These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: an integrated psycho-social approach.  


The aim of the present study was to examine an adapted integrated psycho-social model to predict sport injury rehabilitation adherence. A longitudinal prospective design was used whereby 70 patients attending private physiotherapy clinics completed a battery of questionnaires both pre- and post-rehabilitation treatment based on the adapted framework. All participants were receiving treatment for tendonitis-related injuries. Adherence was monitored prospectively over the entire rehabilitation program using an observational measure of clinic adherence, a self-report measure of home-based adherence, in addition to monitoring attendance at rehabilitation sessions. In the initial phase of rehabilitation learning goal orientation, attitudes and perceived severity were found to predict rehabilitation intention. Intentions were also found to mediate the relationship between the aforementioned variables and clinic rehabilitation. Self-efficacy and self-motivation were predictors of clinic rehabilitation and attendance but not home rehabilitation. During the maintenance phase of rehabilitation coping ability and social support were predictors regarding all three measures of adherence. Implications for practitioners rehabilitating injured athletes are discussed. PMID:18208427

Levy, A R; Polman, R C J; Clough, P J



Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach  

PubMed Central

Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender–role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psycho–sexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749



A module for psycho-social assessment of personal health monitoring.  


This contribution to an interdisciplinary methodology on Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) aims at developing a psycho-social module for health technology assessment on PHM applications. It covers important aspects that should be taken into account for conducting a health technology assessment from a psycho-social perspective. As it could be used in addition to other tools within the PHM-Ethics approach to health technology assessment it is considered as a module of the interdisciplinary methodology. As a prerequisite, we provide a conceptual framework on psycho-social issues of PHM applications. From that framework we delineate an integrated module for psycho-social health technology assessment for PHM applications, consisting of a map highlighting selective psycho-social issues that may appear when applying a PHM system. This psycho-social tool is at least twofold in its intention as a sole HTA tool on the one hand and as an integral part of the interdisciplinary PHM methodology on the other hand. It provides a quick overview on potential benefits and risks from the user's point of view. PMID:23920460

Muehlan, Holger; Rhode, Dieter; Schmidt, Silke



Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

Izumi, K.


Justifying Educational Acquaintance with the Moral Horrors of History on Psycho-Social Grounds: "Facing History and Ourselves" in Critical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive…

Maxwell, Bruce



Justifying educational acquaintance with the moral horrors of history on psycho-social grounds: ‘Facing History and Ourselves’ in critical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive relationships. It is argued that this justification not only renders the specific historical content

Bruce Maxwell



Psycho-social training for man in space.  


In preparation for the international manned space station various international and national space agencies are already participating with the Russian MIR programme with short, medium, and long term presence on the MIR station. Although selection criteria for all crew include careful psychological screening, with some effort also regarding team build-up, this has proved insufficient; moreover. little or no effort is expended in the area of psycho-social- or team training. This paper propounds the authors' thesis that, in addition to the steps already being taken, psycho-social training is essential for long-duration flight. A concrete proposal is made for such a training program, with an overview of how such a program will look like; examples of past applications are given. PMID:11543208

Kass, R; Kass, J



PsychoSocial Aspects of Serious Renal Disease and Dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most severe form of kidney disease is renal failure, a life-threatening condition known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Though social work intervention is an integral part of the response to serious kidney disease, the topic has been noticeably absent in the discipline's literature. This article synthesizes the research on the psycho-social aspects of end-stage renal disease, with a particular

L. Allen Furr



[The bio-psycho-social tridimensional constructivism of Socolas' School in the perspective of contemporary psychiatry (author's transl)].  


The authors present the characteristics of the bio-psycho-social concept, developed by the School of Iasi, with pertinence and consequence on and after 1960. This one affirms its originality through its constructivistic psychiatric theory based on the tridimensional concept. The authors review several concepts of "constructivism" and analyze its implications in psychology, psychoanalysis, sociology, ethnology etc. This critical review shows once more the originality and specificity of the approach of the School of Socola. The bio-psycho-social concept is conceived as a dynamic and unitary concept and is applyed through a close link between psychiatric services and society and through an intense interdisciplinary activity aimed at the knowledge of the whole man. PMID:7331845

Branzei, P P; Nathanson, I N



Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.  


Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences. PMID:21240548

Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla



War trauma, psycho-social projects and social development in Croatia.  


This article looks at the ways in which concepts of 'war trauma' and 'post-traumatic stress disorder' are being used within 'psycho-social projects' in Croatia, in the context of the wars of the Yugoslav succession and consequent large-scale forced migration. Psycho-social discourses are addressed critically, both in terms of their internal consistency and problems relating to the wider social and political context. The authors suggest the importance of 'social development projects' as an alternative to those projects which rely on narrow psycho-social interventions. PMID:8953263

Stubbs, P; Soroya, B



Psycho-Social Issues in Females Study of Science and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationship between psycho-social factors with females study of science and technology course at the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria and its counseling implications. Three research questions and hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The subjects for the study comprised 240 undergraduate female students…

Iyabo, Omoniyi Mary Banke; Oke, Oloruntegbe Kunle



The effects of witnessing domestic violence on young children's psycho-social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have examined the serious consequences that spouse abuse may have on battered women's physical and psychological health. Considerably less attention has been given to the effects on children of witnessing domestic violence. This article reports an empirical study which examined the effects of witnessing domestic violence on the psycho-social adjustment of 54 young children aged three to six

Jennifer Smith; Ian OConnor; Donna Berthelsen



Family Therapy and Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Pursuing Clinical and Bio\\/Psycho\\/Social Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is perceived as more complicated because of its complexity, pervasive duration, and impact on\\u000a individual and family functioning. Viewing the symptoms of childhood schizophrenia as creating a bio\\/psycho\\/social competence\\u000a within which the therapist and family must interact may help contribute to treatment success. Competent family therapists\\u000a working within this culture should be knowledgeable about the characteristics of childhood-onset

Roy A. Bean



Impacts of hazardous technology: The psycho-social effects of restarting TMI-1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an evaluation of the psycho-social impacts of hazardous technology. Using a multiple research strategy, the authors show the possible effects of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island. The book includes background information concerning environmental policy, the accident and restart issues, and forecasted impacts and implications for environmental management. The topic, however, extends well beyond that of TMI and nuclear power. Linkages are made with other environmental problems including chemical accidents such as Bhopal and waste disposal problems such as Love Canal.

Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.; Bolin, R.



[Bio-psycho-social history--is it still up to date in the time of media communication?].  


Specialization in medicine changes the kind of communication between doctor and patient. The direct personal communication is quite often complemented by the indirect communication via interactive media. A clinical investigation still demands a broad bio-psycho-social anamnesis which should encompass the history of the illness, the patient, and his/her ailment. The bio-psycho-social anamnesis is subdivided into nine steps: Joining, "map", actual disease, former illnesses, family history, personal development, social anamnesis, overview of the functioning of the systems, finalization of the anamnesis. The different steps are explained, and adequate techniques of exploration are described. How to conduct a professional doctor-patient conversation and exploration can similarly be learnt as the techniques of a physical investigation. These communication skills should be continuously taught during the education of medical students as well as during the further training of physicians. PMID:16900723

Buddeberg, C



Background, psycho-social factors and substance use: their effects on high school seniors’ perceptions of their education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural model was proposed and tested concerning the impact of background and psycho-social variables on high school seniors’ (N = 2,731) reported substance use and educational outcomes. The findings indicated that interpersonal variables (e.g., school adjustment, delinquency, relationships with parents and community) primarily affected reported substance use. Intrapersonal variables (e.g., self-concept, attitudes toward school), however, were unrelated to substance

Ronald H. Heck; Robert C. Voliter



A comparison of self-perceived physical and psycho-social worker profiles of people with direct work injury, chronic low back pain, and cumulative trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psycho-social factors among injured workers and the influence of their psycho-social profile on the readiness of return to work. Sixty-four subjects with injuries on the upper limbs or lower limbs, low back pain, or cumulative trauma disorder were recruited. The workers' profiles (self-perceived physical health, mental health, and work readiness) together with the impact and types

Joseph Chung-Keung Cheng; Cecilia Wai-ping Li-Tsang


The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  


Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio



For your eyes only: bio-behavioural and psycho-social research priorities.  


Infertility is experienced as a deeply personal and private condition, which has been investigated across disciplines, from psycho-social to bio-behavioural (van den Akker, 2012). This is undoubtedly, in part, because the interactions between the biological-behavioural axis and psychological-social axis have been linked to aetiological and treatment factors and to the consequences of infertility. Recent data from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA, 2012) show that medically assisted reproduction (MAR) for infertility is continuing to increase, with 46,000 women in the UK seeking treatment in 2010 alone. Infertility is therefore considered to be a public health concern. However, prevention and ethical treatment require individual and collective responsibility. The currently identified public health concerns are compounded by evidence that genetic factors are linked to infertility, with new generations of children conceived through IVF/ICSI potentially affected by inherited damaged DNA (Bonde et al., 2008) that would otherwise not have found its way into the gene pool of new generations. Since treatment takes place at one point in time, and consideration of the moral rights and wrongs of the consequences of some treatments takes place at another, usually much later on within the social contexts in which they coexist with others, there is a discontinuity between the initial treatment and the future consequences of these treatments. In this paper I propose a simple prevention outcome consequences (POC) model for future comprehensive research priorities with substantial policy and practice implications. The time has come to face the new challenges with all eyes wide open. PMID:23548096

van den Akker, Olga B A



Corticosteroids during continuation therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the psycho-social impact.  


This article presents the findings of qualitative research exploring the psycho-social effects of corticosteroid use in pediatric hematology patients during continuation therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The findings are from a 5-year longitudinal study that documented the experience of treatment for childhood leukemia and related disorders from the perspective of the child patient and their family from the point of diagnosis to 1 year post-treatment. To date, scant information on the serious emotional side-effects of corticosteroid administration for children with ALL during the continuation period is available. This is concerning in light of the many serious challenges corticosteroid use poses to families of children with ALL. For this group of parents, dealing with the impact of corticosteroids on their child was reported as the major and only treatment-related stress during the continuation period of treatment for ALL. The impact of these drugs, described in very negative terms, was considered exacerbated by the fact that during the continuation period they are repeatedly administered in 5-week cycles. Anger and aggression, both passive and in acts of physical violence, in combination with temper tantrums and uncontrollable behavior were major concerns. Under the influence of corticosteroids the children could be moody, grumpy, confused, emotionally labile, depressed, sullen and withdrawn. The children could quickly switch from one emotional state to another, such as from aggression to emotionality. They could experience trouble with sleeping and talk excessively. The parents outlined a range of positive strategies for coping with the difficult behavior. The authors make a number of recommendations aimed at assisting parents to deal with the impact of the administration of corticosteroids in continuation therapy, including increasing the awareness on the part of health care providers of the side-effects of these drugs and their impact on the child with ALL and their family; provision of information to families on the effects of corticosteroid use; and, ensuring that professional counseling assistance is available when required. PMID:20121577

McGrath, Pam; Rawson-Huff, Nicole



Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha



Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.



Impacto psico-social do acidente com o cesio-137 na sociedade brasileira. (Psycho-social impact of the cesium-137 accident in the Brazilian society).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author intends to question the assumed current public opinion that the psycho-social impact, resulting from the Goiania accident, is related with the ignorance of those who handled the caesium-137 source capsule, as well as the way media explained the...

E. G. Chaves



The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male

M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard



Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about the existence of independent location- or context specific forms of physical activity. This study sought to identify location-specific forms of physical activity in a sample of 9 and 15 years-olds Norwegian boys and girls, and examined their associations to psycho-social and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls) was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH) tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates. Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a) school commuting, b) informal games play at school and c) organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity. Conclusion Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity, in which age may come to moderate the efficiency of intervention efforts. PMID:16999865

Ommundsen, Yngvar; Klasson-Heggeb?, Lena; Anderssen, Sigmund A



Why do some people do "more" to mitigate climate change than others? Exploring heterogeneity in psycho-social associations.  


The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized--and differentiated from common mitigation behavior--as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change--but not in motivational or socio-demographic links--with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel



Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: a proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period.  


Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children's responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

Marsac, Meghan L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L; F Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P



The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education…

Dereli-Iman, Esra



Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disability.  


The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n=38) and without (n=38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n=23, mean age=14.5; SD=1.2 years) and a control group (CG) (n=15, mean age=14.5; SD=.8 years). Twenty-three randomly selected youth without ID formed the partner group (mean age=14.1; SD=.9 years) and 15 youth without ID (mean age=13.8; SD=.5 years) formed the CG. Instruments included the Friendship Activity Scale (FAS) (Siperstein, 1980), the Adjective Checklist (Siperstein, 1980), and the Children Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991). The soccer training program lasted eight weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in addition to school physical education (PE). The CG did not participate in any sports in addition to PE. The findings showed that the UNS program was effective in decreasing the problem behaviors of youth with ID and increasing their social competence and FAS scores. In addition, the program was found to be effective in improving the attitude of youth without disabilities toward participants with disabilities. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate the utility of a UNS program for both youth with and without disabilities. PMID:22093669

Özer, D; Baran, F; Aktop, A; Nalbant, S; A?lam??, E; Hutzler, Y



[Risk factors associated with suicides in Palmas in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, between 2006 and 2009 investigated by psycho-social autopsy].  


The scope of this article is to analyze and describe the risk factors and determinants linked to 24 suicides in the city of Palmas in the state of Tocantins between 2006 and 2009. The psychological and psycho-social autopsy method was used in order to investigate the consummated suicides by interviewing family members. It contextualized the subjects' life characteristics to understand the family dynamics and the affective, social, economic and cultural background, based on the reconstruction of the history and personality of the individuals. The associated socio-economic factors were: being male, aged between 20 and 40, single, with mixed ethnicity and basic education. The major risk factors identified were: mental disorder, alcohol and other drug abuse, disturbed family relationship and a history of previous suicide attempts. An attempt was made to contextualize and reflect on some cases reported by family members, as well as on the response of the health care teams to the demands of the families. The need to implement prevention programs and to train the primary health care professionals was considered a priority. PMID:24473609

Sena-Ferreira, Neci; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Boechat-Barros, Raphael; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza



The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education. The latest Cochrane review, assessed as up-to-date in 2007, concluded that the effect of antenatal education for childbirth or parenthood or both remains largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. Methods/design Eligible studies include individually randomized as well as cluster-randomized trials irrespective of language, publication year, publication type, and publication status. Only interventions carried out in the Western world will be considered in this review. We will search the databases Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO using relevant search terms. Two independent review authors will extract data and assess risk of bias. Results will be presented as structured summaries of the included trials. A meta-analysis will be conducted. We will assess heterogeneity by using both the Chi-squared test and the I-squared statistic, and conduct subgroup analysis separately for various intervention types. Discussion In healthcare systems with limited resources evidence of the effectiveness of services provided is important for decision making, and there is a need for policy makers to implement changes in healthcare systems based on scientific evidence. The effectiveness of antenatal education in small classes is still questioned. Therefore an up-to-date systematic review is needed. This systematic review protocol was registered within the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) as number CRD42013004319. PMID:24521166



Drought Mitigation and Gender Challenge: a Social Approach to a Mediterranean Environ m e ntal Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the arid and semi- arid areas, drought mitigation is something strictly related to a Country develop m e nt. A right, open- minded approach to gender- related problems is, equally, tightly linked to the real develop m e nt of a Nation or a population. The latter could give an important contribution to the solution of the former and

Rosanna Quagliariello


Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach.  


Authors have analyzed the psychosocial peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these diseases and the psychosexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender-role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psychosexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

Iorgulescu, Gabriela



[Validity of the existentialist approach in psychiatry].  


One essential premise of this revision work is to raise the impossibility of psychiatric action without a solid psychotherapeutic attitude. And before this position is the existentialist approach as an interesting possibility to consolidate the psychiatric clinic; a clinic which should not lose sight of the old Socratic ideal of applying philosophy to understand daily life and not be trapped in the modest role of prescribing drugs according to the "cartography" of diagnostic manuals. Existentialist psychotherapeutic trends add the spiritual instance to the traditional approach of the bio-psycho-social framework that tries to account for the human condition. In this work, another framework is proposed: bio-psycho-social (de-programmed)-mortal. On this existentialist conception, two essential aspects of philosophy and psychiatric clinic are emphasized: freedom and death. Finally, a type of classification that delimits two existential psychotherapeutic postures is proposed: one which is identified as existential dynamic psychotherapy, and another one, as existential psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:24255898

Dramisino, Hugo



PhysioNet 2010 Challenge: A Robust Multi-Channel Adaptive Filtering Approach to the Estimation of Physiological Recordings.  


The 2010 PhysioNet Challenge was to predict the last few seconds of a physiological waveform given its previous history and M-1 different concurrent physiological recordings. A robust approach was implemented by using a bank of adaptive filters to predict the desired channel. In all, M channels (the M-1 original signals, and 1 signal derived from the previous history of the target signal) were used to estimate the missing data. For each channel, a Gradient Adaptive Lattice Laguerre filter (GALL) was trained to estimate the desired channel. The GALL filter was chosen because of its fast convergence, stability, and ability to model a long response using relatively few parameters. The prediction of each of the channels (the output of each of the GALL filters) was then linearly combined using time-varying weights determined through a Kalman filter. This approach is extensible to recordings with any number of signals, other types of signals, and other problem domains. The code for the algorithm is freely available at PhysioNet under the GPL. PMID:22708118

Silva, Ikaro



Major Psycho-Social Problems and the Psychiatric Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations made at institutes and workshops conducted by the National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT) are included in this publication. Drug abuse, alcoholism, crisis intervention, mental retardation, and mental health manpower were the themes for these presentations: (1) "Mental Health Trends in California" by G. Duffy, (2) "The…

National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.


Conservation of Senegalese Youth and Its Psycho-Social Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the appropriateness of Piagetian tasks for a comparative assessment of the cognitive development of rural and semi-urban Senegalese youth; and (2) to determine relationships among selected social and environmental factors affecting Senegalese youth. Fifty semi-urban and 50 rural area…

Brekke, Beverly; Williams, John


Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

Kane, M.S.



A Psycho-Social Study of Outstanding Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an ex post facto analysis of the life histories of 24 Olympic female champions which attempts to determine events and variables in the psychological and social driving forces behind outstanding achievement in sports. The data was gathered by (a) personal interviews, (b) the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and (c) a data…

Balazs, Eva K.


Psycho-social predictors of exercise intentions among spouses.  


Psychosocial predictors of the intention to undertake leisure-time exercise have been studied in 210 couples with children attending grades 7 through 9. For both partners in these households, the variables measured included Fishbein's concepts of beliefs, attitudes and societal norms, in addition to age, education level, current physical activity habits, prior experience of physical activity, and family socio-economic status. Considered together, these observations explained 49% and 27% of the variance in intentions to exercise among male and female partners respectively. In contrast to previous studies using a less structured methodology, attitude was the most important determinant of intention in both male and female partners. In the men only, interaction terms relating to passive forms of spousal support and socio-economic status increased the explained proportion of variance. Differences of beliefs and their evaluations between those with high and low intentions to exercise generally coincided with the patterns previously observed in surveys of exercise class participants. However, there were some persistent culture--related gender differences, women seeking to improve health and control body weight, while men attempted to improve other aspects of their personal appearance and "meet people". Such expectations have important practical implications for the design of fitness promotion programmes. PMID:4006042

Godin, G; Shephard, R J



PsychoSocial Consequences of Secondary Infertility in Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the experiences of social consequences among women suffering from secondary infertil- ity. Methods:Descriptive case series of 400 women with secondary infertility attending tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: More than two thirds (67.7%) of women stated that their inability to give live births or give birth to sons had resulted in marital dissonance. The respondents had

Neelofar Sami; Tazeen Saeed Ali


Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

Akin, G.



Women and AIDS: A PsychoSocial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the most part, articles on AIDS focus on issues pertaining to gay men. Little has been written specifically about women with AIDS, particularly within a feminist framework. This article explores, from a feminist perspective, the special impact that AIDS has on women as potential victims, carriers of the disease, and caretakers of others with the disease. It emphasizes how

Barbara Kaspar



Virtual Challenges: A Social Interaction Approach to Increasing Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Several studies indicate a growing increase in the number of people that are overweight. Along with psychological stigmas, these people have increased risk for heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis-related disabilities, and some can- cers (1). Sedentary lifestyles and consumption of energy dense foods are the main factors leading to these conditions. A change in lifestyle through an

André Fialho; Herjan van den Heuvel; Qonita Shahab; Qing Liu; Privender Saini; Joyca Lacroix; Panos Markopoulos



Psycho-Social Aspects of Physical Education. Basic Stuff Series I. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological and social aspects of achievement in physical activities are examined. The first chapter discusses health and the sources and development of self esteem. In the second chapter, ways in which a positive attitude toward one's body image may be developed are explored. The third chapter is concerned with achievement, motivation, fear…

Oglesby, Carole A.; And Others


'The Elephant Man' as 'self' and 'other': the psycho-social costs of a misdiagnosis.  


'The Elephant Man's Disease' acquired enormous notoriety through the portrayals of the life of Joseph Merrick, 'The Elephant Man', on American stage, screen and television. These portrayals, inspired by Ashley Montagu's book, The Elephant Man (1971) parleyed the designation of Merrick's condition into a household phrase, a metaphor for the grimmest extreme of ugliness. This paper explores the impact of 'The Elephant Man' as the chief referent and role model for persons who believed they shared the condition of neurofibromatosis 1, a neurological genetic disorder, which was erroneously believed at the time his story was popularized to have affected Joseph Merrick. Data were gathered through interviews with sixty affected individuals and families about their responses to the media representations of 'The Elephant Man'. Informants were recruited from three NF Support Groups and two urban hospital caseloads in Northern California. PMID:7667653

Ablon, J



Health-related behaviours and psycho-social characteristics of 18 year-old Australians.  


