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Sample records for challenges-a psycho-social approach

  1. After the Biomedical Technology Revolution: Where to Now for a Bio-Psycho-Social Approach to Social Work?

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In the late twentieth century, the bio-psycho-social framework emerged as a powerful influence on the conceptualisation and delivery of health and rehabilitation services including social work services in these fields. The bio-psycho-social framework is built on a systems view of health and well-being ( Garland and Howard, 2009). The systems perspective encourages medical and allied health professions, including social work, to recognise and to respond to the multiple systems impacting on individual health and well-being ( Engel, 2003). This paper analyses how advances in biomedical technology, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and human genomics, are challenging the bio-psycho-social approach to practice. The paper examines the pressures on the social work profession to embrace biomedical science and points to the problems in doing so. The conclusion points to some tentative ways forward for social workers to engage critically with biomedical advances and to strengthen the bio-psycho-social framework in the interests of holistic and ethical approaches to social work practice. PMID:27559237

  2. Geriatric psycho-social history outline.

    PubMed

    Velardo, C C

    1976-10-01

    The details of a Geriatric Psycho-Social History Outline for use with the institutional aged are presented. All health care facilities require background information on the patient at the time of admission, but with long-term facilities a more comprehensive psycho-social history is needed. The Outline provides a basis for obtaining information in five categories: 1) identification (detailed, observational and attitudinal); 2) referral source; 3) background; 4) family constellation or environmental factors; and 5) finances. Its comprehensiveness requires more than one pre-admission interview. It is aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality rates following admission to long-term facilities. If the aged person becomes somewhat familiar with the institution before admission, he is less susceptible to accelerated physiologic and psycho-social deterioration and death. Because of constant growth in the field of gerontology, new and improved instruments must be devised to help carry the load. The Geriatric Psycho-Social History Outline is for use as a guide to those who require such information if they are to function at maximum efficiency. PMID:965679

  3. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  4. [Emergency medicine interventions for psycho-social crisis].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, Frank-Gerald B; D'Amelio, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Psycho-social crisis intervention has emerged to be a routine treatment application in the pre-hospital emergency medical system in Germany. It is applied to both patients with psychiatric disorders and in psycho-social crises. For the latter, a psycho-physiological reaction is typical that can be treated with the BELLA concept. Psycho-social crisis intervention for the emergency physician must be regarded as psychological first-aid and is characterised by an immediate start, a limited time frame, consideration of security aspects, flexibility and a determination to pre-set goals and their achievements. We recommend to adequately document this complex service. PMID:23929164

  5. Employing a community based participatory research approach to bear witness: psycho-social impact of the 2010 earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C

    2014-12-01

    We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

  6. Psycho-Social Parameters in Young Female Long Distance Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine selected psycho-social parameters associated with a group of teenage, female long distance runners. These young women, who train by running approximately 50-90 miles per week, had scores in certain physiological and anthropometric measurements which were among the most advantageous for running ever recorded in…

  7. Psycho-social effects of traffic noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper a study of psycho-social effects of exposure to high levels of road traffic noise is presented. A questionnaire was constructed to evaluate not only annoyance reactions and sleep disturbance effects of noise, but also more long-term effects on psycho-social well-being (PSW). PSW was evaluated by 26 questions concerning depression, relaxation, activity, passivity, general well-being and social orientation. The postal questionnaire was answered by 151 persons in a quiet city area and 97 persons in an area exposed to an Leq level of 72 dB(A). The results showed that a higher proportion of those who lived in the noisy area in apartments with windows facing the street more often felt depressed. Those who had windows facing the courtyard, in the noisy area, however, were not more depressed that those who lived in the quiet area. Methodological difficulties in this type of study are also discussed in the paper.

  8. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining. Chapter 1 reviews the status of the literature on labor productivity changes. Chapter 2 is an introduction to current concepts and research on psycho-social factors in productivity, with a survey of experiments in productivity improvement presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production. Chapter 5 presents a clinical study of a coal mining operation, and develops a model of how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face. Implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management are presented in Chapter 6.

  9. Justifying Educational Acquaintance with the Moral Horrors of History on Psycho-Social Grounds: "Facing History and Ourselves" in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive…

  10. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences. PMID:21240548

  11. Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.

    PubMed

    Licanin, Ifeta; Redzić, Amira

    2005-02-01

    It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

  12. Psycho-social aspects of personal health monitoring: a descriptive literature review.

    PubMed

    Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at providing a short review on already published studies addressing psycho-social issues of personal health monitoring (PHM). Both core questions addressed within this review are: What is the impact of PHM on intended psycho-social and health-related outcomes? And which psycho-social issues affected by or related to PHM have already been investigated? This descriptive review based on a literature search using various databases (Psycinfo, Psyndex, Pubmed, SSCI). Resulting 428 abstracts were coded regarding their psycho-social content. Inspection of results was carried out along the relevance of the papers regarding psycho-social issues. Research in PHM focuses on telemonitoring and smart home applications: Tele-monitoring studies are directed to outcome-related questions, smart home studies to feasibility issues. Despite of technological matters, comparability of both systems in psycho-social issues is lacking. Tele-monitoring has been proven for impact on patient groups with chronic diseases, yet smart home still lacks evidence in health-related and psycho-social matters. Smart home applications have been investigated with respect to attitudes, perceptions and concerns of end-users, telemonitoring regarding acceptance and adherence. PMID:23920455

  13. [Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work. PMID:25546541

  14. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  15. Psycho-Social Issues in Females Study of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyabo, Omoniyi Mary Banke; Oke, Oloruntegbe Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psycho-social factors with females study of science and technology course at the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria and its counseling implications. Three research questions and hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The subjects for the study comprised 240 undergraduate female students…

  16. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  17. [The psychological characteristics of the patients presenting with Meniere's disease and their psycho-social adaptation].

    PubMed

    Iaroslavskaia, M A; Petrovskaia, A N

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to highlight and systematize the current scientific concepts of the role of psychological factors in the psycho-social adaptation of the patients presenting the Meniere's disease. The authors analysed the data concerning the psycho-social adaptation of the patients presenting with this condition that were published in the scientific literature during many years. The detailed analysis of the psychological characteristics of the patients allowed to reveal peculiarities of their psychological response to the disease and conserved personal-environmental resources that can be used in the development of stress-adaptation models for the psychological correction and psychotherapeutic treatment with a view to their subsequent introduction into the routine clinical practice of healthcare service institutions. PMID:24600717

  18. [Protection of workers' health against occupational psycho-social hazards--theoretical models].

    PubMed

    Dudek, B; Waszkowska, M

    1996-01-01

    Occupational Health Service are not yet equipped with tools which could permit them to include protection of workers' health against occupational psycho-social hazards into their prophylactic activities. The authors present a model of such a system, its objectives and conditions which should be satisfied in order to put the system into operation. The model discussed is somewhat an ideal solution which does not necessarily adhere to the reality but it sets tasks and identifies lines of activities to be carried out at the Department of Occupational Psychology, the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz. These activities are aimed at monitoring and evaluating of health risk generated by psycho-social factors. PMID:8656994

  19. Impacts of hazardous technology: The psycho-social effects of restarting TMI-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.; Bolin, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an evaluation of the psycho-social impacts of hazardous technology. Using a multiple research strategy, the authors show the possible effects of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island. The book includes background information concerning environmental policy, the accident and restart issues, and forecasted impacts and implications for environmental management. The topic, however, extends well beyond that of TMI and nuclear power. Linkages are made with other environmental problems including chemical accidents such as Bhopal and waste disposal problems such as Love Canal.

  20. Psycho-social Needs Impact on Hookah Smoking Initiation among Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iranian women, the use of hookah is the most common method of tobacco smoking. This study aimed to find the role of psycho-social needs and gaps as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking initiation in women. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted during 2012–2013 in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six women participated in the study. They were current or former users of hookah. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Results: Four main categories were identified from the data. This study focused on the category: Psycho-social needs and gaps. This category has five sub-categories which explain why women begin to smoke hookah including curiosity; desire for non-feminine, forbidden, and negative activities; need for amusement and recreation; for others: To show off; attract attention; satisfy and join others and protection. Conclusions: From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Keeping young girls and women away from seemingly happy gatherings of hookah smokers; Providing appropriate recreational facilities for young women and training families on how to help their children in the event of a crisis-like intention to take up smoking behavior, can be some effective ways for reducing hookah smoking initiation among women. PMID:26425334

  1. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Louisa S.; Hicks, Christina C.; Adger, W. Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L.; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute. PMID:26960200

  2. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    PubMed

    Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute. PMID:26960200

  3. Explanation of Social Relation Based on University's Psycho-Social Climate, Psychological Wellbeing Components, and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oke, Kayode

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explain social relation based on psycho-social climate, psychological wellbeing components, and emotional intelligence among undergraduates of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria. The statistical population consisted of all undergraduates of Olabisi Onabanjo University. Participants were randomly selected…

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON PSYCHO-SOCIAL BELIEF IN RURAL LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA RESIDENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of imp...

  5. [The role of art therapy in the rehabilitation of psycho-socially disabled people].

    PubMed

    Simon, Lajos; Kovács, Emese

    2015-01-01

    The present review focuses on the generally accepted and applied community psychiatry based models of psycho-social rehabilitation. The basics of the Strenghts model and the Recovery based model are introduced in this paper. Both models can be assisted by art therapy in various ways. The forms and the therapeutic factors of art therapy are also discussed, as well as the effects of the creating experience during the art therapy sessions. The authors introduce the good practice of the Moravcsik Foundation with highlights in two special areas that are beyond the generally applied art therapy work and representing important support in reaching the goals set during the rehabilitation process. Further, the authors describe the Budapest Art Brut Gallery and the PsychArt24 art marathon project in details. PMID:26202626

  6. Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners

  7. [The model program of psycho-social treatment and staff training].

    PubMed

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2012-01-01

    The model program of psycho-social treatment and staff training were reported in this issue. The mission of model program is supporting recovery of persons with mental illness and their family as well as empowering their hope and sense of values. The personal support specialists belonging to multi-disciplinary team have responsibility to support life-long process of recovery across hospitalization, out-patients clinic, day treatment, and outreach service. The shared value of multi-disciplinary team (the community life supporting team) is recovery so that the team renders self directive life, various alternatives of their lives, and peer group with models of recovery to persons with mental illness. There should be several technologies which are used in the team such as engagement, psycho-education, cognitive-behavior therapy, care-management, cooperating with other resources. The responsibility, assessment and evaluation techniques, guarantee of opportunities for training, and auditing system of the team and process of treatment are important factors to educate team staff. Raising effective multi-disciplinary team requires existence of a mentor or good model near the team. PMID:22420150

  8. Epidemiology and psycho-social aspects of onchocercal skin diseases in northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Ikem Chris; Onwuliri, Celestine OE

    2007-01-01

    Background Observations were made on the prevalence of onchocerciasis and Onchocercal Skin Diseases (OSD); frequency of occurrence and anatomical distribution of OSD in the Hawal River Valley, an established onchocerciasis endemic focus in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods Symptoms of OSD were diagnosed in 5 844 subjects using Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) while 1 479 of the subjects chosen from alternate households had their skin biopsies examined for active microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Also, Focal Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted at the Health District levels. Results O. volvulus was recorded in (19.0%) and OSD in (43.8%) of the subjects. The Mantel-Haenszel test for linear association showed a close agreement between onchocerciasis prevalence and the rate of OSD (χ2 = 3.93; p < 0.05). The various forms of OSD occurred in the order: CPOD (17.7%), APOD (9.9%), DPM (9.0%), LOD (7.0%) and ATR (3.1%). The overall frequency of occurrence of various symptoms of OSD on different anatomical locations showed the locations in descending order of occurrence as lower limbs (24.6%), upper limbs (21.3%), buttocks (19.9%), shoulder & neck (19.1%), abdomen and trunk (11.3%), backside (10.6), and 'other' sites (7.5%). The Focal Group Discussion (FGD) revealed the most worrisome consequences of OSD as social isolation of victims (31.3%), shame and low self esteem (22.7%) and high cost of medication (15.6%). Conclusion It is recommended that Onchocerciasis control programmes in the Hawal River Valley and any other focus with high incidence of OSD should incorporate an aspect that would address the anxiety and depression caused by various OSD lesions since they carry lots of psycho-social implications. This would increase acceptance and compliance of the target population. The classification criteria of onchocerciasis endemicity should be based on either or both of the O. volvulus and onchocercal skin disease burden of any community and no longer on O. volvulus

  9. Psychoneuroimmunology: a bio-psycho-social approach to health and disease.

    PubMed

    Zachariae, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology has explored the complex bi-directional interactions between brain, behavior, and the immune system. Taken together, this research has expanded the limits of the questions we can ask about the organism by challenging the biomedical paradigm of the immune system as predominantly "autonomous". Psychoneuroimmunology has played a key role in establishing a biological basis for the ancient idea that the mind can play a role in health and disease. This article describes the development of psychoneuroimmunology and reviews a number of key findings concerning psychological phenomena of potential relevance to understanding brain-behavior-immune interactions, including learning, emotions, stress, and the role of sensory processes. PMID:19930265

  10. The Treatment of Father-Daughter Incest: A Psycho-Social Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarretto, Henry

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP) in San Jose, California. Based on the theory and methods of Humanistic Psychology, the program provides counseling to sexually abused children and their families. (SB)

  11. Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

  12. Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

  13. Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding.

