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1

It is time for a more integrated bio-psycho-social approach to ADHD.  

PubMed

The role of psychosocial factors in perpetuating and predisposing towards the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been neglected within the field of child mental health. Clinicians, when told that a child had a diagnosis of ADHD, have been found to underestimate the presence of psychosocial factors, and are less likely to ask about the possibility of neglect or abuse. This article details the considerable research showing links between ADHD symptoms and parental mental illness, child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attachment disorders and other environmental factors. Recent neuro-biological findings showing the impact on brain development of early abuse and attachment concerns are cited. The implications of these findings both for clinicians, and at policy level, are discussed, and the reasons underlying the need for a more integrated Bio-Psycho-Social approach to ADHD are outlined. PMID:23104966

Richards, Louise Marie-Elaine

2013-10-01

2

Low self–esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho–social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach  

PubMed Central

Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender–role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psycho–sexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

2010-01-01

3

The role of psycho-social experience in chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of psycho-social factors in contributing to chronic illness, in particular Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and cancer. Research conducted over the last 50 years indicates a modest role for psycho-social factors as risk factors for these conditions. The research suggests that in combination with other modest risk factors, psycho-social factors play an equally important role. Grossarth-Maticek

James McAlister Alexander

2006-01-01

4

Employing a community based participatory research approach to bear witness: psycho-social impact of the 2010 earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  

PubMed

We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C

2014-12-01

5

Further Validation of the PsychoSocial Well-Being Scale (PSWS) with Community Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor and evaluate the use of evidence-based approaches with mentally ill persons who abuse alcohol and other drugs, administrators, practitioners and evaluators will need to incorporate brief, reliable, and valid instruments into daily practice. The current two-part study provides further validation of the Psycho-Social Wellbeing Scale (PSWS), a multidisciplinary “debriefing tool” designed to capture and summarize data on clients'

Thomas O'Hare; Margaret V. Sherrer; Hilary Smith Connery; Jay Thornton; Annamaria LaButti; Kelly Emrick

2003-01-01

6

Justifying Educational Acquaintance with the Moral Horrors of History on Psycho-Social Grounds: "Facing History and Ourselves" in Critical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive…

Maxwell, Bruce

2008-01-01

7

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS  

E-print Network

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Colleen on an earlier draft. #12;1 EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Concern over welfare dependency fueled the push for welfare reform in the form of the Personal

Shyy, Wei

8

[Provincial public center for crisis intervention and psycho-social rehabilitation. A path towards communitary suicidology].  

PubMed

This work on the systematic comprehensive approach towards the Prevention and Postvencion of Suicide started to develop back in mid 2011 in Río Gallegos, capital of Santa Cruz Province. The first step on this development was a Pilot Plan for the Training of Professionals and also field intervention. The Center for Crisis Intervention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation was founded eight months later. The case-client in crisis plus family group- undergoes quantitative and qualitative evaluation by means of a triage system, all of which allows starting intensive face-to-face and also phone follow up according to the Crisis Intervention Model. Such intervention is developed by means of the participation in the "Grupo Sostén", the Adolescents Group if the client fits into that age, and also family relationship interviews as well as Multi-family meetings open to the Community. There is also a Community Team in the Center which performs collective assessment in schools, in conjunction with the "Equidad en Redes" Educational Specialty Team, belonging to the Provincial Education Council. The approach takes place on the field, and works as a screening step for the early detection of risk. Such risk is dealt with by means of short term intervention group programs involving the whole of the educational community. When facing situations of committed suicide there are interventions in communities to the interior of the province, fundamentally through the Hospital Team which works as the cluster convener for the social intersectoral frame-work. PMID:25546541

Martínez, Carlos

2014-01-01

9

Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

2014-01-01

10

The Relationship Between Hypertension and Psycho-Social Functioning in Young Black Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is mainly concerned with relating psycho-social functioning (i.e. family life, like or dislike for school or occupation, self concept, job stability, environmental stress, and adaptability to depressive reactions/frustrations) to primary hypertension in young black men. (AM)

Pierre, Thelma

1976-01-01

11

Effect Of Bio-Psycho-Social Changes On Older Consumers: Implications For Product Design And Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued rapid growth of the mature adult (over the age of 65) population and the tremendous variability in the needs, lifestyles, and demographic characteristics of this segment is creating lucrative opportunities for product designers marketers. This paper describes the evolving needs of mature adults especially due to the bio-psycho-social changes that accompany the aging process. By interfacing the gerontological

Monica Nandan

2008-01-01

12

Evaluation of psycho-social support to parents with an infant born preterm.  

PubMed

The birth of a preterm child is a trauma that causes crisis reactions in parents. The hypothesis was that parents need psycho-social support in order to manage this trauma. Psycho-social support was defined as both medical and social information, processing the emotional feelings, social support and starting the bonding process. The aim of the study was to explore the type and frequency of psycho-social support to parents of preterm children born during 1991, 1994 and 1997 in a Swedish university hospital. 47 parents answered a questionnaire based on previous focus group interviews. The children were born in gestation weeks 23-7. Medical and social information was more frequent during the first period of intensive care than later on during the care process. Contact frequency concerning feelings and emotional reactions was low and decreased over time. All parents were helped to start the bonding process. One-third of the parents reported long-term psychological problems due to the birth of the preterm child, while only a few reported financial (15%), practical (13%) or social (9%) long-term problems. Conclusions were that from a crisis theory perspective psycho-social support, defined as regular medical information also ought to be initiated later on in the care process and that increased emotional support concerning crisis reactions is desirable in order to process the feelings raised by the trauma. PMID:12036174

Eriksson, Birgitta Sandén; Pehrsson, Gunnel

2002-03-01

13

Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children  

PubMed Central

Background studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was investigated. Orthodontic treatment need was estimated using an integrated socio-dental approach. Method One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr) attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite) to 22.5% (midline shift) with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position) to 20% (pain). The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5) and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6) and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3) and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7). The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%. Conclusion Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho social impacts and dissatisfaction with appearance/function was not frequent among Tanzanian schoolchildren. Subjects with malocclusion reported problems most frequently and malocclusion together with other psycho-social impact scores determined children's satisfaction with teeth appearance- and function. PMID:18460198

Mtaya, Matilda; Astrom, Anne N; Brudvik, Pongsri

2008-01-01

14

Impacts of hazardous technology: The psycho-social effects of restarting TMI-1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an evaluation of the psycho-social impacts of hazardous technology. Using a multiple research strategy, the authors show the possible effects of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island. The book includes background information concerning environmental policy, the accident and restart issues, and forecasted impacts and implications for environmental management. The topic, however, extends well beyond that of TMI and nuclear power. Linkages are made with other environmental problems including chemical accidents such as Bhopal and waste disposal problems such as Love Canal.

Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.; Bolin, R.

1987-01-01

15

THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON PSYCHO-SOCIAL BELIEF IN RURAL LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA RESIDENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of imp...

16

[A comparative study of psycho-social factors in peptic ulcer disease].  

PubMed

To evaluate the psycho-social factors of peptic ulcer, we carried out a comparative study. Seventy-six men and 19 women with peptic ulcers diagnosed at seven hospitals in Kyoto, Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures in Japan were surveyed during November 1990 about their daily hassles, depressive state, social support and life style using a self-administered questionnaire. The results were compared to those for two control groups. One control group was diagnosed with normal, atrophic gastritis, or superficial gastritis by the gastro-duodenal endoscopic examinations in the same hospitals. The other control group consisted of participants in a health-screening examination at one of the above hospitals. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in daily hassles, depressive state, and social support. However, being unmarried, smoking and eating irregular meals significantly increased the relative risk of peptic ulcer in men and family history of peptic ulcer significantly increased the risk in women. PMID:8028200

Yashiro, H; Higashi, A; Miyaji, N; Ozasa, K; Watanabe, Y; Aoike, A; Kawai, K

1994-06-01

17

Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners in supportive interventions. Interventions aimed at improving sexual functioning should include elements aimed at improving physical quality of life and sexual communication, with a focus on psychological wellbeing also being important for women with cancer. PMID:24673768

2014-01-01

18

Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was

Matilda Mtaya; Anne N Astrom; Pongsri Brudvik

2008-01-01

19

Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors.  

PubMed

Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during the practice; (3) the coping behaviors of these students; and (4) the effect of different coping behaviors on their physio-psycho-social health. The subjects were 561 nursing students who had completed their initial clinical practice at the largest nursing school in Taiwan. Three measurements, including Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Physio-Psycho-Social Response Scale (PPSRS), and Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI), were adopted. Results showed that stress for these students came mainly from the lack of professional knowledge and skills as well as caring of patients. The most common response to stress was social behavioral symptoms. Staying optimistic had a positive main effect, which reduced the occurrence of physio-psycho-social symptoms and improved physio-psycho-social status. Finally, problem-solving behavior also had a positive main effect, while avoidance had a negative main effect, which deteriorated physio-psycho-social status. This study has important implications for nursing educators in helping their students to overcome stress during clinical practice. PMID:11755447

Sheu, Sheila; Lin, Huey Shyan; Hwang, Shiow Li

2002-02-01

20

Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.  

PubMed

Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it. PMID:25528930

Dziechcia?, Ma?gorzata; Filip, Rafa?

2014-11-26

21

Evaluating the efficacy of psycho-social interventions for informal carers of cancer patients: a systematic review of the research literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition that informal cancer carers experience unmet needs and psychological distress has led to the development of a range of psycho-social interventions. The efficacy of such interventions is examined through a systematic review of the research literature, following National Health and Medical Research Council and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Of 13 level II randomised controlled trials (RCTs), only eight showed significant

Jane Maria Ussher; Janette Perz; Yasmin Hawkins; Marita Brack

2009-01-01

22

When to Challenge a Call in Tennis: A Markov Decision Process Approach  

E-print Network

-making in sports. First, the state of a tennis game at any time is very simple to describe via the score and whoWhen to Challenge a Call in Tennis: A Markov Decision Process Approach Vamsi K. Nadimpalli Zilliant challenge a line call in a game of tennis, if the objective is to maximize the probability of winning

Hasenbein, John

23

Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about the existence of independent location- or context specific forms of physical activity. This study sought to identify location-specific forms of physical activity in a sample of 9 and 15 years-olds Norwegian boys and girls, and examined their associations to psycho-social and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls) was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH) tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates. Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a) school commuting, b) informal games play at school and c) organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity. Conclusion Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity, in which age may come to moderate the efficiency of intervention efforts. PMID:16999865

Ommundsen, Yngvar; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena; Anderssen, Sigmund A

2006-01-01

24

Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students

Sheila Sheu; Huey-Shyan Lin; Shiow-Li Hwang

2002-01-01

25

Narrative story stems with high risk six year-olds: Differential associations with mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's responses on a Narrative Story Stem Technique (NSST) were coded using scales reflecting essential attachment constructs, specifically, attachment, exploratory, sociability, and caregiving behavioral systems, as originally conceived by Bowlby (1973, 1982) and elaborated upon by his followers (Cassidy, 2008). NSST responses were examined in relation to both mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment and risk using the MacArthur Health &

Timothy Page; Neil W. Boris; Sherryl Heller; Lara Robinson; Shantice Hawkins; Rhonda Norwood

2011-01-01

26

Why Do Some People Do “More” to Mitigate Climate Change than Others? Exploring Heterogeneity in Psycho-Social Associations  

PubMed Central

The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized—and differentiated from common mitigation behavior—as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change—but not in motivational or socio-demographic links—with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries. PMID:25191841

Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel

2014-01-01

27

Exploring the Psycho-Social Therapies Through the Personalities of Effective Therapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several specific research approaches are compared with regard to cost-effectiveness, types of disorders to which they best respond, general strategies, and therapist personality. Replicated findings include: (1) support for both the functional reversal and semantic reversal of the "A-B Scale;" (2) characterization of therapists who are effective…

Dent, James K.; Furse, George A.