Psychosocial variables associated with health-related behaviours for diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking were examined in 18 year-old Australian men (n = 301) and women (n = 282). These psychosocial variables included Type A behaviour and depression, perceived self-efficacy for engaging in healthy behaviours and perceived barriers to performing these behaviours. Self-efficacy for following a healthy diet and moderating alcohol intake was greater in females but males had higher self-efficacy for physical activity. Self-efficacy for smoking did not differ according to gender. Lack of willpower was perceived as a barrier to desirable dietary, smoking and physical activity behaviours. Other perceived diet-related barriers included buying suitable foods when eating out, ignorance about appropriate foods and, in young women, perceived expense. Barriers for desirable levels of physical activity included planning time, tiredness, limiting social life and lack of social support. Social occasions were the main perceived barriers preventing both alcohol moderation and quitting smoking. Lack of family support, stress and concerns about weight gain, particularly in women, were perceived barriers to smoking cessation. Type A behaviour was associated with smoking and "unsafe" drinking in both men and women, generally unhealthy dietary choices in young women but with greater physical activity in young men. Depressive affect was significantly higher in female smokers and "unsafe" drinkers and tended to have an inverse relationship with physical activity in men and women. Depressive affect was inversely related to self-efficacy in both men and women for each of the health behaviours examined. Health promotion in young adults should therefore attempt to increase self-efficacy and address perceived barriers to change, taking into account gender-related differences in attitudes and the influence of depression and Type A characteristics on health-related behaviours. PMID:9351145

Milligan, R A; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Richards, J; Dunbar, D; Spencer, M; Balde, E; Gracey, M P



Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)

Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others



PsychoSocial Processes in Dealing with Legal Innovation in the Community: Insights from Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the\\u000a conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land\\u000a and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental\\u000a protection. In this article,

Paula Castro; Carla Mouro



Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's / Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact  

PubMed Central

Background Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's / Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis, symptoms and problems of those with situs inversus (PCD-SI) and those with situs solitus (PCD-SS). Methods Postal questionnaire sent to members of the UK Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Family Support Group. The questionnaire contained the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire for assessing health status. Results 93 questionnaires were returned, representing a 66% response rate. Replies were received from similar numbers of PCD-SI and PCD-SS. Individuals with PCD-SI did not show a significant tendency to be diagnosed earlier, and neither did they show any difference in their symptoms, or the relationship of symptoms to age. Respiratory symptoms were fairly constant up until the age of about 25, after which there was a slow increase in symptoms, and a decline in health status, patients over the age of 40 being about one and a half standard deviations below the mean on the physical component score of the PCS. Patients diagnosed earlier in life, and hence who had received more treatment for their condition, had better scores on the SGRQ Impact and Activity scores. Conclusions PCD is a chronic condition which has a progressively greater impact on health in the second half of life, producing significant morbidity and restriction of life style. Early diagnosis, and hence earlier treatment, may improve symptoms and the impact of the condition. PMID:14641928

McManus, I Christopher; Mitchison, Hannah M; Chung, Eddie MK; Stubbings, Georgina F; Martin, Naomi



Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification. PMID:20046402



A cluster analysis on students' perceived motivational climate. Implications on psycho-social variables.  


The aim of this study was to examine how students' perceptions of the class climate influence their basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, social goals and outcomes such as boredom, enjoyment, effort, and pressure/tension. 507 (267 males, 240 females) secondary education students agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Spanish validated versions of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2), Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise (BPNES), Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC), Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), and several subscales of the IMI. A hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered four independent class climate profiles that were confirmed by a K-Means cluster analysis: "high ego", "low ego-task", "high ego-medium task", and "high task". Several MANOVAs were performed using these clusters as independent variables and the different outcomes as dependent variables (p < .01). Results linked high mastery class climates to positive consequences such as higher students' autonomy, competence, relatedness, intrinsic motivation, effort, enjoyment, responsibility and relationship, as well as low levels of amotivation, boredom and pressure/tension. Students' perceptions of a performance class climate made the positive scores decrease significantly. Cluster 3 revealed that a mastery oriented class structure undermines the negative behavioral and psychological effects of a performance class climate. This finding supports the buffering hypothesis of the achievement goal theory. PMID:25012581

Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A



Dissertation Completers and Non-Completers: An Analysis of Psycho-Social Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored personal and program experiences that affect dissertation completion and non-completion to provide insights that might help students and faculty in their decision-making and advising. Interviews were conducted with 13 graduates and 9 "all-but-dissertation" (ABD) students regarding the traits they felt led to…

Kluever, Raymond C.; And Others


The Psycho-Social Dimensions of the Equity Struggle in Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial dimensions of filing grievances in academia were studied, along with faculty members' views of the experience, factors contributing to success or failure, the effect of age and sex, and effectiveness in achieving sex equity. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 41 grievants at a major eastern university. Fifty-four percent…

Kahn, Ethel D.



E-print Network

of children, and investments in human capital, such as education and work experience, largely determined, specifically mental and physical health problems, domestic violence, and problems with transportation. For example, women who live with an abusive partner or experience a mental illness such as depression may

Shyy, Wei


Religion and Bio-Psycho- Social Health: A Review and Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research-based conceptual model respectively linking three dimensions of religious experience (religious practices, spiritual beliefs, and faith community) with three dimensions of health (biological, psychological, and social). The model is used as a framework to highlight findings in the religion-health knowledge base and to provide a broad survey of this domain of inquiry. Considerations for future research

Loren Marks



Education Grand Challenge: A New Kind of Liberal Education  

E-print Network

childhood onwards we all need to play with toys, be they bricks, dolls, construction kits, .... scientificEducation Grand Challenge: A New Kind of Liberal Education Making People Want a Computing Education as the basis for a new kind of "liberal education" expressed thus in (Sloman 1978) Another book on how

Sloman, Aaron


Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz



Revisiting "Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp": A Nationwide Study of Ability Grouping and Psycho-Social Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We revisit Harry L. Gracey's perspective of kindergarten as academic boot camp where, at school entry, children acquire the student role through a structured program of activities. We provide further insights into the crucial mechanisms of socialization that occur in U.S. kindergartens by examining the relationship between within-class ability…

Catsambis, Sophia; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.



Dyslexia and Psycho-Social Functioning: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Self-Esteem and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the "Self-Perception Profile for Children"…

Terras, Melody M.; Thompson, Lucy C.; Minnis, Helen



The meanings of menopause: identifying the bio-psycho-social predictors of the propensity for treatment at menopause  

E-print Network

3 (estriol) is the most prevalent in pregnancy and is the weakest. All are synthesised from androgens, especially testosterone, by the enzyme aromatase. 9 Figure 2.1: The Ten Stages of Normal Reproductive Aging in Women Early...

Rubinstein, Helena



Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.  


High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries". PMID:23409598

Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José



Discussion paper: what happened to the ‘bio’ in the bio-psycho-social model of low back pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Over 20 years ago the term non-specific low back pain became popular to convey the limitations of our knowledge of the pathological\\u000a source of most people’s low back pain. Knowledge of underlying pathology has advanced little since then, despite limited improvements\\u000a in outcomes for patients with low back pain. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper discusses potential misunderstandings related to diagnostic studies in the field

Mark J. HancockChris; Chris G. Maher; Mark Laslett; Elaine Hay; Bart Koes


From psycho-social theory to sustainable classroom practice: developing a research-based teacher-delivered sex education programme.  


This paper describes the development of a theoretically based sex education programme currently undergoing a randomized controlled trial in the UK. It considers some of the practical difficulties involved in translating research-based conclusions into acceptable, replicable and potentially effective classroom lessons. The discussion acknowledges that the implications of social psychological research and the requirements of rigorous evaluation may conflict with accepted principles inherent in current sex education practice. It also emphasizes that theoretical ideas must be carefully embedded in lessons which are informed by an awareness of classroom culture, and the needs and skills of teachers. For example, the use of same-sex student groups to reflect on the gendered construction of sexuality may be problematic. Materials must be tailored to recipients' circumstances, which may require substituting for limited experience with the use of detailed scripts and scenarios. Furthermore, role-play techniques for sexual negotiation that work elsewhere may not be effective in the UK. The use of trigger video sessions and other techniques are recommended. Finally, the problems involved in promoting condom-related skills are discussed. The paper concludes that, if an intervention is to be sustainable beyond the research stage, it must be designed to overcome such problems while remaining theoretically informed. PMID:10788199

Wight, D; Abraham, C



Psycho-social transitions: comparison between reactions to loss of a limb and loss of a spouse.  


In 21 widows and 46 amputees a psychological reaction to loss designated as "grief' was commonly reported. This included an initial period of numbness, soon followed by restless pining with preoccupation with thoughts of the loss, a clear visual memory of the lost object and a sense of its presence. Defensive processes, reflected in difficulty in believing in the loss and avoidance of reminders, were also evident. Widows differed from amputees in showing more evidence of overt distress in the early post-loss phase, but whereas these features diminished in prevalence in the course of the next year the equivalent features reported by the amputee group remained virtually unchanged. PMID:1182377

Parkes, C M



“We Are Not Disposable“: “Psychiatric”\\/PsychoSocial Disabilities, Survivor Knowledge, and Audre Lorde’s Critique of Market Fundamentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Disability and Dependence track.\\u000aAudre Lorde: “In a society where the good is defined in terms of profit rather than in terms of human need, there must always be some group of people who, through systematized oppression, can be made to feel surplus, to occupy the position of the dehumanized inferior.”\\u000aPeople with disabilities,

Carol J. Moeller



The physical and psycho-social experiences of patients attending an outpatient medical oncology department: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of physical symptoms, anxiety, depression and perceived needs among patients receiving treatment at an outpatient medical oncology department using a cross-sectional survey. It was carried out at the outpatient clinic of an academic medical oncology department, which sees around 150–180 outpatients each week; 201 patients were selected. These

Sallie Newell; Rob William Sanson-Fisher; Afaf Girgis; Stephen Ackland



Being Proactive to Increasing Supply Chain Security Challenges: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach  

E-print Network

if they cannot distinguish them from the less effective ones? Some managers may have the desire to secure their supply chain but may lack the understanding and guidelines needed to develop an effective program (Unisys, 2005). Although this study may... initiatives (Williams et al., 2008). From one perspective, a number of firms are not?even partially?aware of the increasing importance of SCS (Rice and Spayd, 2005; Unisys 2005; Williams et al., 2008). This low level of sensitivity for SCS can perhaps...

Lu, Guanyi



Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc



When to Challenge a Call in Tennis: A Markov Decision Process Approach  

E-print Network

-making in sports. First, the state of a tennis game at any time is very simple to describe via the score and who challenge remaining. The literature related to mathematical models of sports is quite voluminous and here we), cricket (Clarke, 1988), and curling (Willoughby and Kostuk, 2012), to cite just a few relevant examples

Hasenbein, John


EcoChallenge: A race for efficiency Ronald Ecker, Philipp Holzer, Verena Broy  

E-print Network

EcoChallenge: A race for efficiency Ronald Ecker, Philipp Holzer, Verena Broy BMW Group Research by the driving behavior. Currently, only few in-car user interfaces are trying to pro- mote a more fuel-efficient driving behavior. We propose EcoChallenge, a community- and location-based in-car per- suasive game


A Biopsychosocial Approach to Sexual Recovery After Prostate Cancer Surgery: The Role of Grief and Mourning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erectile dysfunction is a common side-effect of prostate cancer surgery that causes men suffering and hinders their sexual recovery. There are studies that describe men's and partners' distress and couples' difficulties engaging in sexual recovery. A few studies show a short-term benefit of brief psycho-social interventions such as psychoeducation and counseling. However, there is no conceptual framework to guide psychosocial

Daniela Wittmann; Sallie Foley; Richard Balon



Why evidence-based medicine is an insufficient approach to physical and rehabilitation medicine - Antithesis.  


When philosophers of science demolished the myth of objectivity in the early decades of the 20th century, they undermined the theoretical certainty that a knowledge system comes from the cumulative development of scientific observations: here we find a criticality inherent to evidence-based medicine in relation to its claim of universality and objectivity. EBM relies on quantitative statistical models to define a treatment's effectiveness, and it has an universal character: the treatment effect is measured against the global characteristics of the general population rather than the individuals. Contemporary cognitive neuroscience takes a naturalized approach to mind and behavior, opening new inroads into investigating consciousness, motor image, bodily awareness, and intention. Common to these issues is the emphasis on the importance the person, with his or her own biology and history, as a unique and unrepeatable entity. Hence, its original aim to protect patients against arbitrary treatment notwithstanding, EBM has become largely inadequate to serve physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) owing to the peculiarities of its historical and narrative contents. PRM, because of its unique knowledge base, can be fully considered a science anchored in the basic sciences that underlie rehabilitation procedures. Accordingly, PRM exists within a mutual relationship with physics and biology, from which the biomedical model (well represented by EBM) originates, and is interrelated with other disciplines such as philosophy or psychology, from which the bio-psycho-social model was developed in the 1980s, leading to a comprehensive approach to health and disease. Further critical points in clinical practice include: how to translate evidence into clinical decision making; the inability to generalize experimental evidence because most studies involve selected patient samples. Despite the more than 20 years of EBM, long-established therapeutic approaches lacking scientific evidence still survive in rehabilitation. We must strive for an integrative approach to EBM, which would enable PRM, by virtue of its multifaceted theoretical and methodological approaches to persons with disability, to take the lead in redefining biomedical knowledge and, by applying this understanding, put its science into clinical practice and, perhaps, more generally, into outlining a new "ideal of science". PMID:25192186

Saraceni, V



Subjective Response to Alcohol Challenge: A Quantitative Review  

PubMed Central

Background Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol, as measured by laboratory-based alcohol challenge, have been identified as a candidate phenotypic risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Two models have been developed to explain the role of subjective response to alcohol, but predictions from the two models are contradictory, and theoretical consensus is lacking. Methods This investigation used a meta-analytic approach to review the accumulated evidence from alcohol-challenge studies of subjective response as a risk factor. Data from 32 independent samples (total N = 1,314) were aggregated to produce quantitative estimates of the effects of risk group status (i.e., positive family history of AUDs or heavier alcohol consumption) on subjective response. Results As predicted by the Low Level of Response Model (LLRM), family history positive groups experienced reduced overall subjective response relative to family history negative groups. This effect was most evident among men, with family history positive men responding more than half a standard deviation less than family history negative men. In contrast, consistent with the Differentiator Model (DM), heavier drinkers of both genders responded 0.4 standard deviations less on measures of sedation than did lighter drinkers but nearly half a standard deviation more on measures of stimulation, with the stimulation difference appearing most prominent on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve. Conclusions The accumulated results from three decades of family history comparisons provide considerable support for the LLRM. In contrast, results from typical consumption comparisons were largely consistent with predictions of the DM. The LLRM and DM may describe two distinct sets of phenotypic risk, with importantly different etiologies and predictions for the development of AUDs. PMID:21777258

Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim



The Brownfields Challenge: A Survey of Environmental Justice and Community Participation Initiatives  

E-print Network

The Brownfields Challenge: A Survey of Environmental Justice and Community Participation participation and environmental justice into brownfields redevelopment. This report reviews existing brownfields of Wilmington. It also examines case studies of the community participation and environmental justice activities

Delaware, University of


Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies  

PubMed Central

Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement data synthesis, some additional scientific, ethico-legal and technical considerations must be addressed. The success of the DataSHaPER as a harmonization approach will depend on its continuing development and on the rigour and extent of its use. The DataSHaPER has the potential to take us closer to a truly collaborative epidemiology and offers the promise of enhanced research potential generated through synthesized databases. PMID:21804097

Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L'Heureux, Francois; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R



"I Feel Totally at One, Totally Alive and Totally Happy": A Psycho-Social Explanation of the Physical Activity and Mental Health Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation into the relationship between physical activity and mental health from the experiences of participants on exercise referral schemes. A grounded theory methodology was adopted which used focus groups and semi-structured interviews with participants from three exercise referral schemes in…

Crone, D.; Smith, A.; Gough, B.



Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT) explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We

Carlos David Navarrete; Daniel M. T. Fessler


Weaving Silos--A Leadership Challenge: A Cross-Functional Team Approach to Supporting Web-Based Student Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the evolution of Web services--from information sharing to transactional to relationship building--and the progression from first-generation to fourth-generation Web sites. (Contains 3 figures.)

Kleemann, Gary L.



Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey  

PubMed Central

Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP) patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT), Treatment Based Classification (TBC), Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC), Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI), and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS) schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i) loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC) aimed at eliciting a phenomenon of centralisation of symptoms; and (ii) modified movement strategies (MSI, OCS) targeted towards documenting the movement impairments associated with the pain state. Conclusions Schemes vary on: the extent to which loading strategies are pursued; the assessment of movement dysfunction; and advocated treatment approaches. A biomechanical assessment predominates in the majority of schemes (MDT, PBC, MSI), certain psychosocial aspects (fear-avoidance) are considered in the TBC scheme, certain neurophysiologic (central versus peripherally mediated pain states) and psychosocial (cognitive and behavioural) aspects are considered in the OCS scheme. PMID:22348236



Psychosocial Intervention and Dementia, Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the nature of scnilc dcmentia. including complicating factors, and identifies concepts basic to psychosocial intervention and the disease. It thcn critically exaniincs the variety of psychosocial intervention approaches addressed in the literature and discusses their application to the practice of psycho-social occupational therapy. The findings point to a vibrant and increasingly important role for occupational therapy within

Linda L. Levy



Dangerous encounters? Boys' peer dynamics and neighbourhood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered subjectivities are shaped by the specific

Jenny Parkes; Anna Conolly



Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna



Literacy and Basic Education: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Annotated Bibliography #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selected annotated bibliography on literacy and basic education, including contributions from practitioners in the worldwide non-formal education network and compiled for them, has three interrelated themes: integration of literacy programs with broader development efforts; the learner-centered or "psycho-social" approach to literacy, often with…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Non-Formal Education Information Center.


Psychiatric Evaluation in Dermatology: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Psychodermatology is an exciting field which deals with the close relationship that exists between dermatological and psychiatric disorders. A combined bio-psycho-social approach is essential for effective evaluation and treatment of these conditions. This review aims to give the practicing clinician an overview of psychiatric evaluation in patients with dermatological conditions. PMID:23372211

Ghosh, Sreyoshi; Behere, Rishikesh V; Sharma, PSVN; Sreejayan, K



The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi



PR Social and Digital Professional Challenges: A Relationship between Organizations and Their Publics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Relations is extensively integrated into social and digital communication platforms. PR is focused on dialogic communication grounded in the philosophy of caring (Coombs, 2007). The most effective approach to understanding the PR role through social media is to examine how these platforms are used in developing relationships between an organization and its publics. Experienced professionals suggest it is the

Samuel Borden; Erika Wagner; Lauren Rubio; Elizabeth Freeman; Matt Butcher; Tom Haeussler



The EEE05 Challenge: A New Web Service Discovery and Composition Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing acceptance of service-oriented computing, an emerging area of research is the investigation of technologies that enables the discovery and composition of Web services. Using the same approach as the popular trading agent competitions (TAC), the EEE-05 Web services challenge is the first event geared towards the management of Web services. The competition solicits industry and academic researchers that

M. Brian Blake; Kwok Ching Tsui; Andreas Wombacher



Geropsychology: The Gender Gap in Human Aging – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between women and men in terms of gender gaps at late stages of their lives are the focus of this mini-review. We approach the matter by taking up the position of complex yet promising standpoints, the bio-psycho-social perspective on the one hand and approaches of developmental psychology on the other. Lifespan perspectives and the brain-behavior relationship are integrated and

Ilse Kryspin-Exner; Elisabeth Lamplmayr; Anna Felnhofer



Theoretical and Methodological consequences of a change in the unit of analysis for the study of peer interactions in a problem solving situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of how the psycho-social and social-cultural approaches both came to consider interaction as the\\u000a basic unit of analysis in the study of cognitive development, the article examines two series of studies made in the former\\u000a approach: a) that the adult-child interactionsin a test situation; b) that of peer interactions in a problem solving situation. The main

Michèle Grossen



COTS approach to a utility VTOL UAV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many UAVs are in the market place but few are very profitable. After studying the lessons learned form our predecessors, a commercial off the shelf approach was chosen to meet the price performance challenge. A multi-mission capable aircraft was chosen to provide exposure to the widest possible market. Using an analysis tool developed for DARPA, the Vigilante VTOL UAV was successfully competed against both Outrider and Predator.

Snyder, Jay R.



Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug companies and the internet.  


This study investigated the influence of drug-company funding on websites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Websites in the top 60 for either Google or Yahoo!Xtra with information about causation and treatment were analysed. Likert scales, based on those used in previous similar studies, were developed to rate aetiological explanations and recommended treatment approaches, on a dimension from psycho-social to biological. Overall, the quality of information on websites was poor with a strong bias towards bio-genetic aetiological explanations of ADHD. Twenty-one of the 57 websites (37%) were funded by drug companies. The drug-company funded (DCF) websites were significantly more likely than non-DCF websites to recommend medication rather than psycho-social treatments. The selective lack of consideration of psycho-social treatments by DCF websites is discussed in relation to the relevant research literature, including the evidence in favour of a multimodal approach. The findings, which are consistent with previous similar studies in relation to websites about adult mental health problems, confirm that the pharmaceutical industry is seeking to influence public opinion via the internet. PMID:21429977

Mitchell, Jessica; Read, John



Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion Qualità di vita e sviluppo psico-sociale nei bambini con otite media secretiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or care- givers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly con- cerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anx- iety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or care- givers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an



Multitiered Approach Using Quantitative PCR To Track Sources of Fecal Pollution Affecting Santa Monica Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in urban environments makes tracking of fecal contamination extremely challenging. A multitiered approach was used to assess sources of fecal pollution in Ballona Creek, an urban watershed that drains to the Santa Monica Bay (SMB) near Los Angeles, Calif. A mass-based design at six main-stem sites and

Rachel T. Noble; John F. Griffith; A. Denene Blackwood; Jed A. Fuhrman; Jason B. Gregory; Ximena Hernandez; Xiaolin Liang; Angie A. Bera; Kenneth Schiff



Educational approaches.  