    PubMed

    Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:19384920

  14. Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms—A pilot survey among persons exposed to high levels of road traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1989-08-01

    A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high levels of road traffic noise during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by 63 persons during three consecutive days. It was found that both sleep quality and mood (social orientation, activity, wellbeing and extroversion) were depressed in the noisy area as compared with a control area. Symptoms of tiredness, headache and nervous stomach disorders were more frequent. A significant relationship between sensitivity to noise and sleep quality was also found. From this pilot study hypotheses may be formulated about a relationship between environmental noise and different psycho-social and medical symptoms. It is suggested that similar studies on a larger scale are performed to elucidate long-term effects of noise.

  15. Psycho-social impact and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in South India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Gupte, M D; Dorairaj, V S; Periannan, V; Mathai, A K

    2009-04-01

    This study examines psycho-social impact of HIV and quality of life of 646 HIV-infected persons from a major government sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in South India. In this cross-sectional study, data was collected using interview schedule and scales. Nearly 70% had problems in parenting their children after acquiring the infection. Most (88%) of the respondents reported of seeking help from their family members, relatives or close friends at the time of their illness. Among the four categories of stigma, most of them (96%) reported perceived stigma whereas actual stigma was mentioned by only 33%. All four categories of stigma were experienced on a higher proportion by females than males (p<0.05). Each type of stigma was significantly associated with each domain of quality of life of the respondents (p<0.005). Respondents who reported of actual stigma (33%) had significantly good quality of life in their physical domain (49%), psychological domain (48%) and environmental domain (44%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender and marital status had significant association with quality of life. The findings of the study underscore the need for enabling environment through "human force" to uplift their social status and to have a better quality of life. PMID:19283642

  16. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  17. The Role of Lifestyle and Psycho-Social Factors in Predicting Changes in Body Composition in Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Norris, Shane A.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Crowther, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether lifestyle and psycho-social factors determine changes in body composition over 10 years in a population of black African females with a high prevalence of obesity. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 430 women at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body fat mass and fat free soft tissue mass, and simple anthropometric measures were taken at both time points. Data on physical activity (PA), diet, smoking, and alcohol intake were collected at baseline. Body size dissatisfaction and body size discrepancy were determined at baseline using the feel minus ideal (FID) index and the perceived minus actual weight status discrepancy score (PAD), respectively. Results All body composition measurements increased over 10 years (p<0.0005). Two distinct groups of overweight/obese females were identified using PAD and FID: one that was content with their body size and one that wished to be leaner. Vigorous PA at baseline was inversely associated with absolute changes in all measures of adiposity. In subjects who underestimated their body size at baseline (74.0% of the study population) changes in total and peripheral levels of body fat were less than in subjects who correctly identified their body size. In the group that underestimated body size, more women wanted to be leaner than in the group who knew their body size (60.1% vs 47.5%, p<0.05). Conclusions Underestimation of body size is common and is associated with a lower gain in total body adiposity and a prevalent desire to lose weight. PMID:26171972

  18. FBO Leaders' Perceptions of the Psycho-social Contexts for Rural Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Vacca, Raffaele; Wiens, Brenda; Loe, Emily; LaFlam, Melody; Pérez, Awilda; Locke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Latinos comprise the largest minority rural population in the US, and they are often exposed to adverse social health determinants that can detrimentally affect their mental health. Guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, this study aimed to describe faith-based organizations (FBOs) leaders' perceptions of the contexts affecting the mental well-being of rural Latino immigrants and potential approaches to mental health promotion for these immigrants. This is a descriptive, qualitative arm of a larger study in which community-academic members have partnered to develop a culturally-tailored mental health promotion intervention among rural Latinos. FBO leaders (N = 15) from different denominations in North Florida were interviewed until saturation was reached. FBO leaders remarked that in addition to religiosity, which Latinos already have, more community building and involvement are necessary for the promotion of mental health. PMID:26818929

  19. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The skills of facilitators included 10 intervention techniques and 1 problem in interventions. Intervention techniques, which promote group dynamics and thereby help participants acquire improvements in their coping abilities and quality of life (QOL), were somewhat different between new and experienced facilitators, with the content showing immaturity and maturity in the new and experienced facilitators, respectively. Both experienced and new facilitators faced the risk of experiencing problems in interventions, which countered the purpose of the intervention of improving the participants’ coping abilities or QOL. Conclusion While intervention skills are necessary for facilitators to execute group interventions, it must be borne in mind, that even well-experienced facilitators may not always be able to accomplish skillful intervention. PMID:26306056

  20. Correlation of etho-social and psycho-social data from "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    " and interpersonal communications, and facial expressions. As a whole, the findings show high importance of ethological investigations with video monitoring for assessment of group behavior in extreme environment. At the same time, correct interpretation of the video recording results requires their comparison with the results of classical socio-psychological methods. We discuss about the different approaches: objective vs. subjective; active vs. discursive; exhaustive vs. restrictive; descriptive vs. introspective.

  1. Chronic Widespread Pain Drawn on a Body Diagram is a Screening Tool for Increased Pain Sensitization, Psycho-Social Load, and Utilization of Pain Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Visser, Eric J; Ramachenderan, Jonathan; Davies, Stephanie J; Parsons, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain, (CWP) drawn by patients on a body diagram, could be used as a screening tool for increased pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilization of pain management strategies. The triage questionnaires of 144 adults attending a chronic pain outpatients' clinic were audited and the percentage pain surface area (PPSA) drawn on their body diagrams was calculated using the "rule of nines" (RON) method for burns area assessment. Outcomes were measured using the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) and other indices and compared using a nonrandomized, case-control method. It was found that significantly more subjects with CWP (defined as a PPSA ≥ 20%) reported high (≥ 19) PD-Q scores (suggesting pain "sensitization" or neuropathic pain) (P = 0.0002), "severe" or "extremely severe" anxiety scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items Questionnaire (P = 0.0270), ≥ 5 psycho-social stressors (P = 0.0022), ≥ 5 significant life events (P = 0.0098), and used ≥ 7 pain management strategies (PMS) (P < 00001), compared to control subjects with a lower PPSA. A Widespread Pain Index score ≥ 7 (OR = 11.36), PD-Q score ≥ 19 (OR = 4.46) and use of ≥ 7 PMS (OR = 5.49) were independently associated with CWP. This study demonstrates that calculating PPSA on a body diagram (using the RON method) is a valid and convenient "snapshot" screening tool to identify patients with an increased likelihood of pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilizing pain management resources. PMID:25469881

  2. When treatment success is not as black and white as a radiograph: the bio/psycho/social impact of chronic osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoward, Freya Jane; Bury, Sarah Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This case report is from Malawi Beit CURE international Hospital (BCIH), a center of excellence for the management of chronic osteomyelitis (COM) in children. Currently minimal evidence based data exists on the long term outcomes for treatment of bone defects following COM. Few studies evaluating outcomes are based solely on clinical parameters. This case study highlights the often-debilitating outcome after treatment and hence the need for further research to find the most effective treatment to create treatment guidelines. It particularly demonstrates the importance of the bio/psycho/social impact of long-term morbidity and disability, which must be considered alongside clinical outcomes in evaluation. PMID:25810806

  3. Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

  4. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

  5. Psycho-social factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the US, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) holds tremendous promise for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among these men. However, many psycho-social components must be addressed in order to effectively implement this prevention tool among BMSM. METHODS We assessed PrEP knowledge and use, health care access experiences, race-based medical mistrust, sexual partners and behaviors, and drug and alcohol use among 699 men attending a community event in the southeastern US. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use PrEP. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-eight men reported being BMSM and HIV negative status. Among these men, 60% reported being willing to use PrEP. Lack of being comfortable with talking to a health care provider about having sex with men, not having discussed having sex with a man with a health care provider, race-based medical mistrust, and alcohol consumption and substance use were all identified as barriers to willingness to use PrEP. Sexual risk taking, including number of sex partners and STI diagnosis, was not associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS Findings from the current paper demonstrate the importance of acknowledging the role of various psycho-social factors in the uptake of PrEP. It is imperative that we prioritize research into better understanding these barriers as the failure to do so will impede the tremendous potential of this prevention technology. PMID:25001553

  6. Why Do Some People Do “More” to Mitigate Climate Change than Others? Exploring Heterogeneity in Psycho-Social Associations

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized—and differentiated from common mitigation behavior—as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change—but not in motivational or socio-demographic links—with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

  7. A bio-psycho-social exercise program (RÜCKGEWINN) for chronic low back pain in rehabilitation aftercare - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is strong, internationally confirmed evidence for the short-term effectiveness of multimodal interdisciplinary specific treatment programs for chronic back pain. However, the verification of long-term sustainability of achieved effects is missing so far. For long-term improvement of pain and functional ability high intervention intensity or high volume seems to be necessary (> 100 therapy hours). Especially in chronic back pain rehabilitation, purposefully refined aftercare treatments offer the possibility to intensify positive effects or to increase their sustainability. However, quality assured goal-conscious specific aftercare programs for the rehabilitation of chronic back pain are absent. Methods/Design This study aims to examine the efficacy of a specially developed bio-psycho-social chronic back pain specific aftercare intervention (RÜCKGEWINN) in comparison to the current usual aftercare (IRENA) and a control group that is given an educational booklet addressing pain-conditioned functional ability and back pain episodes. Overall rehabilitation effects as well as predictors for compliance to the aftercare programs are analysed. Therefore, a multicenter prospective 3-armed randomised controlled trial is conducted. 456 participants will be consecutively enrolled in inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation and assigned to either one of the three study arms. Outcomes are measured before and after rehabilitation. Aftercare programs are assessed at ten month follow up after dismissal form rehabilitation. Discussion Special methodological and logistic challenges are to be mastered in this trial, which accrue from the interconnection of aftercare interventions to their residential district and the fact that the proportion of patients who take part in aftercare programs is low. The usability of the aftercare program is based on the transference into the routine care and is also reinforced by developed manuals with structured contents, media and

  8. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the "top-down" process, while exbodiment the "bottom-up" one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  9. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  10. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR. PMID:18583297

  11. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  12. A Typological Approach to the Understanding and Treatment of Child Abuse: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Catherine A.

    Recent findings in the literature on child abuse have been inconsistent and often contradictory, perhaps in part because most researchers treat child abuse as a homogeneous psycho-social phenomenon and commit the error of group averaging. One methodology which deals directly with the problem of homogeneity error is the typology approach. This…

  13. Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

    1975-01-01

    A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

  14. [Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].