28

Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

1996-01-01

29

Chronic Widespread Pain Drawn on a Body Diagram is a Screening Tool for Increased Pain Sensitization, Psycho-Social Load, and Utilization of Pain Management Strategies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain, (CWP) drawn by patients on a body diagram, could be used as a screening tool for increased pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilization of pain management strategies. The triage questionnaires of 144 adults attending a chronic pain outpatients' clinic were audited and the percentage pain surface area (PPSA) drawn on their body diagrams was calculated using the "rule of nines" (RON) method for burns area assessment. Outcomes were measured using the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) and other indices and compared using a nonrandomized, case-control method. It was found that significantly more subjects with CWP (defined as a PPSA ? 20%) reported high (? 19) PD-Q scores (suggesting pain "sensitization" or neuropathic pain) (P = 0.0002), "severe" or "extremely severe" anxiety scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items Questionnaire (P = 0.0270), ? 5 psycho-social stressors (P = 0.0022), ? 5 significant life events (P = 0.0098), and used ? 7 pain management strategies (PMS) (P < 00001), compared to control subjects with a lower PPSA. A Widespread Pain Index score ? 7 (OR = 11.36), PD-Q score ? 19 (OR = 4.46) and use of ? 7 PMS (OR = 5.49) were independently associated with CWP. This study demonstrates that calculating PPSA on a body diagram (using the RON method) is a valid and convenient "snapshot" screening tool to identify patients with an increased likelihood of pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilizing pain management resources. PMID:25469881

Visser, Eric J; Ramachenderan, Jonathan; Davies, Stephanie J; Parsons, Richard

2014-12-01

30

[The relationships among stress, physio-psycho-social status, coping behaviors and personality traits of nursing students during first time clinical practice].  

PubMed

First-time clinical practice is stressful. However, every person's perception of stress, responses to stress and coping methods are different. It is important to examine the relationships between these phenomena and personality traits. The subjects of this study were 280 nursing students who had undertaken their first clinical practice. This study used Clinical Practice Stress Scale, Clinical Practice Physio-psycho-social Response Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory of Clinical Practice and Chi test to examine the following four questions for the students: (1) the type and frequency of stressors occurring during their first clinical practice, (2) physio-psycho-social status; (3) the coping behaviors utilized by the students; (4) the relationship among perception of stress, coping behaviors, physio-psycho-social status and personality traits. The results of this study showed that the most common stressors were lack of professional knowledge and skill, and taking care of patients. The most common response of the students was social behavioral response, followed by emotional response. Physical response rarely occur. The most common coping behavior utilized by the students was keeping optimistic, followed by transferring and problem solving. Avoidance behaviors were least one. In addition, the results of this study show that the perception of stress, coping behaviors and psychosocial status are significantly related to personality characteristics, including introversion-extroversion, social adaptiveness, and emotional stability. These results may help nurses to better understand the phenomena of stress, coping and adaptation. They may also help nursing educators understand the difficulties of nursing students and, based on individual difference, assist them individually in order to promote the quality of clinical practice. PMID:17953068

Sheu, S; Lin, H S; Hwang, S L

2001-06-01

31

Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period  

PubMed Central

Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

2015-01-01

32

[Santa Tereza Windows: a study of the psycho-social rehabilitation process at the Psychiatric Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo].  

PubMed

This is a case study of a psycho-social rehabilitation process taking place at Santa Tereza, a psychiatric hospital in Ribeirão Preto, whose objective is to understand possibilities and limitations implied in the rehabilitation process within Pensões Protegidas (Protected Homes) project. The basic strategies for the present study involved participative observation and interviews with individuals living in such homes as well as with the multi-professional staff working in the process. The results reveal a kind of orientation quite distant from the hospital-centered trend, since they reveal remarkable tendency towards deinstitutionalization. Finally, the author emphasizes the contribution of Pensões Protegidas Project at Santa Tereza for the better understanding of the so-called mentally ill. PMID:11789532

Guimarães, J; Saeki, T

2001-01-01

33

Psycho-social factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES In the US, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) holds tremendous promise for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among these men. However, many psycho-social components must be addressed in order to effectively implement this prevention tool among BMSM. METHODS We assessed PrEP knowledge and use, health care access experiences, race-based medical mistrust, sexual partners and behaviors, and drug and alcohol use among 699 men attending a community event in the southeastern US. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use PrEP. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-eight men reported being BMSM and HIV negative status. Among these men, 60% reported being willing to use PrEP. Lack of being comfortable with talking to a health care provider about having sex with men, not having discussed having sex with a man with a health care provider, race-based medical mistrust, and alcohol consumption and substance use were all identified as barriers to willingness to use PrEP. Sexual risk taking, including number of sex partners and STI diagnosis, was not associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS Findings from the current paper demonstrate the importance of acknowledging the role of various psycho-social factors in the uptake of PrEP. It is imperative that we prioritize research into better understanding these barriers as the failure to do so will impede the tremendous potential of this prevention technology. PMID:25001553

Eaton, Lisa A.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

2015-01-01

34

Prevalence of Malocclusion and its Psycho-Social Impact among 12 To 15-Year-old School Children in Lucknow City  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial aesthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. Anterior malocclusion can have an impact on the overall facial appearance. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its psycho-social impact among 12 to 15 yrs old school children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of collection of information for psychosocial assessment using a questionnaire and clinical examination of malocclusion. Data regarding psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was collected using a Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) given by Klages et al., (2006). Results: 15.57% children belonged to the definite malocclusion category and 5.41% to the handicapped malocclusion category. The mean Dental self confidence score differed significantly among both male (p?0.001) and female children (p?0.001) across the age groups. The mean Social impact score did not differ significantly among both male (p?0.31) and female children (p?0.12) across the age groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that dental aesthetics had a significant impact on the psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. PMID:25478444

Saha, Sabyasachi; GV, Jagannatha; Narang, Ridhi; Biswas, Gautam; Sood, Poonam; Garg, Aarti; Narayan, Manu

2014-01-01

35

Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

1975-01-01

36

[Validity of the existentialist approach in psychiatry].  

PubMed

One essential premise of this revision work is to raise the impossibility of psychiatric action without a solid psychotherapeutic attitude. And before this position is the existentialist approach as an interesting possibility to consolidate the psychiatric clinic; a clinic which should not lose sight of the old Socratic ideal of applying philosophy to understand daily life and not be trapped in the modest role of prescribing drugs according to the "cartography" of diagnostic manuals. Existentialist psychotherapeutic trends add the spiritual instance to the traditional approach of the bio-psycho-social framework that tries to account for the human condition. In this work, another framework is proposed: bio-psycho-social (de-programmed)-mortal. On this existentialist conception, two essential aspects of philosophy and psychiatric clinic are emphasized: freedom and death. Finally, a type of classification that delimits two existential psychotherapeutic postures is proposed: one which is identified as existential dynamic psychotherapy, and another one, as existential psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:24255898

Dramisino, Hugo

2013-01-01

37

Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach.  

PubMed

Authors have analyzed the psychosocial peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these diseases and the psychosexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender-role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psychosexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

Iorgulescu, Gabriela

2010-01-01

38

Psycho-social Profile of Abused Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the child abuse cases in India under categories based on different forms of child abuse, marital issues involved, parent child interactions, social and psychological characteristics, trends associated with the abused children, and remedial measures. Concludes with an emphasis on the need for empirical data on the extent and nature of child…

Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others

1994-01-01

39

Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

Kane, M.S.

1993-01-01

40

Major Psycho-Social Problems and the Psychiatric Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations made at institutes and workshops conducted by the National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT) are included in this publication. Drug abuse, alcoholism, crisis intervention, mental retardation, and mental health manpower were the themes for these presentations: (1) "Mental Health Trends in California" by G. Duffy, (2) "The…

National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

41

Information-Seeking Behaviour and PsychoSocial Interactions during the Genetic Testing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the information-seeking behaviour (ISB) of women attending cancer genetic consultations at which the possibility of BRCA testing is considered. We focused here specifically on ISB apart from the cancer genetic consultation, i.e. on what complementary sources of information about genetic testing were consulted and what factors were involved in this

C. Cypowyj; F. Eisinger; M. Morin; A. Mogoutov; H. Sobol; C. Julian-Reynier

2003-01-01

42

Students’ perception of the psycho-social clinical learning environment: An evaluation of placement models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nursing is a practice-based discipline. A supportive environment has been identified as important for the transfer of learning in the clinical context. The aim of the paper was to assess undergraduate nurses' perceptions of the psychosocial characteristics of clinical learning environments within three different clinical placement models. Three hundred and eight-nine undergraduate nursing students rated their perceptions of the

Amanda Henderson; Michelle Twentyman; Alison Heel; Belinda Lloyd

2006-01-01

43

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis,

I Christopher McManus; Hannah M Mitchison; Eddie MK Chung; Georgina F Stubbings; Naomi Martin

2003-01-01

44

Psycho-Social Aspects of Physical Education. Basic Stuff Series I. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological and social aspects of achievement in physical activities are examined. The first chapter discusses health and the sources and development of self esteem. In the second chapter, ways in which a positive attitude toward one's body image may be developed are explored. The third chapter is concerned with achievement, motivation, fear…

Oglesby, Carole A.; And Others

45

Epidemiology and psycho-social aspects of onchocercal skin diseases in northeastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Observations were made on the prevalence of onchocerciasis and Onchocercal Skin Diseases (OSD); frequency of occurrence and anatomical distribution of OSD in the Hawal River Valley, an established onchocerciasis endemic focus in north-eastern Nigeria. METHODS: Symptoms of OSD were diagnosed in 5 844 subjects using Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) while 1 479 of the subjects chosen from alternate households

Ikem Chris Okoye; Celestine OE Onwuliri

2007-01-01

46

A cluster analysis on students' perceived motivational climate. Implications on psycho-social variables.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine how students' perceptions of the class climate influence their basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, social goals and outcomes such as boredom, enjoyment, effort, and pressure/tension. 507 (267 males, 240 females) secondary education students agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Spanish validated versions of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2), Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise (BPNES), Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC), Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), and several subscales of the IMI. A hierarchical cluster analysis uncovered four independent class climate profiles that were confirmed by a K-Means cluster analysis: "high ego", "low ego-task", "high ego-medium task", and "high task". Several MANOVAs were performed using these clusters as independent variables and the different outcomes as dependent variables (p < .01). Results linked high mastery class climates to positive consequences such as higher students' autonomy, competence, relatedness, intrinsic motivation, effort, enjoyment, responsibility and relationship, as well as low levels of amotivation, boredom and pressure/tension. Students' perceptions of a performance class climate made the positive scores decrease significantly. Cluster 3 revealed that a mastery oriented class structure undermines the negative behavioral and psychological effects of a performance class climate. This finding supports the buffering hypothesis of the achievement goal theory. PMID:25012581

Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A

2014-01-01

47

Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification. PMID:20046402

2008-01-01

48

Erikson's Theory of Psycho-Social Development: The Socialization of Developmental Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Juxtaposes Erikson's theory of psychosocial development with Goldberg's concept of developmental drama. Suggests that research in this area could (1) strengthen the skills of directors, playwrights, and pedagogues and (2) offer educators and administrators a scientifically valid case for the value of children's theater in the schools. (PD)

Woodruff, Marci

1982-01-01

49

Automatic Collection, Analysis, Access, and Archiving of Psycho/Social Behavior by Individuals and Groups  

E-print Network

policymakers) to monitor and understand residents' well-being, and enhance their QoL. This truly interdisciplinary effort bridges the psychological, social and behavioral sciences, and clinical medicine, and facilitates, for the first time, large- scale longitudinal research that captures the full range

Stevens, Scott M.

50

Dimensions of population policy in India: the psycho-social implications.  

PubMed

All population policies, while seemingly identical in their formulation, differ in terms of their veritable ulterior objective. This is due to the fact that the formulation is done by a selected group of planning agencies and the health ministry. As the purport of the population policy rests more or less with the manipulation of the demographic variables, the important components of the population influencing policies should be discussed, as the population-influencing policies intend to impact on the population directly. The important components are fertility regulation, reductions in mortality and morbidity, and migration and population distribution. In India fertility regulations are directed toward achieving a reduced birth rate of 25 by 1984 or a growth rate of 1.25. While India has successfully reduced the mortality rate and the birth rate, the reduction in the rates are not proportional. This has led to a higher growth rate. Consequently, the pressure on the nation at this time is to reduce the birth rate. India has felt the strains of realizing this goal despite her concerted efforts for various reasons. First, birth control programs failed to gain as much acceptance as anticipated, whereas the plans designed to reduce mortality were moderately well received. Additionally, the birth control schemes came to have a cultural taboo, possibly attributable to inadequate and vague propaganda on the part of program administrators as well as illiteracy. Economic pro and con factors also contributed. The extent of migration in India is insignificant for various socioeconomic reasons. First, India is a country where illiteracy is predominant, and this has restrained the scope for migration. Secondly, as 80% of Indians depend on agriculture, they feel satisfied at home with whatever they earn. Regarding in-migration, India, as a developing country experiencing the ills of poverty, unemployment, low capital formation, and a slow pace of technological development, has not attracted in-migrants. India's efforts to delay the age at marriage either through law or persuasion have been futile as most of the young girls are neither in school nor gainfully employed. Laws governing inheritance should provide equal status for daughters whereby the preference to sons would undergo a change. Recently, India took a step in this direction by providing daughters with a share of their ancestral property, but this law gained little momentum in a society where daughters are deprived of any right over their ancestral or parental property. It appears that only a fraction of Indian women would welcome the provision of equal rights because nearly 80% of Indian women live in villages, which do not encourage a departure from the expected traditional role. When formulating population policy, attention should be given to its feasibility in the given social context. PMID:12268333

Shariff, A; Mouli, A S

1978-01-01

51

Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)

Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others

1979-01-01

52

From Research to Reality: Enhancing Learning and Psycho–Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This author contends that we can develop more fully the pastoral capacity of the classroom, which will also enhance learning. The writer argues that this will be better achieved by understanding the ways in which beliefs about self and learning are shaped by classroom contexts, processes and relationships. She draws on recent work on learning and intelligence, in particular ‘risk

Ann Nadge

2002-01-01

53

The Psycho-social Habilitation of High Risk Israeli Adolescent Immigrants Through Group Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the first phase of a larger longitudinal follow-up study of graduates of Youth Aliyah. At its inception in the early 1930's, Youth Aliyah was conceived as an organized campaign to attract Jewish adolescents away from Central Europe and inspire them to move alone or with their families to Palestine. During the war and immediately…

Feuerstein, Reuven

54

The meanings of menopause: identifying the bio-psycho-social predictors of the propensity for treatment at menopause  

E-print Network

issues and of qualitative processes has been invaluable. Professor Melissa Hines acted as my faculty advisor and read through and made insightful comments on this research at various stages of development. Her knowledge of the influences... be grouped into somatic, psychological, sexual and vasomotor symptoms (Hunter, 2000; Lewis, Hilditch, & Wong, 2005; Schneider, Heinemann, Rosemeier, Potthoff, & Behre, 2000). Mishra and Kuh (2012) found that 18 symptoms formed into four stable symptom...