Three papers were presented in the session focusing on educational approaches: Anu Narusk reported on an Estonian study on the influence of the family on adolescents' substance use, Bernadette Roussille presented a French mass media campaign aimed at reducing heavy drinking by young people, and Sally Casswell analysed the public discourse on alcohol, which is an important part of the social and political context in which decisions are taken about public policies. Each of the papers highlighted in its own way the complex relationships between people's behaviour, its social and cultural context, and the wider economic and political environment. PMID:9167298

Montonen, M



Engineered Drug Resistant ?? T Cells Kill Glioblastoma Cell Lines during a Chemotherapy Challenge: A Strategy for Combining Chemo- and Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Classical approaches to immunotherapy that show promise in some malignancies have generally been disappointing when applied to high-grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We recently showed that ex vivo expanded/activated ?? T cells recognize NKG2D ligands expressed on malignant glioma and are cytotoxic to glioma cell lines and primary GBM explants. In addition, ?? T cells extend survival and slow tumor progression when administered to immunodeficient mice with intracranial human glioma xenografts. We now show that temozolomide (TMZ), a principal chemotherapeutic agent used to treat GBM, increases the expression of stress-associated NKG2D ligands on TMZ-resistant glioma cells, potentially rendering them vulnerable to ?? T cell recognition and lysis. TMZ is also highly toxic to ?? T cells, however, and to overcome this cytotoxic effect ?? T cells were genetically modified using a lentiviral vector encoding the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) from the O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) cDNA, which confers resistance to TMZ. Genetic modification of ?? T cells did not alter their phenotype or their cytotoxicity against GBM target cells. Importantly, gene modified ?? T cells showed greater cytotoxicity to two TMZ resistant GBM cell lines, U373TMZ-R and SNB-19TMZ-R cells, in the presence of TMZ than unmodified cells, suggesting that TMZ exposed more receptors for ?? T cell-targeted lysis. Therefore, TMZ resistant ?? T cells can be generated without impairing their anti-tumor functions in the presence of high concentrations of TMZ. These results provide a mechanistic basis for combining chemotherapy and ?? T cell-based drug resistant cellular immunotherapy to treat GBM. PMID:23326319

Lamb, Lawrence S.; Bowersock, Joscelyn; Dasgupta, Anindya; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Su, Yun; Johnson, Austin; Spencer, H. Trent



Nutritional neuroscience: Part I: an emerging paradigm in substance use disorders.  


Substance use disorders are exceedingly complicated as is the treatment. In order to increase positive outcomes an understanding of all facets; bio, psycho/social/spiritual, economic, and interdisciplinary aspects are essential to successful treatment. There are an increasing number of integrative addictions treatment centers across the United States, and disciplines that care for this population who are committed to a holistic, integrative approach to addictions treatment. Whole-person interventions, the foundational underpinnings of complementary and integrative therapies that attend to mind, body, and spirit simultaneously, in combination with traditional health care, will serve to provide the most effective treatment and patient outcomes. PMID:23580105

Ross, Stephanie Maxine



Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.



Preliminary report: Biomedical considerations for future manned space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavioral, psychological, and sociological aspects of space travel, particularly with emphasis on longer duration missions, are discussed along with the biomedical aspects of space flight. These factors may strongly interact with the various psycho-social factors and as such they stand as an immensely important area of concern in and of themselves. A foundation for understanding weightlessness related medical problems through a discussion of the history of symptoms reported specific details on the major areas of concern and approaches to their investigation are presented. Also, discussion is given to the possibility of various countermeasures. Some indication of the effects of various biomedical changes in performance are also covered.

Akins, F. R.



Rough Set Approaches to Unsupervised Neural Network Based Pattern Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsupervised neural network based pattern classification is a widely popular choice for many real time applications. Such applications always face challenges of processing data with lot of consistency, inconsistency, ambiguity or incompleteness. Hence to deal with such challenges a strong approximation tool is always needed. Rough set is one such tool and various approaches based on Rough set, if are applied to pure neural (unsupervised) pattern classifier can yield desired results like faster convergence, feature space reduction and improved classification accuracy. The application of such approaches at respective level of implementation of neural network based pattern classifier for two case studies are discussed here. Whereas more emphasis is given on the preprocessing level based approach used for feature space reduction.

Kothari, Ashwin; Keskar, Avinash


A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold’em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE’S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised\\u000a opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to

Jonathan Rubin; Ian Watson



The effect of 6-week treatment with escitalopram on CCK-4 challenge: a placebo-controlled study in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers.  


Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5 ± 5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50 ?g) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p = 0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies. PMID:22939006

Tõru, Innar; Maron, Eduard; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Nutt, David J; Shlik, Jakov



Marr's Approach to Vision  

E-print Network

In the last seven years a new computational approach has led to promising advances in the understanding of biological visual perception. The foundations of the approach are largely due to the work of a single man, ...

Poggio, Tomaso



Approach and Avoidance Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we introduce this special issue by establishing a conceptual foundation for the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation. We do so primarily by explicating several reasons why the approach–avoidance distinction should be viewed as fundamental and basic to the study of human behavior. In addition, we compare and contrast the approach–avoidance designation with other designations that have

Andrew J. Elliot; Martin V. Covington



Interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and dieticians in nutrition education programs for children-at-risk.  


Bio-psycho-social risk factors may lead to situations of poor nutrition of children. However, despite the multiple risk factors involved in such situations, interdisciplinary collaboration between experts in the psycho-social dimensions and experts in the bio-dimension of poor nutrition has not been a common model of practice. An evaluation was conducted in Israel of the experience of collaboration between social workers and dieticians in leading nutrition-education programs. A qualitative methodology was implemented with 22 participants. The findings illuminate the potential that interdisciplinary collaboration has to enhance the response of each of the professions to the risks for poor nutrition. The barriers affecting collaboration are: (a) role ambiguity about the non-administrative functions of social workers; (b) the dieticians' lack of sufficient familiarity with the life circumstances of low-income families and how to adjust the nutrition-related contents to their circumstances; and (c) difficulties to achieve a balance between the structured methods of knowledge delivery of the dieticians and the less structured methods of intervention of social workers. The findings illuminate the significance of incorporating suitable approaches into the collaboration for reducing these barriers. PMID:20379904

Shor, Ron



[The construction of a "good death" at different stages of life: reflections on the palliative care approach for adults and children].  


This article deals with the vision of Palliative Care leading to a "good death" for adults and children. The differences and similarities between the care of adults and children are examined based on the scrutiny of textbooks, manuals and articles, as well as the observation of courses and congresses within the specialty, which focus on patients diagnosed as "beyond therapeutic cure possibilities." Health teams seek to provide care for the "bio-psycho-social-spiritual totality" of the patients and their family members, to offer "quality of life," with full autonomy and control of their symptoms. In accordance with the palliative care model, the social actors involved in care must accept the end of life inevitability. It is a question of ensuring a "good death," "with dignity," peaceful, accepted, transparent and socially shared, with the support of a multi-professional team. It is a complex configuration, as various factors and circumstances come into play. This is especially true in the case of children, when a paradox arises, since terminal illness at this stage of life - so highly valued in contemporary Western culture - constitutes a social drama. PMID:23989572

Menezes, Rachel Aisengart; Barbosa, Patricia de Castro




E-print Network

habitat for amphibians and other wildlife #12;Legal Approaches Wetland Zoning Minimize intrusion of development into wetlands Limit wetland fill Ensure continuity of wetland habitat for wildlife and birds Approaches Stormwater Regulation Seek to minimize runoff from urban lands by retention of water onsite May



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper presents the Boeing approach to certification of the 777 composite empennage structure. The design team used carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials for the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, the elevators, and the rudder of the new 777 twinjet. Boeing based its approach to certification on analysis supported by coupon and component test evidence in compliance with guidelines issued by

A. Fawcettl; J. Trostle; S. Ward


Phenomenological Approaches in Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the most significant dimensions and findings of phenomenological approaches in anthropology. We spell out the motives and implications inherent in such approaches, chronicle their historical dimensions and precursors, and address the ways in which they have contributed to analytic perspectives employed in anthropology. This article canvasses phenomenologically oriented research in anthropology on a number of topics, including

Robert Desjarlais; C. Jason Throop



Modular Approach for Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.



The TLC Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

Welker, William A.




Microsoft Academic Search

The paired approach procedure is intended to facilitate IFR approaches to closely spaced parallel runways (closer than 2500 feet) and increase runway throughput where parallel ILS approaches cannot be conducted under instrument meteorological conditions. The paired approach procedure requires that air traffic control pair compatible and eligible aircraft and place them on the final approach courses within a required altitude

Randall S. Bone; B. Oscar Olmos; Anand Mundra


The case study approach  

PubMed Central

The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982




EPA Science Inventory

In today's chemical-oriented society, any student of ecology must be cognizant of the potential for environmental toxicants to alter the balances and relationships among the plants, animals and biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem. Ecotoxicology: roblems and Approaches" provides...


SOHO Sees Venus' Approach  

NASA Video Gallery

This video taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows the Sun's corona and Venus' approach for the transit. This was taken with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) in ...


The case study approach.  


The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

Crowe, Sarah; Cresswell, Kathrin; Robertson, Ann; Huby, Guro; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz



Approaches to Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.


Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.



Improvement of Drinking Water Quality in Developing Countries: Microbial and Geogenic Contamination  

E-print Network

technical, institutional, and psycho-social aspects of water quality management. For whom? The course in developing and emerging coun- tries, who wish to learn more about household drinking water quality including technical, institutional and psycho-social considerations in water treatment will be presented

Wehrli, Bernhard


Project S.T.E.P.: Seniors Tutor for Educational Progress. Annual Evaluation Report, July 1974 - June 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general objective of this project is to enhance the educational and psycho-social development of seventh and eighth grade students who are experiencing learning or psycho-social deficits. This is accomplished through a meaningful tutorial relationship with a senior citizen aide. Together, the adolescent student and tutor create educational…

Easton-Redding Regional School District 9, CT.


Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii) human and social…

McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.



Salt repository design approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

Matthews, S.C.



Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.



Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.



Complementary Health Approaches  


... topic was provided by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Topic last reviewed: September 2013 For an enhanced ... complementary health approaches is the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). You can visit NCCAM’s Web site at ...


New Ideas and Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

Lukov, V. A.



Approaches to Individualized Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the focus now on career education as a catalyst for producing self-sufficient and personally self-fulfilled human beings, efforts are being made to develop teaching techniques which will produce effective learning in the great percentage of the student body enrolled. This document explores some of the more widely used approaches to…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.



E-print Network

. Title and Subtitle Freight Performance Measures: Approach Analysis 5. Report Date May 2010 6. Performing of these measures. A thorough review of state practices is conducted by surveying state DOT web sites and reporting. Distribution Statement Copies available from NTIS, and online at 19

Bertini, Robert L.


Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.



A Fresh Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facilities and services are a huge drain on community college budgets. They are also vital to the student experience. As funding dries up across the country, many institutions are taking a team approach, working with partner colleges and private service providers to offset costs and generate revenue without sacrificing the services and amenities…

Violino, Bob



Microwave approaches in hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture centent, snowpack properties, surface water area, and the detection of precipitation over land are discussed. Both active (radar) and passive (radiometry) approaches are considered, and the advantages of microwave sensing are pointed out, including all-weather capability, especially at the longer wavelengths, and greater penetration depth with optical or infrared sensors. Results obtained from ground-based, aircraft, and spacecraft platforms show that microwave systems can monitor the moisture content in the surface soil layer (5 cm thick), and that passive microwave systems can discriminate between light and heavy snowcover, detect the presence of liquid water in the snow, and qualitatively estimate snow water equivalent.

Schmugge, T. J.



Comorbidity: a multidimensional approach.  


Comorbidity represents an extremely complex domain of research. An individual entity, the patient, is the center of gravity of a system characterized by multiple, complex, and interrelated conditions, disorders, or diseases. Such complexity is influenced by uncertainty that is difficult to decipher and is proportional to the number of associated morbidities. Computational scientists usually provide meta-analysis studies aimed at integrating various types of evidence, but in our opinion they may help reformulate comorbidity by emphasizing, in particular, two aspects: (i) a systems approach, which allows for an ensemble view of comorbidity, and offers a model representation generalizable to multimorbidity; and (ii) a dynamic network inference approach, which is indicated for the analysis of links among morbidities and evaluation of risk. Notably, the main question remains whether such instruments suggest a shift of paradigm providing prospective impact on medical practice. We have identified in the simultaneous consideration of multiple dimensions linked to comorbidity complexity the rationale for such translation. PMID:23948386

Capobianco, Enrico; Lio', Pietro



Disability: a welfarist approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species’ functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability. PMID:22140353

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy



[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  


There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A



The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for…

Sachau, Daniel A.; Naas, Patricia A.



Afghanistan's Opium Challenge: A Decentralized Solution  

E-print Network

from its lowest production level of 200 metric tons in 2001. The resurgence of opium poppy in Afghanistan seriously undermines the post-2001 progress in rebuilding Afghanistan and contributes to the on-going insurgency. A combination of external...

Masjidi, Shamroz Khan



Disneyland in Hong Kong — Green Challenge (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-1999, the Walt Disney Company and the Hong Kong Government were involved in intense discussions about the possibility of building the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park on Lantau Island. This case presented detailed information about the proposed theme park and the associated decision making process with a particular emphasis on sustainable development. It also lays out the characteristics of

Terence Tsai; Shubo Philip Liu




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Global challenges: a world at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present trends in world food supplies, population, pollution, and nuclear proliferation point to serious discontinuities which could upset the fragile international structure now holding the world community together. The state systems and international institutions as presently constituted are unable to meet current challenges. The more-serious danger is that the world system will experience a catastrophic collapse if enough of these




Onychomycosis: updates and management challenges. A review.  


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection which affects the nail unit. It was previously thought to be just a cosmetic problem, but presently, it is regarded as a major public health issue because of the impact on the quality of life of the patients.A etiologic factors identified in onychomycosis include increasing age,immunosuppression, occupation and genetics. Management of onychomycosisis both pharmacological and non pharmacological. Pretreatment counseling is important in patients with fungal nail infections and this should include probable length of therapy, possible side effects of treatment and the expenses involved.Patients should be educated on proper nail care and the fact that no treatment isI 00% effective. Presently, combination therapy is advocated for the management of onychomycosis. This is a review of the epidemiology, clinical types,investigations and current considerations in the management of onychomycosis. PMID:25167597

Ayanlowo, O; Oladele, R O



Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.  


We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

Song, Miri



Negotiating the Relationship Between Addiction, Ethics, and Brain Science  

PubMed Central

Advances in neuroscience are changing how mental health issues such as addiction are understood and addressed as a brain disease. Although a brain disease model legitimizes addiction as a medical condition, it promotes neuro-essentialist thinking, categorical ideas of responsibility and free choice, and undermines the complexity involved in its emergence. We propose a ‘biopsychosocial systems’ model where psycho-social factors complement and interact with neurogenetics. A systems approach addresses the complexity of addiction and approaches free choice and moral responsibility within the biological, lived experience and socio-historical context of the individual. We examine heroin-assisted treatment as an applied case example within our framework. We conclude with a discussion of the model and its implications for drug policy, research, addiction health care systems and delivery, and treatment of substance use problems. PMID:20676352

Buchman, Daniel Z.; Skinner, Wayne; Illes, Judy



[Alma Ata 30 years on. Evolution and perspectives of primary health care].  


The Alma Ata Declaration (September 1978) was a turning point in the definition of "Primary Health Care". The traditional bio-medical model was based on a paternalistic approach and on the treatment of the individual episodes of disease. The new bio-psycho-social model was based on prevention, continuity of care, integrated health care teams and on a direct role of patients in managing their health. Thirty years on, this approach is still relevant. Actually, it is the only adequate one to answer effectively to the current challenges: epidemiological changes (increasing prevalence of chronic diseases), social changes (increased social inequalities in health), cultural changes (increased patients demand for information and autonomy). PMID:19014109

Maciocco, G



Combined approach brings success.  


Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

Law, Oliver



An evolutionary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes an evolutionary approach to the development of aerospace systems, represented by the introduction of integrated product teams (IPTs), which are now used at Rockwell's Space Systems Division on all new programs and are introduced into existing projects after demonstrations of increases in quality and reductions in cost and schedule due to IPTs. Each IPT is unique and reflects its own program and lasts for the life of the program. An IPT includes customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and associate contractors, and have a charter, mission, scope of authority, budget, and schedule. Functional management is responsible for the staffing, training, method development, and generic technology development.

Healy, Thomas J.



Cognitive approaches to emotions.  


Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N



Approaches to Numerical Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23. Self-gravitating thin disks around rotating black holes A. Lanza; 24. An ADI and causal reconnection Gabrielle D. Allen and Bernard F. Schutz; 25. Time-symmetric ADI and causal reconnection Miguel Alcubierre and Bernard F. Schutz; 26. The numerical study of topological defects E. P. S. Shellard; 27. Computations of bubble growth during the cosmological quark-hadron transition J. C. Miller and O. Pantano; 28. Initial data of axisymmetric gravitational waves with a cosmological constant Ken-Ichi Nakao, Kei-Ichi Maeda, Takashi Nakamura and Ken-Ichi Oohara.

d'Inverno, Ray



New approaches for immunosuppression  

SciTech Connect

New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.



The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as  

E-print Network

The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as the types of activities on the traditional approach is a foray, or blitz, in which groups of experts and dedicated vol- unteers conduct of the scientists interested in participating. The Smokies ATBI Science Plan calls for a traditional sampling

Bernard, Ernest


Two approaches to human rights  

E-print Network

Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

Holland, Sean Jamison



Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429



[Clinical and behavioral approach].  


During decades, the detection of alcohol related impairments was the main target for behavioral examination in drivers. The implementation of legislations on illegal drugs and driving, mainly cannabis, has led to an adaptation of the procedures by requiring, from the policemen, an evaluation of external signs of consumption, signs not anymore searched in case of alcohol. The current procedure in France consists in a medical evaluation by a required medical doctor, and based on the Field Sobriety test. This battery was nevertheless established for policemen and used by them in more than 40 countries. A present trend in the French authorities pushes to a back step to a chemical detection of drugs by policemen, by using saliva tests. This approach should have, in their opinion, the advantage of testing drivers without asking them to leave their car for an external evaluation. In our opinion, only a behavioral approach, could help the policemen to have at their disposal, relevant procedures for all situations, especially to face the increasing consumption of cannabis in drivers. PMID:16710115

Mercier-Guyon, C



Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.



Technical approach document  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC.

Not Available



[Transcultural approach in perinatality].  


Over the last years, our approach to the perinatal period has become more complex with the integration of new tools designed for better comprehension and cultural awareness. In this area of medical practice, perhaps more than in others, the complementary contribution of different approaches, ways of thinking, and practical interventions is essential. Pregnancy, delivery, early mother-infant interactions, and construction of the parent-child relationship involve not only profoundly intimate, intrapsychic and intersubjective events but also medical, social, and cultural events which all become a part of the process of transmitting life in an open group. The junction between somatic, intrapsychic, intersubjective and cultural elements was analyzed in the everyday clinical setting of a multicultural suburban area near Paris. The therapeutic impact of this perspective was noted. Two therapeutic processes specific to the perinatal period were studied: the need to assist vulnerable migrant mothers in reconstructing their defense systems (possible because of the psychic transparency and the primary maternal priority of this special period of life) and direct work with the baby. Working directly with the baby and not only the mother creates an open triad around the baby. This baby/mother/therapist group relationship develops progressively and is initially perceived as a virtual group before developing into a more concrete transferential relationship based on familial and social resources. The perinatal clinic is by definition a very pluridisciplinary and very context-related unit. PMID:14968011

Moro, M R



Avenue of approach generation  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.



Fuzzy Weighted Average: Alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative definition of the fuzzy weighted average, in which Zadeh's extension principle is applied to the definition of the non-fuzzy weighted average where weights are required to be normalised. It is argued that the alternative approach should be preferred above the traditional approach. An algorithm for the computation of the fuzzy weighted average for the alternative approach

Broek van den Pim; Joost Noppen; K. Demirli; A. Akgunduz



An environmental approach  

SciTech Connect

The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

Geerling, C.



Pelvic Exenteration: Surgical Approaches  

PubMed Central

Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted. PMID:23346506



Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

Koczo, Steve



Editorial: Approaching 125.  


With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PMID:22329705

Goodman, Sherryl



Approaching the new reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

Diaz, Al V.


An Integrative Medicine Approach to Asthma: Who Responds?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of which patients with chronic illness tend to respond to integrative medicine interventions, by identifying a set of characteristics or qualities that are associated with a positive outcome in a randomized clinical trial of an integrative medicine approach to asthma that incorporated journaling, yoga breathing instruction, and nutritional manipulation and supplementation. Design The study used qualitative analysis using a grounded-theory approach comparing a group of responders in the parent trial (based on the Asthma Quality of Life Scale) to a group of nonresponders. Results Twelve (12) responders and 8 nonresponders were interviewed. Responders demonstrated an attitude of “change as challenge;” a view of themselves as “independent” and “leaders;” an ability to accept one's illness while still maintaining a feeling of control over one's choices; a connection to the deeper context or meaning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, as opposed to just “previous experience” of CAM; and a sense of determination, commitment, and “willingness to fight” for what one needs from the health care system. Nonresponders were more often uncertain and anxious in their relationship to their asthma, tending to fall back on denial, and lacking a connection to the deeper context or philosophy of CAM interventions. Conclusions It is possible to identify a set of characteristics that may predict a positive response to an integrative/lifestyle approach to asthma. These characteristics should be examined prospectively using both quantitative and qualitative methods in future integrative medicine clinical trials. PMID:22905985

McKee, Melissa Diane; Sackett, Esther; Levenson, Hanniel; Kenney, Jeanne; Karasz, Alison



Low back pain research--future directions.  


Low back pain is a challenge for clinicians and researchers, due to the large variability in clinical presentation, lack of consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or clinical classification; wide variation in course and prognosis, and limited success in identifying effective treatments. However, increasing research efforts has generated an expanding body of evidence on the epidemiology, prognosis and treatment of back pain. This paper presents four key developments in research and clinical practice, and describes how these can influence the future direction of back pain research: (1) the increasing awareness of the impact of low back pain on population health; (2) new approaches to describing and investigating course and prognosis of back pain; (3) the need to better understand the bio-psycho-social mechanisms or pathways that explain impact and long-term outcomes in order to inform intervention research; and (4) the potential for stratified models of care to improve patient outcomes and efficiency of care for back pain. PMID:24315150

van der Windt, Danielle A; Dunn, Kate M



"A bucket of cold water": a follow-up study in a residential special school.  