    PubMed

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

  15. The Influence of Psycho-social Factors on Participation Levels in Community-based Breast Cancer Prevention Programs in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Redzuan, Ma’rof; Emby, Zahid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although significant consideration has been devoted to women participation in breast cancer prevention programs, our understanding about the psychosocial factors which influence participation remains incomplete. Method: The study applied a quantitative approach based on the cross-sectional survey design and multistage cluster random sampling. A total of 400 women aged 35-69 years, were surveyed at 4 obstetric and gynecologic clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran: the participation levels of 86 women who have had a mammogram were analyzed based on their self-efficacy, belief, social influence, and barriers concerning mammography utilization. Results: Consistent with the study framework, in bivariate analysis, the higher level of women’s participation in breast cancer prevention programs was significantly related to more positive belief about mammography (p< .05), greater social influence on mammography (p< .01) and fewer barriers to mammography (p< .01). Self efficacy (p= .114) was not significantly related to the higher level of participation. Conclusion: Results suggest that women’s participation levels in breast cancer prevention programs might be associated with the specific psychosocial factors on breast cancer preventive behavior such as mammography screening. PMID:22980116

  16. The Psycho-Social Dimensions of Preadolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan de Brun, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Differentiates between several terms used to refer to the five-year period between ages 9 through 13 (for example, "youth,""pubescence,""puberty," and "preadolescence"). Theories related to preadolescence, including the developmental theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, are briefly discussed, and social, emotional, sexual, and physiological…

  17. Psycho-social study of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tandon, A K; Chaturvedi, P K; Dubey, A L; Narang, R K; Singh, S K; Chandra, S

    1990-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to assess the smoking habit among medical students and its relationship to demographic, social and psychological characteristics. Prevalence of smoking was found to be 30.79% in 854 students who responded to the questionnaire adequately. Smoking habit was more common among student who were married hailed from rural areas and the intensity of smoking increased with advancement in the career in medical profession. A strong association was observed between the habit and family history of smoking. The psychological factors associated with smoking were worry about examination unhappiness without justified cause and failure in friendship. PMID:21927445

  18. The client-centred approach as experienced by male neurological rehabilitation clients in occupational therapy. A qualitative study based on a grounded theory tradition.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Dominique; Devisch, Ignaas; De Vriendt, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To explore the perspectives of male clients in a neurological rehabilitation setting with regard to the occupational therapy they have received and the client-centred approach. Method This study involved a qualitative research design based on the grounded theory tradition. Individual in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Seven male participants from an inpatient neurological setting were included using a theoretical sampling technique. Results Three themes emerged to describe the approach of the therapists to client-centred practice: (a) a shared biomedical focus as the start of the rehabilitation process, (b) the un-simultaneous shift from a biomedical towards a psycho-social focus and (c) formal versus informal nature of gathering client information. Conclusion A client-centred approach entails a shift from the therapist focussing on recovery from the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term consequences of the disease. According to the client, this shift in reasoning must occur at a specific and highly subjective moment during the rehabilitation process. Identifying this moment could strengthen the client-centred approach. Implications for Rehabilitation Client-centred practice entails a shift from recovering the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term psycho-social consequences of the disease. To be effective in client-centred practice, the clients expect from the professional to be an authority with regard to biomedical issues and to be partner with regard to psycho-social issues. Client-centred practice is most likely to be successful when client is susceptible to discuss his psycho-social issues and finding this moment is a challenge for the professional. Using formal methods for goal setting do not necessarily cover all the information needed for a client-centred therapy programme. Rather, using informal methods could lead to a more valid image of the client

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE CUMULATIVE AFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL STRESSORS THAT THREATEN THE POHLIK-LAH AND NER-ER-NER LIFEWAY: THE YUROK TRIBE’S APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    First, this project compiled potential chemical/toxin contaminants that might contribute as risk factors to humans in the project’s research area and then sought to correlate them with established negative health outcomes within the Tribal Membership. Outcomes include...

  20. Issues in the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    The refugee experience--migrating against one's will--is a source of immense psychological stress. This paper therefore draws on empirical findings and theoretical discussions from the psychological, psychiatric, nursing, social work, sociological, and anthropological literature in order to identify the major stressors encountered in the…

  1. Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

  2. Major Psycho-Social Problems and the Psychiatric Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

    Presentations made at institutes and workshops conducted by the National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT) are included in this publication. Drug abuse, alcoholism, crisis intervention, mental retardation, and mental health manpower were the themes for these presentations: (1) "Mental Health Trends in California" by G. Duffy, (2) "The…

  3. Employability: A Psycho-Social Construct, Its Dimensions, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, Mel; Kinicki, Angelo J.; Ashforth, Blake E.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the idea that an individual's "employability" subsumes a host of person-centered constructs needed to deal effectively with the career-related changes occurring in today's economy. We argue that employability represents a form of work specific (pro)active adaptability that consists of three dimensions--career identity, personal…

  4. Outlining the psychopathology behind a case of conversion syndrome: Is a holistic approach beneficial?

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Fondacaro, Daniel Vella

    2016-03-01

    Conversion disorder refers to a set of symptoms where no relevant organic cause is found. These include sensory/motor disturbances, and other neurological symptoms, such as pseudoseizures. Patients with this condition may, by having it, achieve a primary or secondary gain. The condition should be diagnosed when all the relevant investigations are inconclusive. In this case, we use the bio-psycho-social model for the interpretation and guidance of treatment. We also demonstrate how a holistic approach is beneficial when it comes to a multi-dimensional interpretation of such a case. This review outlines a case of a patient with several neurological and orthopedic problems who failed to improve with several treatment plans and surgical interventions. After several years of medical and surgical consultations, a thorough analysis by psychiatrists was made, resulting in a diagnosis of conversion syndrome. The patient gradually improved on psychiatric treatment, including psychotherapy, and with the necessary psychiatric follow-ups. PMID:27061640

  5. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been associated with higher levels of physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. To examine the relations...

  6. Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

  7. Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)

  8. Psycho-social outcome of parents and young children after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J E; Hulson, B; Trompeter, R S

    1998-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to assess whether renal transplantation in children under the age of 6 years has an effect on the child's later behaviour and eating and whether this outcome is related to differences in the levels of stress and coping skills shown by the parents. In this small sample of 14 children aged under 8 years, renal transplantation in the pre-school age range did not have any marked adverse effect on the children's emotional or behavioural state. The children's severe eating problems dramatically improved after transplant. Long-term, early tube-feeding does not impair the development of normal feeding patterns in these children. Parental stress levels were not elevated in the post-transplant period and parents tended to use passive coping strategies to manage the chronic illness in their child. PMID:9468781

  9. Family Time and the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Adolescent Siblings and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Head, Melissa R.; Mchale, Susan M.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the implications of family time for first-born and second-born adolescent offspring, mothers, and fathers in 192 dual-earner families, defining family time as time shared by the foursome in activities across 7 days. Data were gathered in daily telephone interviews. For first-borns, higher levels of family time at Time 1…

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

  11. Comparisons of Rejected, Neglected and Popular Adolescents on Psycho-Social and Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasen, Donna Rae

    To further particularize differences between rejected and neglected children, 196 adolescents enrolled in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades were identified by their peers as "populars," rejected "unpopulars," and neglected "unknowns." The students were also compared on (1) psychological assessments of self-esteem, loneliness, and sense of belonging, and…

  12. Implications for Counseling Practice of the Puerto Rican Psycho-Social Precursors Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; Nuttall, Ronald L.

    Experimental measures to identify individuals at high risk of drug use can be developed from study data. Negative side effects of identification efforts can be lessened or eliminated by the use of unobstrusive measures in the monitoring process. Regarding heroin use, different measures are suggested to monitor the following variables: academic…

  13. Dimensions of population policy in India: the psycho-social implications.

    PubMed

    Shariff, A; Mouli, A S

    1978-01-01

    All population policies, while seemingly identical in their formulation, differ in terms of their veritable ulterior objective. This is due to the fact that the formulation is done by a selected group of planning agencies and the health ministry. As the purport of the population policy rests more or less with the manipulation of the demographic variables, the important components of the population influencing policies should be discussed, as the population-influencing policies intend to impact on the population directly. The important components are fertility regulation, reductions in mortality and morbidity, and migration and population distribution. In India fertility regulations are directed toward achieving a reduced birth rate of 25 by 1984 or a growth rate of 1.25. While India has successfully reduced the mortality rate and the birth rate, the reduction in the rates are not proportional. This has led to a higher growth rate. Consequently, the pressure on the nation at this time is to reduce the birth rate. India has felt the strains of realizing this goal despite her concerted efforts for various reasons. First, birth control programs failed to gain as much acceptance as anticipated, whereas the plans designed to reduce mortality were moderately well received. Additionally, the birth control schemes came to have a cultural taboo, possibly attributable to inadequate and vague propaganda on the part of program administrators as well as illiteracy. Economic pro and con factors also contributed. The extent of migration in India is insignificant for various socioeconomic reasons. First, India is a country where illiteracy is predominant, and this has restrained the scope for migration. Secondly, as 80% of Indians depend on agriculture, they feel satisfied at home with whatever they earn. Regarding in-migration, India, as a developing country experiencing the ills of poverty, unemployment, low capital formation, and a slow pace of technological development, has not attracted in-migrants. India's efforts to delay the age at marriage either through law or persuasion have been futile as most of the young girls are neither in school nor gainfully employed. Laws governing inheritance should provide equal status for daughters whereby the preference to sons would undergo a change. Recently, India took a step in this direction by providing daughters with a share of their ancestral property, but this law gained little momentum in a society where daughters are deprived of any right over their ancestral or parental property. It appears that only a fraction of Indian women would welcome the provision of equal rights because nearly 80% of Indian women live in villages, which do not encourage a departure from the expected traditional role. When formulating population policy, attention should be given to its feasibility in the given social context. PMID:12268333

  14. Developmental and Psycho-Social Effects of HIV in School-Aged Population: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Suzanne B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the developmental and psychosocial characteristics of the increasing number of school-aged persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Educational ramifications of these characteristics and strategies for providing safe teaching and learning environments are presented. (DB)

  15. Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification. PMID:20046402

  16. [Psycho-social context of health self-esteem in elderly ex-smokers].

    PubMed

    Kwapisz, Urszula; Baczyk, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains still as dominating and essential risk factor of morbidity and mortality of cancer, especially in elderly people. Advanced age presents difficulties, because of changes in social status level of physical fitness, and decreased problem-solving abilities. The aim of the study was to self-evaluation of health in elderly ex-smokers post hospitalization. The study was conducted on 48 elderly ex-smokers (37 women, 11 men), using a general version of FACT-G questionnaire from USA. The analysis of the results was accomplished through Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests. Statistical differences were observed in tested subjects, with relativity level of 0,05, which related to states of physical fitness and social functions. Decreased physical and psychological abilities associated with process of aging, create a need for monitoring the finding of the study to life style, in order to achieve independence and effective smoking cessation among elderly patients. PMID:23421067

  17. Urinary Incontinence among older Mexican American men: Risk factors and psycho-social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gerst, K.; Ray, L.A.; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D.V; Markides, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic White and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditionsand men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey. PMID:20811953

  18. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives: In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods: The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. Results: The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P < 0.02), personality trait of conscientiousness (P < 0.02), failure schema due to the parenting style of mother (P = 0.001), and perception of police commands (P < 0.002), played an important role in predicting driving behavior. Among social factors, perception of police regulations (P = 0.003), had an important effect on violations and mistakes. Among environmental and behavioral factors, major factors such as driving age (P = 0.001), drug and alcohol use (P = 0.001), having driver’s license (P = 0.013), records of imprisonment or committing a crime (P = 0.012) were also able to predict occurrence of accidents. Conclusions: As the results of this study show, different factors contribute to different driving behaviors and accidents. The broad scope of these factors links accidents to other social issues and damages. PMID:26421169

  19. Investigating the Achievement Goals of University Students in Terms of Psycho-Social Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Ceyhan, Aydogan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of this research to investigate the achievement goals of university students. Firstly, university students' adoption levels of achievement goals are described. Next, how their level of academic self-efficacy, irrational beliefs, perfectionism, self-determination, locus of control and gender predict each achievement goal is depicted.…

  20. Demographic and Psycho-Social Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvenshine, Dwight

    Several demographic and psychosocial variables affect assessment and treatment of chronic pain patients. The variables include demographic characteristics, life styles, family constellations, job conditions, financial status, support networks, and leisure activities. In recent years clinics and programs have emerged in a variety of configurations.…

  1. Psycho-Social Factors Causing Stress: A Study of Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Geetika; Tyagi, Harish Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present investigation was planned to determine the influence of type of personality, gender, age, qualification and experience causing stress among teacher educators at work. Method: A sample of 100 subjects from male and female teachers teaching in teacher training colleges, Delhi, India was drawn randomly. The data was collected by…

  2. Chemoinformatics: Achievements and Challenges, a Personal View.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Chemoinformatics provides computer methods for learning from chemical data and for modeling tasks a chemist is facing. The field has evolved in the past 50 years and has substantially shaped how chemical research is performed by providing access to chemical information on a scale unattainable by traditional methods. Many physical, chemical and biological data have been predicted from structural data. For the early phases of drug design, methods have been developed that are used in all major pharmaceutical companies. However, all domains of chemistry can benefit from chemoinformatics methods; many areas that are not yet well developed, but could substantially gain from the use of chemoinformatics methods. The quality of data is of crucial importance for successful results. Computer-assisted structure elucidation and computer-assisted synthesis design have been attempted in the early years of chemoinformatics. Because of the importance of these fields to the chemist, new approaches should be made with better hardware and software techniques. Society's concern about the impact of chemicals on human health and the environment could be met by the development of methods for toxicity prediction and risk assessment. In conjunction with bioinformatics, our understanding of the events in living organisms could be deepened and, thus, novel strategies for curing diseases developed. With so many challenging tasks awaiting solutions, the future is bright for chemoinformatics. PMID:26828468

  3. Middle School PE--Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, William H., Jr.; Smith-Fee, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a promising approach to the implementation of psycho-social goals in middle school physical education: assertiveness training. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and several assertiveness activities for the curriculum are suggested. (IAH)

  4. The adolescent sexual world and AIDS prevention: a democratic approach to programme design in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Schatz, P; Dzvimbo, K P

    2001-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to redress the under-representation of adolescent attitudes in AIDS prevention programme design and to discuss the implications of a democratic sexuality education approach within a health promotion context. The study surveyed the attitudes of adolescents (average age 16 years) on sex-related topics such as culture, marriage, sexual behaviour and sex education, identified similarities and differences in attitudes according to gender and socio-economic environments, and examined sources of students' knowledge of selected sex-related topics. Questionnaires were completed by 3429 secondary school students from different backgrounds. Findings showed significant differences in attitude related to gender and socio-economic settings and also in sources of information. The study drew on a democratic sexuality education approach. Using this approach, adolescents review ideological perspectives and decide which are most appropriate for them as guides in making decisions about their own lives. This type of education is fully consistent with the principles of democratic living and gives guidance to teenagers who are trying to decide how to live a healthy life. Study results suggest that programmers would be well advised to collect information from the adolescents' psycho-social-economic environment and link it with good governance and civil society strategies in developing AIDS prevention programmes that involve the adolescent in making lifestyle decisions. To achieve a more supportive environment for AIDS prevention, this approach can link adolescent attitudes and health promotion action to advocate for public policy reform, gender equality, multi-dimensional partnerships and social marketing. PMID:11356751

  5. A closer look at the FTEM framework. Response to "More of the same? Comment on 'An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach'".