Rubinstein, Helena

2013-11-12

55

Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.  

PubMed

To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations. PMID:20012203

Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

2011-04-01

56

Bridging the Gap: Can Impairment-Based Therapy for Anomia Have an Impact at the Psycho-Social Level?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies of therapy with people with aphasia tend to use impairment-based and functional measures of outcome. The views of participants are not formally evaluated. Current health and socialcare practice requires intervention to be explicitly client-centred and evidence-based. It is therefore important to investigate the broader effects…

Best, Wendy; Greenwood, Alison; Grassly, Jennie; Hickin, Julie

2008-01-01

57

A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

Phillips, Susi Erika

58

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating\\u000a new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field\\u000a of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice\\u000a University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines

Maria Oden; Yvette Mirabal; Marc Epstein; Rebecca Richards-Kortum

2010-01-01

59

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

2010-01-01

60

Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

Raines, J. Thayer

1991-01-01

61

A Biopsychosocial Approach to Sexual Recovery After Prostate Cancer Surgery: The Role of Grief and Mourning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erectile dysfunction is a common side-effect of prostate cancer surgery that causes men suffering and hinders their sexual recovery. There are studies that describe men's and partners' distress and couples' difficulties engaging in sexual recovery. A few studies show a short-term benefit of brief psycho-social interventions such as psychoeducation and counseling. However, there is no conceptual framework to guide psychosocial

Daniela Wittmann; Sallie Foley; Richard Balon

2011-01-01

62

Why evidence-based medicine is an insufficient approach to physical and rehabilitation medicine. Antithesis.  

PubMed

When philosophers of science demolished the myth of objectivity in the early decades of the 20th century, they undermined the theoretical certainty that a knowledge system comes from the cumulative development of scientific observations: here we find a criticality inherent to evidence-based medicine in relation to its claim of universality and objectivity. EBM relies on quantitative statistical models to define a treatment's effectiveness, and it has an universal character: the treatment effect is measured against the global characteristics of the general population rather than the individuals. Contemporary cognitive neuroscience takes a naturalized approach to mind and behavior, opening new inroads into investigating consciousness, motor image, bodily awareness, and intention. Common to these issues is the emphasis on the importance the person, with his or her own biology and history, as a unique and unrepeatable entity. Hence, its original aim to protect patients against arbitrary treatment notwithstanding, EBM has become largely inadequate to serve physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) owing to the peculiarities of its historical and narrative contents. PRM, because of its unique knowledge base, can be fully considered a science anchored in the basic sciences that underlie rehabilitation procedures. Accordingly, PRM exists within a mutual relationship with physics and biology, from which the biomedical model (well represented by EBM) originates, and is interrelated with other disciplines such as philosophy or psychology, from which the bio-psycho-social model was developed in the 1980s, leading to a comprehensive approach to health and disease. Further critical points in clinical practice include: how to translate evidence into clinical decision making; the inability to generalize experimental evidence because most studies involve selected patient samples. Despite the more than 20 years of EBM, long-established therapeutic approaches lacking scientific evidence still survive in rehabilitation. We must strive for an integrative approach to EBM, which would enable PRM, by virtue of its multifaceted theoretical and methodological approaches to persons with disability, to take the lead in redefining biomedical knowledge and, by applying this understanding, put its science into clinical practice and, perhaps, more generally, into outlining a new "ideal of science". PMID:25192186

Saraceni, V

2014-10-01

63

Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies  

PubMed Central

Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; http://www.datashaper.org) was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement data synthesis, some additional scientific, ethico-legal and technical considerations must be addressed. The success of the DataSHaPER as a harmonization approach will depend on its continuing development and on the rigour and extent of its use. The DataSHaPER has the potential to take us closer to a truly collaborative epidemiology and offers the promise of enhanced research potential generated through synthesized databases. PMID:21804097

Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L’Heureux, François; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R

2011-01-01

64

The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

1997-01-01

65

Literacy and Basic Education: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Annotated Bibliography #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selected annotated bibliography on literacy and basic education, including contributions from practitioners in the worldwide non-formal education network and compiled for them, has three interrelated themes: integration of literacy programs with broader development efforts; the learner-centered or "psycho-social" approach to literacy, often with…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Non-Formal Education Information Center.

66

Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna

2013-01-01

67

Diabetes and behavioral medicine: The second decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes management depends almost entirely on behavioral self-regulation. Behavioral scientists have continued a collaboration with other health systems researchers to develop a holistic approach to this disease. The authors summarized the literature in 4 major areas: self-management of diabetes, psycho- social adjustment and quality of life, neuropsychological impact, and psychobehavioral intervention development. Progress made in each of these areas over

Linda A. Gonder-Frederick; Daniel J. Cox; Lee M. Ritterband

2002-01-01

68

Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey  

PubMed Central

Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP) patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT), Treatment Based Classification (TBC), Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC), Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI), and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS) schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i) loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC) aimed at eliciting a phenomenon of centralisation of symptoms; and (ii) modified movement strategies (MSI, OCS) targeted towards documenting the movement impairments associated with the pain state. Conclusions Schemes vary on: the extent to which loading strategies are pursued; the assessment of movement dysfunction; and advocated treatment approaches. A biomechanical assessment predominates in the majority of schemes (MDT, PBC, MSI), certain psychosocial aspects (fear-avoidance) are considered in the TBC scheme, certain neurophysiologic (central versus peripherally mediated pain states) and psychosocial (cognitive and behavioural) aspects are considered in the OCS scheme. PMID:22348236

2012-01-01

69

Selling sex in the time of AIDS: the psycho-social context of condom use by sex workers on a Southern African mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a detailed account of the social organisation of commercial sex work in a squatter camp in a South African gold mining community. On the basis of in-depth interviews with 21 women, living in conditions of poverty and violence, the paper examines factors which might serve to help or hinder a newly implemented community-based peer education and condom

Catherine Campbell

2000-01-01

70

Children of mothers who are at psycho-social risk. Mental health, behaviour problems and incidence of child abuse at age 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 1575 pregnant women registered at the public Antenatal Health Care Service in the city of Linköping, Sweden, during 1983, an index-group of 78 women were identified who met specific well-defined psychosocial risk-criteria related to drug addiction, mental insufficiency, and particular social circumstances of possible relevance to problems of pregnancy and early child development. Seventy-eight pregnant women who did

C. G. Svedin; M. Wadsby; G. Sydsjö

1996-01-01

71

Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour and health in a part of Khartoum, Sudan--II. Psycho-social influences on behaviour.  

PubMed

A study of child behaviour and health in a newly urbanized part of Khartoum, Sudan, was carried out in 1980 on 245 children aged 3-15 years. The same area, then rural, had been investigated in 1965. Compared to 1965, the 1980 study showed an increase of behaviour problems of boys aged 7-15. In both studies the levels of most behaviour problems were below the figures from comparable studies from developed countries. Contrary to this the physical health and nutrition had improved between 1965 and 1980. The older children of newcomers, especially blue-collar, wage-earners with low incomes showed the highest frequencies of behaviour deviances. Children who had dropped out of school had higher rates while those belonging to the best third of their grades had less behaviour problems. While polygamy did not influence the rates of behaviour problems maternal anxiety/depression and harsh corporal punishment did so. Children of school-age (7-15) showed a strong connection between poor somatic health and high rates of behaviour deviances. The impact of various cultural changes on the families and the psychological well-being of the children is discussed. PMID:3715511

Rahim, S I; Cederblad, M

1986-01-01

72

Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT) explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We

Carlos David Navarrete; Daniel M. T. Fessler

73

Reasons for Living and Hoping: The Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States. Proceedings from the Multi-Disciplinary, Inter-Religious Conference on the Spiritual and Psycho-Social Needs of Southeast Asian Refugee Children and Youth Resettled in the United States (Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents proceedings of a conference convened to identify the unmet spiritual and other non-material needs of Southeast Asian refugee children and youth and to offer recommendations to strengthen present programs and policies. Participants included leaders in the refugee community, clergy of several faiths, organizational…

International Catholic Child Bureau, Inc., New York, NY.

74

The Clinical Response to Gluten Challenge: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to identify, evaluate and summarize all relevant studies reporting on the clinical response to gluten challenge by adult or pediatric patients with suspected or diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet. We evaluated the effect of gluten challenge on changes in symptoms, intestinal mucosa histology, and serum antibodies. A systematic electronic search was performed for studies published as of 1966 using PubMed and Scopus databases. In the reviewed studies, doses ranged from 0.2 to 30 g/day of wheat gluten or comprised a gluten-containing diet. The onset of symptoms upon gluten intake varied largely from days to months and did not parallel serum antibody or histological changes. Within 3 months of gluten challenge, 70%–100% of pediatric CD patients became positive for AGA-IgA and EMA-IgA antibodies and 50%–70% for AGA-IgG. A limited number of trials suggest that no more than half of adult patients developed positive AGA-IgA, EMA-IgA, tTG-IgA or DGP-IgA/IgG titers. Approximately 50%–100% of pediatric and adult patients experienced mucosal relapse of gluten provocation within 3 months, which was preceded by increased mucosal intra-epithelial lymphocytes within several days of challenge. A 3-month high-dose gluten challenge should be suitable to diagnose the majority of CD patients. In some cases prolonged challenge may be needed to verify diagnosis. Combination testing for antibodies and mucosal histology may fasten the diagnosis. PMID:24284613

Bruins, Maaike J.

2013-01-01

75

Geropsychology: The Gender Gap in Human Aging – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between women and men in terms of gender gaps at late stages of their lives are the focus of this mini-review. We approach the matter by taking up the position of complex yet promising standpoints, the bio-psycho-social perspective on the one hand and approaches of developmental psychology on the other. Lifespan perspectives and the brain-behavior relationship are integrated and

Ilse Kryspin-Exner; Elisabeth Lamplmayr; Anna Felnhofer

2011-01-01

76

The Regional Nature of Global Challenges: A Need and Strategy for Integrated Regional Modeling  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we explore the regional nature of global environmental challenges. We take a broad approach by examining the scientific foundation that is needed to support policy and decision making and identifying some of the most important barriers to progress that are truly scale-dependent. In so doing, we hope to show that understanding global environmental changes requires understanding a number of intrinsically regional phenomena, and that successful decision making likewise requires an integrated approach that accounts for a variety of regional Earth system processes—which we define to include both human activities and environmental systems that operate or interact primarily at sub-continental scales. Understanding regional processes and phenomena, including regional decision-making processes and information needs, should thus be an integral part of the global change research agenda. To address some of the key issues and challenges, we propose an integrated regional modeling approach that accounts for the dynamic interactions among physical, ecological, biogeochemical, and human processes and provides relevant information to regional decision makers and stakeholders.

Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2013-06-01

77

Making sense of divorce grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various models of divorce recovery put forward by researchers have previously been divided into two general categories. The first focuses on emotional or affective stages, while the second describes the recovery in terms of behavior\\/event dimensions. These two approaches are now integrated by recognizing that the behavior\\/event stages represent specific psycho\\/social losses in the life of the divorcing person.

