperation with behavioural scientists to ensure that investment in developing measures to contain risk deliver real benefit. PMID:9562875

  20. Identification, assessment and management of food-related microbiological hazards: historical, fundamental and psycho-social essentials.

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A; Weenk, G H; Morris, G P; Struijk, C B

    1998-04-14

    Microbiological risk assessment aimed at devising measures of hazard management, should take into account all perceived hazards, including those not empirically identified. It should also recognise that safety cannot be "inspected into" a food. Rather hazard management should be the product of intervention strategies in accordance with the approach made mandatory in the EU Directive 93/43 and the USDA FSIS Pathogen Reduction HACCP system; Final Rule. It is essential too that the inherent variability of the biological attributes affecting food safety is recognised in any risk assessment. The above strategic principles may be conceptualised as a four-step sequence, involving (i) identification and quantification of hazards; (ii) design and codification of longitudinally integrated ("holistic") technological processes and procedures to eliminate, or control growth and metabolism of, pathogenic and toxinogenic organisms; (iii) elaboration of microbiological analytical standard operating procedures, permitting validation of "due diligence" or responsible care, i.e. adherence to adopted intervention strategies. This should be supported by empirically assessed reference ranges, particularly for marker organisms, while the term "zero tolerance" is refined throughout to tolerable safety limit; (iv) when called for, the need to address concerns arising from lay perceptions of risk which may lack scientific foundation. In relation to infectious and toxic hazards in the practical context the following general models for quantitative holistic risk assessment are presented: (i) the first order, basic lethality model; (ii) a second approximation taking into account the amount of food ingested in a given period of time; (iii) a further adjustment accounting for changes in colonization levels during storage and distribution of food commodities and the effects of these on proliferation of pathogens and toxin production by bacteria and moulds. Guidelines are provided to address: (i) unsubstantiated consumer concern over the wholesomeness of foods processed by an innovative procedure; and (ii) reluctance of small food businesses to adopt novel strategies in food safety. Progress here calls for close cooperation with behavioural scientists to ensure that investment in developing measures to contain risk deliver real benefit. PMID:9620129

  1. Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

    1975-01-01

    A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

  2. Psycho-Social Development of Child Labourers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraudanjoki, Esa

    This paper examines the psychosocial development of Nepalese child laborers. The findings are discussed in relation to the questions of where and how learning occurs, whether transfer or generalizations occur from specific skills to other activities, and what role the socialization process plays in the psychological well-being of the Nepalese…

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE CUMULATIVE AFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL STRESSORS THAT THREATEN THE POHLIK-LAH AND NER-ER-NER LIFEWAY: THE YUROK TRIBE?S APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    First, this project compiled potential chemical/toxin contaminants that might contribute as risk factors to humans in the project’s research area and then sought to correlate them with established negative health outcomes within the Tribal Membership. Outcomes include...

  4. Issues in the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    The refugee experience--migrating against one's will--is a source of immense psychological stress. This paper therefore draws on empirical findings and theoretical discussions from the psychological, psychiatric, nursing, social work, sociological, and anthropological literature in order to identify the major stressors encountered in the…

  5. Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

  6. Conservation of Senegalese Youth and Its Psycho-Social Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Beverly; Williams, John

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the appropriateness of Piagetian tasks for a comparative assessment of the cognitive development of rural and semi-urban Senegalese youth; and (2) to determine relationships among selected social and environmental factors affecting Senegalese youth. Fifty semi-urban and 50 rural area…

  7. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

  8. Navigating the Psycho/Social Pressures of Adolescence: The Voices and Experiences of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Patricia; Cao, Hanh T.; Davidson, Ann Locke

    This paper describes conditions and circumstances in students' family, peer, and school worlds which students perceive as creating pressures and stress powerful enough to divert their attention and interest from school. Rather than assuming that minority status, linguistic differences, part-time employment, peers and/or poverty necessarily create…

  9. Automatic Collection, Analysis, Access, and Archiving of Psycho/Social Behavior by Individuals and Groups

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Scott M.

    , track moving individuals, and identify a range of human activities and social interactions of subtle changes in patient functioning. · Refine and expand existing methodologies for coding affect , Datong Chen3 1 Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  10. Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)

  11. Urinary Incontinence among older Mexican American men: Risk factors and psycho-social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gerst, K.; Ray, L.A.; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D.V; Markides, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic White and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditionsand men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey. PMID:20811953

  12. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Christopher McManus; Hannah M Mitchison; Eddie MK Chung; Georgina F Stubbings; Naomi Martin

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis,

  13. Self-reported gagging in dentistry: prevalence, psycho-social correlates and oral health.

    PubMed

    van Houtem, C M H H; van Wijk, A J; Boomsma, D I; Ligthart, L; Visscher, C M; de Jongh, A

    2015-07-01

    Although gagging has a profound effect on the delivery of dental care, it is a relatively under-investigated phenomenon. This study aimed to derive a prevalence estimate of gagging during dental treatment based on patient-reported information, to determine some socio-demographic and psychological correlates and to assess the relationship of gagging with self-reported oral health and avoidance of dental care. Data were collected with a survey among Dutch twin families (n = 11 771). Estimated overall prevalence of gagging during dental treatment was 8·2% (95% CI 7·7-8·7). Patients' self-report of gagging was found to be significantly associated with female sex, a lower level of education and higher levels of dental trait anxiety, gagging-related fears (e.g. fear of objects in the mouth), anxious depression and neuroticism. Gagging also appeared to be significantly associated with untreated cavities, gingival bleeding and wearing full dentures, but not with avoidance of dental care. It can be concluded that individuals who report to gag during dental treatment are moderately dentally anxious, fear-specific situations that can trigger a gagging response and, albeit visiting the dentist equally frequently, report to have a poorer oral health compared to those who do not gag. PMID:25784089

  14. [Importance of psycho-social factors of work process for variable occupations in contemporary conditions].

    PubMed

    Simonova, N I

    2008-01-01

    The author summarized and analyzed results of psychosocial studies in five occupational groups (oilmen, glass production workers, doctors of all specialities, surgeons, teachers) through the same questionnaire. Finding is high significance of fear connected with losing the workplace for workers, and for workers and for teachers the highly significant was fear of intensive work load and interpersonal relations with boss. Relationship between significance of psychosocial factors for the workers and their health state was revealed. PMID:18688968

  15. Information-Seeking Behaviour and PsychoSocial Interactions during the Genetic Testing Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cypowyj; F. Eisinger; M. Morin; A. Mogoutov; H. Sobol; C. Julian-Reynier

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the information-seeking behaviour (ISB) of women attending cancer genetic consultations at which the possibility of BRCA testing is considered. We focused here specifically on ISB apart from the cancer genetic consultation, i.e. on what complementary sources of information about genetic testing were consulted and what factors were involved in this

  16. Common Strategies When Working with Children and Adolescents Exhibiting Psycho-Social Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This paper provides general guidelines for psychiatric mental health workers who work with children and adolescents in a residential treatment center. Twenty-four questions commonly asked by therapists in these situations are posed and answers are discussed for each question. Topics covered include why some patients appear perfectly normal, the…

  17. Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification. PMID:20046402

  18. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

  19. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been associated with higher levels of physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. To examine the relations...

  20. Psycho-Social Aspects of Educating Epileptic Children: Roles for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Brenda B.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptic children may have physical and emotional needs which can interfere with learning and socialization. Current prevalence estimates, definitions, and classifications of epilepsy are surveyed. Factors affecting the epileptic child's school performance and specific learning problems are addressed. Specific roles are presented for school…

  1. Religion and Bio-Psycho- Social Health: A Review and Conceptual Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren Marks

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a research-based conceptual model respectively linking three dimensions of religious experience (religious practices, spiritual beliefs, and faith community) with three dimensions of health (biological, psychological, and social). The model is used as a framework to highlight findings in the religion-health knowledge base and to provide a broad survey of this domain of inquiry. Considerations for future research

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's / Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I Christopher; Mitchison, Hannah M; Chung, Eddie MK; Stubbings, Georgina F; Martin, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's / Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis, symptoms and problems of those with situs inversus (PCD-SI) and those with situs solitus (PCD-SS). Methods Postal questionnaire sent to members of the UK Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Family Support Group. The questionnaire contained the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire for assessing health status. Results 93 questionnaires were returned, representing a 66% response rate. Replies were received from similar numbers of PCD-SI and PCD-SS. Individuals with PCD-SI did not show a significant tendency to be diagnosed earlier, and neither did they show any difference in their symptoms, or the relationship of symptoms to age. Respiratory symptoms were fairly constant up until the age of about 25, after which there was a slow increase in symptoms, and a decline in health status, patients over the age of 40 being about one and a half standard deviations below the mean on the physical component score of the PCS. Patients diagnosed earlier in life, and hence who had received more treatment for their condition, had better scores on the SGRQ Impact and Activity scores. Conclusions PCD is a chronic condition which has a progressively greater impact on health in the second half of life, producing significant morbidity and restriction of life style. Early diagnosis, and hence earlier treatment, may improve symptoms and the impact of the condition. PMID:14641928

  3. Automatic collection, analysis, access, and archiving of individual and group psycho-social behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Stevens; Ashok Bharucha; Michael Christel; Alexander Hauptmann; Howard Wactlar; Datong Chen

    2006-01-01

    CareMedia is a collaborative effort that to date has captured more than 13,000 hours of video and audio recordings of life in the shared spaces of a nursing home dementia unit, by using 23 ceiling-mounted cameras, 24 hours a day for 25 days, ensuring an un-occluded view of every point in the recorded space. Computer machine learning techniques are being

  4. [Mortality in relation to disabilities, health, management and psycho-social conditions among the community-residing elderly people].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Nakajima, K; Takabayashi, H; Naramura, H; Takahashi, S; Ida, O; Murakami, S; Takatorige, T

    1997-02-01

    To examine the predictive factors for the survival among community-residing elderly people, a cohort of 1405 randomly selected elderly people, aged 65 years and over, living in S City, Osaka, was investigated in October 1992 and followed for 38 months. Follow-up was completed for 1,325 (94.3%) (154 deceased and 1,171 alive). The main results were as follows: 1. From the Cox proportional hazards model analysis of survival, controlling for age and sex, hazard ratios for disabilities of communication, intellectual functioning, behaviour, locomotion, locomotion, personal care, and urinary and fecal incontinence were significantly higher than 1 (1.50-3.14). On the other hand, hazard ratios for participation in health examinations, daily preventive health practices, participation in social activity, and having a sense of life worth living were significantly lower than 1 (0.43, 0.37, 0.44 and 0.52, respectively). 2. From the Cox proportional hazards model using the likelihood-ratio forward method, disability scores of communication and locomotion showed significant hazard ratios (1.08 and 1.14, respectively), and for these hazard ratios were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.13-1.91) and 1.92 (95% CI; 1.52-2.44), respectively when comparing a score of 5 to a score of 0. Hazard ratios for participating in health examinations and daily preventive health practices were 0.44 (95% CI; 0.31-0.63) and 0.58 (95% CI; 0.38-0.88), respectively, and remained as statistically significant factors associated with survival. 3. Health management efforts such as health examinations and daily preventive health practices can be assumed to be able to enhance the prognosis of the elderly. PMID:9130846

  5. Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José

    2012-12-01

    High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries". PMID:23409598

  6. Communication in cancer care: psycho-social, interactional, and cultural issues. A general overview and the example of India

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Strohschein, Fay J.; Saraf, Gayatri; Loiselle, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate, and sensitive cancer care. PMID:25452741

  7. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  8. Being Proactive to Increasing Supply Chain Security Challenges: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    E-print Network

    Lu, Guanyi

    2013-07-24

    , counterfeit products, sabotage, terrorist attacks, as well as the illicit acquisition and use of data. This definition is neat and specific in terms of sources of SCS breaches. In this sense, the definition eliminates unnecessary ambiguity and makes....4 trillion in value during that week (Bob, 2001); the severe flooding of Thailand in 2011 temporally suspended 40 percent of the world's hard-disk drive production (Ladendorf, 2011); the August 14, 2003 blackout in the Northeastern U.S. resulted in loss...

  9. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  10. Being Proactive to Increasing Supply Chain Security Challenges: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Guanyi

    2013-07-24

    Supply chain security has become relevant to both practitioners and academics for years, yet the understanding of this topic is still incomplete. The literature produces relatively few explanatory and confirmatory studies, offers ambiguous...

  11. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    PubMed

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  12. Shape Recognition, the magnitude of the challenge a machine learning approach

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    these abilities but a huge range of animals from ad- vanced mammals such as dogs dolphins, and humans to very). The human brain uses shape to great effect and is incredibly adept at determining equivalence and similarity between shapes which it has observed in the past and current shapes in its perceptual view. The human

  13. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Oden; Yvette Mirabal; Marc Epstein; Rebecca Richards-Kortum

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating\\u000a new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field\\u000a of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice\\u000a University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines

  14. Why evidence-based medicine is an insufficient approach to physical and rehabilitation medicine. Antithesis.

    PubMed

    Saraceni, V

    2014-10-01

    When philosophers of science demolished the myth of objectivity in the early decades of the 20th century, they undermined the theoretical certainty that a knowledge system comes from the cumulative development of scientific observations: here we find a criticality inherent to evidence-based medicine in relation to its claim of universality and objectivity. EBM relies on quantitative statistical models to define a treatment's effectiveness, and it has an universal character: the treatment effect is measured against the global characteristics of the general population rather than the individuals. Contemporary cognitive neuroscience takes a naturalized approach to mind and behavior, opening new inroads into investigating consciousness, motor image, bodily awareness, and intention. Common to these issues is the emphasis on the importance the person, with his or her own biology and history, as a unique and unrepeatable entity. Hence, its original aim to protect patients against arbitrary treatment notwithstanding, EBM has become largely inadequate to serve physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) owing to the peculiarities of its historical and narrative contents. PRM, because of its unique knowledge base, can be fully considered a science anchored in the basic sciences that underlie rehabilitation procedures. Accordingly, PRM exists within a mutual relationship with physics and biology, from which the biomedical model (well represented by EBM) originates, and is interrelated with other disciplines such as philosophy or psychology, from which the bio-psycho-social model was developed in the 1980s, leading to a comprehensive approach to health and disease. Further critical points in clinical practice include: how to translate evidence into clinical decision making; the inability to generalize experimental evidence because most studies involve selected patient samples. Despite the more than 20 years of EBM, long-established therapeutic approaches lacking scientific evidence still survive in rehabilitation. We must strive for an integrative approach to EBM, which would enable PRM, by virtue of its multifaceted theoretical and methodological approaches to persons with disability, to take the lead in redefining biomedical knowledge and, by applying this understanding, put its science into clinical practice and, perhaps, more generally, into outlining a new "ideal of science". PMID:25192186

  15. Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L’Heureux, François; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; http://www.datashaper.org) was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement data synthesis, some additional scientific, ethico-legal and technical considerations must be addressed. The success of the DataSHaPER as a harmonization approach will depend on its continuing development and on the rigour and extent of its use. The DataSHaPER has the potential to take us closer to a truly collaborative epidemiology and offers the promise of enhanced research potential generated through synthesized databases. PMID:21804097

  16. Perspectives on psychosocial and spiritual cancer support services in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Egan, Richard; McKechnie, Roz; Jobson, Jan; Herbison, Peter; Richards, Rose

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, support services have been developed in response to patient need but are variable. The benefits of psycho-social-spiritual care in reducing distress and enhancing quality of life for people with cancer and their families are well established yet unmet needs continue to feature. This project aimed to examine how health care professionals assessed for psycho-social-spiritual distress and unmet need, decisions on appropriate support, and identification of barriers in the referral process. A mixed-methods approach was used for this research. The qualitative phase entailed semistructured interviews with health care professionals working in cancer care. The quantitative phase was an online survey of oncologists and nurses. Thematic analysis was carried out by performing a side-by-side analysis of both sets of data. Nurses were most likely to assess for psycho-social-spiritual need and to refer to support services. Despite a clear mandate to provide regular psycho-social-spiritual assessment, there is no consistency of assessment and referral across New Zealand. There are clearly unmet psycho-social-spiritual needs among people affected by cancer in New Zealand, with health care professionals in this study noting structural impediments to adequate supportive care. There is a mismatch between the importance placed on such care and the capacity that is currently available. The results of this study provide evidence that can be used to argue for improvements in the infrastructure, funding allocation and policy that would allow for better psycho-social-spiritual care within the challenging context of increasing numbers of those affected by cancer. PMID:24175901

  17. [The Professor Luis Cerqueira Center for Psycho-Social Care Photocopier Project: from the reproduction of things to a productive life].

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana Luisa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria

    2002-12-01

    This study was born out of the necessity manifested by a portion of the population which uses the mental health service linked to the process of production of materialistic life through work. The intention was to comprehend the significance of work using historical and dialectic materialism as a reference, based upon the concepts of psycosocial rehabilitation and was performed through the analysis of discourses of the users. The site is the Prof. Luis Cerqueira Center for Psyco-Social Care (CAPS). The results evidence the comprehension of work as an instrument which enabled the users access to the field of social rights. PMID:12876848

  18. A bio-psycho-social exercise program (RÜCKGEWINN) for chronic low back pain in rehabilitation aftercare - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Hentschke; Jana Hofmann; Klaus Pfeifer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is strong, internationally confirmed evidence for the short-term effectiveness of multimodal interdisciplinary specific treatment programs for chronic back pain. However, the verification of long-term sustainability of achieved effects is missing so far. For long-term improvement of pain and functional ability high intervention intensity or high volume seems to be necessary (> 100 therapy hours). Especially in chronic back

  19. TREATMENT Validation of a Scale for Rating the Delivery of PsychoSocial Treatments for Alcohol Dependence and Misuse: The UKATT Process Rating Scale (PRS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Tober; Wendy Clyne; Olwyn Finnegan; Amanda Farrin; Ian Russell

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the development and validation of the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial Process Rating Scale (UKATT PRS), a manual based method for monitoring and rating the delivery of psychosocial treatments of alcohol dependence and misuse. Methods: Following adaptation and further development of a validated rating scale, the ability of the UKATT PRS to

  20. O modelo de atenção integral à saúde para tratamento de problemas decorrentes do uso de álcool e outras drogas: percepções de usuários, acompanhantes e profissionais* Integral healthcare model for treating problems caused by alcohol and other drugs: perceptions of users, their companions and practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maristela Moraes

    Based on an integral healthcare model for the users of alcohol and other drugs, the ex- pansion of Brazil's Psycho-Social Care Centers ? Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS-AD) is guided by the acknowledgement of users as citizens rather than patients, aiming at social reinsertion through an intersectoral approach and damage control, as well as other principles designed to build up integral

  1. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  2. Weaving Silos--A Leadership Challenge: A Cross-Functional Team Approach to Supporting Web-Based Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    The author reviews the evolution of Web services--from information sharing to transactional to relationship building--and the progression from first-generation to fourth-generation Web sites. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Reasons for Living and Hoping: The Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States. Proceedings from the Multi-Disciplinary, Inter-Religious Conference on the Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States (Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Catholic Child Bureau, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents proceedings of a conference convened to identify the unmet spiritual and other non-material needs of Southeast Asian refugee children and youth and to offer recommendations to strengthen present programs and policies. Participants included leaders in the refugee community, clergy of several faiths, organizational…

  4. Gender, sleep problems, and obesity in Taiwan: a propensity-score-matching approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Kuan, Ping-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a major health risk in industrialized countries, with disturbed sleep identified as a correlate. This study used data drawn from Taiwan's 2005 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety and the propensity-score-matching method to shed light on gender-specific associations between sleep problems and obesity among 24,113 adults aged 20-64 years. The average increase in obesity prevalence among respondents with disrupted sleep was 1.85%, as compared to those who did not report disrupted sleep, with similar psycho-social attributes. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among those who reported restless sleep was increased by an average of 1.40% compared to those who did not report restless sleep with similar psycho-social attributes. We also found gender-specific vulnerability to different types of sleep problems. Among men who reported disrupted sleep, we found a 3.12% increase in the prevalence of obesity. Among women exposed to restless sleep, the increase in obesity prevalence was 1.84%. The observed gender difference in the prevalence of increases in obesity may be attributed to gender-specific behavioral responses to poor sleep. With poor sleep, men may respond to hunger by overeating; women may respond by physical inactivity. Both can contribute to an elevated risk of obesity. PMID:25668054

  5. Identification, assessment and management of food-qrelated microbiological hazards: historical, fundamental and psycho-social essentials 1 Presented, in part, to the First International Eijkman Postgraduate Course in Food Safety at the University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA, 26th May 1995; the AIFST Regional Meeting, Sydney, 12th October 1995; the Veterinary Public Health Course at Zagreb, Croatia, 6th March 1996; the Microbiological Food Safety Seminar, Taipei, Taiwan, 11th June 1996; the Mercosur Food Protection Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 28th November 1996; the Food Microbiology and Safety in International Perspective Course, University of Wisconsin at River Falls, 4–10 June 1997; and the Regional Public Health and Preventive Medicine Conference, Bologna, 19th November 1997. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. A Mossel; G. H Weenk; G. P Morris; Corry B Struijk

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological risk assessment aimed at devising measures of hazard management, should take into account all perceived hazards, including those not empirically identified. It should also recognise that safety cannot be “inspected into” a food. Rather hazard management should be the product of intervention strategies in accordance with the approach made mandatory in the EU Directive 93\\/43 and the USDA FSIS

  6. [Metabolic syndrome: from specialists to the first aid physician].