    PubMed

    Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R

    2014-01-01

    The Foundations, Talent, Elite and Mastery (FTEM) framework was designed through the lens of a world leading high-performance sport agency to assist sporting stakeholders operationalise and research their whole of sport development pathways (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 31, 1319-1331). In response to the commentary by MacNamara and Collins (2013) (Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2013. 855805), it was possible to document many inaccurate, false and misleading statements based on inattentive reading of the original article. We reinforce that: FTEM is a holistic framework of sport and athlete development and not a surrogate for a talent identification ( TID) model; bio-psycho-social components of development are liberally embedded throughout the FTEM framework; and the combined research and applied insights of development practitioners provide strong ecological validity for the consideration of stakeholders looking to explore applied approaches to athlete pathway management. PMID:24289172

  6. Community Response to Residential Services for the Psycho-Socially Disabled: Preliminary Results of a National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasecki, Joseph R.

    Four hundred seventy-two residential facilities across the U.S., serving mentally ill, alcoholics, and other disability groups, reported their experience with community opposition. Residential programs for offenders encountered opposition more frequently. However, for all types of facilities, attempts to occupy sites in residential neighborhoods,…

  7. Dyslexia and Psycho-Social Functioning: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Self-Esteem and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Melody M.; Thompson, Lucy C.; Minnis, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the "Self-Perception Profile for Children"…

  8. CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR--BACKGROUND FACTORS AND PSYCHO-SOCIAL CORRELATES. EAU CLAIRE COUNTY YOUTH STUDY, 1961-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURSTON, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    CLASSROOM AGGRESSION, DEFINED IN THIS STUDY AS MARKEDLY UNACCEPTABLE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OCCURRING HABITUALLY OR FREQUENTLY IN SCHOOL, IS EXAMINED IN RELATION TO SEX, GRADE, AND URBAN-RURAL STATUS. THE WRITERS STATE THAT NEUROTIC, PSYCHOPATHIC, AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR PATTERNS HAVE THE FOLLOWING FOUR FOCAL CAUSATIVE AREAS--(1) SCHOOL, (2) HOME AND…

  9. Piloting a psycho-social intervention for incarcerated women with trauma histories: lessons learned and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Rachel E; Burnette, Mandi L; Raimondi, Christina; Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Merle, Patricia; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Trauma and related mental health disorders are common among incarcerated women, but empirically sound mental health interventions are lacking in prisons. Implementing such interventions is fraught with legal and logistical barriers. These barriers can be particularly detrimental for trauma-specific interventions given the unique needs of trauma survivors, yet there is little documentation of these issues or how to address them. This study describes a pilot study of an 8-week, strengths-based, trauma-focused intervention for 26 incarcerated women. Women reported considerable mental health problems and trauma. The study highlights the importance of adapting stringent research methodologies for prison-based trauma interventions. For instance, women with trauma were reluctant to participate in an intervention advertised as trauma-based. Moreover, a randomized wait list control design was unfeasible because women wanted the support of their friends when discussing trauma and could not control their schedules 9 weeks in advance. Ultimately, this work may inform future efforts to implement effective trauma-based interventions behind prison walls. PMID:23804649

  10. Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz

    2011-01-01

    People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

  11. Communication in cancer care: psycho-social, interactional, and cultural issues. A general overview and the example of India

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Strohschein, Fay J.; Saraf, Gayatri; Loiselle, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    Communication is a core aspect of psycho-oncology care. This article examines key psychosocial, cultural, and technological factors that affect this communication. Drawing from advances in clinical work and accumulating bodies of empirical evidence, the authors identify determining factors for high quality, efficient, and sensitive communication and support for those affected by cancer. Cancer care in India is highlighted as a salient example. Cultural factors affecting cancer communication in India include beliefs about health and illness, societal values, integration of spiritual care, family roles, and expectations concerning disclosure of cancer information, and rituals around death and dying. The rapidly emerging area of e-health significantly impacts cancer communication and support globally. In view of current globalization, understanding these multidimensional psychosocial, and cultural factors that shape communication are essential for providing comprehensive, appropriate, and sensitive cancer care. PMID:25452741

  12. Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

  13. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Secondary School Vocational Trainees Rated by their Instructors as Having Poor Worker Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald Henry

    A study was made of 269 boys and 388 girls enrolled in "capstone" courses in 30 cooperating schools of Wisconsin's Pilot Program in Vocational Education. The purpose was to identify psychosocial characteristics of secondary school trainees rated by their teachers as having poor employment potential. Characteristics were analyzed in terms of…

  14. [Psychosocial rehabilitation at the dawn of the 21st century: III: Interdisciplinary evaluation method and bio-psycho-social schedule].

    PubMed

    Grasset, François; Pomini, Valentino; Favrod, Jérôme; Orita, Alina; Veillon, Henri; Cucchia, Anne-Therèse

    2004-04-01

    During the past 20 years, therapeutic and rehabilitative modalities in the field of psychosocial rehabilitation have been diversified in becoming more specific. We have the possibility to offer individualized rehabilitation programs as well as in the general field of socio-professional goals as in the clinical field according to the patients' needs and personal assets. The content of these programs associates various forms of specialized medical and paramedical services. The indications are established trough a careful assessment. The rehabilitation unit of the University Department of Psychiatry in Lausanne has developed a multidisciplinary assessment method based on the bio-psychosocial integrative model and the vulnerability-stress model in integrating the level of experience of Wood for the analysis of the psychosocial functioning. This results in a structured assessment program, which leads to a multidisciplinary comprehensive assessment (difficulties versus adaptative resources). PMID:15209050

  15. Bridging the Gap: Can Impairment-Based Therapy for Anomia Have an Impact at the Psycho-Social Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Wendy; Greenwood, Alison; Grassly, Jennie; Hickin, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of therapy with people with aphasia tend to use impairment-based and functional measures of outcome. The views of participants are not formally evaluated. Current health and socialcare practice requires intervention to be explicitly client-centred and evidence-based. It is therefore important to investigate the broader effects…

  16. Solution-driven approaches to generic substitution challenges - a survey among international experts.

    PubMed

    Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the perception and understanding of economic, legal, and social barriers that may restrain generic uptake among recognized international experts in health care, and to identify and verify recommendations on how to streamline generic substitution (GS) at no expense of therapeutic safety. A questionnaire survey was devised, and experts with world-renowned expertise in the field of generic medicinal products were selected. Almost 3/4 of respondents claimed that all drugs that satisfy bioequivalence criteria represent similar efficacy and adverse effects, and 1/4 of respondents believed that some differences could be reported. The majority of experts supported (i) the right of patients to refuse GS, (ii) the right of physicians to veto GS, and (iii) the introduction of a statutory obligation to provide patients with access to the cheapest generics available on the market. The main obstacles to more general uptake of generics were as follows: (i) perception of generics as lower quality products, (ii) absence of a transparent policy governing GS, and (iii) disincentives to pharmacists and physicians. Among the most popular recommendations were as follows: (i) introduction of various measures to aid physicians in generic prescribing, (ii) setting clear guidelines specifying when GS is not advisable, (iii) supporting competition on the generic market. The views of experts and the resulting recommendations were strongly affected by their opinion on the bioequivalence of generics. From this analysis, we have selected several principal recommendations which could help shape successful healthcare policies regarding GS. PMID:26214281

  17. The Case Study Challenge--A New Approach to an Old Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romm, Tsilia; Mahler, Sophia

    1991-01-01

    Instructional objectives for teaching with case studies are outlined, and techniques for using case studies are described. Combinations of objectives and methods for different situations are explored, and suggestions for practitioners on effective use of different case study types, with different populations, and at different phases of management…

  18. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  19. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    PubMed Central

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  20. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  1. Why evidence-based medicine is an insufficient approach to physical and rehabilitation medicine. Antithesis.

    PubMed

    Saraceni, V M; Saraceni, V

    2014-10-01

    When philosophers of science demolished the myth of objectivity in the early decades of the 20th century, they undermined the theoretical certainty that a knowledge system comes from the cumulative development of scientific observations: here we find a criticality inherent to evidence-based medicine in relation to its claim of universality and objectivity. EBM relies on quantitative statistical models to define a treatment's effectiveness, and it has an universal character: the treatment effect is measured against the global characteristics of the general population rather than the individuals. Contemporary cognitive neuroscience takes a naturalized approach to mind and behavior, opening new inroads into investigating consciousness, motor image, bodily awareness, and intention. Common to these issues is the emphasis on the importance the person, with his or her own biology and history, as a unique and unrepeatable entity. Hence, its original aim to protect patients against arbitrary treatment notwithstanding, EBM has become largely inadequate to serve physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) owing to the peculiarities of its historical and narrative contents. PRM, because of its unique knowledge base, can be fully considered a science anchored in the basic sciences that underlie rehabilitation procedures. Accordingly, PRM exists within a mutual relationship with physics and biology, from which the biomedical model (well represented by EBM) originates, and is interrelated with other disciplines such as philosophy or psychology, from which the bio-psycho-social model was developed in the 1980s, leading to a comprehensive approach to health and disease. Further critical points in clinical practice include: how to translate evidence into clinical decision making; the inability to generalize experimental evidence because most studies involve selected patient samples. Despite the more than 20 years of EBM, long-established therapeutic approaches lacking scientific

  2. 76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Economic Development Administration The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional Competitiveness AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department of... platform for integrating and coordinating the wide range of Federal economic development resources....