Stanley Hagemeyer

1986-01-01

78

Is there a Role of Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India?  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in medical care have improved the survival of newborn babies born with various problems. Despite this death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an inevitable reality. For babies who are not going to “get better,” the health care team still has a duty to alleviate the physical suffering of the baby and to support the family. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to relieve the physical, psycho social, and spiritual suffering of patients and their families. Palliative care provision in the Indian NICU settings is almost nonexistent at present. In this paper we attempt to “build a case” for palliative care in the Indian NICU setting. PMID:21976849

Dighe, Manjiri P; Muckaden, Maryann A; Manerkar, Swati A; Duraisamy, Balaji P

2011-01-01

79

A model for the role of defined spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training.  

PubMed

The current bio-psycho-social approach in South African psychiatry refers to Engel's extended model of health care. It forms the basis of the existing collaboration between medicine, nursing, psychology, occupational therapy and social work. Psychiatry also has to bridge the multi-cultural, multi-religious and spiritual diverse reality of everyday practice. It has become important to establish how, within accepted boundaries, spirituality should be incorporated into the model for practice. Referring to methods described for nursing theory development, a defined core concept was used to construct a model. It may contribute to the discourse on spirituality in local psychiatry, health and mental health. PMID:23099614

Janse van Rensburg, Bernard A B R; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris P H; Szabo, Christopher P

2014-04-01

80

[Vocational rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts. PMID:25096745

Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

2014-05-12

81

A novel P2P traffic classification approach using back propagation neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the requirements of the network activities and take into account P2P traffic classification challenges, a promising method is to use Machine Learning (ML) techniques and identify network applications based on flow features. We present a novel P2P traffic identification approach using back propagation neural network. It is demonstrated by simulation results that our approach can identify popular P2P

Chengjie Gu; Shunyi Zhuang

2010-01-01

82

Integral quadratic constraint approach vs. multiplier approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral quadratic constraints (IQC) arise in many optimal and\\/or robust control problems. The IQC approach can be viewed as a generalization of the classical multiplier approach in the absolute stability theory. In this paper, we study the relationship between the two approaches for robust stability analysis. Using a slightly modified multiplier approach, we show that the existence of an IQC

Minyue Fu; Soura Dasgupta; Yeng Chai Soh

2005-01-01

83

Supporting Learning and Promoting Conceptual Change with Box and AVOW Diagrams. Part 1: Representational Design and Instructional Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to the teaching of electricity that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit that portray current, voltage, resistance, and power. The diagrams were developed as aids in learning, understanding, and problem solving and to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of…

Cheng, Peter C-H.; Shipstone, David M.

2003-01-01

84

Integral quadratic constraint approach vs. multiplier approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral quadratic constraints (IQC) arise in many optimal and\\/or robust control problems. The IQC approach can be viewed as a generalization of the classical multiplier approach in the absolute stability theory. In this paper, we study the relationship between the two approaches for robust stability analysis. The key result shows that for many applications, the existence of an IQC is

Minyue Fu; Soura Dasgupta; Yeng Chai Sohz

2002-01-01

85

Why the Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the rationale for the project approach to educational programming from the cognitive-developmental perspective. It is argued that in many ways, the project approach reflects the cognitive-developmental view; that it is a convergence of Piaget's constructivism and Dewey's progressivism. Like any approach, the project approach is…

Feng, Jianhua

86

The effect of 6-week treatment with escitalopram on CCK-4 challenge: a placebo-controlled study in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5 ± 5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50 ?g) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p = 0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies. PMID:22939006

Tõru, Innar; Maron, Eduard; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Nutt, David J; Shlik, Jakov

2013-07-01

87

Pathway and Network Approaches for Identification of Cancer Signature Markers from Omics Data  

PubMed Central

The advancement of high throughput omic technologies during the past few years has made it possible to perform many complex assays in a much shorter time than the traditional approaches. The rapid accumulation and wide availability of omic data generated by these technologies offer great opportunities to unravel disease mechanisms, but also presents significant challenges to extract knowledge from such massive data and to evaluate the findings. To address these challenges, a number of pathway and network based approaches have been introduced. This review article evaluates these methods and discusses their application in cancer biomarker discovery using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an example. PMID:25553089

Wang, Jinlian; Zuo, Yiming; Man, Yan-gao; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Liu, Meng; Yang, Xiaowei; Varghese, Rency S.; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Ressom, Habtom W

2015-01-01

88

A Workshop Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The science workshop approach is a method of organizing learning centers in developmentally based primary programs. The approach centers on providing a series of meaningful experiences around core science concepts. These experiences are presented in the f

Jones, Ithel

1999-11-01

89

Introduction The Approach  

E-print Network

Introduction The Approach Experiments Conclusion Towards Answering Opinion Questions: Separating Towards Answering Opinion Questions 1 / 35 #12;Introduction The Approach Experiments Conclusion Classification Finding Opinion Sentences Identifying the Polarity 3 Experiments Data Evaluation Results 4

Kaiserslautern, Universität

90

Why the Capability Approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing operational challenges such as poverty or economic development, many researchers and practitioners wish to build upon insights raised by Sen's capability approach and related writings. This paper argues that the comprehensive reach and foundation of the human development and capability approach has a value independent from and additional to their practical outworkings, and yet also that operational specifications

Sabina Alkire

2005-01-01

91

Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

Ramming, Thomas M.

1997-01-01

92

Tetration: an iterative approach  

E-print Network

A matrix approach to continuous iteration is proposed for general formal series. It leads, in particular, to an order{to{order iteration of the exponential function, and consequently to an algorithmic approach to tetration. Lower{order approximations suggest that tetration may come to be of great interest for the description of involved dynamical systems.

R. Aldrovandi

2014-10-14

93

The NLERAP Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the start, NLERAP has been based on two major premises: one is that a sociocultural and sociopolitical approach to learning is more effective than a traditional approach, particularly in the case of populations that have historically been marginalized through their education; and the second is that research is more meaningful and inclusive…

Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Irizarry, Jason

2012-01-01

94

OTHER APPROACHES TO MANAGING  

E-print Network

Approaches Stormwater Regulation Seek to minimize runoff from urban lands by retention of water onsite May areas with potentially incompatible land uses Land Use Management Urban land uses include: ResidentialOTHER APPROACHES TO MANAGING POLLUTANT SOURCES Laws and Land Use [Chapter 10.2] Rules of Thumb Rule

95

Dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS for determination of total As, Cr, Se and V in complex matrices: still a challenge? A review.  

PubMed

Mass interferences, caused by atomic or polyatomic species and having the same mass/charge ratio of the analyte, can be a severe limit for a reliable assay of trace and ultratrace elements by ICP-MS. The DRC™ technology uses a reaction gas to overcome these interferences. Reactions of charge exchange, atom transfer, adduct formation, condensation and analyte association/condensation are the main mechanisms. Interfering ions tend to react with the gas exothermally, while, the analyte reacts endothermally. Selecting the most appropriate reaction gas in DRC-ICP-MS is the very critical point for the determination of strongly interfered elements. A careful evaluation of the reaction mechanisms and the chemistry involved are required. The DRC allows the use of different gases, among them, ammonia (NH(3)), methane (CH(4)), hydrogen (H(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) are the most known, but there are other potentially useful gases like nitrous oxide (N(2)O), nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), fluoromethane (CH(3)F), sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and carbon disulfide (CS(2)). This paper provides a review on the analytical challenges for a reliable assay of As, Cr, Se and V by DRC-ICP-MS and illustrates different approaches and mechanisms involved in the analysis of polymers, biological fluids (serum, urine and whole blood), rock, soil and particulate matter. PMID:21645653

D'Ilio, Sonia; Violante, Nicola; Majorani, Costanza; Petrucci, Francesco

2011-07-18

96

Generic approaches to transfer.  

PubMed

A review of methods which have been used to describe and predict transfer of radionuclides in biota was undertaken. The intent was to identify approaches that might prove useful in extending predictive estimates to other organisms and environments. Empirical approaches, such as found in the use of transfer factors, were examined. Kinetic methodologies were also presented. Allometric functions, with their ability to make broad generalizations, were also discussed. Data from several earlier radioecological assessments were tested for their potential utility in developing allometric relationships, with the result implying that such an approach might prove useful. PMID:17869391

Higley, K A; Bytwerk, D P

2007-01-01

97

Approaches to Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

98

Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... include techniques performed by a practitioner (such as acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and massage therapy) and natural products ( ... herbs, probiotics, and fish oil). Some approaches, including acupuncture and yoga, originated in Eastern countries such as ...

99

Editor's Note: Approaching Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students approach adaptations lessons, keep in mind that according to research, most lower-elementary school students are still forming a basic understanding of how animals survive in their environments. For example, many students understand a simple f

Froschauer, Linda

2010-01-01

100

Ten practice redesign approaches.  

PubMed

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val

2013-01-01

101

Negotiating the Relationship Between Addiction, Ethics, and Brain Science  

PubMed Central

Advances in neuroscience are changing how mental health issues such as addiction are understood and addressed as a brain disease. Although a brain disease model legitimizes addiction as a medical condition, it promotes neuro-essentialist thinking, categorical ideas of responsibility and free choice, and undermines the complexity involved in its emergence. We propose a ‘biopsychosocial systems’ model where psycho-social factors complement and interact with neurogenetics. A systems approach addresses the complexity of addiction and approaches free choice and moral responsibility within the biological, lived experience and socio-historical context of the individual. We examine heroin-assisted treatment as an applied case example within our framework. We conclude with a discussion of the model and its implications for drug policy, research, addiction health care systems and delivery, and treatment of substance use problems. PMID:20676352

Buchman, Daniel Z.; Skinner, Wayne; Illes, Judy

2010-01-01

102

New Approaches to Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to build autonomous robots that can carry out useful work in unstructured environments new approaches have been developed to building intelligent systems. The relationship to traditional academic robotics and traditional artificial intelligence is examined. In the new approaches a tight coupling of sensing to action produces architectures for intelligence that are networks of simple computational elements which are quite broad, but not very deep. Recent work within this approach has demonstrated the use of representations, expectations, plans, goals, and learning, but without resorting to the traditional uses of central, abstractly manipulable or symbolic representations. Perception within these systems is often an active process, and the dynamics of the interactions with the world are extremely important. The question of how to evaluate and compare the new to traditional work still provokes vigorous discussion.

Brooks, Rodney A.

1991-09-01

103

8 Malamalama INNOVATIVE APPROACHES  

E-print Network

8 Ma¯lamalama INNOVATIVE APPROACHES T he idea is as simple as the goal is audacious: become the only university in the world with dedi- cated rocket-launch capability. The University of Hawai`i at Ma and a half away. It will test SPARK (for space-borne payload assist rocket­Kaua`i) and its newly designed

Dong, Yingfei

104

Try the Inductive Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When science teachers pass up the use of an inductive approach in their teaching, they miss a golden opportunity to improve their chances of attaining one of their avowed and highly regarded objectives of science teaching--the development of ability to use

Boeck, Clarence H.

2000-01-01

105

New Approaches to Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the author, the chief duty of a teacher is "to do himself out of a job as quickly and efficiently as possible." If he were to take this aphorism seriously and consider instruction in terms of behavior changes in students, a teacher would be forced to re-examine his basic approaches to teaching. He might come to realize that his chief…

Garrison, Roger H.

106

Cultural approach to CDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a cultural approach to critical discourse analysis (CCDA) which aims at exposing the various ways in which cultural codes are embedded in discourse, and contribute to the reproduction of abuses of power. The article attempts to represent CCDA not only as a theoretical framework, but also as a practical tool for decoding the cultural ‘cargo’ contained within

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri

2011-01-01

107

Cultural approach to CDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a cultural approach to critical discourse analysis (CCDA) which aims at exposing the various ways in which cultural codes are embedded in discourse, and contribute to the reproduction of abuses of power. The article attempts to represent CCDA not only as a theoretical framework, but also as a practical tool for decoding the cultural ‘cargo’ contained within

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri

2012-01-01

108

Approaches to Relevance Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is relevance filtering, whichreduces communication and processing requirements byrelaying only relevant event and state information. Theemphasis in this paper has been placed on entity state trafficfor clarity and concreteness. Even so, the concepts andapproaches presented can certainly be extended to other datatypes as well.Two approaches to relevance filtering are examined: gridbasedand object-based. The key difference between these twoschemes

Daniel J. Van Hook; Steven J. Rak; James O. Calvin

1994-01-01

109

Marxian Approaches to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

Carnoy, Martin

110

Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

2009-01-01

111

Orion Emergency Mask Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction temperature and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

2008-01-01

112

Phenomenological Approach to Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking to determine the training methods that can most effectively develop highly proficient performance, this report describes the molecular analytic techniques currently used in the Air Force (the instructional systems (ISD) approach based on breaking a complex task into discrete steps) and presents the limitations of these techniques for…

Klein, Gary A.