    PubMed

    Bodenmann, Patrick; Vannotti, Marco; Pécoud, Alain

    2002-05-01

    Numerous algorithms originating from evidence-based medicine already exist; in spite of this, metabolic syndrome management remains problematical and needs to be improved. Specialists, working interactively and referring to clinical scenarios, pooled their specific areas of expertise in a transverse perspective of the metabolic syndrome management by the primary care physician. This concerted multidisciplinary approach has clearly revealed that a bio-psycho-social approach is absolutely essential in the management of this type of patients. PMID:12094497

  7. Cross-terminology mapping challenges: a demonstration using medication terminological systems.

    PubMed

    Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer V; Chute, Christopher G; Johnson, Todd R

    2012-08-01

    Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems-a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then describes a case study in which we mapped proprietary medication codes from an electronic health record to SNOMED CT and the UMLS Metathesaurus. The goal was to create a polyhierarchical classification system for querying an i2b2 clinical data warehouse. We found that three methods were required to accurately map the majority of actively prescribed medications. Only 62.5% of source medication codes could be mapped automatically. The remaining codes were mapped using a combination of semi-automated string comparison with expert selection, and a completely manual approach. Compound drugs were especially difficult to map: only 7.5% could be mapped using the automatic method. General challenges to mapping across terminological systems include (1) the availability of up-to-date information to assess the suitability of a given terminological system for a particular use case, and to assess the quality and completeness of cross-terminology links; (2) the difficulty of correctly using complex, rapidly evolving, modern terminologies; (3) the time and effort required to complete and evaluate the mapping; (4) the need to address differences in granularity between the source and target terminologies; and (5) the need to continuously update the mapping as terminological systems evolve. PMID:22750536

  8. Answering the connectionist challenge: a symbolic model of learning the past tenses of English verbs.

    PubMed

    Ling, C X; Marinov, M

    1993-12-01

    Supporters of eliminative connectionism have argued for a pattern association-based explanation of language learning and language processing. They deny that explicit rules and symbolic representations play any role in language processing and cognition in general. Their argument is based to a large extent on two artificial neural network (ANN) models that are claimed to be able to learn the past tenses of English verbs (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986, Parallel distributed processing, Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; MacWhinney & Leinbach, 1991, Cognition, 40, 121-157). In this article we critically review Rumelhart and McClelland's as well as MacWhinney and Leinbach's ANN models and conclude that they do not succeed in the assigned task of learning the past tenses of English verbs. In order to answer their challenge to the symbolic processing approach, we present our symbolic pattern associator (SPA)-a general-purpose pattern associator that can learn to associate arbitrary discrete patterns. We carried out several experiments with the SPA using the same set of verbs that was used in MacWhinney and Leinbach's simulation with more realistic training and testing procedures. The SPA outperformed the connectionist models by a wide margin in the accuracy of learning, and successful inductive generalizations to unseen verbs. Our SPA has very natural and psychologically realistic explanations to many psychological effects such as U-shaped learning curve, and is much closer to human subjects in predicting past tense of the pseudo-verbs. In contrast to ANNs, whose internal representations are entirely opaque, the SPA can represent the acquired knowledge in the form of production rules that allow for further higher-level processing and integration, resulting in linguistically realistic associative templates for irregular verbs and production rules for regular verbs. In the light of these findings, we conclude that eliminative connectionists' vision of cognition as simple pattern association and pattern recognition without symbolic representation is inadequate. Pattern association as such does not imply rule-less or cue-based models of language acquisition or of human learning in general. PMID:8131377

  9. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  10. Le père, le fils et la mère Russie : un portrait psycho-social de l'intelligentsia Russe dans le roman d'Andreï Bitov : La Maison Pouchkine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterina Sukhanova

    2007-01-01

    Andrei Bitov's seminal novel “The Pushkin House” provides a psychosocial portrait of the Russian intelligentsia under the totalitarian Communist regime. The attack on the intelligentsia comes not simply in the form of physical extermination, but also in stamping out critical mentality as such. Bitov depicts a society in which the relationship to the country's history, the literary tradition and even

  11. Subtemporal Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasqualino Ciappetta; Pietro I. D’Urso

    \\u000a The subtemporal approach is historically known as the standard approach for the treatment of tumoral, vascular and inflammatory\\u000a lesions of the middle cranial fossa, the tentorium, the anterior and middle tentorial incisura, the upper-third of the clivus\\u000a and the petroclival region.

  12. Health data use, stewardship, and governance: ongoing gaps and challenges: a report from AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George; Bloomrosen, Meryl; FlatelyBrennan, Patti; Chute, Christopher G; Cimino, Jim; Detmer, Don E; Edmunds, Margo; Embi, Peter J; Goldstein, Melissa M; Hammond, William Ed; Keenan, Gail M; Labkoff, Steve; Murphy, Shawn; Safran, Charlie; Speedie, Stuart; Strasberg, Howard; Temple, Freda; Wilcox, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of personal health data are being collected and made available through existing and emerging technological media and tools. While use of these data has significant potential to facilitate research, improve quality of care for individuals and populations, and reduce healthcare costs, many policy-related issues must be addressed before their full value can be realized. These include the need for widely agreed-on data stewardship principles and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate data silos and protect patient privacy. AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting brought together healthcare academics, policy makers, and system stakeholders (including representatives of patient groups) to consider these topics and formulate recommendations. A review of a set of Proposed Principles of Health Data Use led to a set of findings and recommendations, including the assertions that the use of health data should be viewed as a public good and that achieving the broad benefits of this use will require understanding and support from patients. PMID:24169275

  13. Mitral valve prolapse and psychiatric complications: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakaki, C; Williams, E; Boisjoli, A; Vlad, P; Chassé, H

    1991-01-01

    This case study describes a 9-year-old-girl presenting with symptoms of anxiety and depression who was found to have mitral valve prolapse syndrome. The relationship of mitral valve prolapse and anxiety and depression has been studied and a review of the literature is presented. The family history of heart and psychiatric problems is explored. The importance of the bio-psycho-social approach is stressed as well as the suggestion that mitral valve prolapse be included as part of the differential diagnosis for anxiety. PMID:2049370

  14. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  15. [Comparative analysis of occupational risk evaluation results through various methodic approaches].

    PubMed

    Simonova, N I; Niziaeva, I V; Nazarov, S G; Zhuravleva, E A; Kondrova, N S; Stepanov, E G; Fasikov, R M; Grigor'eva, S M; Andreeva, E E; Ignatova, E N; Tsyrulin, A V; Mazitova, N N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis covered three models of occupational risk evaluation: (1) Method to evaluate risks at workplace, elaborated in Finland and recommended by International Work Safety Agency for Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries; (2) Method elaborated in Research Institute for Occupational Medicine with RAMSc under the direction of N.F. Izmerov and E.I. Denisov; (3) Method evaluating individual occupational risk, with consideration of work conditions and worker's health state, also elaborated in Research Institute for Occupational Medicine with RAMSc and Klin Institute of Work conditions and safety, approved in 2011 as methodic recommendations. Findings are that in contemporary Russia a unified method evaluating occupational risk is more expedient; the first method satisfactorily describes actual ratio of occupational risk levels and could be useful as an additional method for its evaluation, especially for psycho-social factors; the second method does not allow to evaluate occupational risk acceptably if absent longstanding occupational morbidity, but is recommended for risk evaluation in evidence-based medicine; the third method is recommended at federal level to fulfil requirements of Labour Code in Russian Federation and obligatory social insurance purposes. PMID:22545458

  16. Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Approaches: What Are Complementary Health Approaches? In This Topic What Are Complementary Health Approaches? Natural Products Safety ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Eating Well As You Get Older The information ...

  17. Pathway and network approaches for identification of cancer signature markers from omics data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinlian; Zuo, Yiming; Man, Yan-Gao; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Liu, Meng; Yang, Xiaowei; Varghese, Rency S; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Ressom, Habtom W

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high throughput omic technologies during the past few years has made it possible to perform many complex assays in a much shorter time than the traditional approaches. The rapid accumulation and wide availability of omic data generated by these technologies offer great opportunities to unravel disease mechanisms, but also presents significant challenges to extract knowledge from such massive data and to evaluate the findings. To address these challenges, a number of pathway and network based approaches have been introduced. This review article evaluates these methods and discusses their application in cancer biomarker discovery using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an example. PMID:25553089

  18. Pathway and Network Approaches for Identification of Cancer Signature Markers from Omics Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinlian; Zuo, Yiming; Man, Yan-gao; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Liu, Meng; Yang, Xiaowei; Varghese, Rency S.; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Ressom, Habtom W

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high throughput omic technologies during the past few years has made it possible to perform many complex assays in a much shorter time than the traditional approaches. The rapid accumulation and wide availability of omic data generated by these technologies offer great opportunities to unravel disease mechanisms, but also presents significant challenges to extract knowledge from such massive data and to evaluate the findings. To address these challenges, a number of pathway and network based approaches have been introduced. This review article evaluates these methods and discusses their application in cancer biomarker discovery using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an example. PMID:25553089

  19. [Surgical approaches in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    In the first step of rhinoplasty, the surgical approach will expose through different types of incisions and dissection planes the osteocartilaginous framework of the nasal pyramid prior to performing actions to reduce or increase the latter. This exposure can be performed by a closed approach or by an external approach--the choice depends on the type of nose and the habits of the surgeon. Far from being opposites, closed and external approaches are complementary and should be known and mastered by surgeons performing rhinoplasty. PMID:25213490

  20. Draft for consultation Partnership approaches

    E-print Network

    Project through Scottish Enterprise, the Strategic Timber Transport Fund, Forestry Commission Scotland..........................................................7 Legal approaches.....................................................................................................................8 Legal Approaches

  1. Approaches to Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B., Ed.; And Others

    Six approaches to community development are presented by several authors in this booklet. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the community development concept. In chapter 2, L. J. Cary emphasizes three distinctive features of the community approach: (1) popular or broad-based participation, (2) community as an important concept, and (3) the…

  2. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  3. Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic (db/db) Mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm ChallengeA Model for the Study of Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ge; Hochwalt, Phillip C.; Usui, Marcia L.; Underwood, Robert A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; James, Garth A.; Stewart, Philip S.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a major clinical problem that leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that an important factor in the failure of chronic wounds to heal was the presence of microbial biofilm resistant to antibiotics and protected from host defenses. A major difficulty in studying chronic wounds is the absence of suitable animal models. The goal of this study was to create a reproducible chronic wound model in diabetic mice by application of bacterial biofilm. Six millimeter punch biopsy wounds were created on the dorsal surface of diabetic (db/db) mice, subsequently challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms two days post-wounding, and covered with semi-occlusive dressings for two weeks. Most of the control wounds were epithelialized by 28 days post-wounding. In contrast, none of biofilm challenged wounds were closed. Histological analysis showed extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia adjacent to challenged wounds- all indicators of an inflammatory non-healing wound. Quantitative cultures and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the majority of bacteria were in the scab above the wound bed rather than in the wound tissue. The model was reproducible, allowed localized cutaneous wound infections without high mortality and demonstrated delayed wound healing following biofilm challenge. This model may provide an approach to study the role of microbial biofilms in chronic wounds as well as the effect of specific biofilm therapy on wound healing. PMID:20731798

  4. Important, misunderstood, and challenging: a qualitative study of nurses’ and allied health professionals’ perceptions of implementing self-management for patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hannah ML; Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki L; Hudson, Nicky; Singh, Sally J

    2015-01-01

    Background In light of the growing burden of COPD, there is increasing focus on the role of self-management for this population. Currently, self-management varies widely. Little is known either about nurses’ and allied health professionals’ (AHPs’) understanding and provision of self-management in clinical practice. This study explores nurses’ and AHPs’ understanding and implementation of supported COPD self-management within routine clinical practice. Materials and methods Nurses and AHPs participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews to explore their understanding and provision of COPD self-management, as well as their perceptions of the challenges to providing such care. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from a range of professions working within primary, community, and secondary care settings. Three researchers independently analyzed each transcript using a thematic approach. Results A total of 14 participants were interviewed. Nurses and AHPs viewed self-management as an important aspect of COPD care, but often misunderstood what it involved, leading to variation in practice. A number of challenges to supporting self-management were identified, which related to lack of time, lack of insight regarding training needs, and assumptions regarding patients’ perceived self-management abilities. Conclusion Nurses and AHPs delivering self-management require clear guidance, training in the use of effective self-management skills, and education that challenges their preconceptions regarding patients. The design of health care services also needs to consider the practical barriers to COPD self-management support for the implementation of such interventions to be successful. PMID:26082628

  5. Editor's Note: Approaching Adaptation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Froschauer

    2010-01-01

    As students approach adaptations lessons, keep in mind that according to research, most lower-elementary school students are still forming a basic understanding of how animals survive in their environments. For example, many students understand a simple f

  6. ECOTOXICOLOGY: PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In today's chemical-oriented society, any student of ecology must be cognizant of the potential for environmental toxicants to alter the balances and relationships among the plants, animals and biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem. Ecotoxicology: roblems and Approaches" provides...

  7. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  8. The case study approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Crowe; Kathrin Cresswell; Ann Robertson; Guro Huby; Anthony Avery; Aziz Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value\\u000a of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services\\u000a research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of\\u000a case study

  9. Energy-Efficient Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ossama Younis; Sonia Fahmy

    Prolonged network lifetime, scalability, and load balancing are important requirements for many ad-hoc sensor network applications. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective technique for achieving these goals. In this work, we propose a new energy-efficient approach for clustering nodes in ad- hoc sensor networks. Based on this approach, we present a protocol, HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed clustering), that periodically selects

  10. Of pathways and approaches.

    PubMed

    De Sa, C

    1991-04-01

    Discussing the different strategies concerning school health programs in India, the author explains that the most successful are those that take a comprehensive approach, one which integrates the efforts of teachers, students, and health services, and the community. Considering that 86.7 million Indian children are currently enrolled in primary schools and that the school age group (6-14 years) makes up more that 1/4 of the total population, schools health programs offer a great opportunity for improving the health of the population. Examining case studies, the author reviews the following approaches: curative, outreach, educational, and comprehensive/integrated. Curative health services focus on tertiary prevention with the goal of reducing child morbidity and mortality. Marked by vertical organization and minimal community involvement, this approach is administered by the Department of Health, and it relies on medical personnel who perform sporadic checkups of children. Unfortunately, follow-ups and referral services are inadequate. A secondary level of prevention, outreach programs involve early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Teachers and medical personnel comprise the primary vehicles for the program, and they have the option of involving the community. The educational approach focuses on primary prevention and healthy practices, and it relies on active involvement on the part of teachers and children. Finally, the comprehensive approach integrates the curative and preventive aspects of the previous approaches. This horizontal organization provides for community participation and allows for problem solving to take place within the sociocultural context of the school and community. PMID:12283902

  11. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  12. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Landauer approach to thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Changwook

    Many efforts have been made to search for materials that maximize the thermoelectric (TE) figure of merit, ZT, but for decades, the improvement has been limited because of the interdependent material parameters that determine ZT. Recently, several breakthroughs have been reported by applying nanotechnology. To further enhance ZT, a clear understanding of electronic and thermal transport is necessary. The objectives of this thesis are: 1) to evaluate the electronic and thermal performance with a Landauer approach using full band electronic bandstructure and a full dispersion description of phonons, 2) to show how the Landauer treatment gives new insights to the understanding of thermoelectrics, and 3) to discuss possibilities for enhancing TE performance. We first present a Landauer approach for computing TE parameters using a full band electronic bandstructure. The full band results are related to the more common effective mass formalism. Next, a full dispersion description of phonons is used to calculate the thermal conductivities of bulk and thin films using a Landauer approach. It is shown that simplified dispersion models for phonons should be used with caution and that the Landauer approach provides a relatively simple (but accurate) technique to treat phonon transport from the ballistic to diffusive regimes. We also address the question of how to engineer the electronic structure to enhance the performance of a thermoelectric material by re-visiting from a Landauer perspective the question of what bandstructure produces the best thermoelectric device performance. Next, we explore the possibilities of increasing ZT through multi-barrier structures, quantum engineered graphene and molecules, high valley degeneracy, or by distorting the density-of-states. Finally, we shift our attention to nanocomposite thermoelectric materials and discuss a new approach to model nanocomposite TE devices. Using polycrystalline graphene as a testbed of our model, we study how grain boundaries affect the electronic performance of large-area polycrystalline graphene and propose the new approach of `percolation-doping by nanowires' to beat the transparency-conductivity constraints.

  14. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  15. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  16. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENS, JACOB H.

    TO PERMIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT SAN MATEO, FIVE INSTITUTIONS WITH SYSTEMS PROGRAMS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF TRIP NOTES. OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE HAS BEEN COMPLETELY ORGANIZED AROUND THE VOLUNTARY WORK-STUDY LABORATORY APPROACH TO LEARNING. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY, OKLAHOMA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, HENRY FORD…

  17. The transzygomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Campero, Alvaro; Campero, A Agustín; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Yasuda, Alexandre; Basso, Armando; Rhoton, Albert

    2010-11-01

    We aim to describe the technical details of the transzygomatic approach to intracranial surgery. The incision begins at the level of the inferior border of the zygomatic arch, anterior to the tragus, and extends towards the contralateral pupillary line. A subgaleal and interfascial dissection is performed. Then, the zygomatic arch is vertically sectioned twice and mobilized downwards, together with the masseter muscle. Next, a fronto-temporo-sphenoidal craniotomy is performed and complete exposure of the anterior temporal dura achieved. Thus, the surgical possibilities are: (i) intradural access to the middle fossa; (ii) intradural pretemporal access to the basal cisterns; (iii) intradural transtemporal access to the insular region; and (iv) extradural access to the middle fossa. The transzygomatic approach offers excellent exposure to the floor of the middle fossa and the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus (both intradurally and extradurally). Also, combined with a pretemporal approach, it affords a good view of the interpeduncular cistern; and using a transtemporal approach, it provides good access to the insular region. PMID:20692168

  18. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  19. Current Approaches to Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackintosh, Helen K., Ed.

    Eight approaches to the teaching of elementary reading are described briefly. The Executive Committee of the Department of Elementary-Kindergarten-Nursery Education of the National Education Association selected the approaches to be discussed. They include (1) Language Experience Approach by R. V. Allen, (2) Phonic Approach by Charles E. Wingo,…

  20. Official conceptualizations of person-centered care: which person counts?

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Ciara

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that a "psycho-social" person-centered care approach, involving the delivery of a compassionate, respectful model of care, leads to a high quality of life, particularly for older people living in residential care. This has prompted policy-makers to endorse this approach. Yet, some commentators have argued that the model of person-centered care in official government policies equates to a "consumer-based" rather than a psycho-social approach, as it focuses solely on offering service-users more choice and on promoting independence. However, as such arguments are made in the absence of any empirical analysis, it is unclear both whether such a distinction exists in practice, and, if so, how this alternative model developed. This study explores the development of minimum standards for residential care settings for older people in Ireland in order to address this gap in our understanding of person-centered care. Findings confirm that a consumer-driven model of person-centered care underpins the Irish Standards; residential care is portrayed as a hotel-like service and residents as discerning consumers, which may be unsuitable for older people in residential care with limited capacity to make key choices. Analysis indicates that this model can be seen both as an extension of consumer-driven policies endorsed by many neo-liberal governments, and also of policy-makers' fears of losing their autonomy when they reach the "Fourth Age". This study is particularly illuminating, given the similarities between the Irish care system with England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and Australia. PMID:23849421

  1. Good Research Practices for Comparative Effectiveness Research: Approaches to Mitigate Bias and Confounding in the Design of Nonrandomized Studies of Treatment Effects Using Secondary Data Sources: The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Good Research Practices for Retrospective Database Analysis Task Force Report—Part II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Cox; Bradley C. Martin; Tjeerd Van Staa; Edeltraut Garbe; Uwe Siebert; Michael L. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesThe goal of comparative effectiveness analysis is to examine the relationship between two variables, treatment, or exposure and effectiveness or outcome. Unlike data obtained through randomized controlled trials, researchers face greater challenges with causal inference with observational studies. Recognizing these challenges, a task force was formed to develop a guidance document on methodological approaches to addresses these biases.

  2. An overview of Indian research in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kulhara, Parmanand; Shah, Ruchita; Aarya, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Journal of Psychiatry published three articles in its first issue way back in 1958. Since then, it has steadily published more than 200 papers on one or the other aspect of schizophrenia. From rudimentary research methodology and descriptive approach, schizophrenia research, as published in the Journal, seems to have come of age with more and more sophisticated research designs and methodologies. Our ardent researchers have made significant contributions in the understanding of this riddle called schizophrenia. Notable contributions have been made in the field of epidemiology, course and outcomes and phenomenology of this disorder. However, research in psycho-social rehabilitation of schizophrenia and related areas is sparse and sporadic. The need to conduct research that impacts health policies and planning of services for this disorder is evident and our researchers would do well to provide impetus in these areas. PMID:21836674

  3. Mitochondrial Diseases: Therapeutic Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore DiMauro; Michelangelo Mancuso

    2007-01-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is\\u000a woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review,\\u000a we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice\\u000a and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of

  4. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  5. Computational vaccinology: quantitative approaches.

    PubMed

    Flower, Darren R; McSparron, Helen; Blythe, Martin J; Zygouri, Christianna; Taylor, Debra; Guan, Pingping; Wan, Shouzhan; Coveney, Peter V; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Doytchinova, Irini A

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is hierarchical and has many levels, exhibiting much emergent behaviour. However, at its heart are molecular recognition events that are indistinguishable from other types of biomacromolecular interaction. These can be addressed well by quantitative experimental and theoretical biophysical techniques, and particularly by methods from drug design. We review here our approach to computational immunovaccinology. In particular, we describe the JenPep database and two new techniques for T cell epitope prediction. One is based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (a 3D-QSAR method based on CoMSIA and another 2D method based on the Free-Wilson approach) and the other on atomistic molecular dynamic simulations using high performance computing. JenPep (http://www.jenner.ar.uk/ JenPep) is a relational database system supporting quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes, TAP transporters, TCR-pMHC complexes, and an annotated list of B cell and T cell epitopes. Our 2D-QSAR method factors the contribution to peptide binding from individual amino acids as well as 1-2 and 1-3 residue interactions. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (volume, electrostatic potential, hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor abilities) on peptide affinity were considered. Both methods are exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptide binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:14712934

  6. Designing Study Nurses’ Training to Enhance Research Integrity: A MacroergonomicApproach

    PubMed Central

    Kossman, Susan; Casper, Gail R.; Severtson, Dolores J.; Grenier, Anne-Sophie; Or, Calvin; Carayon, Pascale; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2006-01-01

    Successful field evaluation of informatics initiatives designed to create technology-enhanced professional practice relies on adequate training of experimental participants. However, such training presents design, implementation and evaluation challenges. A macroergonomic approach, focusing on an organizational view of people, technology, task and environment interactions in work systems, provides a framework for training that allows anticipation and compensation for challenges. In the HeartCare II project, we developed a multi-level training program for nurses and patients enrolled in a field trial of an innovative technology-enhanced professional practice model. Using a macroergonomic approach, we designed three waves of training and assessment centered on a train-the-trainer model. Despite planning, a drop-off occurred between training waves, affecting both recruitment and patient training. Evaluation identified people, task, technology, and organizational concerns. Strategies to increase nurse buy-in and improve technical performance are making a difference. Organizational challenges remain the most intractable. PMID:17238379

  7. A Little Area Challenge: A Sod Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Perla L.; Pelak, Colleen N.

    2012-01-01

    As partners in a professional development project, the authors jumped at the opportunity to use a real-life problem to engage elementary and middle school teachers in a one-day exploration of the concept of area. "Length times width"--a common response to the question, "What is area?"--is a rote formulaic expression that applies only to certain…

  8. The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.; Naas, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for…

  9. The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Sachau; Patricia A. Naas

    2010-01-01

    The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for a consulting project, and

  10. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  11. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  12. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  13. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Agresta, Ferdinando; Ciardo, Luigi Francesco; Mazzarolo, Giorgio; Michelet, Ivan; Orsi, Guido; Trentin, Giuseppe; Bedin, Natalino

    2006-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years) underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3%) were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis), according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat.) of cases, and 90.6% (87) of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal peritonitis emergencies. PMID:16759400

  14. The collaboratory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  15. New approaches for immunosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.

    1980-01-01

    New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

  16. Two approaches to human rights

    E-print Network

    Holland, Sean Jamison

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

  17. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  18. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  19. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  20. Predictive ecology: systems approaches

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew R.; Norris, Ken J.; Benton, Tim G.