  3. Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L’Heureux, François; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; http://www.datashaper.org) was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement

  4. Winter Depression: Integrating mood, circadian rhythms, and the sleep/wake and light/dark cycles into a bio-psycho-social-environmental model

    PubMed Central

    Emens, Jonathan S.; Songer, Jeannie B.; Sims, Neelam; Laurie, Amber L.; Fiala, Steven C.; Buti, Allie L.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The phase shift hypothesis (PSH) states that most patients with SAD become depressed in the winter because of a delay in circadian rhythms with respect to the sleep/wake cycle: According to the PSH, these patients should preferentially respond to the antidepressant effects of bright light exposure when it is scheduled in the morning so as to provide a corrective phase advance and restore optimum alignment between the circadian rhythms tightly coupled to the endogenous circadian pacemaker and those rhythms that are related to the sleep/wake cycle. Recent support for the PSH has come from studies in which symptom severity was shown to correlate with the degree of circadian misalignment: it appears that a subgroup of patients are phase advanced, not phase delayed; however, the phase-delayed type is predominant in SAD and perhaps in other disorders as well, such as non-seasonal unipolar depression. It is expected that during the next few years the PSH will be tested in these and other conditions, particularly since healthy subjects appear to have more severe symptoms of sub-clinical dysphoria correlating with phase-delayed circadian misalignment; critically important will be the undertaking of treatment trials to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of morning bright light or afternoon/evening low-dose melatonin in these disorders in which symptoms are more severe as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is delayed with respect to the sleep/wake cycle (non-restorative sleep should also be evaluated, as well as bipolar disorder). The possibility that some individuals (and disorders) will be of the phase-advanced type should be considered, taking into account that the correct timing of phase-resetting agents for them will be bright light scheduled in the evening and/or low-dose melatonin taken in the morning. While sleep researchers and clinicians are accustomed to phase-typing patients with circadian-rhythm sleep disorders according to the timing of sleep, phase typing based on the DLMO with respect to the sleep/wake cycle may lead to quite different recommendations for the optimal scheduling of phase-resetting agents, particularly for the above disorders and conditions. PMID:20160896

  5. An investigation of psycho-social factors associated with the uptake of pre-pregnancy care in Australian women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Komiti, A; Jackson, H J; Nankervis, A; Conn, J; Allan, C; Judd, F

    2013-06-01

    Pre-pregnancy care (PPC) reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes for women with pre-existing diabetes. Yet, despite the compelling case for PPC, participation rates remain poor. The reasons for poor participation are as yet unclear. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the factors-associated PPC uptake, particularly attitudes and beliefs towards PPC using models of health behaviour: The Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action. Participants comprised 123 women with type 1 and 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics for diabetes and pregnancy, who completed questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, exposure to a greater number of cues was a significant predictor of PPC participation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.13-3.28). Other significant predictors of PPC uptake were older age (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.26) and not having children (OR: 3.93; 95% CI: 1.28-12.06). The findings from this study support initiatives to provide cues to PPC for women with diabetes to enhance PPC uptake. Further, some groups such as younger women as well as women with children may possibly be considered for the focus of more vigorous intervention efforts. PMID:23701456

  6. Psycho-Social Dynamics in Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study of Vietnamese Brothers. Bilingual Education Paper Series Vol. 7 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Carolyn; And Others

    For second-language learners, the narration of highly personal experiences that entail strong affective relations relies on the conceptual processes underlying language. Relating personal narratives in a second language may be a highly successful communicative use of language even though extensive linguistic information for that language is…

  7. A Challenge of Living? Understanding the Psycho-Social Processes of the Child during Primary-Secondary Transition through Resilience and Self-Esteem Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, D.; Miller, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    The transition from primary to secondary school can be a period of anxiety for many children. Although most schools have developed systems to ease this process, it has been argued that the emphasis is often on administrative and organisational procedures. In contrast, children and parents are typically more concerned with personal and social…

  8. [Use of standardized patients in the psycho-social subjects of medical studies--applicability of standardized patients in postgraduate psychotherapy training curricula?].

    PubMed

    Eckel, Julia; Merod, Rudi; Vogel, Heiner; Neuderth, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Due to the successful use of standardized patients (SPs) in medical studies, possible fields of application for SPs in postgraduate psychotherapy training were examined on the basis of a systematic literature research (ranging from 1982 to 2011) on the use of SPs in the fields of psychotherapy, medical psychology, psychosomatic medicine, and psychiatry. The results show that SPs are used predominantly for teaching communication and counseling techniques, history taking, and assessment of psychopathology and are commonly used to portray patients with affective disorders, neurotic, stress and somatoform disorders and schizophrenia, as well as schizotypal and delusional disorders. The use of SPs is generally rated positively with regard to subjective learning effects, satisfaction, and authenticity. Hence, the results suggest that postgraduate psychotherapy training curricula might benefit from the implementation of SPs. PMID:23794079

  9. Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour and health in a part of Khartoum, Sudan--II. Psycho-social influences on behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rahim, S I; Cederblad, M

    1986-01-01

    A study of child behaviour and health in a newly urbanized part of Khartoum, Sudan, was carried out in 1980 on 245 children aged 3-15 years. The same area, then rural, had been investigated in 1965. Compared to 1965, the 1980 study showed an increase of behaviour problems of boys aged 7-15. In both studies the levels of most behaviour problems were below the figures from comparable studies from developed countries. Contrary to this the physical health and nutrition had improved between 1965 and 1980. The older children of newcomers, especially blue-collar, wage-earners with low incomes showed the highest frequencies of behaviour deviances. Children who had dropped out of school had higher rates while those belonging to the best third of their grades had less behaviour problems. While polygamy did not influence the rates of behaviour problems maternal anxiety/depression and harsh corporal punishment did so. Children of school-age (7-15) showed a strong connection between poor somatic health and high rates of behaviour deviances. The impact of various cultural changes on the families and the psychological well-being of the children is discussed. PMID:3715511

  10. "I Feel Totally at One, Totally Alive and Totally Happy": A Psycho-Social Explanation of the Physical Activity and Mental Health Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, D.; Smith, A.; Gough, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation into the relationship between physical activity and mental health from the experiences of participants on exercise referral schemes. A grounded theory methodology was adopted which used focus groups and semi-structured interviews with participants from three exercise referral schemes in…

  11. Dental esthetics and its impact on psycho-social well-being and dental self confidence: a campus based survey of north Indian university students.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Shaista; Rathi, Shraddha; Rajput, Geeta; Rahman, Sajjad Abdur

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the subjects perceived satisfaction of their dental appearance and to compare it with a various attitudes and practices which may affect social and psychological behavior and dental self confidence. This was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study done in the campus of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). 426 students participated in the study. Questions were pooled in from various components of psychosocial impact of dental esthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) for various attitudes and practices. Quantitative analysis was done using descriptive analysis and Chi square test using SPSS software. Majority of subjects (57.7 %) was highly satisfied with their smile, more than one-third (37.3 %) were satisfied and there were only 4.9 % subjects who were not satisfied with their smile. Tooth color was the most common (27.9 %) smile component causing dissatisfaction amongst the subjects. More than two-fifth (42.5 %) liked to show their teeth, one-half (49.5 %) liked to see their teeth in mirror, photographs and videos, almost one quarter (23.9 %) subjects used to hide their teeth while smiling. As compared to females, significantly higher proportion of males was conscious of opposite sex while smiling. The proportion of subjects which was highly satisfied with their smile was significantly higher for the item 'like to show their teeth and who liked to see their teeth in mirror, photographs and video' whereas for all the other items the proportion of respondents which was not satisfied with their smile was significantly higher. Self perceived satisfaction of dental esthetics has positive impact on person's social and psychological behavior and dental self confidence. PMID:24431775

  12. A study of some psycho-social characteristics of blind and deaf male students in Abha City, Asir region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, M A; Telmesani, A

    1993-07-01

    Psychosocial characteristics including depression, attitude towards their handicap, hobbies and problems of living situations have been studied among 152 male students in the Institute for the Blind (n = 44) and in the Institute for the Deaf (n = 108) in Abha City. All students were subjected to a constructed Arabic version of the rating scale 'Children Depression Inventory (CDI)'. They were categorised according to their scores on this CDI, into depressed and non-depressed. Also, an interview questionnaire was administered to collect data related to the handicap, such as age of onset, and its cause and family history of the same handicap. The effect of the handicap upon the attitudes of students in relation to their social tendencies, hobbies and problems in living situations was studied. The mean ages for blind and deaf students were 15.70 and 13.04 years respectively. About 91.% and 75.% of blind and deaf students respectively were born with their handicap. Depression was more prevalent among the blind (14%) than among the deaf (6.5%) students. Difficulty in mobility was the main problem among blind students (44%) while difficulty in communication with people was the main problem among the deaf (52%). Reading was the commonest hobby for the blind (51%), while playing football was the commonest among the deaf (62%). This information should be considered when planning for rehabilitative services for these groups. PMID:8356208

  13. 41 CFR 301-52.11 - What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim? 301-52.11 Section 301-52.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT...

  14. 41 CFR 301-52.11 - What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim? 301-52.11 Section 301-52.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... submit your claim for adjudication to the GSA Board of Contract Appeals in accordance with 48 CFR...

  15. 41 CFR 301-52.11 - What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim? 301-52.11 Section 301-52.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... submit your claim for adjudication to the GSA Board of Contract Appeals in accordance with 48 CFR...

  16. 41 CFR 301-52.11 - What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim? 301-52.11 Section 301-52.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... submit your claim for adjudication to the GSA Board of Contract Appeals in accordance with 48 CFR...

  17. 41 CFR 301-52.11 - What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to challenge a disallowed claim? 301-52.11 Section 301-52.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... submit your claim for adjudication to the GSA Board of Contract Appeals in accordance with 48 CFR...

  18. Weaving Silos--A Leadership Challenge: A Cross-Functional Team Approach to Supporting Web-Based Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    The author reviews the evolution of Web services--from information sharing to transactional to relationship building--and the progression from first-generation to fourth-generation Web sites. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

  20. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  1. Psychiatric Evaluation in Dermatology: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sreyoshi; Behere, Rishikesh V; Sharma, PSVN; Sreejayan, K

    2013-01-01

    Psychodermatology is an exciting field which deals with the close relationship that exists between dermatological and psychiatric disorders. A combined bio-psycho-social approach is essential for effective evaluation and treatment of these conditions. This review aims to give the practicing clinician an overview of psychiatric evaluation in patients with dermatological conditions. PMID:23372211

  2. Literacy and Basic Education: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Annotated Bibliography #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Non-Formal Education Information Center.

    A selected annotated bibliography on literacy and basic education, including contributions from practitioners in the worldwide non-formal education network and compiled for them, has three interrelated themes: integration of literacy programs with broader development efforts; the learner-centered or "psycho-social" approach to literacy, often with…

  3. Reasons for Living and Hoping: The Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States. Proceedings from the Multi-Disciplinary, Inter-Religious Conference on the Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States (Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Catholic Child Bureau, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents proceedings of a conference convened to identify the unmet spiritual and other non-material needs of Southeast Asian refugee children and youth and to offer recommendations to strengthen present programs and policies. Participants included leaders in the refugee community, clergy of several faiths, organizational…

  4. Middle Leadership and Its Challenges: A Case Study in the Secondary Independent Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Paul; Brundrett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This article presents initial findings from a case study of the challenges facing newly appointed middle leaders in an independent school in the North West of England. The research approach has included interviews with twenty-five staff from within the school. It was observed that the skills set needed for middle leadership is different to that of…

  5. The Regional Nature of Global Challenges. A Need and Strategy for Integrated Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-01-31

    In this paper, we explore the regional nature of global environmental challenges. We take a broad approach by examining the scientific foundation that is needed to support policy and decision making and identifying some of the most important barriers to progress that are truly scale-dependent. In so doing, we hope to show that understanding global environmental changes requires understanding a number of intrinsically regional phenomena, and that successful decision making likewise requires an integrated approach that accounts for a variety of regional Earth system processes—which we define to include both human activities and environmental systems that operate or interact primarily at sub-continental scales. Understanding regional processes and phenomena, including regional decision-making processes and information needs, should thus be an integral part of the global change research agenda. To address some of the key issues and challenges, we propose an integrated regional modeling approach that accounts for the dynamic interactions among physical, ecological, biogeochemical, and human processes and provides relevant information to regional decision makers and stakeholders.

  6. Commonalities and challenges: a review of Australian state and territory maternity and child health policies.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Virginia; Donovan, Jenny; Kruske, Sue; Kemp, Lynn; Homer, Caroline; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-12-01

    Nurses and midwives play a key role in providing universal maternal, child and family health services in Australia. However, the Australian federation of states and territories has resulted in policy frameworks that differ across jurisdictions and services that are fragmented across disciplines and sectors. This paper reports the findings of a study that reviewed and synthesised current Australian service policy or frameworks for maternity and child health services in order to identify the degree of commonality across jurisdictions and the compatibility with international research on child development. Key maternity and child health service policy documents in each jurisdiction were sourced. The findings indicate that current policies were in line with international research and policy directions, emphasising prevention and early intervention, continuity of care, collaboration and integrated services. The congruence of policies suggests the time is right to consider the introduction of a national approach to universal maternal, child health services. PMID:22545909

  7. The Fold Analysis Challenge: A virtual globe-based educational resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, Declan G.; Dordevic, Mladen M.; Karabinos, Paul; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    2016-04-01

    We present an undergraduate structural geology laboratory exercise using the Google Earth virtual globe with COLLADA models, optionally including an interactive stereographic projection and JavaScript controls. The learning resource challenges students to identify bedding traces and estimate bedding orientation at several locations on a fold, to fit the fold axis and axial plane to stereographic projection data, and to fit a doubly-plunging fold model to the large-scale structure. The chosen fold is the Sheep Mountain Anticline, a Laramide uplift in the Big Horn Basin of Wyoming. We take an education research-based approach, guiding students through three levels of difficulty. The exercise aims to counter common student misconceptions and stumbling blocks regarding penetrative structures. It can be used in preparation for an in-person field trip, for post-trip reinforcement, or as a virtual field experience in an online-only course. Our KML scripts can be easily transferred to other fold structures around the globe.