113

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing

Marc H. Bornstein

2012-01-01

114

Overview of Curricular Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher education address the transition from after-college life in a variety of curricular approaches. Articulation agreements provide greater transferability of courses from one college to another, thereby easing the transition for students. Career courses, which are typically taught by career center staff, are a common offering…

Hartz, Cameo V.; Parker, Jill

2012-01-01

115

SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO PERMIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT SAN MATEO, FIVE INSTITUTIONS WITH SYSTEMS PROGRAMS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF TRIP NOTES. OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE HAS BEEN COMPLETELY ORGANIZED AROUND THE VOLUNTARY WORK-STUDY LABORATORY APPROACH TO LEARNING. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY, OKLAHOMA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, HENRY FORD…

WIENS, JACOB H.

116

Microwave approaches in hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave approaches for remote sensing of soil moisture centent, snowpack properties, surface water area, and the detection of precipitation over land are discussed. Both active (radar) and passive (radiometry) approaches are considered, and the advantages of microwave sensing are pointed out, including all-weather capability, especially at the longer wavelengths, and greater penetration depth with optical or infrared sensors. Results obtained from ground-based, aircraft, and spacecraft platforms show that microwave systems can monitor the moisture content in the surface soil layer (5 cm thick), and that passive microwave systems can discriminate between light and heavy snowcover, detect the presence of liquid water in the snow, and qualitatively estimate snow water equivalent.

Schmugge, T. J.

1980-01-01

117

Java: an eventful approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many have learned over the past several years, teaching a CS1 course in Java requires an entirely new approach. Because it is an object-oriented language, it is difficult to teach in the style used for imperative languages like Pascal, C, and even C++. Many have proposed teaching Java in an objects-first way, but others have complained that too many

Kim Bruce; Andrea Danyluk; Tom Murtagh

2004-01-01

118

Therapeutic Approaches to Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Obesity in the United States has become a public health crisis, with one third of the US population having a body mass index\\u000a ?30 kg\\/m2. Given the profound impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD), studies of lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy,\\u000a and surgical interventions must be reappraised to better define the roles of these approaches in preventing cardiovascular\\u000a events. Recent clinical

Tiffany M. Powell; Amit Khera

2010-01-01

119

Integrative approach to obesity.  

PubMed

Integrative medicine blends conventional medicine with carefully evaluated complementary therapies and considers all elements of a patient's lifestyle (physical, mental, spiritual). Integrative medicine therapies and philosophies have characteristics similar to those of successful treatment programs for pediatric obesity. This article defines pediatric obesity and explores those similarities in more detail. It also updates the practitioner on selected integrative approaches as they relate to prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. PMID:18061786

McClafferty, Hilary H

2007-12-01

120

Computational vaccinology: quantitative approaches.  

PubMed

The immune system is hierarchical and has many levels, exhibiting much emergent behaviour. However, at its heart are molecular recognition events that are indistinguishable from other types of biomacromolecular interaction. These can be addressed well by quantitative experimental and theoretical biophysical techniques, and particularly by methods from drug design. We review here our approach to computational immunovaccinology. In particular, we describe the JenPep database and two new techniques for T cell epitope prediction. One is based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (a 3D-QSAR method based on CoMSIA and another 2D method based on the Free-Wilson approach) and the other on atomistic molecular dynamic simulations using high performance computing. JenPep (http://www.jenner.ar.uk/ JenPep) is a relational database system supporting quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes, TAP transporters, TCR-pMHC complexes, and an annotated list of B cell and T cell epitopes. Our 2D-QSAR method factors the contribution to peptide binding from individual amino acids as well as 1-2 and 1-3 residue interactions. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (volume, electrostatic potential, hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor abilities) on peptide affinity were considered. Both methods are exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptide binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:14712934

Flower, Darren R; McSparron, Helen; Blythe, Martin J; Zygouri, Christianna; Taylor, Debra; Guan, Pingping; Wan, Shouzhan; Coveney, Peter V; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Doytchinova, Irini A

2003-01-01

121

The Community Reinforcement Approach  

PubMed Central

The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), originally developed for individuals with alcohol use disorders, has been successfully employed to treat a variety of substance use disorders for more than 35 years. Based on operant conditioning, CRA helps people rearrange their lifestyles so that healthy, drug-free living becomes rewarding and thereby competes with alcohol and drug use. Consequently, practitioners encourage clients to become progressively involved in alternative non-substance-related pleasant social activities, and to work on enhancing the enjoyment they receive within the “community” of their family and job. Additionally, in the past 10–15 years, researchers have obtained scientific evidence for two off-shoots of CRA that are based on the same operant mechanism. The first variant is Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which targets adolescents with substance use problems and their caregivers. The second approach, Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), works through family members to engage treatment-refusing individuals into treatment. An overview of these treatments and their scientific backing is presented. PMID:23580022

Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen

2011-01-01

122

System approach to steganalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital steganographic algorithms hide secret messages in seemingly innocent cover objects, such as images. Steganographic algorithms are rapidly evolving, reducing distortions, and making detection of altered cover objects by steganalysis algorithms more challenging. The value of current steganographic and steganalysis algorithms is difficult to evaluate until they are tested on realistic datasets. We propose a system approach to steganalysis for reliably detecting steganographic objects among a large number of images, acknowledging that most digital images are intact. The system consists of a cascade of intrinsic image formations filters (IIFFs), where the IIFFs in the early stage are designed to filter out non-stego images based on real world constraints, and the IIFFs in the late stage are designed to detect intrinsic features of specific steganographic routines. Our approach makes full use of all available constraints, leading to robust detection performance and low probability of false alarm. Our results based on a large image set from Flickr.com demonstrate the potential of our approach on large-scale real-world repositories.

Allen, Josef D.; Ty, Sereyvathana; Liu, Xiuwen

2011-06-01

123

A NEW CHALLENGE, A NEW OPPORTUNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This keynote address prepared for ''Contaminated Collections: Preservation, Access and Use'' Conference highlights several fundamental issues in dealing with pesticide contaminated collections, including: (1) legal and ethical concerns; (2) the immediate and serious impact of contamination for Native American communities; (3) the significant scale of the problem nationwide; and, (4) the need for prompt good-faith actions to maintain public trust

JAMES D. NASON

124

Accepting the Utopian Challenge: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) allows institutions to achieve the goals required for student learning and success. The purpose of this paper is to address recommendations for the implementation of SoTL that should have relevant input from students. These include, but are not limited to, better communication, evaluation, continuing…

Carman, Breanna R.

2013-01-01

125

Afghanistan's Opium Challenge: A Decentralized Solution  

E-print Network

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Afghanistan since 2003 is the largest producer of illicit opium in the world. In 2011, it produced 5,800 metric tons of opium from approximately 131,000 hectors ...

Masjidi, Shamroz Khan

2012-05-31

126

Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.  

PubMed

Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

Akhtar, Saeed

2015-01-01

127

A Little Area Challenge: A Sod Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As partners in a professional development project, the authors jumped at the opportunity to use a real-life problem to engage elementary and middle school teachers in a one-day exploration of the concept of area. "Length times width"--a common response to the question, "What is area?"--is a rote formulaic expression that applies only to certain…

Myers, Perla L.; Pelak, Colleen N.

2012-01-01

128

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of Camber, Detail of Framing of Arch Member of Bottom Chord, Isometric of T Blocks in Bottom Chord - Wood-Covered Bridge, Spanning Main Licking River, Butler, Pendleton County, KY

129

4. GENERAL ELEVATION, FROM SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING APPROACH ROADWAY, FENDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. GENERAL ELEVATION, FROM SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING APPROACH ROADWAY, FENDER SYSTEM IN RIVER AT CHANNEL, AND LENGTH OF TRUSS WITH COUNTERWEIGHT - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Sedden Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

130

Robotic intra-abdominal vasectomy reversal: A new approach to a difficult problem  

PubMed Central

The management of obstructive azoospermia resulting from intra-abdominal vasal obstruction poses a formidable surgical challenge. A number of surgical methods have been described to address this problem, including both open and laparoscopic approaches to mobilize and sometimes even re-route the abdominal vas deferens prior to performing a re-anastamosis. We present the first report, to our knowledge, of robotic intra-abdominal vasectomy reversal used to repair obstructive azoospermia resulting from prior laparoscopic vasectomy. In doing so, we summarize the techniques described previously in the literature and build upon this body of surgical experience by combining robotic-assisted laparoscopic mobilization of the vas with robotic vasovasostomy. We believe this novel approach for repairing intra-abdominal vasal defects minimizes morbidity, while at the same time obviating the need for the operating microscope, and thus represents a practical alternative to existing techniques. PMID:25024801

Barazani, Yagil; Kaouk, Jihad; Sabanegh, Edmund S.

2014-01-01

131

Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is becoming increasingly important for nuclear DNA-related disorders. Progress in each of these approaches provides some glimmer of hope for the future, although much work remains to be done. PMID:17486439

DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

2007-06-01

132

The collaboratory approach  

SciTech Connect

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

133

Combined approach brings success.  

PubMed

Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

Law, Oliver

2014-06-01

134

Radiative Decay:. Nonperturbative Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiative decay the coupled system, electron bound by some external potential plus radiation field, relaxes to the ground state in the long time limit. Our central issue is to prove such a behaviour on the basis of the corresponding Schrödinger equation. We argue that the spin-boson Hamiltonian is a simple, but physically still acceptable test case. We relate radiative decay to scattering theory and prove the existence of wave operators. Other approaches are reviewed and compared. Some challenging open problems are listed.

Hübner, Matthias; Spohn, Herbert

135

Approaches to Numerical Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23. Self-gravitating thin disks around rotating black holes A. Lanza; 24. An ADI and causal reconnection Gabrielle D. Allen and Bernard F. Schutz; 25. Time-symmetric ADI and causal reconnection Miguel Alcubierre and Bernard F. Schutz; 26. The numerical study of topological defects E. P. S. Shellard; 27. Computations of bubble growth during the cosmological quark-hadron transition J. C. Miller and O. Pantano; 28. Initial data of axisymmetric gravitational waves with a cosmological constant Ken-Ichi Nakao, Kei-Ichi Maeda, Takashi Nakamura and Ken-Ichi Oohara.

d'Inverno, Ray

2005-07-01

136

Paying for Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer about external links Menu Paying for Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction Spending on Complementary ... sources for additional information. Top Spending on Complementary Health Approaches in the United States According to the ...

137

Children and Complementary Health Approaches  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer about external links Menu Children and Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction Key Points Patterns ... care. Top Patterns on the Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Children According to the 2007 National ...

138

Two approaches to human rights  

E-print Network

Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

Holland, Sean Jamison

2009-01-01

139

[Clinical and behavioral approach].  

PubMed

During decades, the detection of alcohol related impairments was the main target for behavioral examination in drivers. The implementation of legislations on illegal drugs and driving, mainly cannabis, has led to an adaptation of the procedures by requiring, from the policemen, an evaluation of external signs of consumption, signs not anymore searched in case of alcohol. The current procedure in France consists in a medical evaluation by a required medical doctor, and based on the Field Sobriety test. This battery was nevertheless established for policemen and used by them in more than 40 countries. A present trend in the French authorities pushes to a back step to a chemical detection of drugs by policemen, by using saliva tests. This approach should have, in their opinion, the advantage of testing drivers without asking them to leave their car for an external evaluation. In our opinion, only a behavioral approach, could help the policemen to have at their disposal, relevant procedures for all situations, especially to face the increasing consumption of cannabis in drivers. PMID:16710115

Mercier-Guyon, C

2006-05-01

140

Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

2011-01-01

141

[Fournier syndrome: multidisciplinary approach].  