    2012-01-01

    The world is experiencing significant, largely anthropogenically induced, environmental change. This will impact on the biological world and we need to be able to forecast its effects. In order to produce such forecasts, ecology needs to become more predictive—to develop the ability to understand how ecological systems will behave in future, changed, conditions. Further development of process-based models is required to allow such predictions to be made. Critical to the development of such models will be achieving a balance between the brute-force approach that naively attempts to include everything, and over simplification that throws out important heterogeneities at various levels. Central to this will be the recognition that individuals are the elementary particles of all ecological systems. As such it will be necessary to understand the effect of evolution on ecological systems, particularly when exposed to environmental change. However, insights from evolutionary biology will help the development of models even when data may be sparse. Process-based models are more common, and are used for forecasting, in other disciplines, e.g. climatology and molecular systems biology. Tools and techniques developed in these endeavours can be appropriated into ecological modelling, but it will also be necessary to develop the science of ecoinformatics along with approaches specific to ecological problems. The impetus for this effort should come from the demand coming from society to understand the effects of environmental change on the world and what might be performed to mitigate or adapt to them. PMID:22144379

  1. One approach to highway automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. FENTON; ROBERT L. COSGRIFF; KARL W. OLSON; L. M. Blackwell

    1968-01-01

    Considerable improvements in highway capacity and highway safety can be achieved by vehicle automation. Many approaches to automation are possible, with any given approach depending on one's premises concerning the future state of the transportation system. Described here is the approach taken at the Communication and Control Systems Laboratory of The Ohio State University, which is based on the following:

  2. Automated Evaluation of Coordination Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Bosse; Mark Hoogendoorn; Jan Treur

    2006-01-01

    How to coordinate the processes in a complex component-based software system is a nontrivial issue. Many different coordination approaches exist, each with its own specific advantages and drawbacks. To support their mutual comparison, this paper proposes a formal methodology to automatically evaluate the performance of coordination approaches. This methodology comprises (1) creation of simulation models of coordination approaches, (2) execution

  3. Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of the contributions of ethnic additive, transformation, decision-making, and social action approaches to multicultural curriculum development. Suggests that movement from a mainstream-centric approach to social action approach is gradual and cumulative. (GG)

  4. Lifting the mantle: Unveiling new treatment approaches in relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mussetti, Alberto; Kumar, Anita; Dahi, Parastoo B; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Sauter, Craig S

    2015-05-01

    The management of relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains a clinical challenge. A standard second-line treatment for relapsed/refractory MCL does not exist. Management of relapsed/refractory MCL requires an individualized treatment approach, incorporating factors such as: functional status, prior treatments, response to prior therapies, and disease biology. Generally, there are two categories of salvage therapy; the first, non-cross-resistant cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and, the second, pathway-targeted agents. For transplant eligible patients, the optimal therapy usually consists of salvage, remission re-induction phase followed, whenever possible, by a consolidation phase. Bendamustine and/or high dose cytarabine plus rituximab based chemotherapy represent the most common salvage therapy with an overall response rate of 70-80%. Consolidation with a reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents the only potentially curative treatment. Overall survival ranges from 30% to 50% at 5years with this approach. For transplant ineligible patients, ibrutinib is the most effective treatment with an overall response rate of almost 70% and median response duration of 17.5months. Lacking an effective consolidation, this approach is not considered curative. In this review we characterize the main therapeutic approaches available in this setting and summarize our preferred clinical treatment approach. PMID:25468719

  5. Education and Hypnosis for Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Tania

    2015-01-01

    FGIDs in children and adolescents (ROME III classification) have a significant impact on the daily functioning and quality of life. Often it is the pain that is one of the main contributors to the burden of functional dyspepsia, functional abdominal pain (syndrome), and irritable bowel syndrome. Current knowledge confirms that a number of integrated networks at cortical and subcortical sites are responsible for the experience of pain. From the work of Mayer and Tillisch (2011), mainly based on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, it has become clear that abdominal pain syndromes are disorders of the bi-directional mind-brain-gut interactions. In this multi-factorial bio-psycho-social model we recognize the importance of neurobiological processes in the mind-brain-gut interactions, leading to alterations in motility, sensation, and immune functions. Medical treatment often offers little or no relief. Until now pharmaceutical research has not succeeded in developing safe new drugs with an effect on the brain-gut axis. More recent published research shows the rationale for the use of medical hypnosis in FGID. In this article the author will illustrate her specific approach in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic with children and adolescents with FGIDs. Being a pediatric gastroenterologist, the author emphasizes the importance of a clear diagnosis, explains the rationale for educating the patient and his or her parents on the multi-factorial bio-psycho-social model and the concepts of chronic pain, discusses the specific settings and pitfalls for hypnosis treatment in children, and last but not least, provides some examples of hypnotic sessions used with FGIDs. PMID:26046720

  6. Structural violence and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2005-08-01

    Despite clear evidence of a substantial biological basis to schizophrenia, there is also evidence that social, economic and political factors have considerable relevance to the clinical features, treatment and outcome of the illness. Individuals from lower socio-economic groups have an earlier age at first presentation and longer durations of untreated illness, both of which are associated with poor outcome. Individuals with schizophrenia are over-represented in the homeless population. Migration is associated with increased rates of mental illness, including schizophrenia, and this relationship appears to be mediated by psycho-social factors, including difficulties establishing social capital in smaller migrant groups. Individuals with schizophrenia are substantially over-represented amongst prison populations, and imprisonment increases the disability and stigma associated with mental illness, and impedes long-term recovery. The adverse effects of these social, economic and societal factors, along with the social stigma of mental illness, constitute a form of 'structural violence' which impairs access to psychiatric and social services and amplifies the effects of schizophrenia in the lives of sufferers. As a result of these over-arching social and economic factors, many individuals with schizophrenia are systematically excluded from full participation in civic and social life, and are constrained to live lives that are shaped by stigma, isolation, homelessness and denial of rights. There are urgent needs for (1) the development of enhanced aetiological models of schizophrenia, which elucidate the interactions between genetic risk and social environment, and can better inform bio-psycho-social approaches to treatment; (2) a renewal of emphasis on the United Nations' "Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness" and related legislative measures in individual countries; and (3) continued study and examination of the impact of social, economic and political structures on the clinical features and outcome of mental illnesses. PMID:15899329

  7. Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schor, N.F. (Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references.

  8. Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

  9. An environmental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Geerling, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

  10. Approaching the new reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    1993-01-01

    I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

  11. Skull base approaches in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy. PMID:20602753

  12. [Hypercholesterolemia: a therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Moráis López, A; Lama More, R A; Dalmau Serra, J

    2009-05-01

    High blood cholesterol levels represent an important cardiovascular risk factor. Hypercholesterolemia is defined as levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol above 95th percentile for age and gender. For the paediatric population, selective screening is recommended in children older than 2 years who are overweight, with a family history of early cardiovascular disease or whose parents have high cholesterol levels. Initial therapeutic approach includes diet therapy, appropriate physical activity and healthy lifestyle changes. Drug treatment should be considered in children from the age of 10 who, after having followed appropriate diet recommendations, still have very high LDL-cholesterol levels or moderately high levels with concomitant risk factors. In case of extremely high LDL-cholesterol levels, drug treatment should be taken into consideration at earlier ages (8 years old). Modest response is usually observed with bile acid-binding resins. Statins can be considered first-choice drugs, once evidence on their efficacy and safety has been shown. PMID:19427823

  13. Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint

    2008-01-01

    A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1? and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

  14. COMPRENDO: Focus and approach.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-04-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body's signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that "the dose makes the poison" may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose-response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters--Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates) . PMID:16818253

  15. [New therapeutic approaches].

    PubMed

    Kurz, Alexander; Grimmer, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The most prevalent causes of dementia are progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Alzheimer's disease ranks first and is follwed by Parkinson and Lewy body disease as well as the Frontotemporal lobar degenerations. These neurodegenerative processes are characterised by the production, aggregation and deposition of pathological proteins. These are ? amyloid and tau in Alzheimer's disease; ? synuclein in der Parkinson's- and Lewy body disease, and tau, TDP-43 as well as FUS in the Frontotemporal lobar degenerations. Aggregation into oligomers and fibrils and subsequent sedimentation of these proteins lead to nerve cell dysfunction, synaptic failure and ultimately to the demise of neurons. The deficits and imbalance of neurotransmitter systems which represent an important target of the current pharmacological treatment of dementia are consequences of nerve cell loss. Many of the novel treatment approaches that are being tested in clinical trials are aimed at preventing, slowing or ameliorating the production, aggregation and deposition of pathological proteins. Key strategies are inhibition of secretases which generate ? amyloid, active and passive immunisation against ? amyloid, restriction ? amyloid and tau aggregation as well as stimulation of ? amyloid clearance. In addition clinical trials are ongoing on symptomatic treatments including the simultaneous stimulation of multiple neurotransmitter systems, compensation of brain insulin resistance, and neuroprotection through certain nutrients. In addition to novel drug treatments non-pharmacological interventions are also being developed. PMID:25791052

  16. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

  17. Approaches to refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jerome

    2014-03-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

  18. Complications Related to Anterolateral Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Rocco Papalia; Vincenzo Denaro

    \\u000a The low and high retropharyngeal and precarotid prest-ernocleidomastoid approaches to the cervical spine allow one to expose\\u000a all the levels of the cervical spine, from the basis of the skull to the upper thoracic levels [1].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The low presternocleidomastoid approach is the most common direct approach to the middle and low cervical spine. It was first\\u000a described to expose the

  19. Bethe ansatz approach to quench dynamics in the Richardson model

    SciTech Connect

    Faribault, Alexandre [Department of Physics, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Calabrese, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Caux, Jean-Sebastien [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    By instantaneously changing a global parameter in an extended quantum system, an initially equilibrated state will afterwards undergo a complex nonequilibrium unitary evolution whose description is extremely challenging. A nonperturbative method giving a controlled error in the long time limit remained highly desirable to understand general features of the quench induced quantum dynamics. In this paper we show how integrability (via the algebraic Bethe ansatz) gives one numerical access, in a nearly exact manner, to the dynamics resulting from a global interaction quench of an ensemble of fermions with pairing interactions (Richardson's model). This possibility is deeply linked to the specific structure of this particular integrable model which gives simple expressions for the scalar product of eigenstates of two different Hamiltonians. We show how, despite the fact that a sudden quench can create excitations at any frequency, a drastic truncation of the Hilbert space can be carried out therefore allowing access to large systems. The small truncation error which results does not change with time and consequently the method grants access to a controlled description of the long time behavior which is a hard to reach limit with other numerical approaches.

  20. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

  1. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

  2. Integrated approach for biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Kruithof, J C; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive research efforts, past and present strategies to control biofouling problems in spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes have not been successful under all circumstances. Gaining insight in the biofouling process is a first necessity. Based on recent insights, an overview is given of 12 potential complementary approaches to solve biofouling. Combinations of approaches may be more efficient in biofouling control than a single approach. A single approach must be 100% effective, while in combination each individual approach can be partially effective while the combination is still efficient. An integrated Approach for Biofouling Control (ABC) is proposed, based on three corner stones: (i) equipment design and operation, (ii) biomass growth conditions, and (iii) cleaning agents as a framework to control biofouling. While past and present strategies addressed mainly membranes and microorganisms, i.e. removal or inactivation of biomass, this ABC-approach addresses the total membrane filtration system. It is anticipated that this integral approach will enable a more rational and effective control of biofouling. Although in this stage chemical cleaning and biofouling inhibitor dosage seem unavoidable to control biofouling, it is expected that in future--because of sustainability and costs reasons--membrane systems will be developed without or with minimal need for chemical cleaning and dosing. Three potential scenarios for biofouling control are proposed based on (i) biofouling tolerant spiral wound membrane systems, (ii) capillary membranes, and (iii) phosphate limitation. PMID:21099033

  3. Chronic dizziness: a practical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Bronstein; T. Lempert; B. M. Seemungal

    2010-01-01

    Patients with chronic dizziness pose a particular challenge to the clinician, partly because their symptoms correlate poorly with standard vestibular tests; so a ‘test and think later’ approach is likely to lead to diagnostic confusion rather than clarity. Rather, a meticulous clinical assessment is required. Here our approach to the chronic dizzy patient is described with an emphasis on treating

  4. Science Focus: The Salters' Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kevin de

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the Salter's approach to teaching and learning science at the Junior Secondary level by showing how the phenomenon of fire is treated in curriculum materials. Discusses contents of the teachers' guide, student texts, and assessment pack. Gives an evaluation of the usefulness of the approach in the Australian context. (Author/MKR)

  5. Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, M. G., Ed.

    Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

  6. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  7. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  8. Project Approach: Teaching. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Rose

    The primary objective of the action research chronicled (in English and Chinese) in this book was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the Project Approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the Project Approach, focusing on…

  9. Hierarchical approach to feature indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosky, William I.; Jiang, Charlie Z. W.

    1992-04-01

    We extend our previous approach to 2-D shape indexing, data-driven indexed hypotheses, to hierarchical features. It is shown mathematically and experimentally that an index based on hierarchical features is more computationally efficient than one based on nonhierarchical features. Our approach addresses two types of hierarchies: a multilevel approximation of the contours of 2-D objects and a three-level feature indexing system. Our approach can easily be extended to 3-D objects. As we know, occluded object recognition should be based on local features. However, these features may sometimes be lost due to changes of scale as well as to occlusion. Our first hierarchical mechanism is used to complement the feature loss due to scale changes. It results in multilevel approximations of the contours of objects using scale-space approaches. This approach is also beneficial when there are few boundary points of maximal curvature so that standard polygonal approximation schemes don''t work very well. Our second hierarchical mechanism is to use sets of visible local features to hypothesize the presence of objects. Verification of the various hypotheses is done via normalization and boundary template matching. Using these two hierarchical mechanisms results in an approach to shape recognition which is very general in practice. Theoretically, many types of features can be recognized, though line features are preferred. Our technique offers a new approach to the construction of indexing systems for image databases on the basis of image features.

  10. [Psychology of patient management: evaluation and quality assurance of psychosocial management in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Kusch, M; Labouvie, H; Jäger, R S; Bode, U

    1997-02-01

    Since the introduction of health-care reform in Germany, quality assurance of inpatient care is required. In paediatric oncology this also includes quality assurance measures of psycho-social care. Care Psychology deals with the development, testing and continual improvement of high-quality psycho-social care. Based on clinical experience, scientific knowledge and ascertained requirements a handbook and manual of service delivery of psycho-social care is formulated and tested in everyday practice. Service performance analyses are carried out, and verified improvements are re-tested in practice. This, as well as additional attempts, should lead to total quality management (TQM) of psycho-social care in paediatric oncology according to the criteria of the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM). PMID:9156631

  11. Design approaches to structural optimization

    E-print Network

    Tayar, Memduh Ali

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop design approaches to structural optimization. In the example of three-dimensional grid structures, widely known as 'space frames', possible configurations are explored which ...

  12. A Collaborative Approach to Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; Fessler, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    Explores key components of the teacher professional growth process and examines how "significant others" can contribute to the components discussed. Presents a structure for a collaborative approach to supervision and staff development. (FL)

  13. e- Participation: A Discursive Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Lourenço; João Paulo Costa

    \\u000a This chapter analyses some of the distinguishing characteristics of public participation processes, justifying the case for\\u000a a discursive deliberative approach. It identifies tools’ requirements to effectively foster deliberation, presenting a comprehensive\\u000a evolution of discursive support tools up to the Web 2.0 generation. Integration with tools from several research areas, including\\u000a decision-analytic approaches is also discussed. Finally, this chapter ends with

  14. An approach to testing specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Jard; Gregor von Bochmann

    1983-01-01

    An approach to testing the consistency of specifications is explored, which is applicable to the design validation of communication protocols and other cases of step-wise refinement. In this approach, a testing module compares a trace of interactions obtained from an execution of the refined specification (e. g. the protocol specification) with the reference specification (e. g. the communication service specification).Non-determinism

  15. Dynamical Approaches to Cognitive Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall D. Beer

    2000-01-01

    this article, I review three rather different examples of such work,addressing the lexical and grammatical structure of language, Piagets classic A-not-B error, andactive categorical perception in an embodied, situated agent. From these three examples, I thenattempt to articulate the major differences between dynamical approaches and more traditionalsymbolic and connectionist approaches. Although the three models reviewed here varyconsiderably in their details,

  16. Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach

    E-print Network

    Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach i Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach November 2008 #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach iii Wild deer approach to wild deer management sets out ways to make the most of this asset, managing deer

  17. An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Andrew J.

    Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.

  18. Systems Science Approach to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

    Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

  19. Biomedical Approaches to HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Skeer, Margie; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    People who use and abuse alcohol and other drugs are an important population to target for HIV prevention because they are more likely to engage in sexual behaviors that increase their likelihood of acquiring or transmitting HIV. A variety of biomedical approaches to HIV prevention have been evaluated or currently are being studied. These approaches include an anti-HIV vaccine; topical protection treatments; and additional biomedical and barrier approaches, such as controlling sexually transmitted diseases, male circumcision, diaphragm use, and substance abuse treatment. The article also reviews topical versus oral antiretrovirals to prevent HIV transmission, antiretroviral treatment as prevention, and the role of alcohol and other drug use in HIV prevention. PMID:23584061

  20. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  1. [Surgical approaches for endometrial cancer? ].

    PubMed

    Narducci, Fabrice; Jean-Laurent, Mehdi; Lambaudie, Eric; Coutty, Nadège; Leblanc, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The recommendations of the Institut national du cancer and of the Société francaise d'oncologie gynécologique in endometrial carcinoma (2010) reported that laparoscopy is the standard surgical approach for patients with apparent stage FIGO I in preoperative outcomes including MRI (www.e-cancer.fr). For patients with stage FIGO greater than I, laparotomy is the standard surgical approach. In case of lymph nodes or peritoneal restaging, the laparoscopy could be a good option especially by extraperitoneal route in patients with recent first surgery. PMID:22192868

  2. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

  3. An approach to duodenal biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Serra, S; Jani, P A

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis. PMID:16679353

  4. A possibilistic approach to clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghu Krishnapuram; James M. Keller

    1993-01-01

    The clustering problem is cast in the framework of possibility theory. The approach differs from the existing clustering methods in that the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values can be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes, i.e., the compatibilities of the points with the

  5. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ROCKFALL FORECASTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Alba; Diego Arosio; Laura Longoni; Monica Papini; Marco Scaioni; Luigi Zanzi

    Our work addresses a new methodology for assessing and monitoring rockfalls through an integrated multi-disciplinary approach, taking advantage of innovative devices and sensors (terrestrial laser scanners, ground-based interferometric SAR systems, ground penetrating radars, seismic and acoustic sensor networks) in order to increase the achievable information. The research project promotes the integration of different techniques to facilitate a better analysis of

  6. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  7. Gnostical approach to robust control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kovanic

    Data processing algorithms based on the gnostical theory of uncertain data possess high robustness with respect to both outlying data and changes of their statistical characteristics. There are several ways of substantial robustification of control systems by means of such algorithms. Effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by examples.

  8. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Epstein

    2008-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent ``up front'' from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because

  9. Characterizing Engineering Faculty's Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Ann F.; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we identify several approaches engineering faculty use to teach engineering topics. We report results from an exploratory study, consisting of 16 faculty interviews from five diverse institutions of higher education. We focus specifically on engineering faculty because the engineering faculty teaching culture is not well explored,…

  10. INCREMENTAL APPROACH TO DERIVATIVE POLAROGRAPHY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Auerbach; H. L. Finston; George Kissel; Joseph Glickstein

    1961-01-01

    A new approach to direct current polarography is described, which ; provides an incremental approximation to the derivative current-voltage curve. ; Incremental polarograms are determined by a sequence of automatic operations. ; Instrumentation of relatively simple design was built, with extensive use of plug-; in ampllfiers. Provision is made for simultaneous or separate readout of both ; current increments and

  11. Pluralistic Approaches to Art Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.

    Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…

  12. Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

  13. Designing for Uncertainty: Three Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Higher education wishes to get long life and good returns on its investment in learning spaces. Doing this has become difficult because rapid changes in information technology have created fundamental uncertainties about the future in which capital investments must deliver value. Three approaches to designing for this uncertainty are described…

  14. A Backward Approach to Inquiry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sher Hendrickson

    2006-01-01

    In the sciences, the National Science Education Standards further emphasize that learning science is an inquiry-based process; therefore, teaching methods should be inquiry-based. Use a backwards design approach to ensure that academic standards are met during student-centered, inquiry-based investigations for daily class activities, classroom discussions, and assessment of student understanding.

  15. New endoscopic approaches in IBD

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Neurath, Markus F; Mudter, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic approach of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New, emerging endoscopic imaging techniques visualized a plethora of new mucosal details even at the cellular and subcellular level. This review offers an overview about new endoscopic techniques, including chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, spectroscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy in the face of IBD. PMID:21218085

  16. Community Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    to require preparation of an environmental impact statement. When an environmental impact statement, then the environmental impact statement will discuss all of these effects on the human environment. #12;PrioritiesCommunity Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches #12;1960s · 1964 Title VI of Civil Rights Act of 1964

  17. of Schizophrenia New Approaches to

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    The Nature of Schizophrenia New Approaches to Research and Treatment Lyman C. Wynne Professor Transmission Chapter 6 A Genetic Perspective on Schizophrenia Kenneth K. Kidd, Ph.D. GENES AND ENVIRONMENT Genetic studies of schizophrenia can be both challenging and frustrating to a geneticist: challenging

  18. NEW HORIZONS PLUTO APPROACH NAVIGATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Miller; Dale R. Stanbridge; Bobby G. Williams

    The navigation of the New Horizons spacecraft during approach to Pluto and its satellite Charon is described. The great distance of the spacecraft from the Earth and Sun presents several new challenges that are identified and described by ana- lytic formula. The two-body dynamics present a particularly interesting problem of satellite orbit determination. A complete covariance analysis is performed describ-

  19. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  20. COHOMOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO SK1

    E-print Network

    Kahn, Bruno -Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    COHOMOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO SK1 AND SK2 OF CENTRAL SIMPLE ALGEBRAS BRUNO KAHN Work in progress global SK1(A) = 0. (Uses class field theory.) Theorem 3 (Bak-Rehmann, 1983). F global SK2(A) = 0. (Uses-Noether.) Theorem 5 (Rost, 1986; Merkurjev, 1988). ind(A) = 2 SK2(A) = 0. Theorem 6 (Platonov, 1980es). A : SK1(A

  1. An Ontological Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Bruce

    Distinguishing the contextual realm addressed by ontological education as a valid area for inquiry by those who think about language and communication, this paper discusses an approach to education that is ontological in nature, in that its focus is the "being" of human beings rather than their knowledge. The paper explores several ideas drawn…

  2. Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the field of educational evaluation. Each approach is reviewed in terms of the work of its major proponents. The dominant forms of qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic…

  3. Map Projections: Approaches and Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

  4. An Approach for Dynamic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Liou, Meng-Sing; Hindman, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-dependent grid is computed through the time integration of the grid speeds which are computed from a system of grid speed equations. The grid speed equations are derived from the time-differentiation of the grid equations so as to ensure that the dynamic grid maintains the desired qualities of the static grid. The grid equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from a variational statement for the grid. The dynamic grid method is demonstrated for a model problem involving boundary motion, an inviscid flow in a converging-diverging nozzle during startup, and a viscous flow over a flat plate with an impinging shock wave. It is shown that the approach is more accurate for transient flows than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference with respect to time of the grid. However, the approach requires significantly more computational effort.