  8. Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems

    PubMed Central

    Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer; Chute, Christopher G.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems—a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then describes a case study in which we mapped proprietary medication codes from an electronic health record to SNOMED-CT and the UMLS Metathesaurus. The goal was to create a polyhierarchical classification system for querying an i2b2 clinical data warehouse. We found that three methods were required to accurately map the majority of actively prescribed medications. Only 62.5% of source medication codes could be mapped automatically. The remaining codes were mapped using a combination of semi-automated string comparison with expert selection, and a completely manual approach. Compound drugs were especially difficult to map: only 7.5% could be mapped using the automatic method. General challenges to mapping across terminological systems include (1) the availability of up-to-date information to assess the suitability of a given terminological system for a particular use case, and to assess the quality and completeness of cross-terminology links; (2) the difficulty of correctly using complex, rapidly evolving, modern terminologies; (3) the time and effort required to complete and evaluate the mapping; (4) the need to address differences in granularity between the source and target terminologies; and (5) the need to continuously update the mapping as terminological systems evolve. PMID:22750536

  9. COTS approach to a utility VTOL UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jay R.

    1998-11-01

    Many UAVs are in the market place but few are very profitable. After studying the lessons learned form our predecessors, a commercial off the shelf approach was chosen to meet the price performance challenge. A multi-mission capable aircraft was chosen to provide exposure to the widest possible market. Using an analysis tool developed for DARPA, the Vigilante VTOL UAV was successfully competed against both Outrider and Predator.

  10. The Role of the Psychosocial Dimension in the Improvement of Quality of Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    MAKIVIĆ, Irena; KERSNIK, Janko; KLEMENC-KETIŠ, Zalika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our systematic review was to analyse the published literature on the psychosocial dimension of care in family medicine and its relationship with quality of care. We wanted to find out whether there is any evidence on the psychosocial approach in (family) medicine. The recommended bio-psycho-social approach, besides the biomedical model of illness, takes into account several co-influencing psychological, sociological and existential factors. An online search of nine different databases used Boolean operators and the following selection criteria: the paper contained information on the holistic approach, quality indicators, family medicine, patient-centred care and/or the bio-psycho-social model of treatment. We retrieved 743 papers, of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Including the psychosocial dimension in patient management has been found to be useful in the prevention and treatment of physical and psychiatric illness, resulting in improved social functioning and patient satisfaction, reduced health care disparities, and reduced annual medical care charges. The themes of patient-centred, behavioural or psychosocial medicine were quite well presented in several papers. We could not find any conclusive evidence of the impact of a holistic bio-psycho-social-approach. Weak and variable definitions of psychosocial dimensions, a low number of well-designed intervention studies, and low numbers of included patients limited our conclusions.

  11. Approachability & Visibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2006-01-01

    To be approachable and visible may be one of the greatest lessons a retired middle level principal ever learned. Being approachable is an expectation of the principalship. Keeping the office door shut or restricting or limiting talk time with students, teachers, or parents sends a strong message to those constituents: "I've got more important…

  12. A Brunswikian evolutionary-developmental theory of adolescent sex offending.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, A J; Sales, B D; Russell, K P; Becker, J V; Kaplan, M

    2000-01-01

    A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental model was developed to relate the sex offending behavior of adolescents to other forms of social deviance, tracing a history of repeated frustration and failure in various competitive sexual strategies and escalation to more extreme means of obtaining sexual gratification. Four hypothetical constructs were proposed as stages in the development of sexual criminality: (1) Psycho-Social Deficiency (PSD); (2) Non-Criminal Sexuality (NCS); (3) Non-Sexual Criminality (NSC); and (4) Sexual Criminality (SC). Significant direct and indirect pathways led from PSD to SC through both NCS and NSC, each time facilitated by an interaction with PSD. Although the causal orders between stages remain equivocal, the current results are consistent with our theory and establish the heuristic value of our theoretical approach, providing empirical support for otherwise counterintuitive predictions. This interpretation also offers hope for focusing preventative intervention at one major root cause of this unfortunate cascade of consequences, Psycho-Social Deficiency. PMID:10874291

  13. Etude de l'interface entre le profil psycho-spirituel des futurs maitres et le developpement psychosocial (Study of the Relationship between the Psycho-Spiritual Profile of Future Teachers and Their Psycho-Social Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Claude

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study examining the spiritual experiences among young adults in Ontario to help inform efforts to revise teacher education programs in Canada. Highlights the diversity of subjects' spiritual experiences and describes three typologies of individual spiritual development. Reviews the roles of the church, university, and school in teacher…

  14. Programming for Early Child Development and Health: The Value of Combining Nutritional and Psycho-social Interventions and Some Ways To Do It. UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robert G.

    This digest issues a call to make good on the rhetoric of "integrated attention to the whole child" and provides some suggestions about how that might be done, beginning with combined interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and the psychosocial development of the young child. After an introductory chapter that provides a summary of…

  15. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug companies and the internet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jessica; Read, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of drug-company funding on websites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Websites in the top 60 for either Google or Yahoo!Xtra with information about causation and treatment were analysed. Likert scales, based on those used in previous similar studies, were developed to rate aetiological explanations and recommended treatment approaches, on a dimension from psycho-social to biological. Overall, the quality of information on websites was poor with a strong bias towards bio-genetic aetiological explanations of ADHD. Twenty-one of the 57 websites (37%) were funded by drug companies. The drug-company funded (DCF) websites were significantly more likely than non-DCF websites to recommend medication rather than psycho-social treatments. The selective lack of consideration of psycho-social treatments by DCF websites is discussed in relation to the relevant research literature, including the evidence in favour of a multimodal approach. The findings, which are consistent with previous similar studies in relation to websites about adult mental health problems, confirm that the pharmaceutical industry is seeking to influence public opinion via the internet. PMID:21429977

  17. Misanthropy without borders: the international children's rights regime.

    PubMed

    Pupavac, V

    2001-06-01

    The issue of children's rights has become key to human rights-based international security strategies. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is being operationalised in complex political emergencies. Children's rights now inform humanitarian principles. Universal concern for children is viewed as transcending political and social divides and able to mobilise societies to confront social problems and prevent war. The operationalisation of child rights is accompanied by the development of psycho-social programmes to rehabilitate the child victim. Critically analysing the implications of the children's rights regime for the right to self-determination, the paper unpacks the assumptions underlying children's rights and psycho-social intervention. The paper begins by examining the conceptualisation of the rights-holding subject universalised under the UN Convention and then goes on to consider Article 39 on the right to psycho-social intervention. Equally important as the novel conceptualisation of childhood and children's rights under the international children's rights regime is the (unspoken) mistrust of adulthood and political rights that informs the imperative to institutionalise children's rights as higher law. Moreover while the rights-based approach consciously sought to move away from the earlier moralising child-salvation model, psycho-social rehabilitation reveals a similar preoccupation with deviancy, but conducted through the paradigm of psychological functionalism. Rather than representing a trend towards more humane international relations, the paper suggests that the elevation of children's rights is premised on a profound disenchantment with humanity. The logical implication of the international children's rights regime is to challenge both the moral and political capacity of individuals and their right to self-determination and to institutionalise a more unequal international system. PMID:11434237

  18. Health data use, stewardship, and governance: ongoing gaps and challenges: a report from AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George; Bloomrosen, Meryl; FlatelyBrennan, Patti; Chute, Christopher G; Cimino, Jim; Detmer, Don E; Edmunds, Margo; Embi, Peter J; Goldstein, Melissa M; Hammond, William Ed; Keenan, Gail M; Labkoff, Steve; Murphy, Shawn; Safran, Charlie; Speedie, Stuart; Strasberg, Howard; Temple, Freda; Wilcox, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of personal health data are being collected and made available through existing and emerging technological media and tools. While use of these data has significant potential to facilitate research, improve quality of care for individuals and populations, and reduce healthcare costs, many policy-related issues must be addressed before their full value can be realized. These include the need for widely agreed-on data stewardship principles and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate data silos and protect patient privacy. AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting brought together healthcare academics, policy makers, and system stakeholders (including representatives of patient groups) to consider these topics and formulate recommendations. A review of a set of Proposed Principles of Health Data Use led to a set of findings and recommendations, including the assertions that the use of health data should be viewed as a public good and that achieving the broad benefits of this use will require understanding and support from patients. PMID:24169275

  19. Challenging a Paradigm: Theoretical Calculations of the Protonation State of the Cys25-His159 Catalytic Diad in Free Papain

    PubMed Central

    Shokhen, Michael; Khazanov, Netaly; Albeck, Amnon

    2009-01-01

    A central mechanistic paradigm of cysteine proteases is that the His – Cys catalytic diad forms an ion-pair NH(+)/S(−) already in the catalytically active free enzyme. Most molecular modeling studies of cysteine proteases refer to this paradigm as their starting point. Nevertheless, several recent kinetics and X-ray crystallography studies of viral and bacterial cysteine proteases depart from the ion-pair mechanism, suggesting general base catalysis. We challenge the postulate of the ion-pair formation in free papain. Applying our QM/SCRF(VS) molecular modeling approach, we analyzed all protonation states of the catalytic diad in free papain and its SMe derivative, comparing the predicted and experimental pKa data. We conclude that the His – Cys catalytic diad in free papain is fully protonated, NH(+)/SH. The experimental pKa=8.62 of His159 imidazole in free papain, obtained by NMR controlled titratin and originally interpreated as the NH(+)/S(−) ⇌ N/S(−) equilibrium, is now assigned to the NH(+)/SH ⇌ N/SH equilibrium. PMID:19688822

  20. Curriculum: Which Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum has two major approaches, technical and scientific approach and the nontechnical-nonscientific approach. Both are different and distinct. Schools need to distinguish which approach is suited for their students.

  1. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  2. [Adolescents who sexually abuse children].

    PubMed

    Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J

    1999-06-01

    The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522

  3. Preliminary report: Biomedical considerations for future manned space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The behavioral, psychological, and sociological aspects of space travel, particularly with emphasis on longer duration missions, are discussed along with the biomedical aspects of space flight. These factors may strongly interact with the various psycho-social factors and as such they stand as an immensely important area of concern in and of themselves. A foundation for understanding weightlessness related medical problems through a discussion of the history of symptoms reported specific details on the major areas of concern and approaches to their investigation are presented. Also, discussion is given to the possibility of various countermeasures. Some indication of the effects of various biomedical changes in performance are also covered.

  4. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  5. Nutritional neuroscience: Part I: an emerging paradigm in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders are exceedingly complicated as is the treatment. In order to increase positive outcomes an understanding of all facets; bio, psycho/social/spiritual, economic, and interdisciplinary aspects are essential to successful treatment. There are an increasing number of integrative addictions treatment centers across the United States, and disciplines that care for this population who are committed to a holistic, integrative approach to addictions treatment. Whole-person interventions, the foundational underpinnings of complementary and integrative therapies that attend to mind, body, and spirit simultaneously, in combination with traditional health care, will serve to provide the most effective treatment and patient outcomes. PMID:23580105

  6. [Vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2014-05-12

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts. PMID:25096745

  7. Supporting Learning and Promoting Conceptual Change with Box and AVOW Diagrams. Part 1: Representational Design and Instructional Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Peter C-H.; Shipstone, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an approach to the teaching of electricity that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit that portray current, voltage, resistance, and power. The diagrams were developed as aids in learning, understanding, and problem solving and to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of…

  8. Morpheus Surface Approach

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Project Morpheus lander flying a kilometer-long simulated surface approach while avoiding hazards in a landing field. The approach takes place at the Shuttle Landing Facili...

  9. Holistic Approaches to Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The holistic approach to health includes a spectrum of concepts that have an important influence on our health. Elementary school counselors must recognize this previously neglected need for a holistic approach. Stress, relaxation response, biofeedback, and the orthomolecular approach are discussed. (Author/BEF)

  10. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoong

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes. PMID:27294041

  11. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes. PMID:27294041

  12. The effect of 6-week treatment with escitalopram on CCK-4 challenge: a placebo-controlled study in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tõru, Innar; Maron, Eduard; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Nutt, David J; Shlik, Jakov

    2013-07-01

    Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5 ± 5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50 μg) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p = 0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies. PMID:22939006

  13. Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting.