PubMed

Fournier's gangrene, a form of necrotizing fasciitis, is an uncommon, fulminant, rapidly progressing subcutaneous infection of the scrotum and genito-perineal region, and may occur in all age groups. Most cases involve a mixed synergistic infection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and occur as a result of one of this mechanisms: local trauma, extension from a perineal, periurethral or ischiorectal infection. It is associated with a high mortality rate. Predisposing factors included diabetes mellitus, steroids or chemotherapy, alcohol abuse, malignancy and radiation therapy. This disease requires prompt treatment: early diagnosis, antibiotic therapy, nutritional support, immediate extensive surgical debridement and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The use of etherologue serum is a valuable adjunct in the therapy of Fournier's gangrene. We report a case of Fournier's syndrome treated with etherologue serum immuno-therapy, together with the conventional multidisciplinary approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on day 50 post intervention in good general conditions. The 3 years follow-up showed no recurrence of the disease. In conclusion we remark that the survival can be improved in patients with Fournier's gangrene by multidisciplinary approach. PMID:11765356

Vescio, G; Battaglia, M; Sommella, L; Gallelli, G; Manzo, F; Cristiano, S F; Valente, A; Musella, S

2001-01-01

142

Predictive ecology: systems approaches  

PubMed Central

The world is experiencing significant, largely anthropogenically induced, environmental change. This will impact on the biological world and we need to be able to forecast its effects. In order to produce such forecasts, ecology needs to become more predictive—to develop the ability to understand how ecological systems will behave in future, changed, conditions. Further development of process-based models is required to allow such predictions to be made. Critical to the development of such models will be achieving a balance between the brute-force approach that naively attempts to include everything, and over simplification that throws out important heterogeneities at various levels. Central to this will be the recognition that individuals are the elementary particles of all ecological systems. As such it will be necessary to understand the effect of evolution on ecological systems, particularly when exposed to environmental change. However, insights from evolutionary biology will help the development of models even when data may be sparse. Process-based models are more common, and are used for forecasting, in other disciplines, e.g. climatology and molecular systems biology. Tools and techniques developed in these endeavours can be appropriated into ecological modelling, but it will also be necessary to develop the science of ecoinformatics along with approaches specific to ecological problems. The impetus for this effort should come from the demand coming from society to understand the effects of environmental change on the world and what might be performed to mitigate or adapt to them. PMID:22144379

Evans, Matthew R.; Norris, Ken J.; Benton, Tim G.

2012-01-01

143

Fournier's gangrene current approaches.  

PubMed

Fournier's gangrene is a rare but highly mortal infectious disease characterised by fulminant necrotising fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. The objective of this study is to analyse the demographics, clinical feature and treatment approaches as well as outcomes of Fournier's gangrene. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and operative notes. Patient data were analysed by demographics, aetiological factors, clinical features, treatment approaches and outcomes. Twelve patients (five female and seven male) were enrolled in this study. The most common aetiology was perianal abscess (41·6%). Wound cultures showed a mixture of microorganisms in six (50%) patients. For faecal diversion, while colostomy was performed in six cases (50%), Flexi-Seal was used in two cases (16·6%). In four patients (33·4%), no faecal diversion was performed. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system was effective in the last four patients (33·4%). The mean hospitalisation period in patients who used NPWT was 18?days, while it was 20?days in the others. NPWT in Fournier's gangrene is a safe dressing method. It promotes granulation formation. Flexi-Seal faecal management is an alternative method to colostomy and provides protection from its associated complications. The combination of two devices (Flexi-Seal and NPWT) is an effective and comfortable method in the management of Fournier's gangrene in appropriate patients. PMID:25145578

Ozkan, Omer F; Koksal, Neset; Altinli, Ediz; Celik, Atilla; Uzun, Mehmet A; C?kman, Oztekin; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ergun, Ersin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Karaayvaz, Muammer

2014-08-22

144

DATA-DRIVEN APPROACHES TO  

E-print Network

DATA-DRIVEN APPROACHES TO NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING Guy De Pauw #12;Data-Driven Approach to Natural Language Processing - CURRENT TRENDS IN AI VUB 20/4/2012 WHO AM I? http://aflat.org/guy · Born for African languages - AfLaT.org #12;Data-Driven Approach to Natural Language Processing - CURRENT TRENDS

Steels, Luc

145

Substance misuse teaching in undergraduate medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of the undergraduate medical curriculum were conducted to identify the methods used to teach substance misuse. Using a previously devised toolkit, 19 curriculum co-ordinators then mapped the actual teaching sessions that addressed substance misuse learning objectives. Results Substance misuse teaching was delivered primarily in psychiatry modules but learning objectives were also found in other areas such as primary care placements and problem-based learning. On average, 53 teaching sessions per medical school focused on bio-psycho-social models of addiction whereas only 23 sessions per medical school focused on professionalism, fitness to practice and students’ own health in relation to substance misuse. Many sessions addressed specific learning objectives relating to the clinical features of substance dependence whereas few focused on iatrogenic addiction. Conclusions Substance misuse teaching is now inter-disciplinary and the frequent focus on clinical, psychological and social effects of substance misuse emphasises the bio-psycho-social approach underlying clinical practice. Some areas however are not frequently taught in the formal curriculum and these need to be addressed in future changes to medical education. PMID:24533849

2014-01-01

146

[Fibromyalgia syndrome - updated s3 guidelines].  

PubMed

Patients with chronic widespread pain often present with musculo-skeletal pain and therefore often initially contact an orthopaedist. For these patients fibromyalgia syndrome is an important differential diagnosis. Recommendations for the diagnosis of and therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome based on the recent German S3 guidelines for fibromyalgia syndrome (AWMF registration number 041/004) are outlined in this paper. These guidelines were developed under the coordination of the German interdisciplinary association for pain management DIVS and two patient support groups. The history of a typical symptom complex and the exclusion of relevant somatic causes for the pain are epecially relevant for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Besides the exclusion of relevant orthopaedic causes for the pain, psycho-social aspects should always be evaluated. According to the modified ACR criteria 2010, chronic widespread pain and accompanying sleep disturbances and a physical as well as mental state of exhaustion lead to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. It is not mandatory to check tender points (ACR 1990 criteria). A graduated treatment approach depending on the severity level of the fibromyalgia syndrome in the individual patient is recommended. Active treatment options (aerobic training, meditative movement therapies, strength training) should be preferred to any drug therapy in the long-term treatment of fibromyalgia. If indicated, amitryptiline or duloxetine may be used to treat accompanying depressive or generalised anxiety disorder. Muscle relaxant medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioids should be avoided. The multimodal pain therapy considering all psycho-social aspects is a promising treatment option for fibromyalgia syndrome of moderate to high severity. PMID:24347415

Dreher, T; Häuser, W; Schiltenwolf, M

2013-12-01

147

An environmental approach  

SciTech Connect

The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

Geerling, C.

1996-11-01

148

Approaching the new reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

Diaz, Al V.

1993-01-01

149

Investigational Approaches for Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients. PMID:22666659

Surmont, Veerle F.; van Thiel, Eric R. E.; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.

2011-01-01

150

Endoscopic approach to achalasia  

PubMed Central

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to < 15 mmHg and/or an improved radiological esophageal clearance post-PD. However PD has a significant risk for esophageal perforation, which occurs in about 2%-3% of cases. In randomized, controlled studies BT injection was inferior to PD and surgical cardiomyotomy, whereas the efficacy of PD, in patients > 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393

Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till

2013-01-01

151

Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

2014-05-01

152

An Integrative Medicine Approach to Asthma: Who Responds?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of which patients with chronic illness tend to respond to integrative medicine interventions, by identifying a set of characteristics or qualities that are associated with a positive outcome in a randomized clinical trial of an integrative medicine approach to asthma that incorporated journaling, yoga breathing instruction, and nutritional manipulation and supplementation. Design The study used qualitative analysis using a grounded-theory approach comparing a group of responders in the parent trial (based on the Asthma Quality of Life Scale) to a group of nonresponders. Results Twelve (12) responders and 8 nonresponders were interviewed. Responders demonstrated an attitude of “change as challenge;” a view of themselves as “independent” and “leaders;” an ability to accept one's illness while still maintaining a feeling of control over one's choices; a connection to the deeper context or meaning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, as opposed to just “previous experience” of CAM; and a sense of determination, commitment, and “willingness to fight” for what one needs from the health care system. Nonresponders were more often uncertain and anxious in their relationship to their asthma, tending to fall back on denial, and lacking a connection to the deeper context or philosophy of CAM interventions. Conclusions It is possible to identify a set of characteristics that may predict a positive response to an integrative/lifestyle approach to asthma. These characteristics should be examined prospectively using both quantitative and qualitative methods in future integrative medicine clinical trials. PMID:22905985

McKee, Melissa Diane; Sackett, Esther; Levenson, Hanniel; Kenney, Jeanne; Karasz, Alison

2012-01-01

153

Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1? and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint

2008-01-01

154

COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach  

PubMed Central

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

2006-01-01

155

Pharmacogenomics: a systems approach  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involve the study of the role of inheritance in individual variation in drug response, a phenotype that varies from potentially life-threatening adverse drug reactions to equally serious lack of therapeutic efficacy. Pharmacogenetics-pharmacogenomics represents a major component of the movement to `individualized medicine'. Pharmacogenetic studies originally focused on monogenic traits, often involving genetic variation in drug metabolism. However, contemporary studies increasingly involve entire `pathways' that include both pharmacokinetics (PKs)—factors that influence the concentration of a drug reaching its target(s)—and pharmacodynamics (PDs), factors associated with the drug target(s), as well as genome-wide approaches. The convergence of advances in pharmacogenetics with rapid developments in human genomics has resulted in the evolution of pharmacogenetics into pharmacogenomics. At the same time, studies of drug response are expanding beyond genomics to encompass pharmacotranscriptomics and pharmacometabolomics to become a systems-based discipline. This discipline is also increasingly moving across the `translational interface' into the clinic and is being incorporated into the drug development process and governmental regulation of that process. The article will provide an overview of the development of pharmacogenetics-pharmacogenomics, the scientific advances that have contributed to the continuing evolution of this discipline, the incorporation of transcriptomic and metabolomic data into attempts to understand and predict variation in drug response phenotypes as well as challenges associated with the `translation' of this important aspect of biomedical science into the clinic. PMID:20836007

Wang, Liewei

2014-01-01

156

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

2012-06-01

157

Approaches to refractory epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

Engel, Jerome

2014-01-01

158

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

2012-01-01

159

Approach to hypohidrosis.  

PubMed

Hypohidrosis refers to diminished sweating in response to appropriate stimuli. This can cause hyperthermia, heat exhaustion and death. The aetiology of hypohidrosis can be divided into exogenous, dermatological and neurological causes. Exogenous causes act either by systemic neurohormonal inhibition of sweating or localised damage to the skin and sweat glands. Dermatological disorders can result from congenital disorders, wherein other ectodermal tissues may also be affected, or acquired disorders in which manifestations of the primary disease predominate. Neurological disorders should be classified based on an upper motor neuron or lower motor neuron pattern of disease. In the former, there is spasticity and hyperactive reflexes whereas in the latter, flaccidity and hypoactive reflexes predominate. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrois refers to isolated anhidrosis with no other detectable abnormalities. When approaching a patient with hypohidrois, exogenous causes should first be excluded. Physical examination, paying attention to mucocutaneous manifestations and neurological signs, will dichotomise if the lesion is dermatological or neurological. In the former, a skin biopsy is the investigation of choice. In the latter, one should consider magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord for upper motor neuron lesions, nerve conduction tests for lower motor neuron lesions and autonomic nerve function tests for autonomic dysfunction. Finally, if a diagnosis of acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis is suspected, a quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test and serum immunoglobulin-E levels may be performed. Treatment involves addressing the underlying condition and avoidance of aggravating factors. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis responds well to high dose systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23094789

Chia, K Y; Tey, H L

2013-07-01

160

New Approaches to Final Cooling  

E-print Network

A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

Neuffer, David

2015-01-01

161

Cooperative Approaches for Implementation of  

E-print Network

credits, dairy, methane, renewable energy Cooperative Approaches for Implementation of Dairy Manure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Contents #12;Highlights Dairy operations routinely handle about 500 billion pounds of cow manure

Laughlin, Robert B.

162

Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.  

PubMed

Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the syndrome of neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), and Leigh's syndrome. Likewise, other diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a very important role include neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or cancer. Generally, in mitochondrial diseases a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA leads to a loss of functionality of the OXPHOS system and thus to a depletion of ATP and overproduction of ROS, which can, in turn, induce further mtDNA mutations. The work by Yu-Ting Wu, Shi-Bei Wu, and Yau-Huei Wei (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan) [4] focuses on the aforementioned mitochondrial diseases with special attention to the compensatory mechanisms that prompt mitochondria to produce more energy even under mitochondrial defect-conditions. These compensatory mechanisms include the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and overexpression of respiratory complex subunits, as well as metabolic shift to glycolysis. The pathways observed to be related to mitochondrial biogenesis as a compensatory adaptation to the energetic deficits in mitochondrial diseases are described (PGC- 1, Sirtuins, AMPK). Several pharmacological strategies to trigger these signaling cascades, according to these authors, are the use of bezafibrate to activate the PPAR-PGC-1? axis, the activation of AMPK by resveratrol and the use of Sirt1 agonists such as quercetin or resveratrol. Other strategies currently used include the addition of antioxidant supplements to the diet (dietary supplementation with antioxidants) such as L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10,MitoQ10 and other mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin K1, vitamin B, sodium pyruvate or -lipoic acid. As aforementioned, other diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an importan

Valero, Teresa

2014-01-01

163

Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

2013-01-01

164

Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

Hesse, M. G., Ed.