  5. Women's Health and Complementary Approaches

    MedlinePLUS

    Women’s Health and Complementary Approaches Some health and wellness issues are unique to women, and others are more ... about external links womenshealth.jpg Related Topics MedlinePlus Women's Health Resources NIH Office of Research on Women's Health ...

  6. a Bayesian network based approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remco R. Bouckaert

    In this article, a contribution is made to in- formation extraction and Bayesian network learning motivated by two practical informa- tion extraction tasks. It is shown that some information extrac- tion tasks can be approached as a classifi- cation problem where the text is split in to- kens and each token is assigned a class. Hid- den Markov models are

  7. Piagetian Approach to Cognitive Development

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    1 Piagetian Approach to Cognitive Development Piaget's Stages · Sensorimotor ­ (birth ­ 2 yrs (and to figure out which ones!) · Very culture-specific task Cognitive Development · Piaget: 0 Logic in developing? · Stages versus gradually development ­ Objections to discrete series of stages versus idea

  8. STRUCTURAL APPROACHES FOR SPN ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Ciardo; Andrew S. Minery

    2000-01-01

    Petri nets and Markovian Petri nets are excellent tools for logic and performability system modeling. However, the size of the underlying reachability set is a major limitation in practice. One approach gaining attention among researchers is the use of structured representa- tions, which require us to decompose a net into, or com- pose a net from, subnets. This paper surveys

  9. Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    7/3/2013 1 Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials Eileen D. Kuempel, PhD Nanotechnology to Nanomaterials? No data or limited data for most manufactured nanoparticles Animal data of poorlysoluble to Nanomaterials Risk Assessment 1. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest (LOAEL) with uncertainty

  10. Approaches to Academic Growth Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Gimbert, Belinda; O'Connell, Ann A.; Riegel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is much interest in assessing growth in student learning. Assessments of growth have important implications and affect many policy decisions at many levels. Aims: In the present article, we review some of the different approaches to measuring growth and examine the implications of their usage. Sample: Samples used in research on…

  11. Design approaches for taming complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Kazman; Philippe Kruchten

    2012-01-01

    We examine the essential characteristics of system complexity and simplicity and we describe a set of general design heuristics to address complexity. We distinguish inherent, irreducible complexity from perceived complexity. We illustrate a little theory of complexity with examples drawn from ultra-large-scale systems: telephony, the Internet, and the power grid. We then show how a toolkit of design approaches that

  12. Characterizing engineering faculty's teaching approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann F. McKenna; Bugrahan Yalvac

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we identify several approaches engineering faculty use to teach engineering topics. We report results from an exploratory study, consisting of 16 faculty interviews from five diverse institutions of higher education. We focus specifically on engineering faculty because the engineering faculty teaching culture is not well explored, even though there are many ongoing projects to reform engineering education.

  13. Twenty Approaches to Individual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Dorlesa Barmettler

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews traditional helping systems of therapy, i.e., psychonalytic, experiential/phenomenological, cognitive, and behavioral, as well as mind-body systems approaches of transcendental meditation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise training, nutrition, and bioenergetics analysis. Therapists are admonished to learn about these various…

  14. Approaches to Rural Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Kathy R.; Scott, Jacqueline L.

    2006-01-01

    Three professional development approaches have shown promise in raising the competency level of early childhood professionals in rural areas. Provider registry systems gather information that provides a foundation for further professional development initiatives and systemic development. Statewide professional development systems designed to serve…

  15. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  16. Indian Education: An Intergenerational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalohead, Priscilla; Sterner, Michele

    The Indian Education Program in the Osseo School District (Minnesota) serves approximately 200 American Indian students in grades K-12 from 27 schools and a variety of tribes. The Program's intergenerational approach reflects tribal traditions in that generations learn together and grandparents, parents, and students are involved in the…

  17. Minimalist Approach to Perceptual Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lenay, Charles; Stewart, John

    2012-01-01

    Work aimed at studying social cognition in an interactionist perspective often encounters substantial theoretical and methodological difficulties: identifying the significant behavioral variables; recording them without disturbing the interaction; and distinguishing between: (a) the necessary and sufficient contributions of each individual partner for a collective dynamics to emerge; (b) features which derive from this collective dynamics and escape from the control of the individual partners; and (c) the phenomena arising from this collective dynamics which are subsequently appropriated and used by the partners. We propose a minimalist experimental paradigm as a basis for this conceptual discussion: by reducing the sensory inputs to a strict minimum, we force a spatial and temporal deployment of the perceptual activities, which makes it possible to obtain a complete recording and control of the dynamics of interaction. After presenting the principles of this minimalist approach to perception, we describe a series of experiments on two major questions in social cognition: recognizing the presence of another intentional subject; and phenomena of imitation. In both cases, we propose explanatory schema which render an interactionist approach to social cognition clear and explicit. Starting from our earlier work on perceptual crossing we present a new experiment on the mechanisms of reciprocal recognition of the perceptual intentionality of the other subject: the emergent collective dynamics of the perceptual crossing can be appropriated by each subject. We then present an experimental study of opaque imitation (when the subjects cannot see what they themselves are doing). This study makes it possible to characterize what a properly interactionist approach to imitation might be. In conclusion, we draw on these results, to show how an interactionist approach can contribute to a fully social approach to social cognition. PMID:22582041

  18. Psychotherapy and Alcoholics Anonymous: An Integrated Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Knack

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for, and a method of, combining a nonprofessional self-help addiction recovery program, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and a professional treatment approach, psychotherapy. The two approaches share a common goal, target similar issues, and work toward similar outcomes. A psychotherapy approach that integrates the two approaches can be quite powerful. Treating a patient in psychotherapy who is

  19. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  20. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

  1. Malaysia implements the integrated approach.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. PMID:12260250

  2. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Epstein

    2008-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity\\u000a in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which\\u000a applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant\\u000a because

  3. Approach and Landing Test emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This circular, red, white, and blue emblem has been chosen as the Official insignia for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Test (ALT) flights. A picture of the Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' is superimposed over a red triangle, which in turn is superimposed over a large inner circle of dark blue. The surnames of the members of the two ALT crews are in white in the field of blue.

  4. Standard approach to plant modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost.

  5. Different approaches of spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacoume, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

  6. An integrative approach to health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Mullan Harris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I make the case for using an integrative approach to health, broadly defined as social, emotional, mental,\\u000a and physical well-being; for studying health among the young as an important marker for future health and well-being across\\u000a the life course; and for understanding health disparities among the young as both causes and consequences of social stratification.\\u000a An integrative

  7. Diagrammatic approach to quantum search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a simple diagrammatic approach for estimating how a randomly walking quantum particle searches on a graph in continuous time, which involves sketching small weighted graphs with self-loops and considering degenerate perturbation theory's effects on them. Using this method, we give the first example of degenerate perturbation theory solving search on a graph whose evolution occurs in a subspace whose dimension grows with.

  8. Scrutinizing Gartner's hype cycle approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Steinert; Larry Leifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes the validity of the Gartner's hype cycle approach by means of in-depths theoretical discussion and empirical analysis. After presenting Gartner's model and its strong immanent influence on large companies' technology strategy and investment decisions, we conduct an in-depth analysis of its two underlying theories, the expectation hype and the technology s-curves. In the next stage, we analyze

  9. Diagrammatic Approach to Quantum Search

    E-print Network

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-02-09

    We introduce a simple diagrammatic approach for estimating how a randomly walking quantum particle searches on a graph in continuous-time, which involves sketching small weighted graphs with self-loops and considering degenerate perturbation theory's effects on them. Using this method, we give the first example of degenerate perturbation theory solving search on a graph whose evolution occurs in a subspace whose dimension grows with $N$.

  10. A Computational Approach for Model Update of an LS-DYNA Energy Absorbing Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    NASA and its contractors are working on structural concepts for absorbing impact energy of aerospace vehicles. Recently, concepts in the form of multi-cell honeycomb-like structures designed to crush under load have been investigated for both space and aeronautics applications. Efforts to understand these concepts are progressing from tests of individual cells to tests of systems with hundreds of cells. Because of fabrication irregularities, geometry irregularities, and material properties uncertainties, the problem of reconciling analytical models, in particular LS-DYNA models, with experimental data is a challenge. A first look at the correlation results between single cell load/deflection data with LS-DYNA predictions showed problems which prompted additional work in this area. This paper describes a computational approach that uses analysis of variance, deterministic sampling techniques, response surface modeling, and genetic optimization to reconcile test with analysis results. Analysis of variance provides a screening technique for selection of critical parameters used when reconciling test with analysis. In this study, complete ignorance of the parameter distribution is assumed and, therefore, the value of any parameter within the range that is computed using the optimization procedure is considered to be equally likely. Mean values from tests are matched against LS-DYNA solutions by minimizing the square error using a genetic optimization. The paper presents the computational methodology along with results obtained using this approach.

  11. EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.

    PubMed

    Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage. PMID:21730041

  12. A Novel Shape Parameterization Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel parameterization approach for complex shapes suitable for a multidisciplinary design optimization application. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft objects animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in a similar manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminated plate structures) and high-fidelity analysis tools (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling). This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, and camber. The results are presented for a multidisciplinary design optimization application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, performance, and a simple propulsion module.

  13. Nonpharmaceutical approaches to pain management.

    PubMed

    Corti, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    A nonpharmaceutical approach to managing pain is one that does not employ a medication. The use of such approaches, in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of multimodal methods to managing pain, is becoming more popular as evidence is emerging to support their use. Cold therapy, for one, is used to reduce the inflammation and tissue damage seen in acute injuries and can be very effective at reducing acute pain. Incorporating the use of superficial heat therapy when treating pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions is often employed as heat increases blood flow, oxygen delivery, and tissue extensibility. Acupuncture is gaining acceptance in veterinary medicine. Research is confirming that release of endogenous endorphins and enkephalins from the application of needles at specific points around the body can effectively control acute and chronic pain. The use of 2 newer therapies-extracorporeal shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma-represent an attempt to eliminate the causes of pain at the tissue level by promoting tissue healing and regeneration. Reviewed in this article, these therapies are intended to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of a multimodal approach to pain management. PMID:25103886

  14. Ecosystem approaches to human health.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N O

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function. PMID:11426267

  15. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  16. Molecular Approaches to Sarcoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, R. J.; Tarantolo, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors that have a relatively poor prognosis. Although conventional therapeutic regimens can effectively cytoreduce the overall tumor mass, they fail to consistently achieve a curative outcome. Alternative gene-based approaches that counteract the underlying neoplastic process by eliminating the clonal aberrations that potentiate malignant behavior have been proposed. As compared to the accumulation of gene alterations associated with epithelial carcinomas, sarcomas are frequently characterized by the unique presence of a single chromosomal translocation in each histological subtype. Similar to the Philadelphia chromosome associated with CML, these clonal abnormalities result in the fusion of two independent unrelated genes to generate a unique chimeric protein that displays aberrant activity believed to initiate cellular transformation. Secondary gene mutations may provide an additional growth advantage that further contributes to malignant progression. The recent clinical success of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, suggests that therapeutic approaches specifically directed against essential survival factors in sarcoma cells may be effective. This review summarizes published approaches targeting a specific molecular mechanism associated with sarcomagenesis. The strategy and significance of published translational studies in six distinct areas are presented. These include: (1) the disruption of chimeric transcription factor activity; (2) inhibition of growth stimulatory post-translational modifications; (3) restoration of tumor suppressor function; (4) interference with angiogenesis; (5) induction of apoptotic pathways; and (6) introduction of toxic gene products. The potential for improving outcomes in sarcoma patients and the conceptual obstacles to be overcome are discussed. PMID:18521343

  17. 12 CFR 324.43 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach. 324.43 Section 324.43...formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach. (a) General requirements...calculation: ER10SE13.022 (e) Gross-up approach —(1) Applicability....

  18. 12 CFR 3.43 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach. 3.43 Section 3.43 Banks...formula approach (SSFA) and the gross-up approach. (a) General requirements...calculation: er11oc13.024 (e) Gross-up approach —(1) Applicability....

  19. Why do we need and how can we realize a multi-disciplinary approach to health informatics?

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank; Lopéz, Diego M

    2015-01-01

    Like no other area, health and social care are characterized by a multi-disciplinary nature. This development gets even stronger by the move towards a personalized, predictive, preventive and participative care paradigm as well as by organizational and technological changes leading to highly distributed care setting realized by multiple stakeholder communities from different policy domains. Those paradigm changes result in growing interoperability challenges when enabling communication and cooperation of all the different actors based on shared knowledge and skills. For meeting those challenges, a systems-oriented, architecture-centric, ontology-based and policy-driven approach in health informatics education, but also in modeling, implementing and maintaining health informatics interoperability is inevitable. The paper introduces the aforementioned concepts. PMID:25991110

  20. Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to Compliance in the Cloud Microsoft Trustworthy Computing Executive summary Microsoft recognizes that trust Microsoft cloud services create customer choice 11 #12;Trustworthy Computing | The Microsoft Approach

  1. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  2. Novel approaches to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gisli; Goodwin, Amanda

    2014-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating condition with a poor prognosis and few treatment options. However, recent research into this condition has led to considerable insights into the pathophysiology of the disease, resulting in the identification of potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis and stratification of patients and the development of novel therapies. In this review we will discuss the recent developments in this field and review how this knowledge has been translated into clinical trials and a paradigm shift in our approach to patients with IPF. PMID:25468919

  3. An approach to space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

    1990-01-01

    Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

  4. Approach to Mars Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

  5. Chemoselective approaches to glycoprotein assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Howard C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-02-23

    Oligosaccharides on proteins and lipids play central roles in human health and disease. The molecular analysis of glycoconjugate function has benefited tremendously from new methods for their chemical synthesis, which provides homogeneous material not attainable from biosynthetic systems. Still, glycoconjugate synthesis requires the manipulation of multiple stereocenters and protecting groups and remains the domain of a few expert laboratories around the world. This account summarizes chemoselective approaches for assembling homogeneous glycoconjugates that attempt to reduce the barriers to their synthesis. The objective of these methods is to make glycoconjugate synthesis accessible to a broader community, thereby accelerating progress in glycobiology.

  6. New approach to resonance crossing.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, G; Zimmermann, F

    2012-12-01

    Time-varying nonlinear oscillatory systems produce phenomena of resonance crossing and trapping of particles in resonance islands. Traditionally, such processes have been analyzed in terms of adiabatic conditions. Considering, as an example, a simplified one-dimensional model describing the "electron-cloud pinch" during a bunch passage in a particle accelerator, here we present an approach to resonance trapping which does not require any adiabatic condition. Instead we introduce the concept of the attraction point and investigate invariance and scaling properties of motion close to the attraction point, considering a single resonance crossing. PMID:23368210

  7. Unified approach to dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-04-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large Nc limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

  8. MCA: A multichannel approach to SAR autofocus

    E-print Network

    Morrison, Robert L., Jr.

    We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing ...

  9. Two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting 

    E-print Network

    Chan, Ching

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting are developed. The first approach uses an expressive paint tool that enables anyone to paint 2D Chinese paintings in real-time. The realistic rendering of paint strokes...

  10. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  11. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal...

  12. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal...

  13. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal...

  14. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal...

  15. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal...

  16. Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach

    E-print Network

    Clausen, Michael

    Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach Shankar Vembu German Research Center Source separation approach Experiments Conclusion #12;3 Extraction of melody Computer music transcription using source separation techniques Idea: Separate vocals from the polyphonic input Apply monophonic

  17. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  18. A New Approach To Teaching Dimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Stuart W.

    1997-01-01

    Explains an approach to teaching dimensional analysis that differs slightly from the traditional approach. The difference lies in the novelty of exposition in the presentation and interpretation of dimensional analysis as a speculative process. (DDR)

  19. IP routing lookup: hardware and software approach 

    E-print Network

    Chakaravarthy, Ravikumar V.

    2005-08-29

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by the dual goal of developing a scalable and efficient approach for IP lookup using both hardware and software approach. The work involved designing algorithms and techniques ...

  20. Approaches for primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ilchmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In total hip replacement surgeons can choose from a various number of approaches, from posterior, lateral or direct anterior. Excellent results can be achieved with all approaches and there is no evidence for the use of a specific approach. Minimally invasive operating techniques might further contribute to that success. Early rehabilitation and functional outcome can be improved by the introduction of evidence based clinical pathways irrespective to the used approach. PMID:24970034

  1. Multidisciplinary approaches to solar hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Bren, Kara L

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes three different approaches to engineering systems for the solar-driven evolution of hydrogen fuel from water: molecular, nanomaterials and biomolecular. Molecular systems have the advantage of being highly amenable to modification and detailed study and have provided great insight into photophysics, electron transfer and catalytic mechanism. However, they tend to display poor stability. Systems based on nanomaterials are more robust but also are more difficult to synthesize in a controlled manner and to modify and study in detail. Biomolecular systems share many properties with molecular systems and have the advantage of displaying inherently high efficiencies for light absorption, electron-hole separation and catalysis. However, biological systems must be engineered to couple modules that capture and convert solar photons to modules that produce hydrogen fuel. Furthermore, biological systems are prone to degradation when employed in vitro. Advances that use combinations of these three tactics also are described. Multidisciplinary approaches to this problem allow scientists to take advantage of the best features of biological, molecular and nanomaterials systems provided that the components can be coupled for efficient function. PMID:26052425

  2. Decay Within QCD Factorization Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehraban, Hossein; Abdoos, Fahimeh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the decayin naïve factorization (NF) and QCD factorization (QCDF) schemes. Since, it is known from the data analysis based on the model-independent diagrammatic approach that weak annihilation in charm decays is quite sizable, so we have calculated weak annihilation contribution which is model-dependent in the QCD factorization approach. Indeed our obtained results of decay show that the annihilation contribution is one of the key ingredients for understanding the data. Also we have calculated the branching ratio in two special scales of ?= m c , 1 GeV and two different models for the charm to an axial-vector meson transition form factors. For ISGW2 model at scale ?=1 GeV, our calculated results of the branching ratio of decay areand in the NF and QCDF, respectively. The experimental data is less than 1.9×10-2. The branching ratio obtained in NF is very smaller than the experimental data but in QCDF, it is compatible with experimental data.

  3. Fast approach for toner saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  4. Economics of a multimedia approach

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.B.; Hindawi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    One of the major driving forces in the decision of a facility operator to implement a multimedia approach to examining pollution is the economics of the situation. A multimedia approach has gained favor with many facility operators because it has been shown to be more cost-effective than dealing with a number of phases, or media, separately. To a great extent, this is due to elimination of inefficiencies involved with cross-media transfer of pollutants. Even more basic to the problem of industrial pollution is the generation of waste. All industrial processes yield some percentage of waste products, but frequently during the design phase the costs associated with producing wastes are underestimated. As part of this series on multimedia issues, the costs related to manufacturing waste products are examined in detail. An obvious inefficiency associated with waste generation is the loss of material that potentially could be converted to salable products. The value of commodity raw materials frequently is ignored when considering the total costs of pollution generation at an industrial facility. Although the economics of pollution generation are affected by a number of factors, including regulatory costs, disposal costs and impacts on health and safety, this article focuses on the economics of lost production in industrial facilities.

  5. Telescience testbedding: An implementation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.; Weiss, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Telescience is the term used to describe a concept being developed by NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) under the Science and Applications Information System (SAIS) Program. This concept focuses on the development of an ability for all OSSA users to be remotely interactive with all provided information system services for the Space Station era. This concept includes access to services provided by both flight and ground components of the system and emphasizes the accommodation of users from their home institutions. Key to the development of the telescience capability is an implementation approach called rapid-prototype testbedding. This testbedding is used to validate the concept and test the applicability of emerging technologies and operational methodologies. Testbedding will be used to first determine the feasibility of an idea and then the applicability to real science usage. Once a concept is deemed viable, it will be integrated into the operational system for real time support. It is believed that this approach will greatly decrease the expense of implementing the eventual system and will enhance the resultant capabilities of the delivered system.

  6. The acousto-ultrasonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1987-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  7. ?-relaxed approach in structural topology optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Cheng; X. Guo

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a so-called e-relaxed approach for structural topology optimization problems of discrete structures. The distinctive feature of this new approach is that unlike the typical treatment of topology optimization problems based on the ground structure approach, we eliminate the singular optima from the problem formulation and thus unify the sizing and topology optimization within the same framework. As

  8. An Approach towards English Automatic Abstraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Yan; James N. K. Liu; Wang Kaizhu

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for automatic abstraction of English text. This approach is based on statistical analysis and unde rstanding of the text. An abstraction algorithm is introduced and its application discussed. Expe riment results demonstrate that this hybrid approach absorbs the advantages of two kinds of automatic abstraction and achieves a better result.

  9. A probabilistic approach to detecting network scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Leckie; Kotagiri Ramamohanarao

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for detecting network scans in real-time. Unlike previous approaches, our model takes into consideration both the number of destinations or ports accessed by a source, as well as how unusual these accesses are. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in terms of accuracy and throughput, based on an analysis of the unusual sources

  10. Managing information systems security: a soft approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L. James

    1996-01-01

    The increasing rate of reported computer security problems suggests that the highly structured and technical traditional approaches to the management of IS security do not appear to be successful. This paper presents the Orion Strategy, a participative approach to the planning and management of information security in organisations. The details of this approach are discussed along with an overview of

  11. PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov Model Nadia Lalam Department vetenskaper Göteborg 2007 #12;A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE RECLAMATION AND REUSE OF POWER PLANT: Sahimi, Muhammad and Theodore T. Tsotsis. 2005. Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse of Power of the University of Southern California. The report is entitled Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse

  13. Statistical and structural approaches to texture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Haralick

    1979-01-01

    In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness, structural element, gray tone cooccurrence, run lengths, and autoregressive models. We discuss and generalize some structural approaches to texture based on more complex primitives than gray tone.

  14. ASSESSING INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLS: A RUBRIC APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    ASSESSING INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLS: A RUBRIC APPROACH Megan J. Oakleaf A dissertation submitted Assessing Information Literacy Skills: A Rubric Approach (Under the direction of Dr. Helen Tibbo) Academic librarians should explore new approaches to the assessment of information literacy skills. Satisfaction

  15. A pretopological approach for structural analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Largeron; Stéphane Bonnevay

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a methodological approach for problems encountered in structural analysis. This approach is based upon the pretopological concepts of pseudoclosure and minimal closed subsets. The advantage of this approach is that it provides a framework which is general enough to model and formulate different types of connections that exist between the elements of

  16. Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

  17. Episodic memory: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  18. A New Approach for FCSRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Francçois; Berger, Thierry; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pousse, Benjamin

    The Feedback with Carry Shift Registers (FCSRs) have been proposed as an alternative to Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) for the design of stream ciphers. FCSRs have good statistical properties and they provide a built-in non-linearity. However, two attacks have shown that the current representations of FCSRs can introduce weaknesses in the cipher. We propose a new “ring” representation of FCSRs based upon matrix definition which generalizes the Galois and Fibonacci representations. Our approach preserves the statistical properties and circumvents the weaknesses of the Fibonacci and Galois representations. Moreover, the ring representation leads to automata with a quicker diffusion characteristic and better implementation results. As an application, we describe a new version of F-FCSR stream ciphers.