This paper reports the initial findings of a follow-up study of the 75 young men who were admitted in their early teens to a residential school for maladjusted boys over a five year period. Sixty were traced and interviewed in depth, using an approach based on methods established at the Institute of Psychiatry. A structured interview was used which covered the individual's recollections of family, peer experiences, schools and adult life, with a special section on the residential therapeutic environment. The data allowed an assessment of their overall psycho-social adjustment. The preliminary analysis indicates that two-thirds had no current problems of note, and that just under two-fifths had had no history of problems since leaving. With only a few exceptions, the ex-boys' evaluation of the school's regime was positive. PMID:4056171

Lampen, J; Neill, T



Pathological Internet use and associated factors among university students in Hong Kong.  


1. Among university entrants, the prevalence of pathological Internet use (PIU) increased more than three-fold (from 5.0 to 15.7%) after 18 months of university life. Psycho-social factors such as depression, life dissatisfaction, and use of the Internet for recreational purposes were associated with the development of PIU. 2. University health workers should be aware that PIU is associated with inferior mental well-being, increased sleeping disorders, and deterioration of family relationships. Special attention should be given to Mainland Chinese students and those with pre-existing psychological problems, as they are more prone to developing PIU. 3. Most university students with PIU were unaware of the health implications of the condition and thus not motivated to seek help. Health workers must take a pro-active approach. PMID:24473582

Kim, J H; Griffiths, S M; Lau, C H; Fong, B Y F; Lam, J



Ecological salivary cortisol analysis (Part 2): Relative impact of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, comorbidity, chronic stress, and known confounds on hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Background Although bio-psycho-social health research is an ideal, samples adequate for complex modeling require biomarker specimens from hundreds of participants. Ecological sampling departs from laboratory study norms, with implications for analysis. Objective This paper compares salivary cortisol levels and effect sizes of ‘focal’ psychiatric factors, such as trauma history, posttraumatic stress diagnosis, comorbidity, and chronic stress, and ‘nuisance’ factors, including endocrine disorders, medications, physiological factors, such as gestational age, and smoking, to inform ecological study designs. Study Design This is a descriptive analysis of ecologically collected cortisol specimens, assayed in an on-going perinatal psychobiological study, addressing methodological considerations. Results Focal and nuisance factors are often interdependent with similar effect sizes. Careful specimen deletion decisions and model specification are needed to achieve the hoped-for external validity while maintaining internal validity. Conclusions Results of multivariate models support the validity and usefulness of an ecological approach to incorporating biomarkers in health research. PMID:21665772

King, Anthony; Leichtman, Jennifer; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia S.



Spherical stellarator approach  

SciTech Connect

Low aspect ratio (LAR) tokamaks with A = 1.5--2.5, or ultra low aspect ratio (ULAR) tokamaks, with A = 1.05--1.5 have attracted recently a lot of attention because of the first promising results reported from START, and CDX-U. In addition to high {beta} obtained in ST, the low plasma disruptivity has been reported. Because of this initial success, the ST program is quickly extending. In contrast to LAR approach, stellarators normally feature large aspect ratios of A {ge} 10. The lowest aspect ratio stellarators ever built are CHS and CAT which have A {approx} 5. Even stellarators with A {approx} 7.5 such as ATF are called the low aspect ratio stellarators. In this report, the authors present the results on the novel ULAR stellarator system with A = 1.05--2, that can be called a spherical stellarator (SS) in analogy with the ST concept. Coil configuration of SS features the central stack and differs from that of ST by inclination of external parts of the toroidal field coils. Results of calculations via UBFIELD, VMEC and some other standard codes, confirming advantages of SS systems, is discussed.

Moroz, P.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)



The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.


Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection.  


A large body of evidence from postmortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in humans and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology, and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-coactivator and sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Beal, M Flint



Voyager Approaches Final Frontier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.

The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.



Approach to hypohidrosis.  


Hypohidrosis refers to diminished sweating in response to appropriate stimuli. This can cause hyperthermia, heat exhaustion and death. The aetiology of hypohidrosis can be divided into exogenous, dermatological and neurological causes. Exogenous causes act either by systemic neurohormonal inhibition of sweating or localised damage to the skin and sweat glands. Dermatological disorders can result from congenital disorders, wherein other ectodermal tissues may also be affected, or acquired disorders in which manifestations of the primary disease predominate. Neurological disorders should be classified based on an upper motor neuron or lower motor neuron pattern of disease. In the former, there is spasticity and hyperactive reflexes whereas in the latter, flaccidity and hypoactive reflexes predominate. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrois refers to isolated anhidrosis with no other detectable abnormalities. When approaching a patient with hypohidrois, exogenous causes should first be excluded. Physical examination, paying attention to mucocutaneous manifestations and neurological signs, will dichotomise if the lesion is dermatological or neurological. In the former, a skin biopsy is the investigation of choice. In the latter, one should consider magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord for upper motor neuron lesions, nerve conduction tests for lower motor neuron lesions and autonomic nerve function tests for autonomic dysfunction. Finally, if a diagnosis of acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis is suspected, a quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test and serum immunoglobulin-E levels may be performed. Treatment involves addressing the underlying condition and avoidance of aggravating factors. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis responds well to high dose systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23094789

Chia, K Y; Tey, H L



COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach  

PubMed Central

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmuller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jorg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah



Prepotential approach to quasinormal modes  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > A unified approach to both exactly and quasi-exactly solvable quasinormal modes. > A simple constructive approach without knowledge of underlying symmetry of the system. > Three new models admitting quasinormal modes. - Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate how the recently reported exactly and quasi-exactly solvable models admitting quasinormal modes can be constructed and classified very simply and directly by the newly proposed prepotential approach. These new models were previously obtained within the Lie-algebraic approach. Unlike the Lie-algebraic approach, the prepotential approach does not require any knowledge of the underlying symmetry of the system. It treats both quasi-exact and exact solvabilities on the same footing, and gives the potential as well as the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously. We also present three new models with quasinormal modes: a new exactly solvable Morse-like model, and two new quasi-exactly solvable models of the Scarf II and generalized Poeschl-Teller types.

Ho, Choon-Lin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)



A spool approach to teleprocessing  

E-print Network

A SPOOL APPROACH TO TELEPROCESSING A Thesis by Larry Dean Scott Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8Z University 'in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major Subject: Computer... Science A SPOOL APPROACH TO TELEPROCESSING A Thesis by Larry Dean Scott Approved as to style and content by: Che. ' man oz ommit ee Head oz Department I&. 'emb e r Pi ber August 1969 ABSTRACT A SPOOL Approach to Teleprocessing. (August, 1969...

Scott, Larry Dean



Common Approaches in Critical Care  


... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Common Approaches in Critical Care Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common Illnesses of Critically Ill Patients ICU Devices and ...


Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach  

PubMed Central

The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico



Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin



Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

Hesse, M. G., Ed.


Computational Intelligence A Logical Approach  

E-print Network

) that is true when person P is happy on day D. A person is happy on a day if · the person is a studentComputational Intelligence A Logical Approach Problems for Chapter 3 Here are some problems to help you understand the material in Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach. They are designed

Poole, David


Identifying distinctive approaches to studying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensions which have been used to describe various aspects of studying are reviewed. These draw attention to three distinctive approaches to studying which contain elements of both study processes and motivation. The development of an inventory of approaches to studying is reported which confirmed the importance of these three dimensions, but also drew attention to the importance of characteristic styles

Noel Entwistle; Maureen Hanley; Dai Hounsell



Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

Hayes, D.F. [ed.



Project Approach: Teaching. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of the action research chronicled (in English and Chinese) in this book was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the Project Approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the Project Approach, focusing on…

Ho, Rose


Adolescent Suicide: An Ecological Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an ecological approach to enhance our understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to the increased risk for suicide among adolescents. The ecological approach allows exploration of how adolescent suicide is determined by multiple factors related to the adolescent's personal history or ontogenic…

Ayyash-Abdo, Huda



[Landmarks to the cranial approaches].  


The knowledge of the craniotopography allows the delimitation of the cranial approaches. In this study the landmarks, defined in relation to the craniometric points and used in the different cranial approaches, were systematized. Twenty two landmarks are described: the first twelve are in relation to the skull base and the remainder are in relation to the skull vertex. PMID:12806519

Gusmão, Sebastião; Silveira, Roberto Leal; Arantes, Aluízio



Intrusion Detection: A Bioinformatics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of detecting masquerading, a security attack in which an intruder assumes the identity of a legitimate user. Many approaches based on Hidden Markov Models and various forms of Finite State Automata have been proposed to solve this problem. The novelty of our approach results from the application of techniques used in bioinformatics for a pair-wise

Scott E. Coull; Joel W. Branch; Boleslaw K. Szymanski; Eric Breimer



Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris


Substance misuse teaching in undergraduate medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of the undergraduate medical curriculum were conducted to identify the methods used to teach substance misuse. Using a previously devised toolkit, 19 curriculum co-ordinators then mapped the actual teaching sessions that addressed substance misuse learning objectives. Results Substance misuse teaching was delivered primarily in psychiatry modules but learning objectives were also found in other areas such as primary care placements and problem-based learning. On average, 53 teaching sessions per medical school focused on bio-psycho-social models of addiction whereas only 23 sessions per medical school focused on professionalism, fitness to practice and students’ own health in relation to substance misuse. Many sessions addressed specific learning objectives relating to the clinical features of substance dependence whereas few focused on iatrogenic addiction. Conclusions Substance misuse teaching is now inter-disciplinary and the frequent focus on clinical, psychological and social effects of substance misuse emphasises the bio-psycho-social approach underlying clinical practice. Some areas however are not frequently taught in the formal curriculum and these need to be addressed in future changes to medical education. PMID:24533849



[Fibromyalgia syndrome - updated s3 guidelines].  


Patients with chronic widespread pain often present with musculo-skeletal pain and therefore often initially contact an orthopaedist. For these patients fibromyalgia syndrome is an important differential diagnosis. Recommendations for the diagnosis of and therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome based on the recent German S3 guidelines for fibromyalgia syndrome (AWMF registration number 041/004) are outlined in this paper. These guidelines were developed under the coordination of the German interdisciplinary association for pain management DIVS and two patient support groups. The history of a typical symptom complex and the exclusion of relevant somatic causes for the pain are epecially relevant for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Besides the exclusion of relevant orthopaedic causes for the pain, psycho-social aspects should always be evaluated. According to the modified ACR criteria 2010, chronic widespread pain and accompanying sleep disturbances and a physical as well as mental state of exhaustion lead to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. It is not mandatory to check tender points (ACR 1990 criteria). A graduated treatment approach depending on the severity level of the fibromyalgia syndrome in the individual patient is recommended. Active treatment options (aerobic training, meditative movement therapies, strength training) should be preferred to any drug therapy in the long-term treatment of fibromyalgia. If indicated, amitryptiline or duloxetine may be used to treat accompanying depressive or generalised anxiety disorder. Muscle relaxant medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioids should be avoided. The multimodal pain therapy considering all psycho-social aspects is a promising treatment option for fibromyalgia syndrome of moderate to high severity. PMID:24347415

Dreher, T; Häuser, W; Schiltenwolf, M



Hierarchical approach to feature indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend our previous approach to 2-D shape indexing, data-driven indexed hypotheses, to hierarchical features. It is shown mathematically and experimentally that an index based on hierarchical features is more computationally efficient than one based on nonhierarchical features. Our approach addresses two types of hierarchies: a multilevel approximation of the contours of 2-D objects and a three-level feature indexing system. Our approach can easily be extended to 3-D objects. As we know, occluded object recognition should be based on local features. However, these features may sometimes be lost due to changes of scale as well as to occlusion. Our first hierarchical mechanism is used to complement the feature loss due to scale changes. It results in multilevel approximations of the contours of objects using scale-space approaches. This approach is also beneficial when there are few boundary points of maximal curvature so that standard polygonal approximation schemes don''t work very well. Our second hierarchical mechanism is to use sets of visible local features to hypothesize the presence of objects. Verification of the various hypotheses is done via normalization and boundary template matching. Using these two hierarchical mechanisms results in an approach to shape recognition which is very general in practice. Theoretically, many types of features can be recognized, though line features are preferred. Our technique offers a new approach to the construction of indexing systems for image databases on the basis of image features.

Grosky, William I.; Jiang, Charlie Z. W.



Inelastic transport: a pseudoparticle approach.  


We discuss a pseudoparticle NEGF approach as a tool to describe transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states of the molecule. A method developed by Oh et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 205302] is applied to inelastic transport in the case of strong electron-vibron interaction. The approach can be seen as a generalization of the exact mapping developed by Bonca and Trugman [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995, 75, 2566] which includes information on the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi electron distribution in the leads. Within simple model calculations of inelastic transport in junctions, we compare the pseudoparticle approach to other approximate NEGF schemes. PMID:22797677

White, Alexander J; Galperin, Michael



Supporting learning and promoting conceptual change with box and AVOW diagrams. Part 1: Representational design and instructional approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new approach to the teaching of electricity is described that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit which portray current, voltage, resistance and power. The diagrams have been developed as aids to learning, understanding and problem solving. They also have the potential to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of commonly held misconceptions. The diagrams have been incorporated into A-level teaching materials on d.c. circuit theory and the rationale for this approach is contrasted with a number of strategies that have previously been reported. Part 2 of this paper (Cheng and Shipstone, International Journal of Science Education, in press) will present the results of preliminary school-based trials.

Shipstone, David; Cheng, Peter



Design approaches to structural optimization  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop design approaches to structural optimization. In the example of three-dimensional grid structures, widely known as 'space frames', possible configurations are explored which ...

Tayar, Memduh Ali



STP Approach To Equilibrium Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ApproachToEquilibrium program displays the number of particles on one half of a box as a function of time after a small hole is made in the partition dividing the box in half. The purpose of this simulation is to gain insight into the tendency of macroscopic systems to approach a well defined equilibrium macrostate and the improtance of fluctuations in equilibrium. ApproachToEquilibrium is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready- to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp ApproachToEquilibrium.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional Open Source Physics programs for Statistical and Thermal Physics can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne



Tuition Fees: A Realistic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faced with the recurring decision to raise tuition, Rippowam Cisqua School in Bedford, New York decided that the time had come to do a cost study as a more rational and accurate approach to setting tuition fees. (Author/RK)

Diserens, Helen Barnett



Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

Pearce, Robert W.



The Montessori Approach to Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Montessori approach to music education and specific techniques for teaching piano to young children using key and note cards above the piano keys. These materials isolate the teaching purpose, show errors, and stimulate self-correction. (MDM)

Barnett, Elise Braun



A Collaboration Readiness Assessment Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration readiness depends on “hard” factors such as competency fitness or technological preparedness, but also on several\\u000a other factors of a “soft” nature such as organization's character, willingness to collaborate, or affectivity \\/ empathy relationships.\\u000a A modeling approach to assess how prepared is an enterprise to join a collaborative network is proposed. The approach is based\\u000a on a notion of

João Rosas; Luis M. Camarinha-Matos


Distributed Robotic: a Language Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a powerful and versatile architecture dedicated for robotic and mechatronic systems. The originalities\\u000a of our study are, (i) that we consider a robot with a dynamic and explicit language approach and (ii) that the communication\\u000a aspects are abstracted and take place as a natural part in the language. This approach allows easy transfers towards other

Claude Guéganno; Dominique Duhaut


Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module deals with identifying the characteristics of radiation versus advection fog events, determining which process is dominating, and applying that understanding when making ceiling and visibility forecasts. A forecast approach using a decision tree is also discussed. This decision tree outlines the basic steps involved in applying a thorough forecast approach to fog and stratus events. The module is based on live teletraining sessions offered in 2003 as part of the Distance Learning Aviation Course , DLAC1, on Fog and Stratus Forecasting.

Spangler, Tim



A Law and Economics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a No less an authority than Yale Law School Professor Bruce Ackerman has dubbed the economic approach to law “the most important\\u000a development in legal scholarship in the twentieth century” (Cooter and Ulen 2000, p. 2). But what exactly is this approach?\\u000a The leading textbook in the area contends that “[e]conomics provide[s] a scientific theory to predict the effects of legal

R. L. Kaplan


Biocultural approaches in human biology.  


Biocultural approaches recognize the pervasiveness and dynamism of interactions between biological and cultural phenomena, and they explicitly strive to integrate biological, sociocultural, environmental, and other kinds of data. They have been part of human biology at least since 1958, when Frank Livingstone so elegantly explained the linkages among population growth, subsistence strategy, and the distribution of the sickle cell gene in West Africa. These approaches developed further with the advent of human adaptability studies in the 1960s as part of the Human Biological Program and have become increasingly focused on understanding the impacts of everyday life on human biological variation. Biocultural approaches generate explanations that are intuitively appealing to many because they offer a kind of holistic view. They can, however, be very challenging approaches to implement, perhaps in part because we are more experienced in measuring the biological than the cultural. Some of the challenges include (1) defining precisely what we mean by constructs like socioeconomic status, poverty, rural, and urban; (2) operationalizing key variables so that they can be measured in ways that are ethnographically valid as well as replicable; (3) defining and measuring multiple causal pathways. In this paper, I briefly review the history of biocultural approaches and then illustrate some of the challenges that these approaches present with examples from my own research on nutrition and energetics as well as that of other practitioners. PMID:16378343

Dufour, Darna L



Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information  

PubMed Central

In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.



Asteroid-Asteroid Close Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using selected asteroids from JPL's asteroid and comet database and Lowell Observatory's asteroid database (Courtesy E. Bowell), a search for significant asteroid-asteroid close approaches was performed. Initial osculating elements for more than 20,000 asteroids were integrated from 1800 to 2100 using a fully perturbed (i.e. 9 planets and the moon [DE-0405] and Ceres, Pallas, Vesta) N-body model including relativistic effects. Estimated orbital uncertainties for each asteroid orbit were considered in the calculation of all close approach parameters. A significant close approach is loosely defined for this study as one in which the smaller of the two asteroids is measurably perturbed. Using methods similar to those of Hilton et al. (1996), this work examines more than 20,000 asteroids and their orbital uncertainties. Consideration of these uncertainties in the resulting ephemerides allows for significant close approaches where nominal orbits could miss such possibilities. Results show the details of all significant close approaches and identify those for which masses may possibly be determined. Reference: Hilton, J.L., Seidelmann, P.K., and Middour, J. 1996. ``Prospects for Determining Asteroid Masses'', AJ 112:2139-2329.

Chamberlin, A. B.



Surgical approaches of endobronchial neoplasms.  


Endobronchial tumors are a rare entity that presents with different pathological findings. The interventional pulmonologist, but also the thoracic surgeon have at their disposal the same techniques for diagnosis, however; the two modalities differentiate in the treatment approach. Diagnosis evaluation should include lymph node evaluation. Minimal invasive techniques under local or general anesthesia are usually preferred by the interventional pulmonologists, whereas in the surgical approach of the thoracic surgeons the general anesthesia is necessary. A more extensive surgical approach either lobotomy or pneumonectomy should be performed in cases with positive intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Carinal reconstruction should be performed skillfully to get a negative proximal margin whenever needed. In the current manuscript we will present the methods of patient evaluation and surgical techniques for the management of these lesions. PMID:24102010

Li, Zhigang; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Kesisis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos



Systems Science Approach to Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan


Piecewise Linear Approach: a New Approach in Automatic Target Recognition  

E-print Network

Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interest . High Range Resolution (HRR' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable 1 and cost effective approach for HRR of the training data and the dependence of the HRR signature on the azimuth is considered. The dependence

Starzyk, Janusz A.


Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun



Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

SciTech Connect

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.



Terra Harvest mission programming approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terra Harvest is a DIA sponsored program that is developing a next generation architecture for Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) interoperability. One key element of this program is a mission programming methodology that allows standardization of the work flow required to program an UGS system. This technology is a key enabler needed to standardize the user experience. This paper describes the requirements for the Terra Harvest mission system and summarizes the different approaches that were considered for the mission system. This paper also describes the implementation of the JavaScript-based approach for mission programming that was selected for use in the Terra Harvest system.

Kovach, Jesse B.



Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module deals with identifying the characteristics of radiation versus advection fog events, determining which process is dominating, and applying that understanding when making ceiling and visibility forecasts. A forecast approach using a decision tree is also discussed. This decision tree outlines the basic steps involved in applying a thorough forecast approach to fog and stratus events. The module is based on live teletraining sessions offered in 2003 as part of the Distance Learning Aviation Course 1 (DLAC1) on Fog and Stratus Forecasting.





Microsoft Academic Search

I describe here my experience in interactive and improvised electro-acoustic music after having developed both hardware and software tools using which I compose and perform music. The research in the whole finds the roots in my active involvement in jazz music. This paper analyses the jazz approach to improvisation in terms of the involved components and emphasizes the importance of

Leonello Tarabella


Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials  

E-print Network

factors 2. Benchmark dose (BMD): dose associated with risk of adverse effect (e.g., 107/3/2013 1 Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials Eileen D. Kuempel, PhD Nanotechnology dioxide Future directions #12;7/3/2013 3 Are Current OELs Adequately Protective for Workers Exposed

Farritor, Shane


Approaches to Probabilistic Model Learning  

E-print Network

is operating, (3) using tactile feedback to augment the visual perception, and (4) learning novel manipulation to learning about articulated objects such as doors and drawers with which service robots often need approaches that allow manipulation robots to make use of tactile perception an ability that is known to play

Cremers, Daniel


Medical Spanish: A Functional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A functional approach to language teaching begins with knowing how students intend to use the foreign language for specific purposes and in specific situations. Instructors of medical Spanish can begin by determining the specific language functions that their students must be able to express when communicating with Hispanic patients, by means of a…

Hendrickson, James M.