    PubMed

    Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E

    2009-10-01

    In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting. PMID:19857857

  14. The NLERAP Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Irizarry, Jason

    2012-01-01

    From the start, NLERAP has been based on two major premises: one is that a sociocultural and sociopolitical approach to learning is more effective than a traditional approach, particularly in the case of populations that have historically been marginalized through their education; and the second is that research is more meaningful and inclusive…

  15. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  16. Critical Approaches to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Timothy Robert

    This study deals primarily with recent academically oriented critical material, but it also embraces the range of film criticism that has been written for the mass audience in newspapers and periodicals. The study considers eight types of critical approaches to analyzing film: the journalistic approach, which contains both a reportorial-review and…

  17. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  18. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  19. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  20. Pathway and Network Approaches for Identification of Cancer Signature Markers from Omics Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinlian; Zuo, Yiming; Man, Yan-gao; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Liu, Meng; Yang, Xiaowei; Varghese, Rency S.; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Ressom, Habtom W

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of high throughput omic technologies during the past few years has made it possible to perform many complex assays in a much shorter time than the traditional approaches. The rapid accumulation and wide availability of omic data generated by these technologies offer great opportunities to unravel disease mechanisms, but also presents significant challenges to extract knowledge from such massive data and to evaluate the findings. To address these challenges, a number of pathway and network based approaches have been introduced. This review article evaluates these methods and discusses their application in cancer biomarker discovery using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an example. PMID:25553089

  1. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  2. The case study approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  3. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  4. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of materials which deal with astronomy and: (1) science fiction; (2) poetry; (3) general fiction; (4) music; (5) psychology; and (6) the law. Also cites two general references on interdisciplinary approaches with astronomy topics. (JN)

  5. SOHO Sees Venus' Approach

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows the Sun's corona and Venus' approach for the transit. This was taken with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) in ...

  6. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  7. Ten practice redesign approaches.

    PubMed

    Slayton, Val

    2013-01-01

    As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

  8. ECASTAR systems approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The methodology of ECASTAR was presented and a discussion of the application of technology to energy conservation was given. This methodology constitutes an overview and blueprint for the analysis of energy conservation actions, and is subdivided into the following sections: the systems approach, constraints and criteria, application of the method (systems approach display, ECASTAR team, study phases and objectives, requirements and impacts, trade-off, integration, and feedback), an example of the method (technology applications).

  9. [The construction of a "good death" at different stages of life: reflections on the palliative care approach for adults and children].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rachel Aisengart; Barbosa, Patricia de Castro

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with the vision of Palliative Care leading to a "good death" for adults and children. The differences and similarities between the care of adults and children are examined based on the scrutiny of textbooks, manuals and articles, as well as the observation of courses and congresses within the specialty, which focus on patients diagnosed as "beyond therapeutic cure possibilities." Health teams seek to provide care for the "bio-psycho-social-spiritual totality" of the patients and their family members, to offer "quality of life," with full autonomy and control of their symptoms. In accordance with the palliative care model, the social actors involved in care must accept the end of life inevitability. It is a question of ensuring a "good death," "with dignity," peaceful, accepted, transparent and socially shared, with the support of a multi-professional team. It is a complex configuration, as various factors and circumstances come into play. This is especially true in the case of children, when a paradox arises, since terminal illness at this stage of life - so highly valued in contemporary Western culture - constitutes a social drama. PMID:23989572

  10. Eponymous hip joint approaches.

    PubMed

    Somford, Matthijs P; Hoornenborg, Daniël; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; Bolder, Stefan B T; Schreurs, Berend W

    2016-07-01

    After the low friction arthroplasty by John Charnley was no longer confined to specialized hospitals but commonplace in the general orthopedic practice, the issue remained how to most optimally reach the hip. The names of the authors of these approaches remain in a lot of cases connected to the approach. By evaluating the original articles in which the approaches are described we ascertain the original description and technique. By various sources we obtained the (short) biography of the people whose name is connected to the approach. Our research covers the biographies of colleagues Smith-Petersen, Watson-Jones, Hardinge, Charnley, Moore and Ludloff. The eponymous approaches are shown and described after the short biography on each individual. This study shows that without the work of our colleagues we cannot proceed in our profession. An understanding and knowledge of the people who dedicated themselves to developing the orthopedic surgery to the high standard it has today is the least honour we should give them. PMID:27139185

  11. Determining satellite close approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore; Negron, David, Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical method to evaluate close approaches of two satellites. The algorithm is based on a space curve modeling technique originally developed by Overhauser, presented here as an independent derivation. The method to determine minimum spacing between two space objects is based on creating a relative distance waveform, delta(t), versus time. The waveform is produced from either uniform or arbitrarily spaced data points, from which intervals of close approach are obtained by extracting the real roots of a localized cubic polynomial. This method is free of both transcendental equations and the computation of acceleration terms of the two objects of interest. For this study, a close approach truth table is constructed using a 0.1 second sequential step along the orbits, then differencing the two position vectors. The close approach entrance and exit times for an ellipsoidal quadric surface are then located using a piecewise linear interpolator, and serve as a benchmark for comparison. The simulation results show this algorithm produces encounter times almost identical to those in the truth table, with a 99.84 percent reduction in computer runtime. The results, created from real orbital data, include solution sets for three operational uses of close-approach logic. For this study, satellite orbital motion is modeled using first-order secular perturbations caused by mass anomalies.

  12. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  13. [Actuality of Wallon's emotional model: toward a "body-psychosocial" model of emotions].

    PubMed

    Santiago Delefosse, M

    2000-01-01

    Author focuses on qualitative approach of emotions with their human function. She postulates that emotions would be one of the way of the mind's body-inscription. A short presentation of the actual discussion, within psychoneurology and cognitive psychology, shows the lack of a developmental perspective. From the Wallon's emotions theory, the author presents a model that allows to go beyond this limit and to redefine the primary function of emotions: the "body-psycho-social Wallon's model" of emotions. Wallon's emotional model focuses on the interaction between body-image and psycho-social construction. This model: a) fixes the emotions into automatisms, but these automatisms are already in link with the social world (through the sense of the mother's language), b) establishes the integrative function of antagonisms (between mind and automatisms, between emotions and mind, between emotions and automatisms). This model shows that emotion's function cannot be reduce to the adaptative response to an unpredictable situation (cognitive or motor). The initial function of emotions concerns the communication system, or better, the first function of emotions is a search for action on family circle, by means of mimicry with ambient and emotional contagion. This emotional system is completely dependent (addicted) on the environment. It gives a "tool" to put in coordination with its environment: a) it favours the setting up of an instant empathy within infant and family circle, b) it makes easier the mind and motor accommodation, c) it put in the necessary plasticity for the emergence of the consciousness. PMID:10875058

  14. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Structural Margins Assessment Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A general approach to the structural design and verification used to determine the structural margins of the space vehicle elements under Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) management is described. The Space Shuttle results and organization will be used as illustrations for techniques discussed. Given also are: (1) the system analyses performed or to be performed by, and (2) element analyses performed by MSFC and its contractors. Analysis approaches and their verification will be addressed. The Shuttle procedures are general in nature and apply to other than Shuttle space vehicles.

  16. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  17. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  18. Adopting a Pluricentric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kerckvoorde, Colette

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

  19. Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

  20. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  1. Systems Approach to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Gas, London (England). Training and Development Dept.

    This pamphlet is intended to assist managers and professional trainers alike in using a systems approach to training. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identifying the training need (the main job objectives, the conditions under which the job is performed, and the responsibilities it involves); analyzing…

  2. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  3. New Ideas and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukov, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

  4. Overview of Curricular Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Cameo V.; Parker, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education address the transition from after-college life in a variety of curricular approaches. Articulation agreements provide greater transferability of courses from one college to another, thereby easing the transition for students. Career courses, which are typically taught by career center staff, are a common offering…

  5. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  6. A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Facilities and services are a huge drain on community college budgets. They are also vital to the student experience. As funding dries up across the country, many institutions are taking a team approach, working with partner colleges and private service providers to offset costs and generate revenue without sacrificing the services and amenities…

  7. The Resettlement Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Kathleen M.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on a follow-up study of secondary migration among Indochinese refugees resettled by Lutheran Social Services of Wisconsin and Upper Michigan. Suggests that cultural misunderstanding, rigid sponsorship approaches, and an insensitivity to the special mental risks of refugee populations have contributed to the incidence of secondary…

  8. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  9. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  10. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  11. The imaging spectrometer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Two important sensor design drivers are the requirement for spatial registration of the spectral components and the implementation of the advanced multispectral capability, including spectral band width, number of bands and programmability. The dispersive approach, fundamental to the imaging spectrometer concept, achieves these capabilities by utilizing a spectrometer to disperse the spectral content while preserving the spatial identity of the information in the cross-track direction. Area array detectors in the spectrometer focal plane detect and store the spatial and multispectral content for each line of the image. The choice of spectral bands, image IFOV and swath width is implemented by programmed readout of the focal plane. These choices in conjunction with data compression are used to match the output data rate with the telemetry link capability. Progress in the key technologies of optics, focal plane detector arrays, onboard processing, and focal plane cooling supports the viability of the imaging spectrometer approach.

  12. Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, Krzysztof

    Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.

  13. An Approach to Cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Milam, Emily C; Rieder, Evan A

    2016-04-01

    The cosmeceutical industry is a multi-billion dollar, consumer-driven market. Products promise highly desirable anti-aging benefits, but are not subject to regulation. We present an introduction to cosmeceuticals for the general and cosmetic dermatologist, including definitions and explanations of key terms, an approach to the evidence base, a dissection of chamomile and green tea, two paradigmatic cosmeceutical products, and a window into the underlying psychology of this vast marketplace. PMID:27050700

  14. Computational vaccinology: quantitative approaches.

    PubMed

    Flower, Darren R; McSparron, Helen; Blythe, Martin J; Zygouri, Christianna; Taylor, Debra; Guan, Pingping; Wan, Shouzhan; Coveney, Peter V; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Doytchinova, Irini A

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is hierarchical and has many levels, exhibiting much emergent behaviour. However, at its heart are molecular recognition events that are indistinguishable from other types of biomacromolecular interaction. These can be addressed well by quantitative experimental and theoretical biophysical techniques, and particularly by methods from drug design. We review here our approach to computational immunovaccinology. In particular, we describe the JenPep database and two new techniques for T cell epitope prediction. One is based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (a 3D-QSAR method based on CoMSIA and another 2D method based on the Free-Wilson approach) and the other on atomistic molecular dynamic simulations using high performance computing. JenPep (http://www.jenner.ar.uk/ JenPep) is a relational database system supporting quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes, TAP transporters, TCR-pMHC complexes, and an annotated list of B cell and T cell epitopes. Our 2D-QSAR method factors the contribution to peptide binding from individual amino acids as well as 1-2 and 1-3 residue interactions. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (volume, electrostatic potential, hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor abilities) on peptide affinity were considered. Both methods are exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptide binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:14712934

  15. Disability: a welfarist approach

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species’ functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability. PMID:22140353

  16. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  17. Parsec's astrometry direct approaches .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, keyest, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labeled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the never many points available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were aimed at. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WIFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope, in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes to BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse in ecliptical observed coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-square general solution.