  19. Medical biofilms--nanotechnology approaches.

    PubMed

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Clond, Morgan A; Vogt, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are colonies of bacteria or fungi that adhere to a surface, protected by an extracellular polymer matrix composed of polysaccharides and extracellular DNA. They are highly complex and dynamic multicellular structures that resist traditional means of killing planktonic bacteria. Recent developments in nanotechnology provide novel approaches to preventing and dispersing biofilm infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Medical device infections are responsible for approximately 60% of hospital acquired infections. In the United States, the estimated cost of caring for healthcare-associated infections is approximately between $28 billion and $45 billion per year. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of biofilm formation and degradation, its relevance to challenges in clinical practice, and new technological developments in nanotechnology that are designed to address these challenges. PMID:25992419

  20. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    PubMed

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes. PMID:20658172

  1. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is made, therefore, not only for the abused child but for other members of the family (including both parents). The method adopted is to offer group therapy to the child, mother, and father and regular family meetings with professionals in the community, concerned with care and protection of children. Clinical data on the first 56 children treated are discussed and our approach to treatment is evaluated. PMID:6486864

  2. Nanomedicine Approaches for Corneal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Lim, Rayne R.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal diseases are the third leading cause of blindness globally. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, antibiotics and tissue transplantation are currently used to treat corneal pathological conditions. However, barrier properties of the ocular surface necessitate high concentration of the drugs applied in the eye repeatedly. This often results in poor efficacy and several side-effects. Nanoparticle-based molecular medicine seeks to overcome these limitations by enhancing the permeability and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The promise of nanomedicine approaches for treating corneal defects and restoring vision without side effects in preclinical animal studies has been demonstrated. Numerous polymeric, metallic and hybrid nanoparticles capable of transporting genes into desired corneal cells to intercept pathologic pathways and processes leading to blindness have been identified. This review provides an overview of corneal diseases, nanovector properties and their applications in drug-delivery and corneal disease management. PMID:25941990

  3. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  4. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  5. Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barton, Russell R.

    This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

  6. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  7. Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches

    E-print Network

    Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

  8. Three approaches to reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    It is noted that current reliability analysis tools differ not only in their solution techniques, but also in their approach to model abstraction. The analyst must be satisfied with the constraints that are intrinsic to any combination of solution technique and model abstraction. To get a better idea of the nature of these constraints, three reliability analysis tools (HARP, ASSIST/SURE, and CAME) were used to model portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System architecture. When presented with the example problem, all three tools failed to produce correct results. In all cases, either the tool or the model had to be modified. It is suggested that most of the difficulty is rooted in the large model size and long computational times which are characteristic of Markov model solutions.

  9. Bayesian Approach to Network Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Jake M.; Wiggins, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient, principled, and interpretable technique for inferring module assignments and for identifying the optimal number of modules in a given network. We show how several existing methods for finding modules can be described as variant, special, or limiting cases of our work, and how the method overcomes the resolution limit problem, accurately recovering the true number of modules. Our approach is based on Bayesian methods for model selection which have been used with success for almost a century, implemented using a variational technique developed only in the past decade. We apply the technique to synthetic and real networks and outline how the method naturally allows selection among competing models. PMID:18643711

  10. [A historical approach to computing].

    PubMed

    Babini, N

    1996-12-01

    Half a century after computers' conception, its effects, already reaching all human domains, seem to aim at becoming a universal transition similar to that one which marked in Occident the passage from artisanal production to industrial production among the 18 and 19 centuries, as from mechanisation to universal automation. It's considered that if this supposition may be correct, it would be urgent to intensify the historical approach of Informatics already present in may countries but not in ours. It's proposed the gradual incorporation of history of informatics in university careers beginning from research centers including teachers and researchers preparation, production and publication of works and the creation of museums and archives, to preserve physical testimonies and origin documents and the initial evolution of this scientific-technical invention which honours our century. PMID:11625366

  11. Molecular approaches in obesity studies

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Reza; Azodi, Taghi; Omidi, Roghiyeh; Gilanchi, Samira; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity as one of the most health concerns has increased globally. This kind of disease has been accounted for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, different types of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer. Obesity is a multifactorial disease that both environmental factors and genetics play important role in its susceptibly. In molecular biology, characterization of the adipocyte secretome is important in signaling to other organs and in regulating energy balance for evaluating underlines mechanism. Since better understanding of this disease lead to both preventive and post treatment of obesity which is achieved by molecular evaluations, this review underlies the importance of some molecular approaches in the field of obesity. PMID:24834284

  12. [Pathogenetic approaches to treating constipations].

    PubMed

    Luzina, E V

    2014-01-01

    Constipation affects 15-25% of people. Its mechanisms are various. There are constipations due to intestinal dyskinesia (functional constipation, irritated bowel syndrome), slow transit (colonic inertia), and muscular apparatus discoordination ensuring defecation (dyssynergic defecation). The treatment of different types of constipation uses prokinetics (type 4 serotonin receptor agonists, chlorine channels activators and guanylate cyclase C channel activators) or spasmolytics, among which pinaverium bromide (dicetel) has demonstrated its high efficacy. Biofeedback therapy or surgical techniques may be used. There is a need to prescribe laxatives in any type of constipation. A pathogenetic approach to treating constipation is most efficient. The paper characterizes stimulant, osmotic, volume, and emollient laxatives and agents stimulating the urge to defecate. It also gives the data of meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of different drug groups. Particular emphasis is laid of the effect of lactulose and its first preparation--duphalac. PMID:25306754

  13. Histories Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Tulsi Dass

    2005-01-27

    These lecture notes cover the important developments in histories approach to quantum mechanics with overall content and emphasis somewhat different from other reviews and books on the subject.The idea of Houtappel, Van Dam and Wigner of employing objects based on primitive concepts of physical theories is discussed in some detail and the fact that histories are such objects is emphasized. Application of histories formalism to the problem of understanding the quasiclassical domain is treated in some detail. Other topics discussed include generalized histories-based quantum mechanics and its application to the quantum mechanics of space-time,generalization of the notion of time sequences employing partial semigroups,quasitemporal structures, history projection operator (HPO) formalism, the algebraic scheme of Isham and Linden, an axiomatic scheme for quasitemporal histories-based theories and symmetries and conservation laws in histories-based theories.

  14. An Experimental Approach to Starshades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuele, Rocco; Varshneya, R.; Glassman, T.; Johnson, A. M. F.; Shipley, A.

    2010-01-01

    A starshade is an external occulter that flies tens of thousands of kilometers in front of a space telescope, along the line-of-sight to a star. A starshade blocks starlight before it enters the telescope, mitigating diffraction, and making Earth-like planets observable. The starshade testbed at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) is capable of testing the performance of sub-scale starshades in mission-similar configurations. Thus far at NGAS, starshades have suppressed a simulated star to the 10-7 contrast level or better across a broad white light bandpass. The goal of the testbed has been deep starlight suppression, but it is also important to understand starshade sensitivity to shape deformations. The purpose of this poster is to summarize our approach and initial results of assessing the impact of starshade shape flaws on performance using the testbed. We are working toward a convergence of experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  15. Photochemical approaches to vision restoration.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-06-01

    Photoswitches are traditional pharmacologic agonists, antagonists, or channel blockers that are covalently modified with an azobenzene derivative. Azobenzene undergoes wavelength-dependent isomerization between cis and trans conformation. For some photoswitches, only one of these configurations is biologically active, resulting in light-dependent activation or inhibition of function. Photoswitches that feature a quaternary ammonium coupled to the azobenzene moiety cause light-dependent neuronal depolarization due to blockage of voltage-gated potassium channels. Two photoswitch strategies have been pursued. In the one-component strategy, the photoswitch is applied to native receptors; in the two-component strategy, the photoswitch is combined with virally-mediated expression of a genetically modified receptor, to which the photoswitch may covalently bind. The former approach is simpler but the latter allows precise anatomic targeting of photoswitch activity. Acrylamide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (AAQ) is the prototypical first-generation one-component photoswitch. When applied to retinas with outer retinal degeneration, ganglion cell firing occurs in response to blue light, and is abrogated by green light. In vivo, AAQ restored pupillary light responses and behavioral light responses in blind animals. DENAQ is a prototypical second generation one-component photoswitch. It features spontaneous thermal relaxation so cell firing ceases in dark, and features a red-shifted activation spectrum. Interestingly, DENAQ only photoswitches in retinas with outer retinal degeneration. MAG is a photoswitched glutamate analog which covalently binds to a modified ionotropic glutamate receptor, LiGluR. When applied together, MAG and LiGluR also rescue physiologic and behavioral light responses in blind mice. Together, photoswitch compounds offer a potentially useful approach to restoration of vision in outer retinal degeneration. PMID:25680758

  16. Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia. PMID:24219006

  17. The development of approaches to learning of student teachers with different 'study approach-profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert VANTHOURNOUT

    Research indicates that inciting a deep approach to learning in all students is far from obvious. To gain more insight in the development of students' approaches to learning, the idea of 'study approach profiles', conceptualised as 'similar patterns in approaches to learning adopted by subgroups of students', is explored. This study therefore aims at answering the following questions: (RQ1) Do

  18. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

  19. Two approaches to physics tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomaniuck, Tania

    One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

  20. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and some of our findings from their application. For example, our research has demonstrated that maculas of adult mammals retain the property of synaptic plasticity. Ribbon synapses increase numerically and undergo changes in type and distribution (p<0.0001) in type II hair cells after exposure to microgravity for as few as nine days. The finding of macular synaptic plasticity is pertinent to the clinic, and may help explain some. balance disorders in humans. The software used in our investigations will be demonstrated for those interested in applying it in their own research.

  1. Storage option an Analytic approach

    E-print Network

    Dmitry Lesnik

    2012-05-28

    The mathematical problem of the static storage optimisation is formulated and solved by means of a variational analysis. The solution obtained in implicit form is shedding light on the most important features of the optimal exercise strategy. We show how the solution depends on different constraint types including carry cost and cycling constraint. We investigate the relation between intrinsic and stochastic solutions. In particular we give another proof that the stochastic problem has a "bang-bang" optimal exercise strategy. We also show why the optimal stochastic exercise decision is always close to the intrinsic one. In the second half we develop a perturbation analysis to solve the stochastic optimisation problem. The obtained approximate solution allows us to estimate the time value of the storage option. In particular we find an answer to rather academic question of asymptotic time value for the mean reversion parameter approaching zero or infinity. We also investigate the differences between swing and storage problems. The analytical results are compared with numerical valuations and found to be in a good agreement.

  2. Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric. PMID:24571117

  3. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  4. Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

  5. Practical approach to tuning MPC.

    PubMed

    Wojsznis, Willy; Gudaz, John; Blevins, Terry; Mehta, Ashish

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a heuristic approach for developing model predictive control (MPC) tuning rules. The tuning has been applied and tested in easy-to-use MPC. Process modeling in this MPC uses normalized input/ output range. As a result there is no need for tuning outputs, a procedure known as adjusting equal concern error. Penalties on moves are set as a function of process dead time as the primary factor, with some correction from process gain. The default calculation delivers robust control, which tolerates up to triple increase in process static gain. If control is too aggressive, further on-line adjustment can be done by set point reference trajectory. Test results show that this tuning is robust for process gain change, however, it is much less efficient in compensating for process dead-time changes. It was found that dead-time mismatch is much better compensated with the model correction filter. Combining the three handles, i.e., penalties on moves, reference trajectory, and model filter, easy and intuitively understandable MPC tuning was achieved. The findings are illustrated by numerous MPC simulated tests. PMID:12546476

  6. Data science approaches to pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Penrod, N M; Moore, J H

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic studies rely on applied statistics to evaluate genetic data describing natural variation in response to pharmacotherapeutics such as drugs and vaccines. In the beginning, these studies were based on candidate gene approaches that specifically focused on efficacy or adverse events correlated with variants of single genes. This hypothesis driven method required the researcher to have a priori knowledge of which genes or gene sets to investigate. According to rational design, the focus of these studies has been on drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets. As technology has progressed, these studies have transitioned to hypothesis-free explorations where markers across the entire genome can be measured in large scale, population based, genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This enables identification of novel genetic biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and analysis of gene-gene interactions, which may reveal molecular mechanisms of drug activities. Ultimately, the challenge is to utilize gene-drug associations to create dosing algorithms based individual genotypes, which will guide physicians and ensure they prescribe the correct dose of the correct drug the first time eliminating trial-and-error and adverse events. We review here basic concepts and applications of data science to the genetic analysis of pharmacologic outcomes. PMID:25109795

  7. Systems approaches to coronavirus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Alexandra; Baric, Ralph S.; Ferris, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses comprise a large group of emergent human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV strains that cause significant morbidity and mortality in infected individuals, especially the elderly. As emergent viruses may cause episodic outbreaks of disease over time, human samples are limited. Systems biology and genetic technologies maximize opportunities for identifying critical host and viral genetic factors that regulate susceptibility and virus-induced disease severity. These approaches provide discovery platforms that highlight and allow targeted confirmation of critical targets for prophylactics and therapeutics, especially critical in an outbreak setting. Although poorly understood, it has long been recognized that host regulation of virus-associated disease severity is multigenic. The advent of systems genetic and biology resources provide new opportunities for deconvoluting the complex genetic interactions and expression networks that regulate pathogenic or protective host response patterns following virus infection. Using SARS-CoV as a model, dynamic transcriptional network changes and disease-associated phenotypes have been identified in different genetic backgrounds, leading to the promise of population-wide discovery of the underpinnings of Coronavirus pathogenesis. PMID:24842079

  8. Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C

    2013-04-01

    Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

  9. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-06-28

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

  10. Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Martilias S.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a “signal” leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT2A receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca++ (via IP3 release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand – GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, ‘pharmacogenetics’) permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. PMID:23063887

  11. Quantitative approaches to computational vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

    2002-06-01

    This article reviews the newly released JenPep database and two new powerful techniques for T-cell epitope prediction: (i) the additive method; and (ii) a 3D-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (3D-QSAR) method, based on Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA). The JenPep database is a family of relational databases supporting the growing need of immunoinformaticians for quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes and to the Transporters associated with Antigen Processing (TAP). It also contains an annotated list of T-cell epitopes. The database is available free via the Internet (http://www.jenner.ac.uk/JenPep). The additive prediction method is based on the assumption that the binding affinity of a peptide depends on the contributions from each amino acid as well as on the interactions between the adjacent and every second side-chain. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (steric bulk, electrostatic potential, local hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities) on the affinity of peptides binding to MHC molecules were considered. Both methods were exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptides binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:12067414

  12. A Systematic Approach for Building Ontologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo De Almeida Falbo; Crediné Silva De Menezes; Ana Regina Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable body of experience in building ontologies. Nevertheless, knowledge acquisition using ontologies\\u000a is still a research issue. The goal of this paper is to take a further step towards a systematic approach for building ontologies.\\u000a An approach for engineering ontologies is presented with a case study. This approach incorporates the best features of the\\u000a existing methods

  13. An Approach for Probabilistic Hydrological Drought Forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahab Araghinejad

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to monitor and forecast hydrological drought in a probabilistic manner. The proposed approach\\u000a deals with the supply and demand variables and the role of carryover in a system to estimate the probability of drought severity\\u000a at different hydroclimatlogical conditions as well as different storage volume levels. This approach might be of significance\\u000a when the supply

  14. Technical approaches to the optimisation of CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willi A. Kalender; Stefanie Buchenau; Paul Deak; Markus Kellermeier; Oliver Langner; Marcel van Straten; Sabrina Vollmar; Sylvia Wilharm

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current technical approaches to the optimisation of CT practice, i.e. approaches to reduce patient dose to the necessary minimum. The most important step towards this goal appears to be the technology of tube current modulation (TCM), which came into practice in the early 2000s and has become the standard approach recently. Anatomy- or attenuation-based TCM allows for

  15. A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

    2009-01-01

    We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

  16. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  17. Multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, L.; Chazzi, W.; Veuillot, J. P.; Viviand, H.

    1982-01-01

    A multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows by using unsteady or pseudo-unsteady methods is presented. This approach is based on a general technique of connecting together two domains in which hyperbolic systems (that may differ) are solved with the aid of compatibility relations associated with these systems. Some examples of this approach's application to calculating transonic flows in ideal fluids are shown, particularly the adjustment of shock waves. The approach is then applied to treating a shock/boundary layer interaction problem in a transonic channel.

  18. Implementation of a Data Repository-Driven Approach for Targeted Proteomics Experiments by Multiple Reaction Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Geraldine M.; Lin, Shujun; Evans, Daniel M.; Khosrovi-Eghbal, Arash; Beavis, Ronald C.; Kast, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), commonly employed for the mass spectrometric detection of small molecules, is rapidly gaining ground in proteomics. Its high sensitivity and specificity makes this targeted approach particularly useful when sample throughput or proteome coverage limits global studies. Existing tools to design MRM assays rely exclusively on theoretical predictions, or combine them with previous observations on the same type of sample. The additional mass spectrometric experimentation this requires can pose significant demands on time and material. To overcome these challenges, a new MRM worksheet was introduced into The Global Proteome Machine database (GPMDB) that provided all of the information needed to design MRM transitions based solely on archived observations made by other researchers in previous experiments. This required replacing the precursor ion intensity by the number of peptide observations, which proved to be an adequate substitute if peptides did not occur in multiple forms. While the absence of collision energy information proved largely inconsequential, successful prediction of unique transitions depended on the type of fragment ion involved. The design of MRM assays for iTRAQ-labeled tryptic peptides obtained from human platelet proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the MRM worksheet also for quantitative applications. This workflow, which relies exclusively on experimental observations stored in data repositories, therefore represents an attractive alternative for the prediction of MRM transitions prior to experimental validation and optimization. PMID:19121650

  19. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    PubMed

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results. PMID:23848726

  20. Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martilias S; Roth, Bryan L

    2013-05-20

    Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a "signal" leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca(++) (via IP? release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand--GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, 'pharmacogenetics') permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES). PMID:23063887

  1. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  2. Approaches to the Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Cary Mcilwaine, Jr.

    This thesis analyzes several theoretical approaches to the one band Hubbard model in hopes of extracting selected physical quantities in limits most closely corresponding to real materials. Along the way, three rather remarkable theorems of a much broader scope are proven. It is hoped that these may be of general interest in a variety of related physical and mathematical disciplines. In chapter one, the well-known mean field theory developed by Affleck and Marston is studied in the presence of a magnetic field. Through a rather straightforward numerical procedure, phase diagrams in t/delta ^ace are generated as a function of field. The results of this study are then extended to a magnetic susceptibility calculation and to the analysis of the phase diagram of fan alternate mean field theory, the "generalized flux phases" proposed by Anderson. Several interesting properties and symmetries of the solutions are then briefly discussed. In chapter two, the Gutzwiller projector is analyzed both analytically and numerically, with the results being used to calculate the momentum density function for a trial wavefunction also proposed by Anderson. Two of the above mentioned theorems are developed in this chapter, the one prescribing the expansion of a general restricted sum in terms of its related unrestricted sums, and the other presenting the exact diagonilization of a component of the projector which is equivalent through a U(1) gauge transformation to the total spin operator. In chapter three, we discuss the exact solutions to the one dimensional Hubbard model first derived by Lieb and Wu. From their large U limiting behavior, we extract the phonon scattering matrix elements and first order single particle energies for some finite systems. The third potentially general theorem, which related charge determinants with an arbitrary number of "gaps" between their rows to a comparatively simple function of the corresponding van der Monde determinants, is proven here.

  3. Approach to autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V), and to develop an approach to managing ASD using the CanMEDS– Family Medicine (CanMEDS-FM) framework. Sources of information The DSM-V from the American Psychiatric Association, published in May 2013, provides new diagnostic criteria for ASD. The College of Family Physicians of Canada’s CanMEDS-FM framework provides a blueprint that can guide the complex management of ASD. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the prevalence of ASD, and we used the comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis completed by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for their guidelines on ASD to assess the evidence for more than 100 interventions. Main message The prevalence of ASD was 1 in 88 in 2008 in the United States according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The ASD classification in the fourth edition of the DSM included autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and childhood disintegrative disorder. The new DSM-V revision incorporates all these disorders into one ASD umbrella term with different severity levels. The management of ASD is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team effort and continuity of care. The CanMEDS-FM roles provide a framework for management. Conclusion Family physicians are the key leaders of the multidisciplinary care team for ASD, and the CanMEDS-FM framework provides a comprehensive guide to help manage a child with ASD and to help the child’s family. PMID:25971758

  4. New approaches to molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Korf, Bruce R; Rehm, Heidi L

    2013-04-10

    Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results. PMID:23571590

  5. Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression.

    Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.'

    In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim.

    The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

  6. Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians’ awareness of the psycho-social dimension of disease, and of the impact of peer influence and role modeling, seems promising in this regard, too. Stress and well-being seem to be closely related to physician empathy, and their modulation must take into account individual, social, and organizational factors. Further research should investigate whether or how these hypothetical conclusions can deepen our understanding of the determinants of physician empathy in order to help its promotion. PMID:24952736

  7. A Discriminative Approach for Wavelet Denoising

    E-print Network

    Milanfar, Peyman

    1 A Discriminative Approach for Wavelet Denoising Yacov Hel-Or and Doron Shaked Abstract This paper suggests a discriminative approach for wavelet denoising where a set of mapping functions (MF) are applied. One important topic in image restoration deals with image denoising, where noisy observations

  8. A New Approach to Measuring Financial Contagion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kee-Hong Bae; G. Andrew

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a new approach to evaluate contagion in financial markets. Our measure of contagion captures the coincidence of extreme return shocks across countries within a region and across regions. We characterize the extent of contagion, its economic significance, and its determinants using a multinomial logistic regression model. Applying our approach to daily returns of emerging markets during the

  9. Environment friendly thermal power dispatch: An approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S. [Power Grid Corp. of India, Ltd., New Delhi (India). Engineering Div.; Kothari, D.P.; Talukder, F.A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1997-05-01

    This article describes an approach for optimal emission power dispatch from thermal power plants with optimal operating cost. The proposed approach, called economic-emission dispatch, is based on a {lambda}-iteration technique including penalty on emissions. Sample case studies with a system of three generating units are discussed.