165

The Bifurcation Approach Hyperbolic Geometry  

E-print Network

1 The Bifurcation Approach To Hyperbolic Geometry Abraham A. Ungar Department of Mathematics North of relativity physics gives rise to important isometries in hyperbolic geometry that expose analogies with Eu­ clidean geometry. These, in turn, suggest our bifurcation approach to hy­ perbolic geometry, according

Ungar, Abraham A.

166

A Multifaceted Approach to Ichnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace fossils link paleontology and sedimentology in ways that most body fossils cannot achieve. A multifaceted approach to ichnology helps to bridge the gap the biologic and geologic standpoints, to connect different levels of analysis (conceptual framework, explanatory schemata and applications), and to reconcile dichotomic views (e.g., adaptationist vs. interactionist approaches, time's arrow vs, time's cycle perspectives) by integrating the

M. Gabriela Mángano; Luis A. Buatois

2012-01-01

167

Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance  

PubMed Central

Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25363806

Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

2014-01-01

168

Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.  

PubMed

Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25363806

Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

2014-12-01

169

Hemodialysis patients' psychosocial characteristics and quality of life indicators.  

E-print Network

??This research examines Hemodialysis patients' psycho-social characteristics and predictors of quality of life and compliance at a small rural hospital. Sixty-four patients from the hemodialysis… (more)

Riopelle, Donna Michele.

2005-01-01

170

Job Title Licensed Clinical Psychologist Employer/ Agency SELIM Behavioral Health Network, Inc  

E-print Network

, anger management, grief issues, school issues, mood disorders, anxiety, trauma, abuse, and neglect Counselors, Licensed Clinical Social Workers, Behavior Specialists (LPC-I), Licensed Chemical Dependence by providing professional, testing, psycho-social assessments and psychotherapy individual, group, family home

Azevedo, Ricardo

171

RESEARCH Open Access Validation of a French version of the Freiburg  

E-print Network

]. Mindfulness is therefore employed in the treatment of various anxiety disorders, for example in the non of the article Trousselard et al. BioPsychoSocial Medicine 2010, 4:8 http://www.bpsmedicine.com/content/4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Computers at home, new spatial needs? : a case study  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates five families in Boston who have introduced computers into their homes. The analysis is interdisciplinary and each case has been considered in terms of psycho-social and architectural terms. The ...

Franco, Adriana

1982-01-01

173

New Approaches in the Development of a Vaccine for Mucosal Candidiasis: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis. PMID:22905033

Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Pietrella, Donatella

2012-01-01

174

New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis. PMID:22905033

Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Pietrella, Donatella

2012-01-01

175

Supporting learning and promoting conceptual change with box and AVOW diagrams. Part 1: Representational design and instructional approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new approach to the teaching of electricity is described that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit which portray current, voltage, resistance and power. The diagrams have been developed as aids to learning, understanding and problem solving. They also have the potential to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of commonly held misconceptions. The diagrams have been incorporated into A-level teaching materials on d.c. circuit theory and the rationale for this approach is contrasted with a number of strategies that have previously been reported. Part 2 of this paper (Cheng and Shipstone, International Journal of Science Education, in press) will present the results of preliminary school-based trials.

Shipstone, David; Cheng, Peter

2005-11-03

176

Diakoptical approach in telecommunication engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

Oksana Yevsyeyeva

2010-01-01

177

New approach to purifying silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon tetrafluoride gas removes metallurgical-grade impurities when passed over silicon in quartz tube. Technique allows inexpensive increase in throughout rate. Approach could improve silicon production for silicon solar cells.

Chaney, R. E.; Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.

1980-01-01

178

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

179

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction  

MedlinePLUS

... on effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. If you are seeking treatment, please call the ... found online at www.findtreatment.samhsa.gov . Drug addiction is a complex illness characterized by intense and, ...

180

Systems approaches in risk assessment.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events (ADEs) remain a universal problem in drug development, regulatory review, and clinical practice with a substantial financial burden on the global health-care system. Recent advances in molecular and "omics" technologies, along with online databases and bioinformatics, have enabled a more integrative approach to understanding drug-target (protein) interactions, both desirable and undesirable, within a biological system. This has led to the development of systems approaches to risk assessment in an attempt to complement and improve on contemporary observational and predictive strategies for assessing risk. Although still in an evolutionary phase, systems approaches have the potential to markedly advance our understanding of ADEs and ability to predict them. Systems approaches will also move personalized medicine forward by enabling better identification of individual and subgroup risk factors. PMID:23531724

Lesko, L J; Zheng, S; Schmidt, S

2013-05-01

181

STP Approach To Equilibrium Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ApproachToEquilibrium program displays the number of particles on one half of a box as a function of time after a small hole is made in the partition dividing the box in half. The purpose of this simulation is to gain insight into the tendency of macroscopic systems to approach a well defined equilibrium macrostate and the improtance of fluctuations in equilibrium. ApproachToEquilibrium is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready- to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp ApproachToEquilibrium.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional Open Source Physics programs for Statistical and Thermal Physics can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-10-10

182

Practical Approaches to Green Solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvents are widely used in commercial manufacturing and service industries. Despite abundant precaution, they inevitably contaminate our air, land, and water because they are difficult to contain and recycle. Researchers have therefore focused on reducing solvent use through the development of solvent-free processes and more efficient recycling protocols. However, these approaches have their limitations, necessitating a pollution prevention approach and the search for environmentally benign solvent alternatives. This report highlights opportunities for the practical implementation of such green solvents.

DeSimone, Joseph M.

2002-08-01

183

Percutaneous approaches to mitral regurgitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Percutaneous therapy for mitral repair has emerged over the past several years as an investigational option for treating mitral\\u000a regurgitation (MR). A variety of novel methods to treat MR using a percutaneous route have been developed. Most of these approaches\\u000a are modifications of surgical techniques, some established and some obscure. The basic surgical approaches to mitral repair\\u000a are annuloplasty

Faisal Alqoofi; Ted Feldman

2009-01-01

184

Probabilistic Approaches for Incomplete Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most structural optimization problems that have been investigated use approaches designed for complete data. Nevertheless,\\u000a some parametric probabilistic problems of optimal structural design with limiting state and buckling constraints have been\\u000a formulated and investigated in [AB73, ABC84, AC79, Bra84, DFH77, ETB84, AGRZ84, EKS86, Mos77, Mar95, BV07]. Nondeterministic approaches have been used for some optimal design problems when the external conditions

N. V. Banichuk; Pekka Neittaanmäki

185

RURAL DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES AND PETTY COMMODITY PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

­This study aims to discuss rural chance and development, which has became one of the globally important issues related with globally increasing poverty and hunger problems. For this purpose, three approaches, system approaches, decision-making approaches and historical-structural approaches are discussed on their main ideas. Lastly, petty commodity production is discussed on the base of these three approaches.

Sinasi Ozturk

2009-01-01

186

Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information  

PubMed Central

In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.

2013-01-01

187

Systems Science Approach to Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

188

[Modern treatment approaches to gambling.  

PubMed

Compulsive gambling has received widespread attention in the last decade. Gambling has become the first non-chemical addiction, which went down to the section "Addiction and related disorders" of the modern DSM-V. The review considers non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to the treatment of gambling. Among non-drug approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-step programs have gained the most popularity in the "Gamblers Anonymous" community. Among pharmacological approaches, three classes of drugs: antidepressants (mainly SSRIs), opiate antagonists (naltrexone and nalmefene) and mood stabilizers (valproate, lithium, topiramate) proved to be effective in treatment of gambling. No differences in the efficacy of the three classes of psychotropic drugs have been identified. Preliminary results for N-acetylcysteine and memantine cause optimism in terms of perspective. PMID:24988975

Egorov, A Iu

2014-01-01

189

Surgical approaches of endobronchial neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Endobronchial tumors are a rare entity that presents with different pathological findings. The interventional pulmonologist, but also the thoracic surgeon have at their disposal the same techniques for diagnosis, however; the two modalities differentiate in the treatment approach. Diagnosis evaluation should include lymph node evaluation. Minimal invasive techniques under local or general anesthesia are usually preferred by the interventional pulmonologists, whereas in the surgical approach of the thoracic surgeons the general anesthesia is necessary. A more extensive surgical approach either lobotomy or pneumonectomy should be performed in cases with positive intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Carinal reconstruction should be performed skillfully to get a negative proximal margin whenever needed. In the current manuscript we will present the methods of patient evaluation and surgical techniques for the management of these lesions. PMID:24102010

Li, Zhigang; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Kesisis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

190

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

191

Alternative breast-imaging approaches.  

PubMed

Although conventional breast-imaging techniques routinely include mammography and ultrasound, growing interest in other approaches, perhaps most notably MR imaging, has drawn increasing attention to exploiting the anatomic and physiologic basis for understanding breast cancer. Nuclear medicine techniques have been applied in several circumstances with the intent of approaching or defining a role for molecular imaging, exemplified by the use of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Other techniques, including exploitation of additional components of the electromagnetic spectrum, have provided novel concepts that may ripen into clinical use. PMID:17888777

Brenner, R James; Parisky, Yuri

2007-09-01

192

Terra Harvest mission programming approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terra Harvest is a DIA sponsored program that is developing a next generation architecture for Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) interoperability. One key element of this program is a mission programming methodology that allows standardization of the work flow required to program an UGS system. This technology is a key enabler needed to standardize the user experience. This paper describes the requirements for the Terra Harvest mission system and summarizes the different approaches that were considered for the mission system. This paper also describes the implementation of the JavaScript-based approach for mission programming that was selected for use in the Terra Harvest system.

Kovach, Jesse B.

2012-06-01

193

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

194

Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment  

SciTech Connect

The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

1980-09-01

195

Structural Approach to Injury Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of disability and death from childhood injury can be achieved through structural modifications which make environments less permissive. The structural approach suggests preventive strategies, but the strategies must be used, must not require frequent individual action, and must not depend on the behavior of the children. (VM)

Wilson, Modena; Baker, Susan

1987-01-01

196

ENGLISH WRITING, APPROACHES TO COMPOSITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER FOCUSES ON APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF COMPOSITION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. THE PAPERS ARE (1) "LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION," BY JAMES F. MCCAMPBELL, (2) "COMPOSING--EPIPHANY AND DETAIL," BY JOSEPH DYESS, (3) "THE LANGUAGE COMPOSITION ACT," BY LESTER E.…

Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

197

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-print Network

as a result of free trade, atmospheric transport of trace pollutants, and urbanization. Available waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee Photos courtesy of Dr. Frederick Bloetscher, PE W e are a diverse community of water profes- sionals. We

Central Florida, University of

198

Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry

199

Comparative Politics : a Policy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative Politics: A Policy Approach is a unique text in that it integrates a comprehensive study of eight nations with critical policy issues facing those nations. The individual chapters on the United States, the United Kingdom, the Russian Federation, Japan, China, Mexico, South Africa and Iraq provide a wide-ranging examination of nations that are representative of the diversity in decision-making

Michael Kryzanek

2004-01-01

200

Twenty Approaches to Individual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews traditional helping systems of therapy, i.e., psychonalytic, experiential/phenomenological, cognitive, and behavioral, as well as mind-body systems approaches of transcendental meditation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise training, nutrition, and bioenergetics analysis. Therapists are admonished to learn about these various…

Ewing, Dorlesa Barmettler

1977-01-01

201

BIOMIMETIC APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of international research on biomimicry in relation to the built environment identifies various obstacles to the employment of such a methodology. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clearly defined approach to biomimicry that designers with little specialist knowledge in the fields of biology or ecology can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review,

Maibritt Pedersen

202

Writing Approaches of Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy

2007-01-01

203

Organizational Planning: A Systems Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the need for organizational planning in a rapidly changing society and examines how a systems approach to needs assessment can meet that need. In the foreword, futurologist Earl Joseph discusses the phenomenon of social change and need for systematic planning to anticipate and direct change. In chapter 1, the authors present an…

Speiker, Charles A.; Buhl, Anthony J.

204

A Freudian Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

Gartner, Sandra L.

205

A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

Ramvi, Ellen

2012-01-01

206

A Backward Approach to Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sciences, the National Science Education Standards further emphasize that learning science is an inquiry-based process; therefore, teaching methods should be inquiry-based. Use a backwards design approach to ensure that academic standards are met during student-centered, inquiry-based investigations for daily class activities, classroom discussions, and assessment of student understanding.

Sher Hendrickson

2006-01-01

207

Functional Approach to Stochastic Inflation  

E-print Network

We propose functional approach to the stochastic inflationary universe dynamics. It is based on path integral representation of the solution to the differential equation for the scalar field probability distribution. In the saddle-point approximation scalar field probability distributions of various type are derived and the statistics of the inflationary-history-dependent functionals is developed.