Community Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches  

E-print Network

to require preparation of an environmental impact statement. When an environmental impact statement, then the environmental impact statement will discuss all of these effects on the human environment. #12;PrioritiesCommunity Impact Analysis Emerging Approaches #12;1960s · 1964 Title VI of Civil Rights Act of 1964

Minnesota, University of


Ethnic Studies: Issues and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a comprehensive definition of the field of ethnic studies, covering both major issues in the field and its theoretical and methodological approaches. It traces the origins and evolution of the discipline in the United States and maps its domain. Some of the current issues addressed include affirmative action, illegal/legal…

Yang, Philip Q.


Appreciating Music: An Active Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A particularly innovative use of laptops is to enhance the music appreciation experience. Group listening and discussion, in combination with a new Web-based application, lead to deeper understanding of classical music. ["Appreciating Music: An Active Approach" was written with Joshua Austin.

Levin, Andrew R.; Pargas, Roy P.



Intervention Strategies: A Multicultural Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention planning for limited-English-proficient students calls for an experiential approach which compares and contrasts the students' home culture with mainstream United States culture. Methods are presented for incorporating student culture in intervention activities (building a multicultural calendar, studying folk tales) and for…

Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly



of Schizophrenia New Approaches to  

E-print Network

The Nature of Schizophrenia New Approaches to Research and Treatment Lyman C. Wynne Professor Transmission Chapter 6 A Genetic Perspective on Schizophrenia Kenneth K. Kidd, Ph.D. GENES AND ENVIRONMENT Genetic studies of schizophrenia can be both challenging and frustrating to a geneticist: challenging

Kidd, Kenneth


Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng



An alternative TPS rehost approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DoD NxTest IPT along with industry participation is working hard on two key initiatives to standardize the hardware and software interfaces in automatic test systems (ATS). The automatic test markup language (ATML) initiative may provide a standard approach to capturing and rehosting legacy test program sets (TPS) through defined schemas designed to normalize all data being flowed between the

M. Krayewsky; S. O'Donnell



Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

Adamson, Willie D.


Technical Training: A Systematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To employ scarce personnel and money to best advantage, company management must diagnose critical training needs and assign them priorities. A systems approach is recommended, which gives focus to training design while accommodating most organization training goals. Included are suggestions for system design, facility management, and cost…

Gammuto, John J.



An Approach for Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a conceptual framework for analysis, using some of the ideas embodied in the systems approach, which will enable the investigator to identify the relationships among program operations in a systematic manner, leading to a better understanding of the operations that produce program outputs." (Author)

Fogel, Richard Louis



Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile  

E-print Network

Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau - France European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) 22 October 2010 #12;Density Functional Theory 1. Any observable of a quantum system can be obtained from the density of the system alone. = O[n] Hohenberg, P. and W. Kohn

Botti, Silvana


Product Configurator: An Ontological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization is one of the most interesting and promising approach in the e-business field. In today's competitive global market the understanding of customer needs and desires is becoming the essential preliminary remark for a successful design and implementation of products. Product development based on customer preferences with applications of innovative technologies is an essential key in order to obtain

Francesco Colace; Massimo De Santo; Paolo Napoletano




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-print Network

with a fresh perspective on our next generation of leaders and renewed hope for the future of Florida's water of and access to global environmental resources are reaching a crisis point. Historical threats such as waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee

Central Florida, University of


The Power Approach to Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course of study presents a competency-based approach to teaching effective writing. It is intended to give the adult educator a tool that can be used for any level of student at any point in writing instruction. The first section contains 48 competencies that address 5 domains of writing--planning, organizing, writing, evaluating, and…

Witt, Elaine B.


A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  


Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp



Investment appraisal : A new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a theoretical weakness inherent in the typical application of the net present value approach to investment appraisal. This weakness concerns the assumption that the estimated cash flows occur at the end of each period rather than the more realistic assumption of occurring on a continuous basis. Continuous cash flows are introduced and, more significantly, continuous discount factors

Michael Pogue



Psychosocial Approaches to Dual Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research elucidates many aspects of the problem of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) in patients with severe mental illness, which is often termed dual diagnosis. This paper provides a brief overview of cur- rent research on the epidemiology, adverse conse- quences, and phenomenology of dual diagnosis, followed by a more extensive review of current approaches to ser- vices, assessment,

Robert E. Drake; Kim T. Mueser



A Freudian Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

Gartner, Sandra L.


Management approaches for pediatric obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is a worldwide problem that has reached epidemic proportions, resulting in an increased prevalence of premature obesity-related morbidities, and, thus, probable increased health-care costs to treat children. The development of viable approaches to manage this epidemic is crucial. Most experts in the field of childhood obesity agree that the prevention of obesity in children should be the first

Janet H Silverstein; Jennifer L Miller




E-print Network

Language Processing - CURRENT TRENDS IN AI VUB 20/4/2012 LANGUAGE & SPEECH TECHNOLOGY · Language to Natural Language Processing - CURRENT TRENDS IN AI VUB 20/4/2012 WHO AM I? · Born Technology - FWO postdoc at University of Antwerp - Machine learning approaches to language technology

Steels, Luc


Existential approaches to action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existential approach to action research is derived from research that suggests that teachers' actions, intentions, and beliefs are manifestations of their ways of being teachers. A teacher's ‘way of being’ in an educational situation is defined and informed by what was and is for the teacher, and his or her intentions for what could be. It is essentially the

Allan Feldman



Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry


Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

Mauderly, J L



The information-processing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information-processing (IP) approach to perception and cognition arose as a reaction to behaviourism. This reaction mainly concerned the nature of explanation in scientific psychology. The “standard” account of behaviour, phrased in strictly external terms, was replaced by a “realist” account, phrased in terms of internal entities and processes. An analysis of the theoretical language used in IP psychology shows

A. H. C. van der Heijden; Sarah Stebbins



The “interbehavioral” approach to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces and describes the “interbehavioral” approach to clinical intervention as an interdisciplinary system where assessment and treatment encompass physical and psychological effects as continuous interactions. Behavior disorders and their elimination follow a general learning theory model as interpreted by J.R. Kantor. This theory view responses and stimuli as having their own functions that directly affect progress in therapy.

Douglas H. Ruben



Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.


A centering approach to pronouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in [GJW86], the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of . We propose an extension

Susan E. Brennan; Marilyn Walker Friedman; Carl J. Pollard



IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY A Practical Approach  

E-print Network

IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY A Practical Approach #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE FOREWORD i INTRODUCTORY NOTES 3 IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY 5 The Goal of Jesuit Education 5 Towards a Pedagogy for Faith and Justice 6 Pedagogy an Ignatian Pedagogy 21 Theory Into Practice: Staff Development Programs 23 Some Concrete Helps to Understand

Carter, John


Chemical Calculations; An Audiotutorial Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audiotutorial approach to problem-solving in college chemistry relying upon audio tapes is available. The program is designed to increase the teacher's effectiveness by providing individualized attention to student difficulties related to problem-solving. Problem solutions are recorded on audio tapes (designed for use with Sony TC-160 cassettes…

Lower, Stephen K.


Biological Approaches to Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. Introduction Progress had been made over the past 5 years toward the development of specific bi­ ological approaches to the treatment of cancer. The techniques of genetic engineer­ ing and mass cell culture, and improved techniques in protein and nucleic acid se­ quencing have made available biologics as highly purified molecules. The most defini­ tive investigations have been carried

K. A. Foonl


Gender and Mathematics: Mythology and Misogyny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disadvantages faced by women in mathematics in career access and earning power are not accounted for by cognitive and psycho-social gender differences (Linn & Hyde, 1993). Thus the mythology does not explain the reality. Does the misogyny?

Mary Gray


Computers at home, new spatial needs? : a case study  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates five families in Boston who have introduced computers into their homes. The analysis is interdisciplinary and each case has been considered in terms of psycho-social and architectural terms. The ...

Franco, Adriana



The unstated consensus of leadership approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to report on the underlying consensus in the major leadership approaches. This led to an assessment of the comprehensiveness of 11 leadership approaches and the role of place in achieving it. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Overall, 11 leadership approaches are analyzed and coded according to their emphasis and purpose and their organizational place (organizational

Kenneth D. Mackenzie; F. Barry Barnes



Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.




PubMed Central

Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal. PMID:19818231

Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.



Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach. PMID:23078400

Mehra, T; Köberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M



Tecfidera(®): an approach for repurposing.  


As a case study of patent coverage for a repurposed drug, Biogen Idec's approach for Tecfidera(®), an oral formulation of dimethyl fumarate, was analyzed. While mixtures of fumarates have been used for over 50 years to treat psoriasis, Tecifidera is approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Biogen pursued claims to pharmaceutical formulations and useful doses for treating multiple sclerosis, an approach that is relevant to pharmaceutical lifecycle management in general. A survey of recent US, EP, and PCT patent applications indicate other companies are developing competing fumarate formulations. While it is possible to pursue secondary patents for compounds without composition of matter coverage, regulatory data exclusivity provides additional protection to delay competitors. PMID:24588595

Spencer, Roxanne P



Dynamic approach to DNA breathing.  


Even under physiological conditions, the DNA double-helix spontaneously denatures locally, opening up fluctuating, flexible, single-stranded zones called DNA-bubbles. We present a dynamical description of this DNA-bubble breathing in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation for the bubble size, based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy for DNA denaturation. From this description, we can obtain basic quantities such as the lifetime, an important measure for the description of the interaction of a breathing DNA molecule and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Our approach is consistent with recent single molecule measurements of bubble fluctuation. We also introduce a master equation approach to model DNA breathing, and discuss its differences from the continuous Fokker-Planck description. PMID:23345902

Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias



Today's approaches to prevent peritonitis.  


Peritonitis continues to be a significant problem in patients on peritoneal dialysis. There is a striking variability of peritonitis rates from one center to another. These results suggest that all centers can strive for the low levels of peritonitis that are seen at some centers of excellence (0.3 episodes per year at risk or lower). Routine monitoring of PD related infections as organism specific rates (rather than proportions) is critical to achieving lower rates. Training and retraining of PD patients may be key to lowering peritonitis rates, particularly from organisms that commonly come from contamination such as coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS). Rates of CNS peritonitis may be used as a hallmark of adequate patient training, with a goal of a CNS peritonitis rate of 0.03 episodes per year at risk or less. New technology in connectology would be helpful to lower peritonitis related to contamination. Protocols to prevent peritonitis related to exit site infection include exit site mupirocin or exit site gentamicin as part of routine care. A randomized control trial (RCT) comparing exit site medi-honey to intranasal mupirocin is nearing completion and may prove to be an attractive alternative. Enteric peritonitis may be due to a bowel source; there are limited data on approaches to prevention. Procedures such as colonoscopy are clearly a risk for peritonitis and prophylaxis is recommended. Bowel approaches such as the prescription of a probiotic should be tested in a multicenter RCT to see if such approaches may lower enteric peritonitis. Hypokalemia is a known risk factor for peritonitis from Enterobacteriacea and should be prevented/treated. More research is needed to test various approaches to reduce peritonitis. Until more RCTs have been done, best demonstrated practices (as outlined in the recent ISPD position paper) should be utilized to lower peritonitis rates. PMID:22652745

Piraino, Beth



An efficient iris segmentation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.



An integrative approach to health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I make the case for using an integrative approach to health, broadly defined as social, emotional, mental,\\u000a and physical well-being; for studying health among the young as an important marker for future health and well-being across\\u000a the life course; and for understanding health disparities among the young as both causes and consequences of social stratification.\\u000a An integrative

Kathleen Mullan Harris



New approaches in GMO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics,\\u000a genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected\\u000a that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection\\u000a of one target at a

Maddalena Querci; Marc Van den Bulcke; Jana Žel; Guy Van den Eede; Hermann Broll



An approach to Shuttle evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach is outlined for upgrading the Space Shuttle to a 'Block-II' system which makes use of existing programs such as Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA). Descriptions are given of near-term evolutionary issues such as supportability and cost reduction which are addressed by the ASA. Upgrades proposed for shuttle evolution include an automated on-board checkout and verification as well as

Ardell W. Nease; Richard M. Thiel; Kim E. Smith



Diagrammatic Approach to Quantum Search  

E-print Network

We introduce a simple diagrammatic approach for estimating how a randomly walking quantum particle searches on a graph in continuous-time, which involves sketching small weighted graphs with self-loops and considering degenerate perturbation theory's effects on them. Using this method, we give the first example of degenerate perturbation theory solving search on a graph whose evolution occurs in a subspace whose dimension grows with $N$.

Thomas G. Wong



Different approaches of spectral analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

Lacoume, J. L.



Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki



Approaches to the O -Glycoproteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term proteome refers to the highly fluctuating totality of expressed proteins in a particular cell, in subcellular fractions, or in body\\u000a fluids, which varies qualitatively and quantitatively with the cellular state and the active functional networks. The definition\\u000a of a functional proteome is performed in differential approaches and requires the iden- tification of proteins and the quantification\\u000a of the

Franz-Georg Hanisch; Stefan Müller


Recommended approach to sofware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of guideline for an organized, disciplined approach to software development, based on data collected and studied for 46 flight dynamics software development projects. Methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements analysis and ends with acceptance testing are described; maintenance and operation is not addressed. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and the products produced and their reviews are presented.

Mcgarry, F. E.; Page, J.; Eslinger, S.; Church, V.; Merwarth, P.



Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation  

SciTech Connect

While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.

Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.



Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

SciTech Connect

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of 'straight gauges', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical 'brane-bending' modes.

Carena, Marcela [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)



A Novel Shape Parameterization Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a novel parameterization approach for complex shapes suitable for a multidisciplinary design optimization application. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft objects animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in a similar manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminated plate structures) and high-fidelity analysis tools (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling). This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, and camber. The results are presented for a multidisciplinary design optimization application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, performance, and a simple propulsion module.

Samareh, Jamshid A.



Bioaccumulation assessment using predictive approaches.  


Mandated efforts to assess chemicals for their potential to bioaccumulate within the environment are increasingly moving into the realm of data inadequacy. Consequently, there is an increasing reliance on predictive tools to complete regulatory requirements in a timely and cost-effective manner. The kinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) determine the extent to which chemicals accumulate in fish and other biota. Current mathematical models of bioaccumulation implicitly or explicitly consider these ADME processes, but there is a lack of data needed to specify critical model input parameters. This is particularly true for compounds that are metabolized, exhibit restricted diffusion across biological membranes, or do not partition simply to tissue lipid. Here we discuss the potential of in vitro test systems to provide needed data for bioaccumulation modeling efforts. Recent studies demonstrate the utility of these systems and provide a "proof of concept" for the prediction models. Computational methods that predict ADME processes from an evaluation of chemical structure are also described. Most regulatory agencies perform bioaccumulation assessments using a weight-of-evidence approach. A strategy is presented for incorporating predictive methods into this approach. To implement this strategy it is important to understand the "domain of applicability" of both in vitro and structure-based approaches, and the context in which they are applied. PMID:19775192

Nichols, John W; Bonnell, Mark; Dimitrov, Sabcho D; Escher, Beate I; Han, Xing; Kramer, Nynke I



New approaches in GMO detection.  


The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches. PMID:19876618

Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann



On Approach: Jupiter and Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io

This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter.

Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot.

The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.



Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z2 orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z2 projection. We introduce a family of “straight gauges”, which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS5/AdS4 setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical “brane-bending” modes.

Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon



An abstract approach to music.  

SciTech Connect

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.



Minimally invasive medial hip approach.  


The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N



Stochastic approaches in systems biology.  


The discrete and random occurrence of chemical reactions far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and low copy numbers of chemical species, in systems biology necessitate stochastic approaches. This review is an effort to give the reader a flavor of the most important stochastic approaches relevant to systems biology. Notions of biochemical reaction systems and the relevant concepts of probability theory are introduced side by side. This leads to an intuitive and easy-to-follow presentation of a stochastic framework for modeling subcellular biochemical systems. In particular, we make an effort to show how the notion of propensity, the chemical master equation (CME), and the stochastic simulation algorithm arise as consequences of the Markov property. Most stochastic modeling reviews focus on stochastic simulation approaches--the exact stochastic simulation algorithm and its various improvements and approximations. We complement this with an outline of an analytical approximation. The most common formulation of stochastic models for biochemical networks is the CME. Although stochastic simulations are a practical way to realize the CME, analytical approximations offer more insight into the influence of randomness on system's behavior. Toward that end, we cover the chemical Langevin equation and the related Fokker-Planck equation and the two-moment approximation (2MA). Throughout the text, two pedagogical examples are used to key illustrate ideas. With extensive references to the literature, our goal is to clarify key concepts and thereby prepare the reader for more advanced texts. PMID:20836037

Ullah, Mukhtar; Wolkenhauer, Olaf



Approaches for modeling magnetic nanoparticle dynamics.  


Magnetic nanoparticles are useful biological probes as well as therapeutic agents. Several approaches have been used to model nanoparticle magnetization dynamics for both Brownian as well as Neel rotation. Magnetizations are often of interest and can be compared with experimental results. Here we summarize these approaches, including the Stoner-Wohlfarth approach and stochastic approaches including thermal fluctuations. Non-equilibrium-related temperature effects can be described by a distribution function approach (Fokker-Planck equation) or a stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation). Approximate models in several regimes can be derived from these general approaches to simplify implementation. PMID:25271360

Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B



Approaches to Understanding Cosmic Acceleration  

E-print Network

Theoretical approaches to explaining the observed acceleration of the universe are reviewed. We briefly discuss the evidence for cosmic acceleration, and the implications for standard General Relativity coupled to conventional sources of energy-momentum. We then address three broad methods of addressing an accelerating universe: the introduction of a cosmological constant, its problems and origins; the possibility of dark energy, and the associated challenges for fundamental physics; and the option that an infrared modification of general relativity may be responsible for the large-scale behavior of the universe.

Alessandra Silvestri; Mark Trodden



Approaches to Understanding Cosmic Acceleration  

E-print Network

Theoretical approaches to explaining the observed acceleration of the universe are reviewed. We briefly discuss the evidence for cosmic acceleration, and the implications for standard General Relativity coupled to conventional sources of energy-momentum. We then address three broad methods of addressing an accelerating universe: the introduction of a cosmological constant, its problems and origins; the possibility of dark energy, and the associated challenges for fundamental physics; and the option that an infrared modification of general relativity may be responsible for the large-scale behavior of the universe.

Silvestri, Alessandra



Nonpharmacologic approach to sleep disorders.  


Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cancer, occurring throughout the disease trajectory and sometimes well after treatment has concluded. Insomnia often does not occur in isolation; it may be associated with pain, fatigue, depression, and medication usage. Screening for sleep disturbances is an essential part of caring for oncologic patients. The criterion standard for nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia in these patients is cognitive-behavioral therapy, a multimodal approach using sleep hygiene and education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation. Exercise and complementary and integrative medicine have been studied with varying results, and no firm recommendation can be made about their efficacy. PMID:25299144

Mansel, J Keith; Carey, Elise C



ORFEUS - Scientific and cost approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the technical and optomechanical concepts of the ORFEUS telescope, which is the primary scientific payload of the free-flying, retrievable, and reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). Particular attention is given to the scientific targets of the Orfeus telescope and the low-cost approach of the project. The ORFEUS SPAS mission is scheduled to be launched with STS 51 in July 1993 into a 300-km circular orbit, to perform an autonomous free flight for 5-7 days, after which the satellite will be retrieved into the shuttle and returned to earth.

Graue, R.; Kampf, D.; Rippel, H.



Approach to Mars Field Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin



HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.



New approach to resonance crossing.  


Time-varying nonlinear oscillatory systems produce phenomena of resonance crossing and trapping of particles in resonance islands. Traditionally, such processes have been analyzed in terms of adiabatic conditions. Considering, as an example, a simplified one-dimensional model describing the "electron-cloud pinch" during a bunch passage in a particle accelerator, here we present an approach to resonance trapping which does not require any adiabatic condition. Instead we introduce the concept of the attraction point and investigate invariance and scaling properties of motion close to the attraction point, considering a single resonance crossing. PMID:23368210

Franchetti, G; Zimmermann, F



A rational approach to dementia.  

PubMed Central

Dementia is a common problem facing all medical practitioners and it frequently results in hospitalization and death. This review provides a framework for dealing with dementia in clinical practice that is based on both traditional concepts and recent advances in the understanding of the problem. Distinguishing at the bedside between dementia and other disorders of intellect is emphasized. The main causes of dementia and their clinical characteristics are reviewed and a rational approach to definitive diagnosis is developed. Simple, effective symptomatic forms of therapy are described. PMID:159118

Ropper, A H



'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  


Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger



[Transradial approach for diagnostic angiography].  


Seventy five arteriographies were performed via the transradial route using 5F 130cm - long catheter. Prior to puncture the radial artery was evaluated with Allen test. Satisfying quality examinations were obtained for the thoracic aorta, selective carotid arteries examinations, infra renal aorta, pelvic and legs arteries. The major advantages obtained for the technique were the very low rate complication and technical failure. Transradial route for arteriography is a reasonable alternative approach to transfemoral or brachial arteriography for out patient management (peripheral angiography) in case in which transfemoral route is not feasible but also with patients with important haemorragic-risks. PMID:15243382

Michel, C; Laffy, P Y; Leblanc, G; Le Guen, O; Le Blevec, G; Sarfati, L; Riou, J Y; Jue Denis, P



An approach to space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.



Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to  

E-print Network

Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to Compliance in the Cloud Microsoft Trustworthy Computing Executive summary Microsoft recognizes that trust Microsoft cloud services create customer choice 11 #12;Trustworthy Computing | The Microsoft Approach

Chaudhuri, Surajit



Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the evident facts about the lack of effectiveness of development aid, and of the criticisms that the focus in blueprint approaches to planning have received from the early 80s, tools and methods based on predictive logic models and a project approach to development, such as the Logical Framework Approach and the Results Based Management, continue being the

Gabriel Ferrero; Carlos Salvador Zepeda


MCA: A multichannel approach to SAR autofocus  

E-print Network

We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing ...

Morrison, Robert L., Jr.


A New Approach To Teaching Dimensional Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains an approach to teaching dimensional analysis that differs slightly from the traditional approach. The difference lies in the novelty of exposition in the presentation and interpretation of dimensional analysis as a speculative process. (DDR)

Churchill, Stuart W.



Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

Angus, Samuel F.