  10. Teaching Science through a Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

  11. Observing System Forecast Experiments: Approach I

    E-print Network

    Froude, Lizzie

    Chapter 4 Observing System Forecast Experiments: Approach I 4.1 Introduction A global network assimilation methods. In order to obtain an estimate of how much impact the changes in the observing system such experiments 69 #12;4. Observing System Forecast Experiments: Approach I 70 will also be useful for determining

  12. Evolutionary Approaches to Protein Engineering B. STEIPETEIPE

    E-print Network

    Steipe, Boris

    Evolutionary Approaches to Protein Engineering B. STEIPETEIPE 1 Targets and Tasks for Protein@lmb.uni-muenchen.de #12;1 Targets and Tasks for Protein Engineering The very term ``protein engineering'' remains protein engineering. While this sophisticated trial-and-error approach may

  13. New Approach in Teaching Network Security Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Radzi Motsidi; Mohd Fairuz Iskandar Othman; Yahaya Abd Rahim; Mohd Najwan Khambari

    This paper discusses a curriculum approach that will give emphasis on practical sessions of teaching network security subjects in information and communication technology courses. As we are well aware, the need to use a practice and application oriented approach in education is paramount (3). Research on active learning and cooperative groups have shown that students grasps more and have more

  14. Horses’ responses to variation in human approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda Birke; Jo Hockenhull; Emma Creighton; Lisa Pinno; Jenny Mee; Daniel Mills

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of humans around horses is thought to have a substantial impact on how people are perceived in subsequent interactions and many horse trainers give detailed advice on how handlers should behave when initially approaching a loose horse. Here we report on three studies designed to explore the effect of different human approach styles on the behaviour of naïve

  15. A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education Task Force is made up of 62 national policy experts, with diverse political affiliations, who come from fields that include education, social welfare, health, housing, and civil rights. This article presents a shortened version of the Task Force's recently released statement on the Broader, Bolder Approach

  16. Theatre History: The Guided Design Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    The guided design approach to teaching theatre history encourages active participation in decision making while applying knowledge and learning subject matter concepts. The theatre history course at Rutgers University, New Jersey, uses this approach. With guided design, classroom time is not used for lectures, but is instead reserved for small…

  17. Student Centred Approaches: Teachers' Learning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne; Weaven, Mary; Hooley, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Student centred approaches to teaching and learning in mathematics is one of the reforms currently being advocated and implemented to improve mathematics outcomes for students from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The models, meanings and practices of student centred approaches explored in this paper reveal that a constructivist model…

  18. Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Mateus; Amílcar Sernadas; Cristina Sernadas

    The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model in the enrichment as a set of models in the original logic plus some relevant structure. We illustrate the approach by probabilizing classical propositional logic, including a novel global propositional logic. A model of the probability logic is a probability space where the outcomes are classical

  19. Discrete Tomography: A Neural Network Approach

    E-print Network

    Kosters, Walter

    present in traditional approaches. 1 Introduction Tomography, or more especially computed tomography the experiments in Section 5 and the conclusions to the study in Section 6. 2 Related Work Computed tomographyDiscrete Tomography: A Neural Network Approach Jonathan K. Vis a Walter A. Kosters a K. Joost

  20. The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

  1. Psychoanalytic School Consultation: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a psychoanalytic consultation model to an independent grade 7-12 school that offers a practical and efficient approach to improve school climate. This model may stand alone or complement other approaches, and it can be implemented in both independent and public school settings. It focuses not only on "at risk" students,…

  2. Gene Transfer Approaches for Gynecological Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Raki; Daniel T. Rein; Anna Kanerva; Akseli Hemminki

    2006-01-01

    Gene transfer presents a potentially useful approach for the treatment of diseases refractory to conventional therapies. Various preclinical and clinical strategies have been explored for treatment of gynecological diseases. Given the direst need for novel treatments, much of the work has been performed with gynecological cancers and ovarian cancer in particular. Although the safety of many approaches has been demonstrated

  3. Irrigation scheduling — Theoretical approach and application problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Yaron; A. Dinar; S. Meyers

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical approach to on-farm irrigation scheduling and discusses the problems of its real-life application to cotton farms in Israel. The theoretical approach is based on a loop of Linear Programming and Dynamic Programming problems which sequentially generate new irrigation schedules for the farm's crops in response to shadow prices of water.

  4. Naval Ship Assurance - A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Buckley

    The UK MoD (MoD), in conjunction with Class and industrial stakeholders has been investigating, and increasingly adopting, a more commercially based approach for the assurance of naval ship acquisition and operation in an effort to reduce costs, whilst maintaining safety, environmental, and military capability. The approach being taken in the UK is based on a Naval Ship Assurance (NSA) framework.

  5. Jacobian approach to fast acoustic model adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Sagayama; Yoshikazu Yamaguchi; Satoshi Takahashi; J. Takahashi

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a Jacobian approach to fast adaptation of acoustic models to noisy environments. Acoustic models under a noise assumption are compensated by Jacobian matrices with the difference between assumed and observed noise cepstra. Detailed mathematical formulation and algorithm derivation are presented. Experiments showed that when a small amount of training data is given, this approach outperforms the existing

  6. Psychological Approaches for Investigating Women's Career Advancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Tharenou

    1990-01-01

    The investigation by psychologists of women's work-rôle achievements and career advancement, especially into the managerial rôle, is classified into two broad categories of conceptual approach. The traditional orientation, emphasising person-centred explanations for women's lack of advancement, is contrasted with the more contemporary approaches, which consider the person in relation to contextual factors. It is argued that social cognition theory, with

  7. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  8. Three approaches to classical thermal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closed-time path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.

  9. A Stochastic Approach to Stereo Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen T. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    A stochastic optimization approach to stereo matching is pre- sented. Unlike conventional correlation matching and feature matching, the approach provides a dense array of disparities, eliminating the need for interpolation. First, the stereo match- ing problem is defined in terms of finding a disparity map that satisfies two competing constraints: (1) matched points should have similar image intensity, and (2)

  10. The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winitz, Harris, Ed.

    The comprehension approach to second language education emphasizes acquisition of listening comprehension prior to and as a vehicle for acquisition of other language skills. The following articles on this approach are collected here: (1) "Nonlinear Learning and Language Teaching" (Winitz); (2) "Aital cal aprene las lengas…

  11. An Expectation Maximization Approach for Integrated

    E-print Network

    Fisher III, John

    , anatomical labelmap, and a mapping from the atlas to the image space. An example of the approach is given the regis- tration of an atlas with the segmentation of MR images. We use an Expectation Maximization for a brain structure-dependent affine mapping approach. The algorithm produces high qual- ity segmentations

  12. An Approach for Secure Software Installation

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    An Approach for Secure Software Installation V. N. Venkatakrishnan, R. Sekar, T. Kamat, S. Tsipa/faulty installation packages. Our approach is based on a policy-based control of the package manager's actions installations has been one of the biggest problems facing system admin- istrators.1 Significant progress [6] has

  13. An Approach for Secure Software Installation +

    E-print Network

    Sekar, R.

    An Approach for Secure Software Installation + V. N. Venkatakrishnan, R. Sekar, T. Kamat, S. Tsipa/faulty installation packages. Our approach is based on a policy­based control of the package manager's actions installations has been one of the biggest problems facing system admin­ istrators. 1 Significant progress [6

  14. A Critical View of the Natural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The Natural Approach to second language instruction has theoretical flaws and tends to reverse teaching methods that have been used successfully for many years. The approach exaggerates the presumed failure of previous language programs and ignores some important characteristics of children's language learning processes. It assumes that explicit…

  15. Nonlinear Approaches To Independent Component Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lee, Te-Won

    Nonlinear Approaches To Independent Component Analysis Te­Won Lee The Salk Institute, CNL the assumptions new methods need to be developed which involve nonlinear unmixing or inference solutions. In this paper, we summarize some techniques that involve nonlinear ICA solutions. Two approaches are presented

  16. Systems approach to space plasma systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Boynton; Simon Walker

    2010-01-01

    The application of nonlinear system identification methodology was used to review complex space plasma systems. It is shown how the nonlinear system identification approach can lead to a comprehensive description of dynamical processes in developed space plasma turbulences. It is also explained how nonlinear system identification can access the analytical approach to complex dynamical systems such as the magnetosphere.

  17. The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fox; W. Burgard; S. Thrun

    1997-01-01

    This approach, designed for mobile robots equipped with synchro-drives, is derived directly from the motion dynamics of the robot. In experiments, the dynamic window approach safely controlled the mobile robot RHINO at speeds of up to 95 cm\\/sec, in populated and dynamic environments

  18. The PSP Approach for Mining Sequential Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Masseglia; Fabienne Cathala; Pascal Poncelet

    1998-01-01

    . In this paper, we present an approach, called PSP, for miningsequential patterns embedded in a database. Close to the problemof discovering association rules, mining sequential patterns requires handlingtime constraints. Originally introduced in [3], the issue is addressedby the GSP approach [10]. Our proposal resumes the general principlesof GSP but it makes use of a different intermediary data structure whichis

  19. Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

  20. Optimal Perceptron Learning: an Online Bayesian Approach

    E-print Network

    Winther, Ole

    Optimal Perceptron Learning: an Online Bayesian Approach Sara A. Solla 1;2;3 and Ole Winther 3;4 1 Bayesian approach to online learning is ap­ plied to learning a rule defined as a noisy single layer optimal. Two learning modalities need to be distinguished: offline and online. In offline or batch

  1. World-line approach to Sign Problems

    E-print Network

    Aarts, Gert

    + chemical potential world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! Two component bosons + Abelian world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! more flavors + solving sign problems which reflect these observations #12;XY model Action: Partition function: Can use "cluster algorithms

  2. An approach to teaching civil engineering systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Ossenbruggen

    1985-01-01

    The approaches used in offering a required course for undergraduate students, an elective course for both undergraduate and graduate students, and a Master of Science program in civil engineering systems are described. Student attitudes about systems analysis and teaching challenges are discussed. My teaching philosophy is to integrate economic and engineering principles into an unified approach for solving civil engineering

  3. Computer-Based Training: An Institutional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Manji, Karim

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of issues related to computer-assisted learning (CAL) and computer-based training (CBT) describes approaches to electronic learning; principles underlying courseware development to support these approaches; and a plan for creation of a CAL/CBT development center, including its functional role, campus services, staffing, and equipment…

  4. A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta

    The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

  5. Sliding control approach to underactuated multibody systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hashem Ashrafiuon; R. Scott Erwin

    2004-01-01

    A robust control algorithm is proposed for stabilization and tracking control of underactuated multibody mechanical systems governed by nonlinear equations of motion. Sliding, or variable structure, control is a simple but robust nonlinear control approach that is capable of handling both disturbances and parameter uncertainties. We formulate the sliding control approach for general underactuated multibody systems, and define first order

  6. Publications on the Initial-Value Approach

    E-print Network

    Hanyk, Ladislav

    of the principal modes. 5.1 Introduction The normal-mode approach for studying the viscoelasic responses associated with the normal-mode approach. This problem becomes more serious with the introduction of both to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode

  7. The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

  8. A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassa, Tamir

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

  9. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  10. Effects of Teacher Training in Disciplinary Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    A total of four approaches to teacher preparation in classroom discipline, including Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training, Adlerian-based approaches, Glasser's Reality Therapy, and Canter's Assertive Discipline, are reviewed in this document. These systems have been widely used for inservice teacher education for a decade or more, and each has…

  11. Approach phase ?V considerations for lunar landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak E. Cohanim; Thomas J. Fill; Stephen Paschall II; Laura M. Major; Tye Brady

    2009-01-01

    The autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology (ALHAT) project is studying the lunar landing descent phase from lunar orbit to the surface. In this paper, we give an overview of the timing and DeltaV implications for key activities during the lunar landing approach phase. Timing and DeltaV performance are evaluated while varying the approach phase design and key hazard detection

  12. Teaching Approaches and Occupational Therapy Psychoeducation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rene Padilla

    2002-01-01

    Patient education has become an important feature of any treatment program. Psychoeducational procedures dominate the treatment used by occupational therapy practitioners in psychiatric rehabilitation. Occupational therapy literature frequently describes the content of psychoeducational programs but rarely examines the teaching approach therapists use in them. It is necessary, therefore, to begin carefully questioning how we are approaching psychoeducation and justifying it

  13. WDM optical interconnects: a balanced design approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitham S. Hamza; Jitender S. Deogun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new design approach to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical interconnects with the objective of designing cost-effective and scalable interconnects. Our design philosophy strikes a balance between switching and conversion costs, and requires wavelength conversion only between two fixed and predefined wavelengths. The proposed design approach exploits the potential of the wavelength exchange optical crossbar

  14. Surgical approaches to thoracic disc herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-Kalliny; J. M. Tew; H. van Loveren; S. Dunsker

    1991-01-01

    Summary Early diagnosis of thoracic disc herniations has become more common with the advent of spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This early diagnosis combined with choosing the optimal surgical approach, to ensure adequate decompression without excessive cord and root manipulation, will achieve the optimum results. It is now clear that more lateral and anterior approaches to the thoracic spine are

  15. The Continued Development of the Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Waldo E.

    1967-01-01

    A brief discussion of traditional Latin textbooks is followed by a survey of the first attempts at new materials (emphasizing integration of audiovisual aids and texts) at the William Penn Charter School and at the University of Michigan. The body of the article considers the structural approach, using "Latin: A Structural Approach" (1957) and…

  16. An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

  17. A computational vision approach to image registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinfen Zheng; Rama Chellappa

    1993-01-01

    A computational vision approach is presented for the estimation of 2-D translation, rotation, and scale from two partially overlapping images. The approach results in a fast method that produces good results even when large rotation and translation have occurred between the two frames and the images are devoid of significant features. An illuminant direction estimation method is first used to

  18. GENERAL VARIATIONAL APPROACH TO THE INTERPOLATION PROBLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Talmi and Gilat variational approach to the interpolation problem in arbitrary dimension is presented together with the corresponding physical model. The connection of this approach to some known spline methods is demonstrated and new interpolation functions are derived for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases. They are designed to be flexible through the use of meaningful parameters and to give

  19. Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazrul Islam

    1995-01-01

    A panel data approach is advocated and implemented for studying growth convergence. The familiar equation for testing convergence is reformulated as a dynamic panel data model and different panel data estimators are used to estimate it. The main usefulness of the panel approach lies in its ability to allow for differences in the aggregate production function across economies. This leads

  20. A Futures Approach to Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    An approach to policy analysis for college officials is described that is based on evaluating and using information about the external environment to consider policy options for the future. The futures approach involves the following tasks: establishing an environmental scanning system to identify critical trends and emerging issues, identifying…

  1. An Agile Course-Delivery Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capellan, Mirkeya

    2009-01-01

    In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

  2. Florida Residents' Preferred Approach to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Although there is widespread support for sexuality education, whether to use an abstinence-only or comprehensive approach is hotly debated. This study assessed Florida residents preferred approach to school-based sexuality education. The 641 respondents were selected by random digit dialing, using methods to ensure ethnic and geographic…

  3. Trialing a contextual approach to academic honesty.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sue; Anyinam, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about academic honesty in higher education are widespread. To address this issue, faculty took part in a 3-year trial of a highly successful approach to academic honesty. Guiding this approach were an appreciation of student context, faculty orientation to student engagement, and available antiplagiarism technology. PMID:22327527

  4. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  5. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  6. A data mining approach to strategy prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben G. Weber; Michael Mateas

    2009-01-01

    We present a data mining approach to opponent modeling in strategy games. Expert gameplay is learned by applying machine learning techniques to large collections of game logs. This approach enables domain independent algorithms to acquire domain knowledge and perform opponent modeling. Machine learning algorithms are applied to the task of detecting an opponent's strategy before it is executed and predicting

  7. Adaptive Approach to Naltrexone Treatment for Alcoholism

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Susan A.

    Adaptive Approach to Naltrexone Treatment for Alcoholism Adaptive Approach to Naltrexone Treatment for Alcoholism David W. Oslin, Kevin G. Lynch, Susan Murphy, Helen M. Pettinati, Kyle M. Kampman, William Dundon), RC1 AA-019092 (Lynch), VISN 4 MIRECC (VA) #12;Introduction Alcoholism costs the nation $150 Billion

  8. Statewide Needs Assessment: A Multimethodological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donna J. R.; Bunch, Michael B.

    A statewide assessment was made of specific nutrition education and training needs in Maryland public schools. The approach used allowed an examination of both needs and possible solutions, examined needs which required multiple solutions, and identified resources which could address multiple needs. This multimethodological approach included site…

  9. A VARIATIONAL APPROACH TO MODELLING INITIATION

    E-print Network

    Sivaloganathan, J.

    A VARIATIONAL APPROACH TO MODELLING INITIATION OF FRACTURE IN NONLINEAR ELASTICITY J In this paper we present an overview of a variational approach to modelling the initiation of fracture configurational force may be sufficient to produce a fracture/crack in the material initiating from the cavity. We

  10. The variational approach to fracture Blaise Bourdin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The variational approach to fracture Blaise Bourdin Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State of the variational approach to brittle fracture that has developed in the past eight years or so. The key concept of initiation and propagation whose features are detailed. The material is mathematical in nature

  11. The Tutor's Approach in Base Groups (PBL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the concept of approach related to tutor functioning in problem-based learning (PBL) is explored and the significance of a phenomenological perspective of the body in relation to learning and tutoring is investigated. The aim has been to understand the concept of approach in a context where the individual, thoughts, emotions and…

  12. Introduction Experimental system Extreme value theory approach Phenotype-fitness approach Conclusions Theory of adaptive evolution informed by

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Conclusions Theory of adaptive evolution informed by microbial experiments Paul Joyce Department system Extreme value theory approach Phenotype-fitness approach Conclusions Theory of adaptive evolutionIntroduction Experimental system Extreme value theory approach Phenotype-fitness approach

  13. Multitiered approach using quantitative PCR to track sources of fecal pollution affecting Santa Monica Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rachel T; Griffith, John F; Blackwood, A Denene; Fuhrman, Jed A; Gregory, Jason B; Hernandez, Ximena; Liang, Xiaolin; Bera, Angie A; Schiff, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    The ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in urban environments makes tracking of fecal contamination extremely challenging. A multitiered approach was used to assess sources of fecal pollution in Ballona Creek, an urban watershed that drains to the Santa Monica Bay (SMB) near Los Angeles, Calif. A mass-based design at six main-stem sites and four major tributaries over a 6-h period was used (i) to assess the flux of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli by using culture-based methods (tier 1); (ii) to assess levels of Enterococcus spp. by using quantitative PCR and to detect and/or quantify additional markers of human fecal contamination, including a human-specific Bacteroides sp. marker and enterovirus, using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (tier 2); and (iii) to assess the specific types of enterovirus genomes found via sequence analysis (tier 3). Sources of fecal indicator bacteria were ubiquitous, and concentrations were high, throughout Ballona Creek, with no single tributary dominating fecal inputs. The flux of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli averaged 10(9) to 10(10) cells h(-1) and was as high at the head of the watershed as at the mouth prior to discharge into the SMB. In addition, a signal for the human-specific Bacteroides marker was consistently detected: 86% of the samples taken over the extent during the study period tested positive. Enteroviruses were quantifiable in 14 of 36 samples (39%), with the highest concentrations at the site furthest upstream (Cochran). These results indicated the power of using multiple approaches to assess and quantify fecal contamination in freshwater conduits to high-use, high-priority recreational swimming areas. PMID:16461716

  14. Physical approach to complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

  15. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Assessing global adoption of one health approaches.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William; Appert, Jessica; Denny, Terry; King, Lonnie; Umber, Jamie; Valeri, Linda

    2013-09-01

    Transdisciplinary One Health (OH) approaches have been rediscovered as a promising tactic for addressing complex health risks at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, there is little evidence of widespread adoption of OH approaches as the new operating normal for addressing these complex health issues. We have used a transformational change model as an evaluation tool and part of an overall assessment of the global adoption of OH approaches. This assessment establishes a point of reference for measuring progress toward OH approaches being the new operating normal. Global adoption of OH approaches will require more strategic efforts to build the case (value proposition), recruiting a broader pool of One Health champions, solidifying partnerships and unifying OH efforts. PMID:23835604

  17. A Potts Neuron Approach to Communication Routing

    E-print Network

    J. Häkkinen; M. Lagerholm; C. Peterson; B. Söderberg

    1997-03-21

    A feedback neural network approach to communication routing problems is developed with emphasis on Multiple Shortest Path problems, with several requests for transmissions between distinct start- and endnodes. The basic ingredients are a set of Potts neurons for each request, with interactions designed to minimize path lengths and to prevent overloading of network arcs. The topological nature of the problem is conveniently handled using a propagator matrix approach. Although the constraints are global, the algorithmic steps are based entirely on local information, facilitating distributed implementations. In the polynomially solvable single-request case the approach reduces to a fuzzy version of the Bellman-Ford algorithm. The approach is evaluated for synthetic problems of varying sizes and load levels, by comparing with exact solutions from a branch-and-bound method. With very few exceptions, the Potts approach gives legal solutions of very high quality. The computational demand scales merely as the product of the numbers of requests, nodes, and arcs.