  18. Community-based post-stroke service provision and challenges: a national survey of managers and inter-disciplinary healthcare staff in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent of stroke-related disability typically becomes most apparent after patient discharge to the community. As part of the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC), a national survey of community-based allied health professionals and public health nurses was conducted. The aim was to document the challenges to service availability for patients with stroke in the community and to identify priorities for service improvement. Methods The study was a cross-sectional tailored interview survey with key managerial and service delivery staff. As comprehensive listings of community-based health professionals involved in stroke care were not available, a cascade approach to information gathering was adopted. Representative regional managers for services incorporating stroke care (N = 7) and disciplinary allied health professional and public health nurse managers (N = 25) were interviewed (94% response rate). Results Results indicated a lack of formal, structured community-based services for stroke, with no designated clinical posts for stroke care across disciplines nationally. There was significant regional variation in availability of allied health professionals. Considerable inequity was identified in patient access to stroke services, with greater access, where available, for older patients (≥ 65 years). The absence of a stroke strategy and stroke prevalence statistics were identified as significant impediments to service planning, alongside organisational barriers limiting the recruitment of additional allied health professional staff, and lack of sharing of discipline-specific information on patients. Conclusions This study highlighted major gaps in the provision of inter-disciplinary team community-based services for people with stroke in one country. Where services existed, they were generic in nature, rarely inter-disciplinary in function and deficient in input from salient disciplines. Challenges to optimal care included the need for

  19. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  20. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  1. Repository program licensing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.M.; Gil, A.V.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being studied by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. DOE has the responsibility to determine the suitability of the site and to develop a license application (LA) for authorization to construct the potential repository. If the site is suitable, the license application would be submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The repository program licensing approach is focused on the timely acquisition of information needed in licensing and the resolution of potential licensing issues with the NRC staff. Licensing involves an iterative process requiring refinements as data are acquired, analyzed, and evaluated. The repository licensing approach presented in this paper ensures that the information is available when needed to facilitate the licensing process. Identifying the information needed to evaluate compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR 60, monitoring the acquisition of such information, and developing a successful license application are integral elements of DOE`s repository program licensing approach. Activities to characterize the site are being systematically conducted as planned in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). In addition, DOE is implementing the issue resolution initiative, the license application annotated outline (LAAO) process, and interim licensability evaluations to update the early planning in the SCP and to focus site characterization, design, and performance assessment activities on the acquisition of information needed for a site suitability determination and licensing. Collectively, the issue resolution initiative, LAAO process, and interim licensability evaluations are key elements of a transition to the iterative process to answer the question: {open_quotes}When do we have enough data to support licensing?{close_quotes}

  2. Approaches to Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Inverno, Ray

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23

  3. An evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Thomas J.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes an evolutionary approach to the development of aerospace systems, represented by the introduction of integrated product teams (IPTs), which are now used at Rockwell's Space Systems Division on all new programs and are introduced into existing projects after demonstrations of increases in quality and reductions in cost and schedule due to IPTs. Each IPT is unique and reflects its own program and lasts for the life of the program. An IPT includes customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and associate contractors, and have a charter, mission, scope of authority, budget, and schedule. Functional management is responsible for the staffing, training, method development, and generic technology development.

  4. The collaboratory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  5. Combined approach brings success.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

  6. New approaches for immunosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.

    1980-01-01

    New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

  7. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  8. Engineering approaches to biomanipulation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jaydev P; Pillarisetti, Anand; Brooks, Ari D

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review on the existing techniques for manipulating biological cells. Because biomanipulation involves a wide range of disciplines, from biology to engineering, we concentrate on some of the key methodologies that would result in an efficient biomanipulation system. Some of the key methodologies discussed in this article for cell manipulation relate to the use of magnetics, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based approaches, optics, electric field, and mechanical techniques. Recent advances in engineering have allowed researchers worldwide to address the problems arising from conventional manipulation techniques. This paper assimilates significance and limitations of biomanipulation techniques described in the literature. PMID:17362196

  9. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  10. Approaches to robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Henry; Heaney, Kevin D.

    2003-04-01

    The term robustness in signal processing applications usually refers to approaches that are not degraded significantly when the assumptions that were invoked in defining the processing algorithm are no longer valid. Highly tuned algorithms that fall apart in real-world conditions are useless. The classic example is super-directive arrays of closely spaced elements. The very narrow beams and high directivity could be predicted under ideal conditions, could not be achieved under realistic conditions of amplitude, phase and position errors. The robust design tries to take into account the real environment as part of the optimization problem. This problem led to the introduction of the white noise gain constraint and diagonal loading in adaptive beam forming. Multiple linear constraints have been introduced in pursuit of robustness. Sonar systems such as towed arrays operate in less than ideal conditions, making robustness a concern. A special problem in sonar systems is failed array elements. This leads to severe degradation in beam patterns and bearing response patterns. Another robustness issue arises in matched field processing that uses an acoustic propagation model in the beamforming. Knowledge of the environmental parameters is usually limited. This paper reviews the various approaches to achieving robustness in sonar systems.

  11. Common approaches for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A South-South program organized by JOICFP provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experiences in the field of adolescent reproductive health (RH) between Mexico and the Philippines. Alfonso Lopez Juarez, executive director, Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM), shared MEXFAM's experiences with field personnel and GO-NGO representatives related to JOICFP's RH-oriented project in the Philippines while in the country from November 16 to 21. The program was also effective for identifying common issues and effective approaches to adolescent health issues and communicating with youth on RH and sexual health. The exchange was supported by the Hoken Kaikan Foundation and organized by JOICFP in collaboration with UNFPA-Manila and the Commission on Population (POPCOM). Lopez shared some of the lessons of MEXFAM's decade-long Gente Joven IEC program on adolescent health with GO and NGO representatives at a forum held on November 18. The event was opened by Dr. Carmencita Reodica, secretary, Department of Health (DOH). He then moved to the project sites of Balayan and Malvar municipalities of Batangas Province, where he spoke with field staff and demonstrated MEXFAM's approach in classroom situations with young people. Lopez also observed various adolescent activities such as group work with peer facilitators. "I am pleased that we can share some applicable experiences and learn from each other's projects," commented Lopez. PMID:12348336

  12. Avenue of approach generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2006-01-01

    1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care. PMID:16700889

  14. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429

  15. A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

    A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

  16. Modelling approaches for angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taraboletti, G; Giavazzi, R

    2004-04-01

    The development of a functional vasculature within a tumour is a requisite for its growth and progression. This fact has led to the design of therapies directed toward the tumour vasculature, aiming either to prevent the formation of new vessels (anti-angiogenic) or to damage existing vessels (vascular targeting). The development of agents with different mechanisms of action requires powerful preclinical models for the analysis and optimization of these therapies. This review concerns 'classical' assays of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, recent approaches to target identification (analysis of gene and protein expression), and the study of morphological and functional changes in the vasculature in vivo (imaging techniques). It mainly describes assays designed for anti-angiogenic compounds, indicating, where possible, their application to the study of vascular-targeting agents. PMID:15120043

  17. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PMID:22329705

  18. Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schor, N.F. )

    1991-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references.

  19. Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

  20. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  1. Approaching the new reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    1993-01-01

    I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

  2. An environmental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Geerling, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

  3. Approaching the new reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

  4. Therapeutic approaches for shankopathies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Bey, Alexandra L; Chung, Leeyup; Krystal, Andrew D; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANK as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article, we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function. PMID:23536326

  5. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ewsichek What’s the Bottom Line? How much do we know about complementary health approaches for children? We ... about their effects and safety. 1 What do we know about the effectiveness of complementary health approaches ...

  6. Alternative approaches to population structure.

    PubMed

    Morton, N E

    1995-01-01

    There are three approaches to DNA identification: tectonic, halieutic and icarian, of which the tectonic is sensible, the halieutic impractical, and the icarian idiotic. The rationale and consequences of these approaches are detailed. PMID:7607451

  7. Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

  8. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... from NCI at www.cancer.gov . About Complementary Health Approaches Complementary health approaches are a group of ...

  9. Approaching attometer laser vibrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

    2014-05-27

    The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

  10. Neptune - closest approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft took this picture after closest approach to Neptune on Aug. 25 1989, using the clear filter of the wide-angle camera with an exposure time of 255 seconds. The view back towards Neptune at a phase angle of 135 degrees found the two known rings to be five to 10 times brighter than seen in backscattering during Voyager approach at much lower phase angle. This brightness increase implies a large percentage of microscopic particles within the rings. Although the dominant arc-like clump of the outer ring is not seen here, the inner ring appears brighter than the outer ring at the longitudes seen in this image. A faint sheet of material is also revealed that extends from the faint ring at a radius of 53,200 kilometers(33,000 miles). A new and even fainter ring was discovered in this image at about 41,000 kilometers (25,400 miles), seen running from the lower left corner to about one-third the way across the top of the frame. This ring is quite broad, about 2,500 kilometers (1,550 miles) in radial width. In contrast to the two previously discovered rings, this feature is quite diffuse and has no well defined radial boundaries. The Voyager imaging experiment has now detected ring material in all of the radial regions in which it has been detected by groundbased stellar occultation experiments. The Voyager spacecraft was 720,000 kilometers (446,400 miles) from Neptune at the time of this exposure. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  11. Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of the contributions of ethnic additive, transformation, decision-making, and social action approaches to multicultural curriculum development. Suggests that movement from a mainstream-centric approach to social action approach is gradual and cumulative. (GG)

  12. Adolescence. Basic Stuff Series II. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.; And Others

    This booklet is intended for physical education teachers of adolescents. Physical activities are designed to enhance the students' knowledge of exercise physiology, kinesiology, psycho-social humanities, and motor learning and how this knowledge relates to health, appearance, achievement, psycho-social development, aesthetics, and coping. The…

  13. Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii) human and social…

  14. Does Spirituality Make a Difference? Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Spiritual Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…

  15. Project S.T.E.P.: Seniors Tutor for Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    The general objective of this project is to enhance the educational and psycho-social development of seventh and eighth grade students who are experiencing learning or psycho-social deficits. This is accomplished through a meaningful tutorial relationship with a senior citizen aide. Together the adolescent student and tutor create educational…

  16. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  17. [Hypercholesterolemia: a therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Moráis López, A; Lama More, R A; Dalmau Serra, J

    2009-05-01

    High blood cholesterol levels represent an important cardiovascular risk factor. Hypercholesterolemia is defined as levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol above 95th percentile for age and gender. For the paediatric population, selective screening is recommended in children older than 2 years who are overweight, with a family history of early cardiovascular disease or whose parents have high cholesterol levels. Initial therapeutic approach includes diet therapy, appropriate physical activity and healthy lifestyle changes. Drug treatment should be considered in children from the age of 10 who, after having followed appropriate diet recommendations, still have very high LDL-cholesterol levels or moderately high levels with concomitant risk factors. In case of extremely high LDL-cholesterol levels, drug treatment should be taken into consideration at earlier ages (8 years old). Modest response is usually observed with bile acid-binding resins. Statins can be considered first-choice drugs, once evidence on their efficacy and safety has been shown. PMID:19427823

  18. Variational Approach to SAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Reinhardt, S.; Lach; Ovchinnikov, Yu.

    1996-03-01

    A new variational technique is used to analyze both analytically and numerically the scaling behavior of Self Avoiding Walks. We present a set of lower bounds for the survival provability (the ratio of total number of self avoiding paths to total number of random paths) which is based on Jensen inequality. This set is generated by the hierarchy of different trial hamiltonians which correspond to: unconstrained random walk, mean field approximation, original Flory model and to a new approach which allows to vary independently the scales of fluctuations, corresponding to different path length scales. The D=2, D=3, and Darrow 4, cases are analyzed separately. The results of analytical variational procedure reproduce classical mean field exponents for small scales and Flory - type critical exponents for large scales, and present new estimates for the chemical potential of SAW. Possible generalizations to branching self avoiding paths are discussed. The numerical algorithm which is based on proposed trial hamiltonian might increase the efficiency with which the chemical potential and scaling properties of chain molecules with a finite number of discrete conformations can be computed. This work was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-94-0647.

  19. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

  20. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2nd opinion. PMID:26955509

  1. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  2. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  3. A novel double patterning approach for 30nm dense holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Dennis Shu-Hao; Wang, Walter; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Shih, Steven

    2011-04-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) was commonly accepted as the major workhorse beyond water immersion lithography for sub-38nm half-pitch line patterning before the EUV production. For dense hole patterning, classical DPT employs self-aligned spacer deposition and uses the intersection of horizontal and vertical lines to define the desired hole patterns. However, the increase in manufacturing cost and process complexity is tremendous. Several innovative approaches have been proposed and experimented to address the manufacturing and technical challenges. A novel process of double patterned pillars combined image reverse will be proposed for the realization of low cost dense holes in 30nm node DRAM. The nature of pillar formation lithography provides much better optical contrast compared to the counterpart hole patterning with similar CD requirements. By the utilization of a reliable freezing process, double patterned pillars can be readily implemented. A novel image reverse process at the last stage defines the hole patterns with high fidelity. In this paper, several freezing processes for the construction of the double patterned pillars were tested and compared, and 30nm double patterning pillars were demonstrated successfully. A variety of different image reverse processes will be investigated and discussed for their pros and cons. An economic approach with the optimized lithography performance will be proposed for the application of 30nm DRAM node.

  4. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

  5. Skull base approaches in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy. PMID:20602753

  6. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  7. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  8. The VSEPR Challenge: A Student's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Ashley S.

    2010-01-01

    To solve the challenge of learning VSEPR molecules in three dimensions, a high school student leverages her passion for 3D computer animation to develop a creative solution. This article outlines the process and story behind the creation of her unique video. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.; Naas, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for…

  10. A Little Area Challenge: A Sod Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Perla L.; Pelak, Colleen N.

    2012-01-01

    As partners in a professional development project, the authors jumped at the opportunity to use a real-life problem to engage elementary and middle school teachers in a one-day exploration of the concept of area. "Length times width"--a common response to the question, "What is area?"--is a rote formulaic expression that applies only to certain…