An Artefactual Approach to Ancient Arithmetic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work with elementary school students which combines a documentary approach to humanizing mathematics education together with two other artifactual approaches: students' own construction of objects and documents imitating those studied and using ancient calculating devices in modern reconstruction. (MM)

Percival, Irene



Subjective Transfer Function Approach for Analyzing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Subjective Transfer Functions (STF) approach is a subjective measurement method for analyzing complex systems where many factors either directly or indirectly impact on system outcomes. In this approach, systems are analyzed from the perspective of th...

C. T. Veit, M. Callero



An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney



Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick



Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.



Optogenetic approaches to retinal prosthesis.  


The concept of visual restoration via retinal prosthesis arguably started in 1992 with the discovery that some of the retinal cells were still intact in those with the retinitis pigmentosa disease. Two decades later, the first commercially available devices have the capability to allow users to identify basic shapes. Such devices are still very far from returning vision beyond the legal blindness. Thus, there is considerable continued development of electrode materials, and structures and electronic control mechanisms to increase both resolution and contrast. In parallel, the field of optogenetics-the genetic photosensitization of neural tissue holds particular promise for new approaches. Given that the eye is transparent, photosensitizing remaining neural layers of the eye and illuminating from the outside could prove to be less invasive, cheaper, and more effective than present approaches. As we move toward human trials in the coming years, this review explores the core technological and biological challenges related to the gene therapy and the high radiance optical stimulation requirement. PMID:25100257

Barrett, John Martin; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Degenaar, Patrick



Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification  

PubMed Central

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n?=?574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria. PMID:20975934

Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read



Soliton approach to magnetic holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Magnetic holes'' (MHs), depressions in the magnetic field magnitude associated with enhancements in density and kinetic pressure, have been observed in the solar wind, the magnetosheaths of terrestrial planets and in the environments of comets, suggesting that this phenomenon may be a common occurrence in space plasmas. MHs are usually believed to result from the mirror instability which can develop in high-beta plasmas with a temperature anisotropy, T?/T?>1. Motivated by the fact that solar wind MHs are often observed in a mirror mode stable environment [Winterhalter et al., 1994], this paper proposes a mechanism for the maintenance of MHs in an equilibrium plasma. We suggest an explanation in terms of magnetically rarefactive (``dark'') MHD solitons with anticorrelation of magnetic field and density, which propagate with small velocities at large angles to the ambient magnetic field. This intrinsically nonlinear approach is based on a magnetohydrodynamic plasma description including Hall inertia effects and utilizes the well-developed soliton theory of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (DNLS) which appears as a partly adequate approximation to the parent Hall-MHD system. The approach introduces an alternative mechanism into the discussion over the physical nature of MHs that is not related to an instability and provides an explanation for various aspects of the observations including amplitude, thickness, and spatial structure of MHs.

Baumgärtel, Klaus


Complex System Approaches to Genetic Analysis: Bayesian Approaches  

PubMed Central

Genetic epidemiology is increasingly focused on complex diseases involving multiple genes and environmental factors, often interacting in complex ways. Although standard frequentist methods still have a role in hypothesis generation and testing for discovery of novel main effects and interactions, Bayesian methods are particularly well suited to modeling the relationships in an integrated “systems biology” manner. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the principles of Bayesian analysis and their advantages in this context and describe various approaches to applying them for both model building and discovery in a genome-wide setting. In particular, we highlight the ability of Bayesian methods to construct complex probability models via a hierarchical structure and to account for uncertainty in model specification by averaging over large spaces of alternative models. PMID:21029848

Wilson, Melanie A.; Baurley, James W.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Conti, David V.



Countering Code Injection Attacks: A Unified Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a generic approach that prevents a specific class of code injection attacks (CIAs) in a novel way. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To defend against CIAs this approach involves detecting attacks by using location-specific signatures to validate code statements. The signatures are unique identifiers that represent specific characteristics of a statement's execution. The

Dimitris Mitropoulos; Vassilios Karakoidas; Panagiotis Louridas; Diomidis Spinellis



The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students. The…

Stinner, Arthur



A Web-Service Approach for  

E-print Network

A Web-Service Approach for Distributed Access to Methods, Data and Models Rajarshi Guha Geoffrey Fox Kevin E. Gilbert Marlon Pierce David Wild Overview Pub3D Model Exchange A Web-Service Approach National Meeting 6th March, 2008 #12;A Web-Service Approach for Distributed Access to Methods, Data


Anencephalus and spina bifida: An ecological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological approach to the etiology of disease involves consideration of the complex interactions of factors related to the host, agent, and environment. Although the ecological approach was developed with regard to infectious diseases, this article suggests its application as a meaningful approach to understanding the etiology of anencephalus and spina bifida. Host, agent, and environmental factors thought to be

Lowell E. Sever



Agent communication pragmatics: the cognitive coherence approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different approaches have investigated the syntax and semantics of agent communication languages. However, these approaches have not indicated how agents should dynamically use communications. Instead of filling this prag- matics gap, most approaches have mainly focused on the structure of dialogues even though developers are more interested in agents capabilities of having useful automated conversations with respect to their goals

Vasant Honavar; Philippe Pasquier; Brahim Chaib-draa



The soft approach to watershed management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a distinction between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ approaches to watershed management. The former, familiar to the advanced countries, is characterized by a top?down, technocratic approach to problems and is generally unsuitable for developing countries. The soft approach is understandable and manageable in scale, sensitive to local environments and concerned with practical management issues — more interested in software

Yasuo Shimazu



Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel



Learning approaches, study time and academic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between learning approach, time spent studying and grades awarded. A class of mechanical engineering students (N=34; male) were asked to keep an hour-by-hour study diary for one week. The Biggs' Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) provided measures of these students' approach to study tasks. Use of a surface approach to learning was found to be positively

David Kember; Qun Wang Jamieson; Mike Pomfret; Eric T. T. Wong



The ethnomethodological approach and conversation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding and reasoning of workplace agents are important both to the practice of promoting gender equality in working life and to the approach of Gustavsen's communicative action research. Therefore ethnomethodology is an approach easily applicable to the analysis of gendered interaction. Ethnomethodology is an approach that seeks to investigate people's own sense-making procedures. In social communities, gender becomes visible

Minna Leinonen


Primary Lumbar Hernia Repair: The Open Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lumbar hernias arise through posterolateral abdominal wall defects, named inferior triangle (Petit) and superior triangle (Grynfelt). Most of the lumbar hernias are secondary to trauma or previous surgery, while primary lumbar hernias are rare. There are two possible surgical approaches: the anterior approach with lumbar incision and the laparoscopic (transabdominal or totally extraperitoneal) approach. Methods: We present a series

G. Cavallaro; A. Sadighi; M. Miceli; A. Burza; G. Carbone; A. Cavallaro



A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

Wang, Hongyu



Limitations to Empirical Approaches to Jury Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superiority of social scientific approaches to voir dire is questioned on two grounds. First, the advantage of social scientific methods over normative approaches has not been established. Indeed, we have little empirical understanding of normative approaches to voir dire and therefore have little basis for comparison. Second, the variability in voir dire procedure from courtroom to courtroom and the

Lori Van Wallendael; Brian Cutler



Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus reobtaining the Navier-Stokes equations by using the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground

Alexandre A. Martins; Mario J. Pinheiro



PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach  

E-print Network

PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov Model Nadia Lalam Department vetenskaper Göteborg 2007 #12;A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov

Patriksson, Michael


Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics  

E-print Network

Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics Paulo Mateus, Amílcar Sernadas, and Cristina Sernadas Abstract. The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model of the proposed probability logic. 1 Introduction The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de


Western architecture: A history of design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western architectural history is not just theory, design approach. In this paper, through the analysis of the instances in the renaissance, modernism and post-modernism historical stage, reveals that there has been a design approach clue in the history of western architecture. Inspire to use of historical research ideas to establish some design approaches.

Congru Liu; Mingsen Lin




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to compare three approaches to the management of organisational change: Organisational Development (OD), Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Re-engineering (BPR). In order to achieve this comparison the article first defines each of the approaches and then identifies and compares elements of each. The article concludes that although the approaches all aim to

Satrina Harvey; Bruce Millett


Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.



Challenges to Implementing the Harm Reduction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work literature recently has supported greater use of the harm reduction approach in professional practice. Implementing this approach, however, presents its challenges. We explore how practitioners in a housing program for people with histories of psychiatric disabilities, substance use disorders, and homelessness perceived the harm reduction approach. Prior to the opening of this new program, agency staff completed

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst; Francie Broderick; Scott Bayliff



33 CFR 167.1322 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Approaches to Puget Sound other than Rosario Strait.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...southwest approach, a northwest/southeast approach, a north/south approach, and an east/west approach and connecting...11.45? N, 122°49.78? W. (d) In the north/south approach between precautionary areas “RB”...



Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

E-print Network

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata



Environmental management: A system approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a system framework whose purpose is to improve understanding of environmental management. By analyzing the links between elements of the environmental management system, it is possible to construct a model that aids thinking systematically about the decision-making subsystem, and other subsystems, of the entire environmental management system. Through a multidisciplinary environmental approach, each of the individual subsystems is able to adapt to threats and opportunities. The fields of government, market economics, social responsibility and ecology, for example, are so complex that it is extremely difficult to develop a framework that gives full consideration to all aspects. This paper, through the application of a highly idealized system framework, attempts to show the general relationships that exist between complex system elements.

Petak, William J.



Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

Barton, Russell R.; Nowack, Craig A.; Smith, Robert P.; Zayas-Castro, Jose L.



New approach for logo recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of logo recognition is of great interest in the document domain, especially for document database. By recognizing the logo we obtain semantic information about the document which may be useful in deciding whether or not to analyze the textual components. In order to develop a logo recognition method that is efficient to compute and product intuitively reasonable results, we investigate the Line Segment Hausdorff Distance on logo recognition. Researchers apply Hausdorff Distance to measure the dissimilarity of two point sets. It has been extended to match two sets of line segments. The new approach has the advantage to incorporate structural and spatial information to compute the dissimilarity. The added information can conceptually provide more and better distinctive capability for recognition. The proposed technique has been applied on line segments of logos with encouraging results that support the concept experimentally. This might imply a new way for logo recognition.

Chen, Jingying; Leung, Maylor K. H.; Gao, Yongsheng



An approach to Shuttle evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic approach is outlined for upgrading the Space Shuttle to a 'Block-II' system which makes use of existing programs such as Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA). Descriptions are given of near-term evolutionary issues such as supportability and cost reduction which are addressed by the ASA. Upgrades proposed for shuttle evolution include an automated on-board checkout and verification as well as an improved launch-processing system. The Technology Bridging program addresses long-term evolution by identifying key emerging technologies that can be applied to shuttle field demonstrations. The Shuttle Evolution Study is also discussed which identifies 'block changes' that are essentially major changes to systems with an eye toward future efficiency and increased performance. Among the block changes identified are liquid rocket boosters, composite/lightweight external tanks, and unmanned/manned orbiter capability.

Nease, Ardell W.; Thiel, Richard M.; Smith, Kim E.


Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism. PMID:22392950

Imel, Erik A.



Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep



Legal approaches to injury prevention.  


Injury prevention can be achieved, but it will require a fundamental reexamination of our approach to injury causation. We must learn to examine the manufacturing and marketing practices of companies that produce the products associated with children's injuries, for these are the real culprits in our national childhood injury plague. Most importantly, we must learn to demand from industry that it take injury prevention seriously. If it refuses to do so it must face the consequences before the American system of justice. Legal advocacy can be a valuable tool in this effort. The legal system provides the means to pierce the corporate veil of secrecy and to learn how and why products are made of hazardous design. Under the light of public scrutiny, culprit companies can be made to pay the price for producing hazardous products. Only in this manner will industry be given the incentive to increase product safety. PMID:3975090

Swartz, E M



Molecular approaches in obesity studies  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity as one of the most health concerns has increased globally. This kind of disease has been accounted for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, different types of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer. Obesity is a multifactorial disease that both environmental factors and genetics play important role in its susceptibly. In molecular biology, characterization of the adipocyte secretome is important in signaling to other organs and in regulating energy balance for evaluating underlines mechanism. Since better understanding of this disease lead to both preventive and post treatment of obesity which is achieved by molecular evaluations, this review underlies the importance of some molecular approaches in the field of obesity. PMID:24834284

Vafaee, Reza; Azodi, Taghi; Omidi, Roghiyeh; Gilanchi, Samira; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Khodarahmi, Reza



Three approaches to reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that current reliability analysis tools differ not only in their solution techniques, but also in their approach to model abstraction. The analyst must be satisfied with the constraints that are intrinsic to any combination of solution technique and model abstraction. To get a better idea of the nature of these constraints, three reliability analysis tools (HARP, ASSIST/SURE, and CAME) were used to model portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System architecture. When presented with the example problem, all three tools failed to produce correct results. In all cases, either the tool or the model had to be modified. It is suggested that most of the difficulty is rooted in the large model size and long computational times which are characteristic of Markov model solutions.

Palumbo, Daniel L.



How to approach chronic anemia.  


We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2? kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts. PMID:23233579

Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa



Alzheimer's disease: an evolutionary approach.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disease associated with advanced age whose causes are still not fully known. Approaching the disease from an evolutionary standpoint may help in understanding the root cause of human vulnerability to the disease. AD is very common in humans and extremely uncommon in other mammals, which suggests that the genetic changes underlying the alterations in cerebral structure or function that have taken place over the course of the evolution of the genus Homo have left specific neurons in the human brain particularly vulnerable to factors which trigger the disease. Most of the genes whose mutation leads to AD are involved in synaptic plasticity. Evidence has also been found relating AD to neuronal oxidative stress. Neurons in certain association areas of the human brain retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood, such as the increased expression of genes related to synaptic activity and plasticity, incomplete myelination and elevated aerobic metabolism, which can cause an increase in oxidative stress in these neurons. Oxidative stress can cause myelin breakdown and epigenetic changes in the promoter region of genes related to synaptic plasticity, reducing their expression. These changes may in some cases induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and ?-amyloid deposits, which are characteristic of AD. The adaptation of humans to the cognitive niche probably required an increase in synaptic plasticity and activity and neuronal metabolism in neurons in areas related to certain cognitive functions such as autobiographical memory, social interaction and planning. The cost of these changes may have been the brain's increased vulnerability to factors which can trigger AD. This vulnerability may have resulted from the evolutionary legacies that have occurred over the course of the evolution of the human brain, making AD a possible example of antagonistic pleiotropy. The evolutionary approach allows apparently unrelated data from different disciplines to be combined in a manner that may lead to an improved understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's. PMID:23579031

Bufill, Enric; Blesa, Rafael; Augustí, Jordi



XEUS: approaches to mission design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The x-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30m2 and <5" respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I x-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, using robotics and extravehicular activities. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employ the earth as a sun shield to make the most sensitive low energy x-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. Detailed approaches, including alternatives to the baseline mission design of XEUS, have been and continue to be addressed, ensuring an efficient concept to be available for the eventual mission implementation. Both the development of the XEUS baseline scenario and complementary work conducted on some alternative mission designs are discussed.

Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; van der Laan, Thijs; Parmar, Arvind N.



33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

...2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and...167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a...



33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and...167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a...



33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and...167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a...



33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and...167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a...



33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation and...167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded by a...



A traditional lecture approach versus a collaborative approach: A comparison of student performance outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many instructors rely primarily on the traditional lecture approach when teaching the basic public speaking course. However, this research suggests that a collaborative instructional approach may be a more effective alternative to the traditional lecture format. Data comparing student performance outcomes when using a traditional lecture approach and a collaborative instructional approach indicate that students’ public speaking performances improve significantly

Mary Mino; Marilynn N. Butler



Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard and its associated risks in this highly dynamic environment. However, these risks are contextualised in relation to other, often more pressing, social concerns. We therefore argue for a more deliberative and reflexive approach to landslide risk management which avoids singular framings of what the problem and hence the solution might be. We suggest that this can only be achieved through interdisciplinary collaboration and the privileging of different knowledge types. Key words: Nepal; landslide; vulnerability; risk perception; interdisciplinary research

Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan



Two approaches to physics tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania


Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and some of our findings from their application. For example, our research has demonstrated that maculas of adult mammals retain the property of synaptic plasticity. Ribbon synapses increase numerically and undergo changes in type and distribution (p<0.0001) in type II hair cells after exposure to microgravity for as few as nine days. The finding of macular synaptic plasticity is pertinent to the clinic, and may help explain some. balance disorders in humans. The software used in our investigations will be demonstrated for those interested in applying it in their own research.

Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)



Teaching Programming to Novices: A Review of Approaches and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different approaches to teaching introductory programming are reviewed: the incremental approach, the sub-language approach, and the mini-language approach. The paper analyzes all three approaches, providing a brief history of each and describing an example of a programming environment supporting this approach. In the incremental approach,…

Brusilovsky, P.; And Others


The Wonder Approach to learning.  


Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine



Laboratory approach to mitochondrial diseases.  


Dysfunction in mitochondrial processes has been related to several pathologies. In these disorders, the cell suffers oxidative imbalance that is mostly due to defects in pyruvate metabolism, mitochondrial fatty acids oxidation, the citric acid cycle or electron transport by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These metabolic alterations produce mitochondrial diseases that have been related to inherited syndromes, such as MERRF or MELAS. The main affected organs are brain, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart and liver, because of the high energetic demand and the oxidative metabolism. Moreover, the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegenerative processes, such as Parkinson disease or Alzheimer disease, as well as ageing, has been shown. Because mitochondrias are the target of several xenobiotics, such as aspirin, AZT or alcohol consumption, mitochondrial impairment has also been proposed as a mechanism of toxicity. Most laboratory tests that are available in the diagnosis of mitochondrial illness are assayed in tissue biopsies and are usually difficult to interpret. Recently, it has been shown that non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproic acid breath test, may be useful to assess mitochondrial function. This article attempts to show the laboratory approach to mitochondrial diseases, reviewing new techniques that could be of great value in the research of mitochondrial function, such as the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproic breath test. PMID:11800289

Parra, D; González, A; Mugueta, C; Martínez, A; Monreal, I



Storage option an Analytic approach  

E-print Network

The mathematical problem of the static storage optimisation is formulated and solved by means of a variational analysis. The solution obtained in implicit form is shedding light on the most important features of the optimal exercise strategy. We show how the solution depends on different constraint types including carry cost and cycling constraint. We investigate the relation between intrinsic and stochastic solutions. In particular we give another proof that the stochastic problem has a "bang-bang" optimal exercise strategy. We also show why the optimal stochastic exercise decision is always close to the intrinsic one. In the second half we develop a perturbation analysis to solve the stochastic optimisation problem. The obtained approximate solution allows us to estimate the time value of the storage option. In particular we find an answer to rather academic question of asymptotic time value for the mean reversion parameter approaching zero or infinity. We also investigate the differences between swing and storage problems. The analytical results are compared with numerical valuations and found to be in a good agreement.

Dmitry Lesnik



Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert



Data science approaches to pharmacogenetics.  


Pharmacogenetic studies rely on applied statistics to evaluate genetic data describing natural variation in response to pharmacotherapeutics such as drugs and vaccines. In the beginning, these studies were based on candidate gene approaches that specifically focused on efficacy or adverse events correlated with variants of single genes. This hypothesis driven method required the researcher to have a priori knowledge of which genes or gene sets to investigate. According to rational design, the focus of these studies has been on drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets. As technology has progressed, these studies have transitioned to hypothesis-free explorations where markers across the entire genome can be measured in large scale, population based, genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This enables identification of novel genetic biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and analysis of gene-gene interactions, which may reveal molecular mechanisms of drug activities. Ultimately, the challenge is to utilize gene-drug associations to create dosing algorithms based individual genotypes, which will guide physicians and ensure they prescribe the correct dose of the correct drug the first time eliminating trial-and-error and adverse events. We review here basic concepts and applications of data science to the genetic analysis of pharmacologic outcomes. PMID:25109795

Penrod, N M; Moore, J H



Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.  


Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:679-688, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044351

Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan



Newer approaches to malaria control  

PubMed Central

Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality. PMID:23508211

Damodaran, SE; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra



Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

A.T. Watkins



Another Approach to Model Attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation in the upper crust is a complex problem and a full understanding of where intrinsic attenuation remains problematic. This is particularly true in earth materials saturated with highly viscous liquids such as magma or bitumens. In fluid saturated materials, attenuation mechanisms have focused primarily on global and local type of fluid displacements. That is, the mechanisms have assumed that attenuation was produced only by fluid motions relative to the solids. Less emphasis has been placed on the potential mechanism for absorption within the fluids themselves. Here, we examine the mechanism of attenuation within the fluids themselves via rheological relaxation theory approach. In particular, the role of viscosity is generally examined with results on the frequency dependence on wave speed dispersion and attenuation. The evolution of elastic waveforms through such absorbing materials are also studied to evaluate the potential effects on seismic wave propagation. This work may also have implications towards the use of ultrasonic laboratory measurements in the interpretation of seismic frequency measurements.

Schmitt, D. R.; Qi, X.



The Wonder Approach to learning  

PubMed Central

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine



Current clinical approach to achalasia  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus. The classical features are incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and a lack of peristalsis in the tubular esophagus. These motor abnormalities lead to dysphagia, stasis, regurgitation, weight loss, or secondary respiratory complications. Although major strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare disorder, including a probable autoimmune mediated destruction of inhibitory neurons in response to an unknown insult in genetically susceptible individuals, a definite trigger has not been identified. The diagnosis of achalasia is suggested by clinical features and confirmed by further diagnostic tests, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), manometry or barium swallow. These studies are not only used to exclude pseudoachalasia, but also might help to categorize the disease by severity or clinical subtype. Recent advances in diagnostic methods, including high resolution manometry (HRM), might allow prediction of treatment responses. The primary treatments for achieving long-term symptom relief are surgery and endoscopic methods. Although limited high-quality data exist, it appears that laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is superior to endoscopic methods in achieving long-term relief of symptoms in the majority of patients. However, the current clinical approach to achalasia will depend not only on patients’ characteristics and clinical subtypes of the disease, but also on local expertise and patient preferences. PMID:19705490

Eckardt, Alexander J; Eckardt, Volker F



Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

Epstein, Kenneth J.