  18. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  19. The Norwegian approach to integrated quality development.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, J

    2001-01-01

    The UK NHS quality proposals require all NHS organisations to develop an "integrated approach " to quality. In other countries, health care organisations are also working to ensure that the many different quality methods and systems used in health organisations do not duplicate or conflict with each other. The question this paper addresses is "what would an integrated approach to quality look like and how might managers and clinicians develop such an approach in their organisation?" The findings from the Norwegian total quality management experiment in six hospitals were that TQM could not be applied in its pure form in public health care services to ensure integration. The paper draws on this research to describe these hospitals' approach to integrate the different projects and systems which were stimulated by their initial quality programmes. The paper describes the "integrated quality development" approach which characterised these programmes. PMID:11547821

  20. Preparation of water soluble graphene using polyethylene glycol: Comparison of covalent approach and noncovalent approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeun-Jin Park; Sung Young Park

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of stable aqueous graphene solution is attempted either through esterification of GO with PEG and subsequent reduction in covalent approach or in situ chemical reduction of aqueous GO solution in the presence of NH2–PEG–NH2 in noncovalent approach. While covalent approach produces insoluble graphite-like precipitation, noncovalent approach produces practically homogeneous reduced graphene solution for several months without any precipitate. Noncovalent

  1. A construct-network approach to bridging diagnostic and physiological domains: application to assessment of externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Yancey, James R; Hicks, Brian M; Nelson, Lindsay D; Kramer, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    A crucial challenge in efforts to link psychological disorders to neural systems, with the aim of developing biologically informed conceptions of such disorders, is the problem of method variance (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Since even measures of the same construct in differing domains correlate only moderately, it is unsurprising that large sample studies of diagnostic biomarkers yield only modest associations. To address this challenge, a construct-network approach is proposed in which psychometric operationalizations of key neurobehavioral constructs serve as anchors for identifying neural indicators of psychopathology-relevant dispositions, and as vehicles for bridging between domains of clinical problems and neurophysiology. An empirical illustration is provided for the construct of inhibition-disinhibition, which is of central relevance to problems entailing deficient impulse control. Findings demonstrate that: (1) a well-designed psychometric index of trait disinhibition effectively predicts externalizing problems of multiple types, (2) this psychometric measure of disinhibition shows reliable brain response correlates, and (3) psychometric and brain-response indicators can be combined to form a joint psychoneurometric factor that predicts effectively across clinical and physiological domains. As a methodology for bridging between clinical problems and neural systems, the construct-network approach provides a concrete means by which existing conceptions of psychological disorders can accommodate and be reshaped by neurobiological insights. PMID:24016026

  2. Reliability-oriented multi-objective optimal decision-making approach for uncertainty-based watershed load reduction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Feifei; Liu, Yong; Su, Han; Zou, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    Water quality management and load reduction are subject to inherent uncertainties in watershed systems and competing decision objectives. Therefore, optimal decision-making modeling in watershed load reduction is suffering due to the following challenges: (a) it is difficult to obtain absolutely "optimal" solutions, and (b) decision schemes may be vulnerable to failure. The probability that solutions are feasible under uncertainties is defined as reliability. A reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) decision-making approach was proposed in this study for optimal decision making with stochastic parameters and multiple decision reliability objectives. Lake Dianchi, one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China, was examined as a case study for optimal watershed nutrient load reduction to restore lake water quality. This study aimed to maximize reliability levels from considerations of cost and load reductions. The Pareto solutions of the ROMO optimization model were generated with the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, demonstrating schemes representing different biases towards reliability. The Pareto fronts of six maximum allowable emission (MAE) scenarios were obtained, which indicated that decisions may be unreliable under unpractical load reduction requirements. A decision scheme identification process was conducted using the back propagation neural network (BPNN) method to provide a shortcut for identifying schemes at specific reliability levels for decision makers. The model results indicated that the ROMO approach can offer decision makers great insights into reliability tradeoffs and can thus help them to avoid ineffective decisions. PMID:25688523

  3. XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Approach Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Decker, William A.; Cline, John H.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Nicks, Colby O.; Klein, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft performing approach operations for a variety of different approach profile configurations. This flight test program was conducted jointly by NASA, the U.S. Army, and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) in June 1997. The XV-15 was flown over a large area microphone array, which was deployed to directly measure the noise footprint produced during actual approach operations. The XV-15 flew realistic approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad. Aircraft tracking and pilot guidance was provided by a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and a flight director system developed at BHTI. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. A discussion of the approach profile design philosophy is provided. Five different approach profiles are discussed in detail -- 3 deg., 6 deg., and 9 deg. approaches, and two very different 3 deg. to 9 deg. segmented approaches. The approach profile characteristics are discussed in detail, followed by the noise footprints and handling qualities. Sound exposure levels are also presented on an averaged basis and as a function of the sideline distance for a number of up-range distances from the landing point. A comparison of the noise contour areas is also provided. The results document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, and indicate the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

  4. Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and students' approaches to learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH TRIGWELL; MICHAEL PROSSER; FIONA WATERHOUSE

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study which shows that qualitatively different approaches to teaching are associated with qualitatively different approaches to learning. More specifically, the results indicate that in the classes where teachers describe their approach to teaching as having a focus on what they do and on transmitting knowledge, students are more likely to report that they adopt

  5. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  6. Broken bar detection in induction machines: comparison between current spectrum approach and parameter estimation approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Filippetti; G. Franceschini; C. Tassoni; P. Vas

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the diagnosis of induction machine rotor electrical faults is considered. Two approaches are compared: the current spectrum analysis and the apparent rotor resistance estimation. For the first approach the authors have developed several procedures based on different fault models of the machine. Their experience is used to approach the parameter estimation method from a theoretical point of

  7. Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    "Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

  8. Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

  9. Systems Engineering Challenges A Perspective from the B-2 Bomber

    E-print Network

    -2 Systems Group Wright-Patterson AFB, OH #12;· B-2 System Description · Benefits of Stealth · Systems Engineering Perspectives · Results of Stealth Overview #12;B-2 System Description 172 Ft High of Stealth · Systems Engineering Perspectives · Results of Stealth Overview #12;Stealth Features SMOOTH SHAPE

  10. Meeting the Energy Challenge -A White Paper on Energy

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    vulnerability that this brings with it. Continued reliance on fossil fuels, where the majority of remaining reliance on fossil fuels in the energy sector, thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the same to decrease GHG emissions from fossil fuels, to deal better with those emissions and to offer viable

  11. Genuine Progress, Greater Challenges: A Decade of Teacher Effectiveness Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti

    2014-01-01

    For years, the debate about American education was like a bad marriage. The arguments were about everything but the core issue--instructional quality. The other issues--education finance, school choice, standards--all matter, but are secondary to the importance of effective instruction. In the labor-intensive education field, effective instruction…

  12. International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Vine; Chiharu Murakoshi; Hidetoshi Nakagami

    1998-01-01

    U.S. energy service companies (ESCOs) are very interested in expanding their businesses outside the U.S. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e. marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural impediments). Using Japan as an example, we present (i) impediments to the development of an ESCO industry, (ii) general guidance for helping Japan to develop

  13. Textual Challenges: A Brief Guide to Choosing Shakespearean Editions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Christine; Malcolmson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    How should educators go about selecting appropriate editions of Shakespeare's plays for use in political science courses? Shakespeare is turning up on many politics syllabi, but, at times, the editions chosen seem to reflect primarily a concern for price or publisher reputation over pedagogical and scholarly considerations. This article offers an…

  14. Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amandeep Verma; Sakshi Kaushal

    \\u000a Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. The phrase cloud computing originated from the diagrams used to\\u000a symbolize the internet. Cloud computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the grid Computing\\u000a paradigm, and other relevant technologies such as utility computing, cluster computing, and distributed systems in general.\\u000a With the development of cloud computing,

  15. School Life and Community Economic Challenge: A Newfoundland Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This study explored changes in student attitudes toward school life following the 1992 Newfoundland groundfishery closure. Using data extracted from a provincial quality of school life (QSL) survey, means associated with students from a sample of fishing communities were compared with provincial means. Although community students had poorer…

  16. Wireless Sensor Network Security Research and Challenges: A Backdrop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimple Juneja; Atul Sharma

    \\u000a If sensor networks are to attain their potential, security is one of the most important aspects to be taken care of. The need\\u000a for security in military applications is obvious, but even more benign uses, such as home health monitoring, habitat monitoring\\u000a and sub-surface exploration require confidentiality. WSNs are perfect for detecting environmental, biological, or chemical\\u000a threats over large scale

  17. Columbine's Challenge: A Call To Pay Attention to Our Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Presents a call to action to all adults who impact the lives of students to make the time to pay attention to students, encourage their strengths, promote their learning, and model considerate and pro-social behavior--to notice them and talk to them. (SR)

  18. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

  19. Reframing the dissemination challenge: a marketing and distribution perspective.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely. PMID:19833993

  20. International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Murakoshi, C. [Jyukankyo Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.

  1. New roles for nurses as approved mental health professionals in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Michael; Hannigan, Ben

    2013-10-01

    This paper critically discusses the challenges mental health nurses face in trying to achieve a balance between fulfilling biomedical and social roles. We suggest that dilemmas exist for nurses in attempting to combine both approaches in their practice. We present a specific example of these as occasioned by the advent of the approved mental health professional role in England and Wales. This statutory role requires the adoption of an independent social perspective as a counterbalance to the biomedical perspective brought by psychiatrists. Using the idea of occupational jurisdictions we discuss how nurses embarking on this new role are effectively crossing into territories previously occupied by the profession of social work. We also reveal the tensions for nurses who fulfil the approved mental health professional role whilst simultaneously carrying out work in other areas which demands a more overtly biomedical approach. We review critical accounts of the validity of bio-psycho-social models and concerns about maintaining positive therapeutic alliances alongside making applications for compulsory detention, assessment and treatment. We argue that the new role may become part of the professional project of mental health nursing, but also present challenges in helping redefine nursing's identity and practice. PMID:23522939

  2. [Borderline personality disorders: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Allilaire, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality. These individuals frequently have a history of trauma in early childhood, such as separation, loss, physical or sexual abuse, or affective privation. Subjective signs and symptoms are particularly important in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation, and this requires an empathic and subtle approach. Standardized and semi-structured interviews may help to identify comorbidities such as thymic disorders, anxiety, addiction, eating disorders, and, in some cases, psychotic symptoms. The psychiatric bio-psycho-social model takes into account multiple pathogenic factors, such as trauma during early development, temperamental instability and other emotional disorders, as well as psychosocial, neurobiological (5HT etc.) and genetic vulnerabilities. Treatment requires optimal integration of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Emergency intervention must be available in case of delirious or suicidal behavior The clinical course is often lengthy and complex, but outcome may be favorable, provided the principal risk--suicide--is correctly managed, PMID:23815019

  3. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

  4. A reverse translational approach to quantify approach-avoidance conflict in humans.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, Robin L; Sullivan, Sarah; Melrose, Andrew J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2011-12-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to characterize effects of anxiolytic agents and probe neural circuitry related to anxiety. However, there are few behavioral approaches to measure conflict in human populations, limiting the translation of findings from animal conflict tasks to human clinical research. We developed a novel approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm involving situations in which the same decision is associated with "reward" (points) and "punishment" (negative affective stimuli). The AAC task was completed by 95 young adults (56 female) with varying levels of self-reported trait anxiety. As expected, conflict-related approach behavior correlated with self-reported motivation to approach reward and avoid punishment and greater reward level increased approach behavior. Additionally, females exhibited less approach behavior than males. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (Physical subscale) scores related negatively to approach behavior for males, while Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS, Fun Seeking subscale) scores related positively to approach behavior for females. Results support the utility of the AAC task as a behavioral test that has strong reverse translational features. Findings indicate that approach drives and anxiety sensitivity may be important in determining conflict behavior for females and males respectively. The approach-avoidance conflict task offers a novel, translational measure to probe neural systems underlying conflict behavior, motivational processes, and anxiety disorders. PMID:21843556

  5. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  6. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

  7. Adopting a Family-Oriented Approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lorne A.

    1991-01-01

    Although many family physicians believe that a family-oriented approach to patient care leads to better outcomes, and in spite of a growing body of literature on the principles and theory of working with families in primary care, most physicians have been very slow to move from an individual approach to a family approach with their patients. This paper will examine some of the issues involved in the adoption of innovations by practitioners and explore their implications for the increased inclusion of the family in medical practice. PMID:21229054

  8. Behavioral Genetic Approaches and Family Theory

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ginger A.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Family theories have been founded on research that cannot discriminate genetic and environmental influences and, consequently, most theories do not have highly developed models of gene–environment interplay in families. Behavioral genetic approaches, which can identify gene–environment interplay, have typically not been driven by family theories and have lacked adequate measurement of family processes. In this article, the authors describe behavioral genetic mechanisms and methods using representative examples of research on family processes, highlighting the advantages of an integrated approach. New directions in research and theory driven by an integrated approach are discussed. PMID:24678347

  9. Celebrating Diverse Minds: Using Different Pedagogical Approaches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hubert M. Dyasi

    2006-01-01

    The idea of science for all has been echoed nationwide. In order to be successfully implemented, inclusive quality pedagogical approaches are essential. These approaches should be authentic not just to the nature and content of science but also to children's diverse cultural and personal strengths. At the same time school systems will have to be aware of and avoid pitfalls that led to unequal access to science learning in the past. The question is: What do quality approaches look like? This chapter provides the answer to this pertinent question.

  10. Sample Size Estimation for Non-Inferiority Trials: Frequentist Approach versus Decision Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, A. C.; ten Cate-Hoek, A. J.; Ramaekers, B. L. T.; Joore, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-inferiority trials are performed when the main therapeutic effect of the new therapy is expected to be not unacceptably worse than that of the standard therapy, and the new therapy is expected to have advantages over the standard therapy in costs or other (health) consequences. These advantages however are not included in the classic frequentist approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. In contrast, the decision theory approach of sample size calculation does include these factors. The objective of this study is to compare the conceptual and practical aspects of the frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials, thereby demonstrating that the decision theory approach is more appropriate for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials. Methods The frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials are compared and applied to a case of a non-inferiority trial on individually tailored duration of elastic compression stocking therapy compared to two years elastic compression stocking therapy for the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis. Results The two approaches differ substantially in conceptual background, analytical approach, and input requirements. The sample size calculated according to the frequentist approach yielded 788 patients, using a power of 80% and a one-sided significance level of 5%. The decision theory approach indicated that the optimal sample size was 500 patients, with a net value of €92 million. Conclusions This study demonstrates and explains the differences between the classic frequentist approach and the decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. We argue that the decision theory approach of sample size estimation is most suitable for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials. PMID:26076354

  11. Modeling brain dynamics using computational neurogenetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Kasabov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a novel computational approach to brain dynamics modeling that integrates dynamic gene–protein regulatory networks with a neural network model. Interaction of genes and proteins in neurons affects the dynamics of the whole neural network. Through tuning the gene–protein interaction network and the initial gene/protein expression values, different states of the neural network dynamics can be achieved. A generic computational neurogenetic model is introduced that implements this approach. It is illustrated by means of a simple neurogenetic model of a spiking neural network of the generation of local field potential. Our approach allows for investigation of how deleted or mutated genes can alter the dynamics of a model neural network. We conclude with the proposal how to extend this approach to model cognitive neurodynamics. PMID:19003458

  12. Scattering approach to the dynamical Casimir effect

    E-print Network

    Faghfoor Maghrebi, Mohammad

    We develop a unified scattering approach to dynamical Casimir problems which can be applied to both accelerating boundaries and dispersive objects in relative motion. A general (trace) formula is derived for the radiation ...

  13. Social and Cognitive Approaches to Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Fussell, Susan R.

    the relationship between verbal communication and closely aligned disciplines, such as nonverbal communication consider nonverbal and paralinguistic phenomena to be of lesser importance to interpersonal communication3 -- 1 -- Social and Cognitive Approaches to Interpersonal Communication: Introduction and Overview

  14. Implementing timed automata specifications: the "sandwich" approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Implementing timed automata specifications: the "sandwich" approach Raymond Devillers model. The implementation is then "sandwiched" between the original specification and the new model prototype is `sandwiched' between the original specification and the new model. More precisely, we propose

  15. New approach needed for more BME leadership.

    PubMed

    2015-06-10

    The NHS needs to rethink its approach to tackling race equality if it wants to see more leaders from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, according to a clinical commissioning group (CCG) director. PMID:26058616

  16. Human Health Research Program: Systems biological approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...

  17. LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN APPROACH TO MODELING CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach predicts potential contaminant distributions resulting from the disposal of sewage sludge at the Deepwater Municipal Disposal Site off the northeast United States continental shelf. The Lagrangian aspect involves Monte-Carlo simulations of ...

  18. Evaluation of synthesized voice approach callouts /SYNCALL/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The two basic approaches to the generation of 'synthesized' speech include a utilization of analog recorded human speech and a construction of speech entirely from algorithms applied to constants describing speech sounds. Given the availability of synthesized speech displays for man-machine systems, research is needed to study suggested applications for speech and design principles for speech displays. The present investigation is concerned with a study for which new performance measures were developed. A number of air carrier approach and landing accidents during low or impaired visibility have been associated with the absence of approach callouts. The study had the purpose to compare a pilot-not-flying (PNF) approach callout system to a system composed of PNF callouts augmented by an automatic synthesized voice callout system (SYNCALL). Pilots were found to favor the use of a SYNCALL system containing certain modifications.

  19. Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLellan, W. Robb; Wang, Yibin; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2013-01-01

    Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered to address complex interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have made it possible to interrogate biological systems on a global level, raising hopes that, in combination with computational approaches, it may be possible to more fully address the complexities of cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, we provide an overview of such systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease and discuss their translational implications. PMID:22231714

  20. A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

  1. A Multimodal Approach to Counselor Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Zander, Toni A.

    1984-01-01

    Represents an initial effort to apply Lazarus's multimodal approach to a model of counselor supervision. Includes continuously monitoring the trainee's behavior, affect, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal functioning, and when appropriate, biological functioning (diet and drugs) in the supervisory process. (LLL)

  2. A graphical approach to relatedness inference.

    PubMed

    Almudevar, Anthony

    2007-03-01

    The estimation of relatedness structure in natural populations using molecular marker data has become an important tool in population biology, resulting in a variety of estimation procedures for specific sampling scenarios. In this article a general approach is proposed, in which the detailed relationship structure, typically a pedigree graph or partition, is considered to be the object of inference. This makes available tools used in complex model selection theory which have demonstrated effectiveness. An important advantage of this approach is that it permits a fully Bayesian approach to the problem, providing a principled and accessible way to measure statistical error. The approach is demonstrated by applying the minimum description length principle. This technique is used in model selection to provide a rational way of comparing models of varying complexity. We show how the resulting score may be interpreted and applied as a Bayesian posterior density. PMID:17169391

  3. A New Approach to High School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    This articles relates the experience in indtroducing a new approach to high school psychology in heterogeneously grouped classes of juniors and seniors at Doherty Memorial High School, Worcester, Massachusetts. (Author)

  4. Literature and Creativity--A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary English, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Article, written by the Editorial Staff of D.O.K. Publishers, Inc., describes an approach which has been developed through more than three years of experimentation for teaching literature to elementary school children. (MB)

  5. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  6. An Approach to Evaluating Equipment Efficiency Policies

    E-print Network

    Newsom, D. E.; Evans, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    should not be considered in isola tion, but in comparison with other means of achieving the goal of industrial energy conservation. Thus. the policy evaluation approach properly incorporates other policy alternatives. such as tax incentives...

  7. A MODULAR APPROACH TO ADDRESSING MODEL

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Keith

    A MODULAR APPROACH TO ADDRESSING MODEL DESIGN, SCALE, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION ISSUES Sensitivity Analysis GENERIC MODULAR SYSTEM STRUCTURE (toolbox) Visualization and Analysis #12;#12;LEVELS OF MODULAR DESIGN · PROCESS · MODEL · FULLY COUPLED MODELS · LOOSELY COUPLED MODELS · RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

  8. General approach to automation of FLASH subsystems

    E-print Network

    General approach to automation of FLASH subsystems Boguslaw Kosda #12;Agenda Motivation Nature of automation software for high energy experiments. Ultimate role of the automation software: Maximization of lasers availability. Automation of routine activities as startup, shutdown ... Continuous monitoring

  9. Strategies in Staff Development: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doelker, Richard E.; Lynett, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a comprehensive approach for continuing education for social workers. This ecological model takes into account critical staff participation at various levels as well as important phases of the staff development process. (JAC)

  10. The Mechanism Design Approach to Student Assignment

    E-print Network

    Pathak, Parag

    The mechanism design approach to student assignment involves the theoretical, empirical, and experimental study of systems used to allocate students into schools around the world. Recent practical experience designing ...

  11. Phosphoproteomic approaches to elucidate cellular signaling networks

    E-print Network

    Phosphoproteomic approaches to elucidate cellular signaling networks Katrin Schmelzle and Forest M be complemented with a variety of recently developed and improved phosphoproteomic techniques. These include developmentshave occurrednotonly inMS,however, but also in various other phosphoproteomic technologies. Thus

  12. AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY AND

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY AND MICROBIAL EVOLUTION Ilias Tagkopoulos MCB/ECH 294/18/2011UCDavis 25 #12;IGEM PROJECT EXAMPLES... 4/18/2011UCDavis 26 #12;THANK YOU! 4/18/2011UCDavis Ilias

  13. Formal and Substantive Approaches to Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Joan Bybee

    1980-01-01

    Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)

  14. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth - Duration: 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  15. Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Explains the concept of mole and presents a teaching approach in which students can experiment with atoms and develop an understanding of mass ratios. Presents 10 examples of chemistry problems involving moles and unit conversations. (YDS)

  16. Security Patterns: Comparing Modeling Approaches Armstrong NHLABATSI

    E-print Network

    Jurjens, Jan

    Security Patterns: Comparing Modeling Approaches Armstrong NHLABATSI ** , Arosha BANDARA the challenges of developing secure software systems remains an active research area in software engineering. Current research efforts have resulted in the documentation of recurring security problems as security

  17. 8 Governance: Exploring Four Approaches and Their

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    of governance: corporate gov- ernance, global governance, good governance, and modern governance lead to competition and cooperation. Keywords: Governance; corporate governance; global governance165 8 Governance: Exploring Four Approaches and Their Relevance to Research Marc Hufty1 Abstract

  18. Modeling brain dynamics using computational neurogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Benuskova, Lubica; Kasabov, Nikola

    2008-12-01

    The paper introduces a novel computational approach to brain dynamics modeling that integrates dynamic gene-protein regulatory networks with a neural network model. Interaction of genes and proteins in neurons affects the dynamics of the whole neural network. Through tuning the gene-protein interaction network and the initial gene/protein expression values, different states of the neural network dynamics can be achieved. A generic computational neurogenetic model is introduced that implements this approach. It is illustrated by means of a simple neurogenetic model of a spiking neural network of the generation of local field potential. Our approach allows for investigation of how deleted or mutated genes can alter the dynamics of a model neural network. We conclude with the proposal how to extend this approach to model cognitive neurodynamics. PMID:19003458

  19. A Game Theoretical Approach to Communication Security

    E-print Network

    Gueye, Assane

    2011-01-01

    that Game Theory can play for information security problems.Theory shares many common concerns with the information securityinformation security ([37], [51],[52]). The second approach uses Game Theory

  20. Assessing Writing Skills through a Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Philip; Killion, Joellen

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that students whose teachers participated in process-model inservice training performed significantly better on a number of writing evaluation criteria than did those of teachers who had relied on a skills-approach technique.

  1. SOHO Sees Venus' Approach - Duration: 5 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows the Sun's corona and Venus' approach for the transit. This was taken with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) in ...

  2. A quasionedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnationpoint flows

    E-print Network

    A quasi­onedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnation­point flows Arno Klomfass 1 Lehr­ und An approximate method for the efficient calculation of stagnation streamline quantities in hypersonic flows about

  3. An Approach to Conceptual Difficulties in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hugh G.; Mooney, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To provide an activity illustrating why they encounter conceptual difficulties in physics, students constructed a "world map" of physics which defines various "seas" and illustrates relationships between them. Salient features of this approach and physics concepts fostered are included. (JN)

  4. NEW APPROACHES IN UNDERSTANDING DRUG METABOLISM

    E-print Network

    Hart, Steven N.

    2011-02-22

    Limitations in technology, such as DNA sequencing and appropriate model systems, have made it difficult to understand the genetic and non-genetic factors that influence the liver's role in metabolizing drugs. New approaches ...

  5. Meson wave function from holographic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-08-04

    We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

  6. Clustering and Inconsistent Information: A Kernelization Approach

    E-print Network

    Cao, Yixin

    2012-07-16

    by removing vertices is the objective of the classical feedback vertex set (FVS) problem. This dissertation studies the three problems, correlation clustering, hierarchical clustering, and disjoint-FVS (a variation of FVS), from a kernelization approach. A...

  7. Quantum Cryptography Approaching the Classical Limit

    E-print Network

    Weedbrook, Christian

    We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender’s station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as ...

  8. Ab initio converse NMR approach for pseudopotentials

    E-print Network

    Ceresoli, Davide

    We extend the recently developed converse NMR approach [Thonhauser et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 101101 (2009)] such that it can be used in conjunction with norm-conserving, nonlocal pseudopotentials. This extension permits ...

  9. Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks

    E-print Network

    Ji, Chuanyi

    Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks Marina Thottan, Guanglei Liu, Chuanyi Ji Abstract In recent years network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL OZONE SAMPLERS: THREE APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators funded under the HEI ozone sampler program, Drs. Hackney, Yanagisawa, and Koutrakis, and their collaborators used different approaches to develop personal ozone samples that would be sensitive, accurate, and amenable to use in epidemiological studies. ...

  11. An AI Approach to English Morphemic Analysis

    E-print Network

    Winograd, Terry

    1971-02-01

    This paper illustrated an approach toward understanding natural language through the techniques of artificial intelligence. It explores the structure of English word-endings both morpho-graphemically and semantically. It ...

  12. Key Management Challenges and Approaches in Mobility

    E-print Network

    Key Management Challenges and Approaches in Mobility Applications Lily Chen, CSD, NIST September 11. Without infrastructure support, security status cannot be handed over. ??? #12;Challenge II ­ Trust/threat

  13. A new approach to parallel SAT solvers

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Max (Max M.)

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel approach to solving SAT problems in parallel by partitioning the entire set of problem clauses into smaller pieces that can be solved by individual threads. We examine the complications that arise with ...

  14. The Limits to Adaptation; A Systems Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach. The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering...

  15. Thermal Monitoring Approaches for Energy Savings Verification

    E-print Network

    McBride, J. R.; Bohmer, C. J.; Lippman, R. H.; Zern, M. J.

    This paper reviews and summarizes techniques for monitoring thermal energy flows for the purpose of verifying energy savings in industrial and large institutional energy conservation projects. Approaches for monitoring hot and chilled water, steam...

  16. A Hybrid Approach to Discrete Mathematical Programming

    E-print Network

    Marsten, Roy E.

    The dynamic programming and branch-and-bound approaches are combined to produce a hybrid algorithm for separable discrete mathematical programs. The hybrid algorithm uses linear programming in a novel way to compute bounds ...

  17. A physicist's approach to number partitioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Mertens

    2001-01-01

    The statistical physics approach to the number partioning problem, a classical NP- hard problem, is both simple and rewarding. Very basic notions and methods from statistical mechanics are enough to obtain analytical results for the phase boundary that separates the \\

  18. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  19. A STRATIFIED APPROACH FOR SOUND SPATIALIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Petersa; Trond Lossiusb; Jan Schacherc; Pascal Baltazard; Charles Bascoue; Timothy Placef

    We propose a multi-layer structure to mediate essential com- ponents in sound spatialization. This approach will facilitate artistic work with spatialization systems, a process which currently lacks structure, flexibility, and interoperability.

  20. SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN

    E-print Network

    SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN DRAFT REPORT JUNE 22 1999 Jianfeng Zhang Ian Dobson Fernando L. Alvarado POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM

  1. A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management 

    E-print Network

    Spencer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

  2. A multiscale approach for modeling crystalline solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto M. Cuitiño; Laurent Stainier; Guofeng Wang; Alejandro Strachan; Tahir Çagin; William A. Goddard; Michael Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a modeling approach to bridge the atomistic with macroscopic scales in crystalline materials. The\\u000a methodology combines identification and modeling of the controlling unit processes at microscopic level with the direct atomistic\\u000a determination of fundamental material properties. These properties are computed using a many body Force Field derived from\\u000a ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations. This approach is

  3. The Minimal Geometric Deformation Approach Extended

    E-print Network

    Casadio, Roberto; da Rocha, Roldao

    2015-01-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior space-time around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, like stars or similar astrophysical objects as well, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application.

  4. Quantitative Approach to Software Process Improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Kuntzmann-combelles

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes real experiences of software process improvement based on the SEI CMM assessment method and the ami\\u000a1 approach for metrication. The am\\u000a\\u000ai\\u000a method is an established technique an organization can use to get started with process improvement. A 12 steps supported approach ensures benefits for project planning and management, cost-effectiveness and match of business goals. The

  5. A quantitative approach to software process management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Debou; A. Kuntzmann-Combelles; A. Rowe

    1994-01-01

    Describes real experiences of software process management based on the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (SEI CMM) assessment method and the AMI (assess\\/analyse, metricate, improve) approach. The AMI method is a 12-step supported approach to implementing measurement. It ensures benefits for project planning and management, cost-effectiveness and match of quality objectives. The AMI project was partly funded by the

  6. A clustering fuzzy approach for image segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cinque; G. Foresti; L. Lombardi

    Segmentation is a fundamental step in image description or classi1cation. In recent years, several computational models have been used to implement segmentation methods but without establishing a single analytic solution. However, the intrinsic properties of neural networks make them an interesting approach, despite some measure of ine5ciency. This paper presents a clustering approach for image segmentation based on a modi1ed

  7. Implementation Approaches for Reconfigurable Logic Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad L. Hutchings; Michael J. Wirthlin

    1995-01-01

    Reconfigurable FPGAs provide designers with new imple- mentation approaches for designing high-performance applications. This paper discusses two basic implementation approaches with FPGAs: compile- time reconfiguration and run-time reconfiguration. Compile-time recon- figuration is a static implementation strategy where each application consists of one configuration. Run-time reconfiguration is a dynamic im- plementation strategy where each application consists of multiple cooper- ating configurations.

  8. Psychotherapeutic approaches with survivors of childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2002-04-01

    The development and evaluation of psychotherapeutic approaches for survivors of childhood trauma has been complicated by numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. Randomized controlled clinical trials are rare, and most of these test cognitive behavioral therapy with sexually abused children. This article reviews psychosocial (nonpharmacological) treatment approaches with child and adult survivors of childhood trauma, highlighting methodologically sound studies of treatment efficacy. Implications of efficacy data for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:11953936

  9. A hybrid approach for elliptic scalar multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeena, Ruma Kareem K.; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we proposed a new merged approach called the GLV-ISD scalar multiplication. This hybrid approach is based on the GLV (Gallant-Lambert-Vanstone) approach and the proposed integer sub-decomposition (ISD) approach to compute any multiple kP of a point P of order n lying on an elliptic curve E over prime field Fp. This approach consists of two stages to calculate kP, the GLV stage and secondly the ISD stage. The basic idea of the merged GLV-ISD method is to decompose the multiplier k ? [1, n] into the values k1 and k2, where k1, k2 < k. The application of GLV-ISD approach depends on the returned values k1 and k2 lying inside/outside the range ±?{n } on the interval [1, n - 1]. This new insight, namely, GLV-ISD approach leads to improvement on scalar multiplication computation of elliptic curve cryptography through increase the percentage of successful computation of kP compared with the original GLV approach. Several theoretical aspects were proven and shown in this paper which bridge the gaps that we have encountered in the existing GLV method. The proposed ISD method is regarded as a complement of the existing GLV method and combining the GLV and the ISD method in one go will lead to an efficient implementation of scalar computation of kP. With the adaptation of ISD method in the existing system has brought in several theoretical extension which are discussed and proved in this paper.

  10. An approach to the software quality management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Lavrishcheva; G. I. Koval; T. M. Korotun

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to an engineering approach to software quality management. The approach is oriented toward the attainment\\u000a of the software maturity, which is a key software quality characteristic. A model of quality and a conceptual model for making\\u000a decisions on software quality management are developed. They are based on methods of specification of quality requirements\\u000a to the maturity

  11. Green Homebuilding By Design- a Systems Approach 

    E-print Network

    Pfeiffer, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    description of presentation: A Power Point presentation describing a whole building ?systems? approach to high performance green homebuilding utilizing design strategies particularly relevant to hot climate. 90% of the effective green building... strategies occur within the first 10% of the design process. ?Green by design? is cost effective; ?green by device? is may not be. An integrated approach to the pillars of high performance building from programming to building sciences will be presented...

  12. A multistage approach to vector quantization

    E-print Network

    Bellubbi, Rajeev V.

    1992-01-01

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering A MULTISTAGE APPROACH TO VECTOR QUANTIZATION A Thesis by RAJEEV V BELLUBBI Approved as to style and content by: Vinay Vaishampaysn (Chair of Committee) Hosame Abu-Amara (Member) William Bliss (Member) A...A MULTISTAGE APPROACH TO VECTOR QUANTIZATION A Thesis by RAJEEV V. BELLUBBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE July 6, 1992...

  13. A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    William H. Sulis

    2014-09-07

    The process approach to NRQM offers a fourth framework for the quantization of physical systems. Unlike the standard approaches (Schrodinger-Heisenberg, Feynman, Wigner-Gronewald-Moyal), the process approach is not merely equivalent to NRQM and is not merely a re-interpretation. The process approach provides a dynamical completion of NRQM. Standard NRQM arises as a asymptotic quotient by means of a set-valued process covering map, which links the process algebra to the usual space of wave functions and operators on Hilbert space. The process approach offers an emergentist, discrete, finite, quasi-non-local and quasi-non-contextual realist interpretation which appears to resolve many of the paradoxes and is free of divergences. Nevertheless, it retains the computational power of NRQM and possesses an emergent probability structure which agrees with NRQM in the asymptotic quotient. The paper describes the process algebra, the process covering map for single systems and the configuration process covering map for multiple systems. It demonstrates the link to NRQM through a toy model. Applications of the process algebra to various quantum mechanical situations - superpositions, two-slit experiments, entanglement, Schrodinger's cat - are presented along with an approach to the paradoxes and the issue of classicality.

  14. Vegetative states--an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Elad; Kim, Yoon-Hang; Maizes, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    The integrative approach to vegetative state remains a challenge. In this article we have presented the evidence for conventional and alternative therapies that can be applied to this condition. Some are intended to support the patient and prevent complications; others enhance the ability of relatives to interact with their loved ones; while others are intended to shorten the vegetative state period. The approaches we reviewed were based on availability of data on MEDLINE and/or their potential to broaden our conceptual approach to vegetative state. Some approaches highlighted within the article including nutritional support, acupuncture, and homeopathy, seem to have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio. Yet, the complexity of vegetative state makes it challenging to recommend an integrative protocol. Rather we recommend an individualized approach, based on patient co-morbidities, caregiver and health professional preferences, and availability of therapists. Other approaches, including herbal medicine, mind-body therapies, intercessory prayer, energy medicine, and shamanism were not included due to the lack of available information and evidence. We acknowledge that a lack of evidence for efficacy is not equivalent to evidence for a lack of efficacy. Further research is critically needed to advance our treatment approach to this challenging state. Vegetative state is a condition that continues to humble the medical world. What we do not know eclipses that which we know. The critical question of what the vegetative state patient experiences continues to mystify us. Our philosophical stance insists that we treat the patient as one who is aware. Simultaneously we struggle with what, if anything, we can successfully do to "reawaken" the patient. PMID:15712763

  15. Managing Approach Plate Information Study (MAPLIST): An Information Requirements Analysis of Approach Chart Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonnson, Jon E.; Barry, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Adequately presenting all necessary information on an approach chart represents a challenge for cartographers. Since many tasks associated with using approach charts are cognitive (e.g., planning the approach and monitoring its progress), and since the characteristic of a successful interface is one that conforms to the users' mental models, understanding pilots' underlying models of approach chart information would greatly assist cartographers. To provide such information, a new methodology was developed for this study that enhances traditional information requirements analyses by combining psychometric scaling techniques with a simulation task to provide quantifiable links between pilots' cognitive representations of approach information and their use of approach information. Results of this study should augment previous information requirements analyses by identifying what information is acquired, when it is acquired, and what presentation concepts might facilitate its efficient use by better matching the pilots' cognitive model of the information. The primary finding in this study indicated that pilots mentally organize approach chart information into ten primary categories: communications, geography, validation, obstructions, navigation, missed approach, final items, other runways, visibility requirement, and navigation aids. These similarity categories were found to underlie the pilots' information acquisitions, other mental models, and higher level cognitive processes that are used to accomplish their approach and landing tasks.

  16. Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Colling, Lincoln J.; Williamson, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioral dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behavior the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioral dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain. PMID:25309403

  17. Fostering a healing presence and investigating its mediators.

    PubMed

    McDonough-Means, Sharon I; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Bell, Iris R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the exploration and explication of the complex phenomena of "healing presence" and of appropriately supportive theoretical approaches to integrate emerging models for research design. Healing presence is described as an interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal to transcendent phenomenon that leads to a beneficial, therapeutic, and/or positive spiritual change within another individual (healee) and also within the healer. An integrated framework merging knowledge from diverse fields of research develops the multiple elements of healing presence, the healer, the healee's capacity for response and the healing effect as an entangled phenomenon. A conceptual systemic model is presented, and questions and dilemmas that emerge are delineated. An integrated qualitative-quantitative research design is proposed. A systemic relationship model, which includes the healer, the healee, and persons within the healee's environment is presented. The challenges are substantial, but the research questions are meaningful and worthwhile. The goal is to foster healing at bio-psycho-social-spiritual levels of the human being. PMID:15630820

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique

    PubMed Central

    Biagetti, Chiara; Naspi, Giulia; Catassi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD) on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years). By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years) and parents (children younger than 8 years) were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside) and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life). Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment. PMID:24225846

  19. Health promotion for adolescents: preventive and corrective strategies against problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hurrelmann, K

    1990-09-01

    This paper, in its first part, gives an overview of research on "problem behavior" in adolescence. Adolescence is considered to be a stage in life characterized by more experimentation, exploration, risk-taking, and rebellion than any other stages. Many health-damaging behaviors (drug consumption, precocious sexual activity, riskful driving, aggressive behavior, etc.) have important psychosocial functions in adolescents' developments. Some of these behaviors can be signals of "stress", defined as a bio-psycho-social state of tension resulting from a variety of stressors which confront adolescents daily in modern industrial societies. In the second part of the paper, the implications of this research for strategies of intervention are discussed. The systematic analysis distinguishes between different stages in the process by which problem behavior emerges and separates "preventive" from "corrective" forms of intervention. Additionally, the analysis differentiates between the dimensions targeted by the measures: interventions addressed toward individual behavior ("personal resources") on the one hand, and living conditions ("social resources") on the other hand. The resulting types of intervention approaches are illustrated with examples and discussed in view of how appropriate they are for health promotion in adolescence. Implications for "social policy for adolescents" are discussed. PMID:2262607

  20. Fostering a Healing Presence and Investigating Its Mediators

    PubMed Central

    KREITZER, MARY JO; BELL, IRIS R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the exploration and explication of the complex phenomena of “healing presence” and of appropriately supportive theoretical approaches to integrate emerging models for research design. Healing presence is described as an interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal to transcendent phenomenon that leads to a beneficial, therapeutic, and/or positive spiritual change within another individual (healee) and also within the healer. An integrated framework merging knowledge from diverse fields of research develops the multiple elements of healing presence, the healer, the healee's capacity for response and the healing effect as an entangled phenomenon. A conceptual systemic model is presented, and questions and dilemmas that emerge are delineated. An integrated qualitative-quantitative research design is proposed. A systemic relationship model, which includes the healer, the healee, and persons within the healee's environment is presented. The challenges are substantial, but the research questions are meaningful and worthwhile. The goal is to foster healing at bio-psycho-social-spiritual levels of the human being. PMID:15630820

  1. Why do general practitioners prescribe antidepressants to their patients? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequency of antidepressant (ADs) prescription is high, with general practitioners (GPs) responsible for about 80% of the prescriptions. Some studies considered prescriptions meet DSM criteria, while others stress inadequate use. The importance of biological and psychosocial determinants of GP prescription behaviour remains little explored. We aimed to describe the importance of these biological and psychosocial determinants and their weight in the daily practice of GPs’. Methods During a week chosen at random, 28 GPs collected the AD prescriptions made within the previous six months, regardless of the reason for the patient contact. Bio psychosocial and AD treatment characteristics were recorded for all patients. In a random sample of 50 patients, patient characteristics were assessed via a structured face-to-face interview with the GP. Results The frequency of AD prescription was 8.90% [3.94 -17.02]. The GPs initiated 65.6% [60.1-70.8] of the prescriptions. The rate of AD prescription for non-psychiatric conditions was 18%. Patients had from 1 to 9 conditions, showing a high level of multi-morbidity. There was a strong influence of past medical history and contextual problems, such as work related problems. Conclusion AD prescription is related to complex contextual situations and multi-morbid patients. GPs use a bio psycho social approach, rather than a purely biological assessment. Awareness of these influences could improve prescription by GPs. PMID:25110516

  2. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Enhances Rural Livelihoods in Dryland West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A.

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. `Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  3. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    PubMed

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields. PMID:25835946

  4. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach. PMID:12346980

  5. Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

    2013-09-01

    While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education. PMID:23679676

  6. A Final Reconstruction Approach for a Unified Global Illumination Algorithm

    E-print Network

    A Final Reconstruction Approach for a Unified Global Illumination Algorithm XAVIER GRANIER IMAGER illumination in synthetic scenes. Typically, such approaches can deal with specific lighting configurations unified approach to global illumination, that automatically detects different types of light transfer

  7. Enforcing Vacated International Arbitration Awards: An Economic Approach

    E-print Network

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    , this approach is most like the approach reflected in In re Chromalloy Aeroservices, which is the only current approach that plainly focuses on the agreement of the parties in determining the enforceability of vacated awards. Ironically, although the Chromalloy...

  8. Transsacrococcygeal approach for resection of retrorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei; Li, Peiyu; Huang, Xiaohui

    2015-06-01

    Retrorectal tumors, are a rare and interesting entity, traditionally managed with surgery. The surgical approach is a key to get an easy and safe access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of resection by a transsacrococcygeal approach. Thirty-six patients had retrorectal tumors resected by a transsacrococcygeal approach in our department. All the tumors were en bloc resected, irrespective of size and anatomical depth. The clinic data were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor mean size was 10 ± 4.4 cm. In 16 cases, tumors were 10 cm or more in size. The largest tumor measured 20 cm. The estimated mean blood loss was 130 ml. No mortality and severe postoperative complications were observed. The most significant issues were wound infection and delayed healing. Pathology showed 15 cases of epidermal cysts, two cases of enterogenous cyst, one case of bronchogenic cyst, 12 cases of teratoma, two cases of schwannoma, two cases of low-grade malignant fibrous myxoma, one case of aggressive angiomyxoma, one case of desmoid tumor. The transsacrococcygeal approach gives an easy access and good visualization with fewer complications. This surgical approach shows to be safe and effective for resection of retrorectal tumors. PMID:26031268

  9. Testing the TPF Interferometry Approach before Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, Eugene; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    One way to directly detect nearby extra-solar planets is via their thermal infrared emission, and with this goal in mind, both NASA and ESA are investigating cryogenic infrared interferometers. Common to both agencies' approaches to faint off-axis source detection near bright stars is the use of a rotating nulling interferometer, such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder interferometer (TPF-I), or Darwin. In this approach, the central star is nulled, while the emission from off-axis sources is transmitted and modulated by the rotation of the off-axis fringes. Because of the high contrasts involved, and the novelty of the measurement technique, it is essential to gain experience with this technique before launch. Here we describe a simple ground-based experiment that can test the essential aspects of the TPF signal measurement and image reconstruction approaches by generating a rotating interferometric baseline within the pupil of a large singleaperture telescope. This approach can mimic potential space-based interferometric configurations, and allow the extraction of signals from off-axis sources using the same algorithms proposed for the space-based missions. This approach should thus allow for testing of the applicability of proposed signal extraction algorithms for the detection of single and multiple near-neighbor companions...

  10. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  11. A discriminative approach for wavelet denoising.

    PubMed

    Hel-Or, Y; Shaked, D

    2008-04-01

    This paper suggests a discriminative approach for wavelet denoising where a set of mapping functions (MFs) are applied to the transform coefficients in an attempt to produce a noise free image. As opposed to the descriptive approaches, modeling image or noise priors is not required here and the MFs are learned directly from an ensemble of example images using least-squares fitting. The suggested scheme generates a novel set of MFs that are essentially different from the traditional soft/hard thresholding in the over-complete case. These MFs are demonstrated to obtain comparable performance to the state-of-the-art denoising approaches. Additionally, this framework enables a seamless customization of the shrinkage operation to a new set of restoration problems that were not addressed previously with shrinkage techniques, such as deblurring, JPEG artifact removal, and various types of additive noise that are not necessarily Gaussian white noise. PMID:18390354

  12. Growth factor delivery approaches in hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda K Andriola; Richard, Cyrille; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2009-01-12

    The controlled delivery of growth factors is a very challenging task because many different issues have to be addressed to develop the best suited system. A wide range of approaches have been employed for the controlled delivery of growth factors by hydrogels. Direct loading, electrostatic interaction, covalent binding, and the use of carriers are the main strategies presented in the literature. They are all detailed in the first part of this review. Recent work emphasizing biologically inspired strategies is also included. Also, both natural and synthetic materials are discussed. The second part comprises the methods to evaluate such delivery approaches. Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are presented. Improvements based on the discussed approaches may illustrate future paths toward the development of an ideal growth factor delivery system. PMID:19032110

  13. Power system economic dispatch via network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Hill, E.F.; Lee, T.H.

    1984-06-01

    A new approach, using the bus incremental costs as the key variables to solve the economic dispatch problem of power systems is proposed in this paper. This approach maintains the system configuration, and all the relevant variables (generator schedules and line flows) can be expressed simply in terms of bus incremental costs. By the application of this approach, the problem of economic dispatch is easily converted to a concise set of quasi-linear equations resulting in a solution form which is similar to that of the electric network. This enables one to apply any readily available high speed special large system solution algorithm to handle the dispatching problem. The generation and the transmission limits also can be included in the solution process.

  14. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  15. Hydrodynamic Approaches in Relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions

    E-print Network

    de Souza, Rafael Derradi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation with the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to...

  16. Cooperative learning as an approach to pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Nolinske, T; Millis, B

    1999-01-01

    Lecture-based pedagogical approaches cannot adequately prepare students in professional and technical occupational therapy programs. Faculty members in other disciplines are turning to a well-known and well-researched teaching approach called cooperative learning, which is more carefully structured and defined than most other forms of small group learning. Cooperative learning includes several key principles: positive interdependence, individual responsibility, appropriate grouping, group maintenance, cooperative skills, and promotive (interaction) time. This article provides ideas for managing the classroom with cooperative learning activities and describes eight of them: Three-Step Interview, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Structured Problem Solving, Send/Pass-a-Problem, Generic Question Stems, Double Entry Journal, and Dyadic Essay Confrontation. Each activity is applied to content embedded in professional and technical occupational therapy curricula. A cooperative learning approach to evaluating learning is also presented. PMID:9926216

  17. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

    2014-01-01

    Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach. PMID:24982977

  18. Pseudospectral approach to relativistic molecular theory.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-08-22

    The efficient relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) and Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) methods are proposed by an application of the pseudospectral (PS) approach. The present PS-DHF/DKS method is a relativistic extension of the PS-HF/KS method of Friesner, though we aim at higher numerical accuracy by elimination of superfluous arbitrariness. The relativistic PS-DHF/DKS method is implemented into our REL4D programs. Several PS applications to molecular systems show that the relativistic PS-DHF/DKS approach is more efficient than the traditional approach without a loss of accuracy. The present PS-DKS method successfully assigns and predicts the photoelectron spectra of hexacarbonyl complexes of tungsten and seaborgium theoretically. PMID:15303907

  19. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  20. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.