Multidisciplinary approaches to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.  


After hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. The etiology of ICC in most patients is not known, but its incidence is on the rise worldwide. There are 3 morphologic subtypes of ICC that can be characterized on cross-sectional imaging, mass forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal growth; and the radiographic characteristics of ICC may vary based on the subtype. Complete surgical resection remains the only potentially curative option for patients with ICC. Routine lymphadenectomy at the time of surgical resection should be strongly considered, because lymph node status provides important prognostic information. After surgery, the 5-year survival rate for ICC remains poor at only 25% to 35% in most series. Although numerous clinical trials have been conducted using a variety of chemotherapy regimens to treat ICC, systemic options for ICC remain limited. Doublet gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy is currently considered the standard-of-care first-line therapy for patients with advanced disease. Because ICC is typically confined to the liver and systemic chemotherapy traditionally has had only limited efficacy, there has been increasing interest in locoregional therapy. Although locoregional therapy may include intra-arterial therapies, stereotactic radiotherapy, hepatic artery pump therapy, or ablation, most data are limited. The purpose of this article was to provide a multidisciplinary appraisal of the current therapeutic approaches to ICC. PMID:23963845

Maithel, Shishir K; Gamblin, T Clark; Kamel, Ihab; Corona-Villalobos, Celia Pamela; Thomas, Melanie; Pawlik, Timothy M



Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality.  

E-print Network

??This thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not… (more)

Waltman, L.R.



A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.



NGST OTA optical metrology instrumentation and conceptual approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Product Team was formed to develop a detailed concept for optical test methodology for testing of the NGST individual primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and the full telescope system on the ground. The large, lightweight, deployable primary mirror, and the cryogenic operating environment make optical testing of NGST OTA (Optical Testing Assembly) extremely challenging. A telescope of the

Ritva A. Keski-Kuha; Pierre Y. Bely; Richard Burg; James H. Burge; Pamela S. Davila; Joseph M. Geary; John G. Hagopian; David N. Jacobson; Andrew E. Lowman; Steven A. Macenka; John D. Mangus; Charles M. Perrygo; David C. Redding; Babak N. Saif; Winfred S. Smith; James C. Wyant



EPN-Based Web Service Composition Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web service composition is highly significant for the efficiency of software development in service-oriented architecture\\u000a (SOA). Till now, most PN-based composition approaches are based on HPN (High Level Petri Net), but the resources of HPN are\\u000a not suitable for web services. It leads to the inefficiency of those composition approaches. This paper presents a novel approach\\u000a based on EPN (Elementary

Min Gao; Zhongfu Wu



A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

SciTech Connect

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA



Optimal online learning: a Bayesian approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently proposed Bayesian approach to online learning is applied to learning a rule defined as a noisy single layer perceptron. In the Bayesian online approach, the exact posterior distribution is approximated by a simple parametric posterior that is updated online as new examples are incorporated to the dataset. In the case of binary weights, the approximate posterior is chosen to be a biased binary distribution. The resulting online algorithm is shown to outperform several other online approaches to this problem.

Solla, Sara A.; Winther, Ole



Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground

Alexandre A. Martins; Mario J. Pinheiro



Exercising Self-Control Increases Approach Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior—betting on low-stakes gambles—that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study

Brandon J. Schmeichel; Cindy Harmon-Jones; Eddie Harmon-Jones



A Mixed Approach Of Automated ECG Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ECG is one of the non-invasive and risk-free technique for collecting data about the functional state of the heart. However, all these data-processing techniques can be classified into two basically different approaches -- the first and second generation ECG computer program. Not the opposition, but simbiosis of these two approaches will lead to systems with the highest accuracy. In our paper we are going to describe a mixed approach which will show higher accuracy with lesser amount of computational work. Key Words : Primary features, Patients' parameter matrix, Screening, Logical comparison technique, Multivariate statistical analysis, Mixed approach.

De, A. K.; Das, J.; Majumder, D. Dutta



Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

SciTech Connect

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chrisochoides, N. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Kohl, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others



A Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach is described for aeropropulsion system assessment. To demonstrate this approach, the technical performance of a wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine (i.e. engine net thrust, specific fuel consumption, and engine weight) is assessed. The assessment accounts for the uncertainties in component efficiencies/flows and mechanical design variables, using probability distributions. The results are presented in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDFS) and sensitivity analyses, and are compared with those from the traditional deterministic approach. The comparison shows that the probabilistic approach provides a more realistic and systematic way to assess an aeropropulsion system.

Tong, Michael T.



A Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach is described for aeropropulsion system assessment. To demonstrate this approach, the technical performance of a wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine (i.e. engine net thrust, specific fuel consumption, and engine weight) is assessed. The assessment accounts for the uncertainties in component efficiencies/flows and mechanical design variables, using probability distributions. The results are presented in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and sensitivity analyses, and are compared with those from the traditional deterministic approach. The comparison shows that the probabilistic approach provides a more realistic and systematic way to assess an aeropropulsion system.

Tong, Michael T.



Synergistic exploration: a team approach brings results  

SciTech Connect

Within the last century, exploration techniques have evolved from an emphasis on the anticlinal theory to the increased use of geophysical mapping, modeling an analysis, along with increased use of petrophysical data for reservoir identification. This change in emphasis has necessitated the use of a variety of specialists in a task force approach, as opposed to the one or two person exploration approach used in prior years. This study details why a team, or synergistic, approach to exploration has evolved, and what results such an approach has and will have in terms of reserves found by both the large and small company.

Thomasson, M.R.



Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.



Editorial: mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.  


Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

Valero, Teresa



Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ?V w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit à near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George


Integrated Approach to Malaria Control  

PubMed Central

Malaria draws global attention in a cyclic manner, with interest and associated financing waxing and waning according to political and humanitarian concerns. Currently we are on an upswing, which should be carefully developed. Malaria parasites have been eliminated from Europe and North America through the use of residual insecticides and manipulation of environmental and ecological characteristics; however, in many tropical and some temperate areas the incidence of disease is increasing dramatically. Much of this increase results from a breakdown of effective control methods developed and implemented in the 1960s, but it has also occurred because of a lack of trained scientists and control specialists who live and work in the areas of endemic infection. Add to this the widespread resistance to the most effective antimalarial drug, chloroquine, developing resistance to other first-line drugs such as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and resistance of certain vector species of mosquito to some of the previously effective insecticides and we have a crisis situation. Vaccine research has proceeded for over 30 years, but as yet there is no effective product, although research continues in many promising areas. A global strategy for malaria control has been accepted, but there are critics who suggest that the single strategy cannot confront the wide range of conditions in which malaria exists and that reliance on chemotherapy without proper control of drug usage and diagnosis will select for drug resistant parasites, thus exacerbating the problem. An integrated approach to control using vector control strategies based on the biology of the mosquito, the epidemiology of the parasite, and human behavior patterns is needed to prevent continued upsurge in malaria in the endemic areas. PMID:11932233

Shiff, Clive



Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien



Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

Milton, Kim



Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien



The patient's approach to wellness.  


The patient's own approach to wellness is receiving increasing attention as the potential for self-responsibility in assuming wellness behaviors is recognized as one, if not the most, significant factor determining health status. Shifts in patterns of illness and potential for illness intervention are acknowledged as central in moving the focus from illness to wellness. Recognition of the deleterious impact of lifestyle and existing behaviors has raised awareness of the need to promote change in wellness behaviors and mechanisms. The scope and quality of information becoming available related to health promotion is bewildering and often contradictory. Information becomes available daily on nutrition, exercise, stress and relaxation, relatedness and support systems, and consciousness and spirituality . Desires and motivations are complex, combining a wish to perpetuate an affluent lifestyle with recognition that depletion of resources and environmental contaminations are risks to the well-being of individuals and society. Nurses, as well as other health care providers, are concerned with health promotion. We need to view our arena realistically and with full cognizance of balancing reasonable caution in scrutinizing new information with openness to ideas that will expand both the potential for wellness and our potential to contribute to health promotion. We practice in a quagmire of uncertainty, unsubstantiated truths, and demands for assurances and answers. We are asked to provide quality care and to perform responsibly in a cost-effective manner. We are pressured for pragmatics . We need to recognize our urge to capitulate to demands. Since historically we are a caring, responsive practice, we can be trapped into "false assurance." While recognizing appropriate limitations in providing assurances, it is possible to offer assistance in ferreting out information and understanding the degree of confidence with which it can be viewed and to support increasing autonomy. Educational programs can be used in conjunction with relationship skills in enhancing health care, the recipient's adoption of wellness behaviors that promote health. PMID:6374624

Grasser, C; Craft, B J



Implementation of a Data Repository-Driven Approach for Targeted Proteomics Experiments by Multiple Reaction Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), commonly employed for the mass spectrometric detection of small molecules, is rapidly gaining ground in proteomics. Its high sensitivity and specificity makes this targeted approach particularly useful when sample throughput or proteome coverage limits global studies. Existing tools to design MRM assays rely exclusively on theoretical predictions, or combine them with previous observations on the same type of sample. The additional mass spectrometric experimentation this requires can pose significant demands on time and material. To overcome these challenges, a new MRM worksheet was introduced into The Global Proteome Machine database (GPMDB) that provided all of the information needed to design MRM transitions based solely on archived observations made by other researchers in previous experiments. This required replacing the precursor ion intensity by the number of peptide observations, which proved to be an adequate substitute if peptides did not occur in multiple forms. While the absence of collision energy information proved largely inconsequential, successful prediction of unique transitions depended on the type of fragment ion involved. The design of MRM assays for iTRAQ-labeled tryptic peptides obtained from human platelet proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the MRM worksheet also for quantitative applications. This workflow, which relies exclusively on experimental observations stored in data repositories, therefore represents an attractive alternative for the prediction of MRM transitions prior to experimental validation and optimization. PMID:19121650

Walsh, Geraldine M.; Lin, Shujun; Evans, Daniel M.; Khosrovi-Eghbal, Arash; Beavis, Ronald C.; Kast, Juergen



CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.  


Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180

Samuel, S



Physical approach to complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw



Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

Walker, Melanie



A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca



Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches B.C. Eatona, a Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Abstract Hydraulic. One approach to hydraulic geometry considers temporal changes at a single location due to variations

Eaton, Brett


Approaching Privacy in ITS Caitlin Cottrill  

E-print Network

· Though privacy may be maintained at the individual levels (survey or GPS) in the combined approachApproaching Privacy in ITS Caitlin Cottrill IGERT Seminar 21 March 2007 #12;Overview · Background/Modeling · Static: ­ Travel surveys (on-boards and household) ­ Historical data · Dynamic: ­ GPS ­ Road sensors

Illinois at Chicago, University of


A People-Based Approach to OBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This rejoinder discusses some common points raised in the commentaries of this special issue of JOBM, including (1) different definitions of positive and negative, (2) use of the terms reinforcement and establishing operation, and (3) concerns over the abandonment of behavior analysis for mentalistic research. In addition, a people-based approach to psychology is introduced and advocated as a leading-edge approach

Douglas M. Wiegand



Approaches to Study of Distance Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the approaches to study of external students to those of a matching sample of internal students and discusses the relevance of current learning theories to studies of mature external students. The usefulness of the "Approaches of Studying" inventory for describing study habits of external students is also examined. (MBR)

Harper, G.; Kember, D.



The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This approach, designed for mobile robots equipped with synchro-drives, is derived directly from the motion dynamics of the robot. In experiments, the dynamic window approach safely controlled the mobile robot RHINO at speeds of up to 95 cm\\/sec, in populated and dynamic environments

D. Fox; W. Burgard; S. Thrun



Skin Detection: A Bayesian Network Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated detection and tracking of humans in com- puter vision necessitates improved modeling of the human skin appearance. In this paper we propose a Bayesian net- work approach for skin detection. We test several classifiers and propose a methodology for incorporating unlabeled data. We apply the semi-supervised approach to skin detection and we show that learning the structure of

Nicu Sebe; Ira Cohen; Thomas S. Huang; Theo Gevers



A statistical approach to decision tree modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical approach to decision tree modeling is described. In this approach, each decision in the tree is modeled parametrically as is the process by which an output is generated from an input and a sequence of decisions. The resulting model yields a likelihood measure of goodness of fit, allowing ML and MAP estimation techniques to be utilized. An efficient

Michael I. Jordan



Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla



Microgrid automation - a self-configuring approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance of supply and demand in a microgrid is traditionally maintained by exploiting the reserves on generation side, which is capital intensive. However, approaches of on-line energy management including peak-load reduction and control energy provision by the demand side can support to reduce the demand during the situation of energy imbalance. This article discusses a new approach of modeling

Adeel Abbas Zaidi; Friederich Kupzog



Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise



Social Studies Curriculum Design: A Critical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to numerous criticisms of technocratic models of social studies curricula this paper describes a critical approach to curriculum design. Major areas of criticism related to knowledge, learning and evaluation, and teaching are explored as they relate to issues of curriculum planning and implementation and a critical approach to…

Goodman, Jesse


Gender Auditing in a Capability Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist studies have developed several tools to assess the gender impact of public policy and, in particular, of public budgets. We introduce an innovative approach to gender auditing of public budgets inspired by the capability approach. On the one hand we expand the scope of assessing the gender policy impact taking into account women’s multidimensional wellbeing, on the other hand,

Tindara Addabbo; Diego Lanzi; Antonella Picchio



Changing approaches to teaching: A relational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of student learning have shown that students' conceptions of learning are strongly correlated with their approaches to study. Students who consider learning in quantitative terms are likely to find it very difficult to adopt a deep approach to learning. This study looks at the parallel situation for teachers. It looks at the conceptions of teaching and learning of a

Keith Trigwell; Michael Prosser



Methodological Approaches to Online Scoring of Essays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the feasibility of scoring essays using computer-based techniques. Essays have been incorporated into many of the standardized testing programs. Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed to deploy automated approaches to scoring fully. Two approaches that have been used to classify documents, surface- and word-based…

Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.


An Inductive Approach to Adaptive Workflow Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To adequately support the execution of business processes in dynamic and uncertain environments workflow managementsystems must allow the actors to deviate from the modeled workflow during execution. There are basicallytwo different approaches for allowing such deviations: the adaptation of the workflow instance and the adaptationof the workflow model. We present an integrated approach, which maintains the flexibility of the

Joachim Herbst



Constructions: a new theoretical approach to language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical approach to language has emerged in the past 10–15 years that allows linguistic observations about form–meaning pairings, known as ‘constructions’, to be stated directly. Constructionist approaches aim to account for the full range of facts about language, without assuming that a particular subset of the data is part of a privileged ‘core’. Researchers in this field argue

Adele E. Goldberg




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, parking, transfer, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and

Carlo Menon; Tobias Seidl; Michael Broschart


A Cognitive Approach to Artificial Intelligence Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structuralism, functionalism as well as behaviorism have been the three major approaches to the artificial intelligence (AI) research in history up to the present time. These approaches have made great progress in AI so far. On the other hand, however, all the three are facing critical difficulties and lack of mutual understanding to each other. An attempt was thus made

Yixin Zhong



Statewide Needs Assessment: A Multimethodological Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statewide assessment was made of specific nutrition education and training needs in Maryland public schools. The approach used allowed an examination of both needs and possible solutions, examined needs which required multiple solutions, and identified resources which could address multiple needs. This multimethodological approach included site…

Watson, Donna J. R.; Bunch, Michael B.


Evaluation and Opportunities in Overtraining Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overtraining (OT) as a sports phenomenon can be caused by stressors on various levels (physical, emotional, psychological, and social) and evokes responses on these levels. This study evaluated research and new opportunities in the field of OT by introducing an integrated multidisciplinary approach, based on the single and multistressors approach.…

Roose, Jolanda; de Vries, Wouter R.; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Backx, Frank J. G.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.



Coordinated approach to nuclear power plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the design of a nuclear power plant that coordinates operations, safety, and security requirements is presented. A number of steps in the approach are identified. Construction features, equipment, and procedural elements that must be considered in a coordinated, standardized design are identified. An example of a design concept that meets some of these requirments is described.

M. T. Olascoaga; A. E. Winblad



Smoking and hypnosis: A systematic clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 methods of helping cigarette smokers stop smoking were compared in treating a total of 181 patients. After 6 months, 60% of those treated with an active, personalized approach were not smoking. This approach emphasized: (a) the feedback, under hypnosis, of the patient's own reasons for quitting, (b) m a h a g contact with the patient by telephone, (c)

William Nuland; Peter B. Field



Minimally invasive approaches to the sphenoid sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to develop an algorithm for surgical approaches to the sphenoid sinus. Study Design and Setting: Retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a sphenoid sinusotomy by the senior author between July 1994 and August 2001. Results: The study population consisted of 141 patients, in whom 5 different surgical approaches were used: transseptal (47 [33.3%]), transnasal

Mark D. Gibbons; Michael J. Sillers



Addressing vulnerability through an integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review current theoretical approaches in disaster studies and put forward a model of vulnerability that incorporates physical science, engineering, and social science research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive model of vulnerability is proposed, which includes both liabilities and capabilities from the physical and social environments. The model is related to risk, susceptibility,

David McEntire; Colleen Gilmore Crocker MPH; Ekong Peters



Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski



Approaches to psychiatric nosology: A viewpoint  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric nosology is required for communication among clinicians and researchers, understanding etiology, testing treatment efficacy, knowing the prevalence of the problems and disorders, healthcare planning, organizing the services, and reimbursement purposes. Many approaches have been used for psychiatric nosology, including categorical, dimensional, hybrid, and etiological. The categorical approach considers illness as being either present or absent, and similarity with prototypical description of a disorder is taken as a marker for the disorder. The dimensional approach regards that symptoms of disorder exist on a continuum from normal to severely ill. The hybrid approach combines categorical and dimensional approaches, with categorical diagnosis for broad diagnostic group and dimensional indicator for severity. The etiological approach tends to find “reason” for the set of symptoms, which could be biological, psychological, or social. In this article, certain critical issues about the different nosological approaches are discussed. Hybrid approach currently seems to be the most preferred for widespread usage. In conclusion, psychiatric nosology needs to evolve through epistemic iteration leading to successive changes and devising a more refined and useful system with time. PMID:25316945

Avasthi, Ajit; Sarkar, Siddharth; Grover, Sandeep



A Deep Learning Approach to Machine Transliteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel translit- eration technique which is based on deep belief networks. Common approaches use finite state machines or other meth- ods similar to conventional machine trans- lation. Instead of using conventional NLP techniques, the approach presented here builds on deep belief networks, a tech- nique which was shown to work well for other machine

Thomas Deselaers; Oliver Bender; Hermann Ney



Approaches to the Cutting Stock Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we survey various approaches to the cutting stock problem; available computational experience is discussed. The intention is to synthesize the considerable work that has been done on this problem. The different approaches studied will include column generation, zero-one programming, combinatorial heuristics, and subgradient optimization. Applications to related combinatorial optimization problems are mentioned.

Bruce L. Golden



A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

Terry, W. Scott



Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of

Kaj Grønbæk; Morten Kyng; Preben Mogensen



Making Sense of Approaches to Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a metatheoretical analysis of "approaches" to moral education and how we make sense of them. Such approaches are commonly analyzed with simple, binary category schemes, for example, being categorized as either 'indirect' or 'direct' in nature. This kind of minimal framework clearly oversimplifies the complex nature of any…

Sanger, Matthew; Osguthorpe, Richard



Approaches to Study of Distance Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 89 on-campus and 50 teleconferencing students (71 percent response) showed that 83 percent of externals were over 19 and 94 percent of internals were 18 or less. External students had higher scores for intrinsic motivation, interrelating ideas, and deep approach; internal students for fear of failure, surface approach, achievement…

Wong, Shu-Lun



A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Broader, Bolder Approach to Education Task Force is made up of 62 national policy experts, with diverse political affiliations, who come from fields that include education, social welfare, health, housing, and civil rights. This article presents a shortened version of the Task Force's recently released statement on the Broader, Bolder Approach

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2008



"1984": A Confessional Reading and Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching George Orwell's "1984," emphasizing the main characters' struggles through the themes of innocence and experience, conformity and rebellion, love and hate, discovery and creation, and death. Notes that this reader-response approach forces students into the process of self-examination. (MM)

Tanenbaum, Miles



Macro transform approach to solve indecomposable problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a novel approach (the macro transform) for solving indecomposable problems, which cannot be decomposed into a sequence of subgoals before they are solved. This kind of problem cannot be solved by either the GPS (general problem solver) or the MPS (macro-operator problem solver). The diamond game is discussed in detail as an example. The proposed approach has

Q. S. GaoZ; H. D. Cheng



Teaching Science through a Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott



A computational vision approach to image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic image registration is important for many multiframe-based image analysis applications. In this paper, a computational vision approach is presented for the estimation of 2-D translation, rotation, and scale from two partially overlapping images. The approach has the following features: (1) an illuminant direction estimator is used to obtain an initial estimate of camera rotation; (2) feature points are located

Qinfen Zheng; Rama Chellappa



A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Investigation of Multistage Approaches to Examination Timetabling  

E-print Network

MISTA 2013 Investigation of Multistage Approaches to Examination Timetabling Syariza Abdul Rahman to examination timetabling consist of multiple stages, in which a constructive approach is used for finding while performing multiple runs for examination timetabling. The empirical results over a well known

Bargiela, Andrzej


Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

Lindquist, David H.



A Combinatorial Approach For Rain Cell Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach for time-space tracking of rain cells within rain field images obtained from weather radars. Our approach is based on the decomposition of a rainfield image into a hierarchical structure of ellipses, each level correspon ding to a reflectivity threshold. At each level an ellipse models a connected component, and the rain cells kinematics are

R. Mathurin; B. Rottembourg



A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media  

E-print Network

A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media Scott MacLachlan Department of Computer to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media- p.1 #12;Heterogeneous Media What makes a medium heterogeneous? · Large in spatial scales A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media- p.2 #12;Heterogeneous Media What

MacLachlan, Scott


A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media  

E-print Network

A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media Scott MacLachlan Department of Mathematics. Coon, Columbia University January 28, 2010 A Variational Approach to Upscaling Heterogeneous Media- p.1 #12;Heterogeneous Media What makes a medium heterogeneous? · Large relative variation in material

MacLachlan, Scott


A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley\\/Milner-stylepolymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subjectreduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the useof rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approacheasily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages thatprovide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar



System Approach for Reducing Car Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal policy emphasizes more exacting specifications for new cars to combat pollution. Some doubts are cast on this approach, and alternatives are suggested. Ease of maintenance, high reliability, and inspection are essential to pollution control and must be provided for in the specifications. A total system approach to reduce car pollution is outlined.

Reuel Shinnar



Hyperspectral target detection using sequential approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an automatic target detection algorithm based on the sequential multi-stage approach. Each stage of the algorithm uses more spectral bands than the previous stage. To ensure high probability of detection and low false alarm rate, Chebyshev's inequality test is applied. The sequential approach enables a significant reduction in computational time of a hyperspectral detection system. The Forest

Hanna T. Haskett; Arun K. Sood; Mohammad K. Habib



The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

Girdano, Dorothy Dusek


Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

Harper, Casandra E.



“Friendly” Complaining Behaviors: Toward a Relational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational approach is often presented as a strategy to retain customers, but it may also be an appropriate approach to encourage customers to complain, as a review of literature shows. Using information contained in complaints and giving the right answers (distributive, procedural and interactional) to such complaints is essential. Relational marketing may also be used to induce customers (but

Isabelle Prim-Allaz; Bernard Pras



A conic approach for separable convex optimization  

E-print Network

' & $ % A conic approach for separable convex optimization Fran#24;cois Glineur Aspirant F programmation math#19;ematique Han-sur-Lesse, February 2, 2001 #12; A conic approach for separable convex optimization ' & $ % #11; #8; Outline Introduction #5; Conic optimization #5; Geometric optimization

Glineur, François


An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.



Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model in the enrichment as a set of models in the original logic plus some relevant structure. We illustrate the approach by probabilizing classical propositional logic, including a novel global propositional logic. A model of the probability logic is a probability space where the outcomes are classical

Paulo Mateus; Amílcar Sernadas; Cristina Sernadas


Assessing executive leadership: an integral approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper offers an example of an approach to translating integral concepts into language that is accessible to executive leaders in business without resorting to introducing the complexity of integral theory and models. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The phase of intervention is data gathering prior to feedback of data, action planning or change interventions. The model is presented along with

Russ Volckmann



The Microstructure Approach to Exchange Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the fields of exchange-rate economics and microstructure finance have progressed independently of each other. Recent interaction, however, has given rise to a microstructure approach to exchange rates. This book focuses on the economics of financial information and how microstructure tools help to clarify the types of information most relevant to exchange rates. The microstructure approach views exchange rates from

Richard K. Lyons



Implementing Project Approach in Hong Kong. Preschool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this action research was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the project approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the project approach, focusing on their language ability, social development, and…

Ho, Rose


Syntactic approach to image analysis (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past several years, syntactic approach [1,2] has attracted growing attention as promising avenues of approach in image analysis. The object of image analysis is to extract as much information as possible from a given image or a set of images. In this abstract, we will focus our attention on the use of semantic information and grammatical inference.In an

T. K. Ho; Edward T. Lee; T. T. Ho



2Participatory Learning Approach Michael Bieber  

E-print Network

1 2Participatory Learning Approach Michael Bieber New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA Jia Shen). #12;2 Participatory Learning Approach An analysis of 62 studies showed that self-, peer, and co is prohibited. Starr Roxanne Hiltz New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA INTRODUCTION The Participatory

Bieber, Michael


Grounding System in Marinas: The Microsystem Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsystem design approach of electric systems has the purpose to improve their safety, maintenance, operation, and reliability. The microsystem design approach can be applied to the case of marinas, where pleasure craft may be moored. Marinas require a structured architecture for the shore electrical power distribution system, which supplies power to distributed loads. In addition, the design must provide

Giuseppe Parise; Luigi Parise; Massimo Mitolo



Television, Technology, and Culture: A Contextualist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author offers a contextualist approach to contemporary debates about new (and old) media in different historical times and geographical places. This approach, rather than starting with the internal essence of a technology and then attempting to deduce its effects from its technical specifications, begins with an analysis of the interactional and cultural systems in play in

David Morley



Segmenting technology markets: applying the nested approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Sound target marketing leads to winning business strategies. While market segmentation is an intriguing academic concept, most B2B practitioners struggle with the design and implementation of such initiatives. This paper aims to illustrate an effective strategic segmentation process in a high-technology market context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Bonoma and Shapiro's nested model – consisting of geodemographics, operating variables, purchasing approaches,

Art Weinstein



Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia



Bypass approach of free surface modeling  

SciTech Connect

There are many possible approaches for implementing the free surface boundary option in a general purpose code such as COMMIX-1A. Currently, we are using a modified VOF (volume of fraction) approach, in which we assume that (i) free surface in a cell is a step surface and (ii) no multiple regions of void exist in a flow domain under consideration.

Miao, C.C.; Chen, F.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Sha, W.T.; Chen, B.C.J.; Domanus, H.M.; Shah, V.L.



Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel data approach is advocated and implemented for studying growth convergence. The familiar equation for testing convergence is reformulated as a dynamic panel data model and different panel data estimators are used to estimate it. The main usefulness of the panel approach lies in its ability to allow for differences in the aggregate production function across economies. This leads

Nazrul Islam




Microsoft Academic Search

This article recounts the 30-year history of the strong adaptive (communicative) approach and the accomplishments to which it lays claim. On the basis of its unique listening-formulating-validating process, the approach argues for the primacy of unconscious perception over unconscious fantasy and other inner mental trends and for a revised topographic model of the mind in lieu of the structural model.

Robert Langs



Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: An Approach in Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become an attractive and exciting approach for the surgical treatment of localized prostate cancer. Two main routes are mainly used, namely the transperitoneal and the extraperitoneal approach. Minimal bleeding, shorter hospitalization and recovery time are unquestionable advantages for laparoscopic procedures. Oncological and functional results of laparoscopic prostatectomies today are comparable to those of the open retropubic

Hubert John



Three Approaches to Environmental Resources Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, the first of a projected series related to the development of methodologies and techniques for environments planning and design, examines three approaches that are currently being used to identify, analyze, and evaluate the natural and man-made resources that comprise the physical environment. One approach by G. Angus Hills uses a…

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Design.


Manufacturing Footprint: A Value Chain Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a process based conceptual approach for the evaluation of manufacturing plant location decisions. The developed approach recognises the importance of global supply chains and their increasing role in achieving desired competitiveness. The decision making environment for manufacturing plant location is divided into manufacturing, supply chain and general environment. The manufacturing environment consists of intra-organisational factors, supply chain

Sami Farooq; Chris O'Brien; John Johansen


Televised Dance: Evaluation of Three Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine whether dance-trained, television-trained, and regular television viewing audiences would evaluate different approaches to televising dance differently. Three versions of a dance performance were videotaped: (1) version A, a one-camera, one-shot recording; (2) version B, a two-camera, real-time-edited approach,…

Oglesbee, Frank W.


A relational approach to monitoring complex systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring is an essential part of many program development tools, and plays a central role in debugging, optimization, status reporting, and reconfiguration. Traditional monitoring techniques are inadequate when monitoring complex systems such as multiprocessors or distributed systems. A new approach is described in which a historical database forms the conceptual basis for the information processed by the monitor. This approach

Richard T. Snodgrass



Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial Functions ?  

E-print Network

Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial Functions ? William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation, 202 Burlington Road, Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA Abstract. In traditional mathematics it is legitimate the presence of nondenoting terms. This paper shows how this traditional approach to partial func- tions can

Farmer, William M.


Robot Motion Planning: A Distributed Representation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot's configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is consider ably faster than previous path planners and solves prob lems for robots with many more degrees

Jérôme Barraquand; Jean-Claude Latombe



A New Mathematical Approach to Geographic Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The primary question in geographic profiling is, given the lo cations of a series of crimes committed by the same serial offender, to estimate the location of that offender’s anchor point. Currently, there are three main approaches to the problem, exemplified by the t hree software systems- CrimeStat, Dragnet, and Rigel. Though the details of the approaches taken by

Mike O'Leary



Visualization of nonprecision instrument approaches using VRML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this position paper we propose a synthetic vision software system for visualizing non-precision instrument approaches based on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) ISO/IEC CD 14772 standard which is conceptually included in the upcoming MPEG4 multimedia industry standard. In addition to the two dimensional information provided by traditional approach plates the user is presented a three dimensional representation of the approach with the ability to interactively investigate approach parameters. Due to its hardware independence, the system is scalable from general aviation to air transport and defense applications. As a proof of concept, we have modeled the non-precision approach (LOC/DME-C) to Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado.

Wagner, Michael G.; Hatakeyama, Alan



Energy management - The delayed flap approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

Bull, J. S.



Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

Bejczy, A. K.



Governors and New Economic Challenges. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since World War II, the American economy has consistently grown. However, this economic growth has been less impressive in the past 10 years, and some significant problems have developed. These include slowed economic growth, high inflation, and high unemployment. Among the major interrelated causes of these problems have been international…

National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.


Unbroken mirrors: challenging a theory Victoria Southgate1  

E-print Network

[3], language [4] and empathy [5]. The broad range of social­cognitive functions attributed in studies of imitation behavior [6]. Several influential stu- dies suggest a role for mirror neuron regions to empathy [11], theory of mind [3] and language [4], propose that damage to the MNS could cause problems

Hamilton, Antonia


Rachel's Challenge: A Moral Compass for Character Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though American life in 1923 was significantly different than the present day, authors John Dewey and Diana Brannon share similar concerns about character. Historically, educators as far back as the 1800s have felt an obligation to the community to transcend the primary purpose for schooling by including character education in their curricula.…

Hollingshead, Barbara; Crump, Christi; Eddy, Rochelle; Rowe, Dina



Textual Challenges: A Brief Guide to Choosing Shakespearean Editions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How should educators go about selecting appropriate editions of Shakespeare's plays for use in political science courses? Shakespeare is turning up on many politics syllabi, but, at times, the editions chosen seem to reflect primarily a concern for price or publisher reputation over pedagogical and scholarly considerations. This article offers an…

Cornell, Christine; Malcolmson, Patrick



The New Challenge: A Relevant Program for the Disadvantaged Gifted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs for disadvantaged gifted students require teachers with a number of positive characteristics and a relevant curriculum. The New Challenge Program created by the University of Texas Pan-American College of Education is a Saturday morning enrichment program for disadvantaged gifted children. Students select from classes such as Basic and…

Goertz, Mary Jean; Phemister, Linda


The Diversity Challenge: A Collection of Model Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model programs designed to promote diversity within the West Valley-Mission Community College District (WVMCCD) in California are discussed and described in this report. First, an introductory chapter, "The Importance of Cultural Issues to Higher Education," by Gustavo A. Mellander and Fred Prochaska, reviews the diversity recommendations of the…

Mellander, Gustavo A., Ed.; Prochaska, Fred, Ed.


Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara



Virtual Worlds as a Regulatory Challenge: A User Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-User Environments offer a broad range of possibilities to experience action-oriented contexts, for example, simulations\\u000a of real-world contexts, materializations of fictional contexts (e.g., the “Lord of the Rings” universe), and the co-creation\\u000a of mixed virtual–real interaction spaces such as “Second Life”. The chapter elaborates the key elements of multi-user environments\\u000a from a user perspective: Interactivity, mediated interpersonal communication, easy accessibility,

Christoph Klimmt


Advertising Challenges: A Strategic Framework and Current Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategic framework for the analysis of advertising challenges is presented. Advertising challenges are claims by consumers, competitors or regulatory bodies that an advertisement is either false, misleading or deceptive. The Six 'Tions' framework utilizes the six major components of any advertising challenge as a template. They are initiation, interpretation, deception, verification remediation and intention. The framework supposes that the

Ross D Petty



The Bradley Challenge: A Sea Change for Australian Universities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a focus on the problematic nature of one key term in the Bradley Report. "Socioeconomic status," or SES as commonly used, lacks clear definition leading to ongoing debates about its measurement. A working consensus on SES and its measurement is necessary for the report's recommendations to proceed effectively. Next we…

Putnam, Thomas; Gill, Judith



The Paper Airplane Challenge: A Market Economy Simulation. Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan features a classroom simulation that helps students understand the characteristics of a market economic system. The lesson plan states a purpose; cites student objectives; suggests a time duration; lists materials needed; and details a step-by-step teaching procedure. The "Paper Airplane Challenge" handout is attached. (BT)

Owens, Kimberly


Delaying orthostatic syncope with mental challenge: a pilot study.  


At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden decline of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT)+ graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT+LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT+LBNP run but with added mental challenge (2 min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by 2 weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity. PMID:22387271

Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew



STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining



Understanding the HighScope Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the HighScope Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the HighScope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the HighScope Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice. Exploring all areas…

Wiltshire, Monica



Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

Isaacs, Barbara



The TestSmart-HPV Program--development of an integrated approach for testing high production volume chemicals.  


The TestSmart program was developed in response to the High Production Volume Chemical Challenge, a voluntary initiative under which chemical producers provide basic toxicity data on chemicals produced in greater than one million pounds annually. Specifically, under the Challenge, chemical producers will generate data as needed to complete the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), as defined by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The TestSmart program is a collaborative effort of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the Environmental Defense Fund, Carnegie-Mellon University, and the University of Pittsburgh. The goal of the TestSmart program is to provide a humane and efficient approach to collecting SIDS data. The program has two objectives, one immediate and the other more long term. The immediate objective has been to make recommendations to reduce the number of animals used in collecting SIDS data under the Challenge. This was accomplished, through a group process, by examining the current status of alternative methods for SIDS endpoints and by providing an assessment of the "state of readiness" of current and potential future alternatives. The long-term objective is to provide a model for other programs to follow the TestSmart concept of a more efficient and humane approach to obtain toxicological data of interest to regulators and the public. PMID:11350193

Green, S; Goldberg, A M; Zurlo, J



System test approach for the SAX satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SAX satellite verification is based on a protoflight approach, in which only one system model is realized at flight standard level, taking into account the utilization of hardware already qualified for other space programs and the necessity to respect the schedule constraints for a scientific objective. In any case, this approach was tailored with some deviations in order to reduce risks inherent in such a choice. The protoflight approach was also pursued at subsystem/unit level in particular for those subsystems and units considered critical from the schedule point of view. Payload Instruments followed the same approach but complete spare units were developed to reduce the risks associated with such an approach. A description of the model philosophy is provided and then, at satellite level, the testing approach and rationale for each model is presented. Finally, a brief description of each test will be given, highlighting objectives, methodologies, and test configurations. Moreover, for the major tests, problems encountered and solutions applied in establishing a correct approach are described.

Giordano, Pietro; Raimondo, Giacomo; Messidoro, Piero



Analysis of accidents during instrument approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General aviation and air taxi approach phase accidents, which occurred during VFR and IFR, respectively over the last 25 years, were analyzed. The data suggest that there is a 204 percent higher risk during the approach and landing phase of VFR flights, than during similar IFR operations (14.82 vs 7.27 accidents/100,000 approaches). Alarmingly, the night single pilot IFR (SPIFR) accident rate is almost 8 times the rate of day IFR, 35.43 vs 4.47 accidents/100,000 approaches, and two and a half times that of day VFR approaches, 35.43 vs 14.82 accidents/100,000 approaches. Surprisingly, the overall SPIFR accident rates are not much higher than dual-pilot IFR (DPIFR), 7.27 vs 6.48 accidents/100,000 approaches. The generally static ratio of the statistics for SPIFR/DPIFR accident rates may be accounted for by little or no change in general aviation cockpit technology during the last 25 years, and because IFR operational flight task management training has not kept pace.

Bennett, C. T.; Schwirzke, M.



Approaching Moons from Resonance via Invariant Manifolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, the approach phase from the final resonance of the endgame scenario in a tour design is examined within the context of invariant manifolds. Previous analyses have typically solved this problem either by using numerical techniques or by computing a catalog of suitable trajectories. The invariant manifolds of a selected set of libration orbits and unstable resonant orbits are computed here to serve as guides for desirable approach trajectories. The analysis focuses on designing an approach phase that may be tied into the final resonance in the endgame sequence while also targeting desired conditions at the moon.

Anderson, Rodney L.



Celebrating Diverse Minds: Using Different Pedagogical Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of science for all has been echoed nationwide. In order to be successfully implemented, inclusive quality pedagogical approaches are essential. These approaches should be authentic not just to the nature and content of science but also to children's diverse cultural and personal strengths. At the same time school systems will have to be aware of and avoid pitfalls that led to unequal access to science learning in the past. The question is: What do quality approaches look like? This chapter provides the answer to this pertinent question.

Dyasi, Hubert M.



Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.



The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians  

E-print Network

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians is developed in order to establish contact with other approaches to fluids. Three variants of the perfect fluid approach are looked at. The first is an explicit linear lagrangian constructed directly from the clebsch potentials, this has fixed equation of state and explicit expression for the pressure but is less general than a perfect fluid. The second is lagrangians more general than that of a perfect fluid which are constructed from higher powers of the comoving vector. The third is lagrangians depending on two vector fields which can represent both density flow and entropy flow.

Mark D. Roberts



Adopting a Family-Oriented Approach  

PubMed Central

Although many family physicians believe that a family-oriented approach to patient care leads to better outcomes, and in spite of a growing body of literature on the principles and theory of working with families in primary care, most physicians have been very slow to move from an individual approach to a family approach with their patients. This paper will examine some of the issues involved in the adoption of innovations by practitioners and explore their implications for the increased inclusion of the family in medical practice. PMID:21229054

Becker, Lorne A.



[Modern approaches to human cognitive activity enhancement].  


Recent literature on human cognitive activity enhancement is reviewed and summarized. Two classes of pharmacological approaches are picked out, i.e. modern aspects of traditional substance utilization and application of specially developed drugs. Among non-pharmacological approaches a number of psychological, physiological, behavioral and biophysical methods to improve human cognition, memory and learning are analyzed. The most attention is paid to non-drug approaches that utilize bioelectric processes of the individual including characteristics of its brain electrical activity--electroencephalogram (EEG) to enhance different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some promising lines of these investigations are delineated. PMID:21254542

Zemlianaia, A A; Fedotcheva, T A; Fedotchev, A I



A Black feminist approach to nursing research.  


Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women. PMID:7992489

Barbee, E L



Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari



Security Patterns: Comparing Modeling Approaches Armstrong NHLABATSI  

E-print Network

Security Patterns: Comparing Modeling Approaches Armstrong NHLABATSI ** , Arosha BANDARA the challenges of developing secure software systems remains an active research area in software engineering. Current research efforts have resulted in the documentation of recurring security problems as security

Jurjens, Jan


Evaluation of synthesized voice approach callouts /SYNCALL/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two basic approaches to the generation of 'synthesized' speech include a utilization of analog recorded human speech and a construction of speech entirely from algorithms applied to constants describing speech sounds. Given the availability of synthesized speech displays for man-machine systems, research is needed to study suggested applications for speech and design principles for speech displays. The present investigation is concerned with a study for which new performance measures were developed. A number of air carrier approach and landing accidents during low or impaired visibility have been associated with the absence of approach callouts. The study had the purpose to compare a pilot-not-flying (PNF) approach callout system to a system composed of PNF callouts augmented by an automatic synthesized voice callout system (SYNCALL). Pilots were found to favor the use of a SYNCALL system containing certain modifications.

Simpson, C. A.




EPA Science Inventory

A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach predicts potential contaminant distributions resulting from the disposal of sewage sludge at the Deepwater Municipal Disposal Site off the northeast United States continental shelf. The Lagrangian aspect involves Monte-Carlo simulations of ...


The New Approach to Strategic Energy Planning  

E-print Network

. In this new environment, improved productivity and cost-competitiveness benefits the supplier and industry alike. To place this new approach in perspective, the six key steps to strategic energy planning are reviewed....

Friedman, N. R.



EPA Science Inventory

The investigators funded under the HEI ozone sampler program, Drs. Hackney, Yanagisawa, and Koutrakis, and their collaborators used different approaches to develop personal ozone samples that would be sensitive, accurate, and amenable to use in epidemiological studies. ...


A Bayesian approach to feed reconstruction  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we developed a Bayesian approach to estimate the detailed composition of an unknown feedstock in a chemical plant by combining information from a few bulk measurements of the feedstock in the plant along ...

Conjeevaram Krishnakumar, Naveen Kartik



Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.



Robust Semidefinite Programming Approaches for Sensor Network ...  

E-print Network

May 21, 2006 ... special structure of the linear transformations for both efficiency and ... bilinear system, rather than using a square symmetrized approach, that ...... Note that both the Hadamard product and the transpose, ·?·,·T , are self-adjoint ...



A Scientific Approach to Fly Fishing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a novel approach to bridging scientific disciplines, the author presents a field-based course in which students investigate various aquatic environments and their physical and biological components using fly fishing as the medium of learning. Fly fishi

Ulanski, Stan L.



A Lagrangean Decomposition Approach for Robust Combinatorial ...  

E-print Network

ble sources of uncertainty are measurement errors or problem parameters that ... Ministry of Economics and Technology within the 6th Energy Research ..... As an alternative to the Lagrangean decomposition approach, the nonlinear model (3) ...



An Approach to the Patient With Fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Fibromyalgia (fibrositis) is one of the most common rheumatologic conditions. This paper reviews the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of the syndrome and presents a global approach to the management of the disease. PMID:21263860

Carette, Simon



International Corporate Leadership A uniquely integrated approach  

E-print Network

International Corporate Leadership Programme A uniquely integrated approach The summer work The International Corporate Leadership Programme (ICLP) provides companies with top quality engineering students. International Corporate Leadership Programme `Graduates ready for business' Integrated with degree Mentored

Berzins, M.


Meson wave function from holographic approaches  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)



A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL



Taking a Holistic Approach to Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, at the University of Kansas, many students of color are excelling at a rate that has outpaced their peers. Campus officials credit the HAWK Link program and its comprehensive approach to retention. (EV)

Fields, Cheryl D.