Yuri V. Shtanov

1994-07-22

208

Guitar Class: A Multifaceted Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the bias linking guitars to popular culture has needlessly limited approaches to teaching guitar. Examines how each of five current programs develops different music skills. Advocates a comprehensive, multifaceted program capable of emphasizing student skills in melody, harmony, perception, creativity, and performance over six years…

Bartel, Lee R.

1990-01-01

209

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

210

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

211

Comparative Psychology: An Epigenetic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…

Greenberg, Gary

1987-01-01

212

Interdisciplinary approach in engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational

Anda Zeidmane; Sarmite Cernajeva

2011-01-01

213

Aluminum anodization process modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose approach for modeling thin aluminum film anodization in three dimensions using variation of coupled lattice map on volumetric grid, which is capable of capturing porous and nonporous aluminum oxide growth and electrochemical polishing modes. Model derivation is based on Parkhutik and Shershulsky understandings. Numerical simulation results for various initial conditions are shown and compared to experimental data.

Belov, Alexey N.; Vorobiev, Maksim I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.; Shevyakov, Vasiliy I.

2014-12-01

214

FRIENDSHIP AND COMMUNICATION: APPROACHING BETWEEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This compact essay aims at promoting an approaching of some core aspects related to the Idea of communication of existence philosophy of Karl Jaspers and some extracts of the exposition of the philia that Aristotle presents in his Nicomachean Ethics. It does not convey an accurate and detailed exegesis, but a daring attempt of conceiving a possible dialog between mentioned

Gerson Brea; KARL JASPERS

2009-01-01

215

An Approach to Computational Semiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce the theoretical foundations of an approach for intelligent systems development. Derived from semiotics, a classic discipline in hu man sciences, the theory developed p rovides a mathematical framework for the concept of knowledge a nd for knowledge processing. As a result, a new perspective to study and to develop intelligent systems emerges.

Ricardo Gudwin; Fernando Gomide

1997-01-01

216

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the problem of an inadequate science teaching approach at a time when students need to be familiar with, and be able to understand, global problems and personal problems delving into complex, interrelated issues based on the science of a living universe. This report focuses on research about the problems in science education,…

McGinnis, Jane

217

Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile  

E-print Network

Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau - France European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) 22 October 2010 #12;Density Functional Theory 1. Any observable of a quantum system can be obtained from the density of the system alone. = O[n] Hohenberg, P. and W. Kohn

Botti, Silvana

218

A SYSTEM APPROACH FOR EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATION MUST BE DEVELOPED WHICH ARE IN KEEPING WITH TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE. A DOCTRINE OF "CONCURRENCY" IS NECESSARY SO THAT EDUCATION WILL COINCIDE WITH NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SOCIETY. A SYSTEM APPROACH IN EDUCATION CAN DO THIS BY PROVIDING A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR PLANNING, ORDERLY CONSIDERATION OF FUNCTIONS AND RESOURCES, AND A…

STEWART, DONALD

219

of Schizophrenia New Approaches to  

E-print Network

The Nature of Schizophrenia New Approaches to Research and Treatment Lyman C. Wynne Professor Transmission Chapter 6 A Genetic Perspective on Schizophrenia Kenneth K. Kidd, Ph.D. GENES AND ENVIRONMENT Genetic studies of schizophrenia can be both challenging and frustrating to a geneticist: challenging

Kidd, Kenneth

220

Teaching Creation: A Modular Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article describes a modular approach to teaching Genesis 1-3 that values depth over breadth even in an introductory class. The module allows students to learn about the text and its original context by orienting discussion around contemporary issues of practical concern. Specifically, the creation-evolution debates provide an…

Bosworth, David A.

2007-01-01

221

A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

2014-05-01

222

Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

Mauderly, J L

1993-01-01

223

Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

Stark, Richard B., Ed.

224

Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

Monaghan, John

2007-01-01

225

Psychotherapy and Alcoholics Anonymous: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a rationale for, and a method of, combining a nonprofessional self-help addiction recovery program, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and a professional treatment approach, psychotherapy. The two approaches share a common goal, target similar issues, and work toward similar outcomes. A psychotherapy approach that integrates the two approaches can be quite powerful. Treating a patient in psychotherapy who is

William A. Knack

2009-01-01

226

Synchronized Flashing Lights For Approach And Docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed optoelectronic system for guiding vehicle in approaching and docking with another vehicle includes active optical targets (flashing lights) on approached vehicle synchronized with sensor and image-processing circuitry on approaching vehicle. Conceived for use in automated approach and docking of two spacecraft. Also applicable on Earth to manually controlled and automated approach and docking of land vehicles, aircraft, boats, and submersible vehicles, using GPS or terrestrial broadcast time signals for synchronization. Principal advantage: optical power reduced, with consequent enhancement of safety.

Book, Michael L.; Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Bell, Joseph L.

1994-01-01

227

Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

1992-01-01

228

Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

2003-01-01

229

Transanal resection: a novel approach.  

PubMed

Due to the increase in screening programs, more rectal polyps and early rectal cancers are detected. Transanal resection of these lesions is less invasive than a transabdominal approach. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) has gained a lot of interest, but the technique has several drawbacks such as the expensive instrumentation and considerable learning curve. With the evolution of single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), new devices have become available. This led to the development of a hybrid technique of transanal surgery. The technique combines a transanal approach, a SILS port and standard laparoscopic instruments. We used this technique in 2 cases. PMID:24941719

Van Loo, S; Vanderputte, S

2013-01-01

230

Snow metamorphism: a fractal approach  

E-print Network

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapour and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameter. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution o...

Carbone, Anna; Frigo, Barbara; Turk, Christian; 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036103

2010-01-01

231

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach. PMID:23078400

Mehra, T; Köberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

232

Laparoscopic approach to retrorectal cyst.  

PubMed

Retrorectal cysts are rare benign lesions in the presacral space which are frequently diagnosed in middle-aged females. We report here our experience with two symptomatic female patients who were diagnosed as having a retrorectal cyst and managed using a laparoscopic approach. The two patients were misdiagnosed as having an ovarian cystic lesion after abdominal ultrasonography. Computer tomograghy (CT) scan was mandatory to establish the diagnosis. The trocar port site was the same in both patients. An additional left oophorectomy was done for a coexisting ovarian cystic lesion in one patient in the same setting. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality and the two patients were discharged on the 5th and 6th post operative days, respectively. Our cases show that laparoscopic management of retrorectal cysts is a safe approach. It reduces surgical trauma and offers an excellent tool for perfect visualization of the deep structures in the presacral space. PMID:19030218

Gunkova, Petra; Martinek, Lubomir; Dostalik, Jan; Gunka, Igor; Vavra, Petr; Mazur, Miloslav

2008-11-14

233

A multiparadigm approach to nursing.  

PubMed

Nursing theory development has made good progress in differentiating the domain of nursing from medicine; many of these theories are categorized as holistic theories. Nursing classification systems are also being developed to organize extant nursing practice. The dissonance between the two has been one of the most difficult contemporary issues for the leadership of nursing. A framework is proposed that would account for these disparate approaches. This proposed framework for the domain of healing is in keeping with the metaparadigm of health and uses a multiple paradigm approach. Nursing interventions are discussed in relation to the framework. It invites a dialogue in keeping with the scholarship of holism. Practice and scholarship implications are discussed. PMID:9266014

Engebretson, J

1997-09-01

234

Different approaches of spectral analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

Lacoume, J. L.

1977-01-01

235

New approaches in GMO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics,\\u000a genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected\\u000a that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection\\u000a of one target at a

Maddalena Querci; Marc Van den Bulcke; Jana Žel; Guy Van den Eede; Hermann Broll

2010-01-01

236

Dual approaches for defects condensation  

E-print Network

We review two methods used to approach the condensation of defects phenomenon. Analyzing in details their structure, we show that in the limit where the defects proliferate until occupy the whole space these two methods are dual equivalent prescriptions to obtain an effective theory for the phase where the defects (like monopoles or vortices) are completely condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where the defects are diluted.

L. S. Grigorio; M. S. Guimaraes; R. Rougemont; C. Wotzasek

2009-08-04

237

Brachytherapy Techniques: The Arizona Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the Arizona approach to APBI. Six brachytherapy techniques for the delivery of APBI are discussed. Each\\u000a has its advantages and disadvantages, and a strong recommendation is for the radiation oncology\\/surgical team to have many,\\u000a if not all, techniques of delivering partial breast irradiation in their armamentarium. If a patient who is otherwise a candidate\\u000a for partial breast

Robert R. Kuske

238

The supervisory approach: a critique  

E-print Network

diversification. A set of loans therefore requires less capital if it is securitised (or ‘synthetically’ securitised using credit derivatives). Jones presents an estimate that outstanding non-mortgage securitisations sponsored by the ten largest bank holding... ), the ‘Basel 2’ review has been largely motivated by regulatory arbitrage, and in particular by securitisation. Supervision has received renewed attention in recent years, and bank supervisors have modified their approach. Like auditors, supervisors have...

Ward, Jonathan

2002-01-01

239

Recommended approach to sofware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of guideline for an organized, disciplined approach to software development, based on data collected and studied for 46 flight dynamics software development projects. Methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements analysis and ends with acceptance testing are described; maintenance and operation is not addressed. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and the products produced and their reviews are presented.

Mcgarry, F. E.; Page, J.; Eslinger, S.; Church, V.; Merwarth, P.

1983-01-01

240

Thermodynamic approach to generalized continua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small-strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, Peter; Berezovski, Arkadi; Papenfuss, Christina

2014-05-01

241

The enter-educate approach.  

PubMed

This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

1992-03-01

242

An abstract approach to music.  

SciTech Connect

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

243

New approaches in GMO detection.  

PubMed

The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches. PMID:19876618

Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann

2010-03-01

244

Neuromodulation: Selected approaches and challenges  

PubMed Central

The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The “wiring” of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromoduation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes have proven effective in modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture as well as in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing “misfiring” neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us. PMID:23190025

Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A.; Tass, Peter A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H.; Andrews, Russell J.

2012-01-01

245

On Approach: Jupiter and Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io

This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter.

Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot.

The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.

2007-01-01

246

Manure management. A systems approach.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the management of manure nutrients has focused primarily on the production, collection, storage, and field application of manure. By contrast, a total systems approach expands this focus to include concerns about human and animal health, odor and fly control, nutrient import and handling, ration balancing and feeding management to optimize dietary nutrient utilization, management of crop harvest and storage to maximize feed palatability and nutrient digestibility, manure processing for export, farm economics of nutrient management, and the broader economic impacts of environmental regulation and enforcement. In the future, the focus of manure and nutrient management must be to optimize nutrient flow and utilization at every point within the total dairy farm system. A total systems approach to nutrient management is vital to the future of the dairy industry. This approach requires a broad spectrum of scientific expertise that includes multidisciplinary teams involving agronomists, dairy scientists, economists, engineers, microbiologists, soil scientists, veterinarians, and regulators to deal successfully with the complex issues pertaining to dairy nutrient management. PMID:9361237

Grusenmeyer, D C; Cramer, T N

1997-10-01

247

A Novel Shape Parameterization Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a novel parameterization approach for complex shapes suitable for a multidisciplinary design optimization application. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft objects animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in a similar manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminated plate structures) and high-fidelity analysis tools (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling). This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, and camber. The results are presented for a multidisciplinary design optimization application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, performance, and a simple propulsion module.

Samareh, Jamshid A.

1999-01-01

248

Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Henderson approach to modeling peak-period congestion lacks equilibria when lateness is prohibited. This paper reformulates the Henderson approach and compares it to the Vickrey approach both analytically and numerically. The behavior of the reformulated Henderson approach varies with its elasticity of travel delay with respect to traffic flow, while the Vickrey approach lacks such flexibility. The behavior of the

Xuehao Chu

1995-01-01

249

Approaches for modeling magnetic nanoparticle dynamics  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticles are useful biological probes as well as therapeutic agents. There have been several approaches used to model nanoparticle magnetization dynamics for both Brownian as well as Néel rotation. The magnetizations are often of interest and can be compared with experimental results. Here we summarize these approaches including the Stoner-Wohlfarth approach, and stochastic approaches including thermal fluctuations. Non-equilibrium related temperature effects can be described by a distribution function approach (Fokker-Planck equation) or a stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation). Approximate models in several regimes can be derived from these general approaches to simplify implementation. PMID:25271360

Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

2014-01-01

250

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

251

Nonpharmacologic approach to sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cancer, occurring throughout the disease trajectory and sometimes well after treatment has concluded. Insomnia often does not occur in isolation; it may be associated with pain, fatigue, depression, and medication usage. Screening for sleep disturbances is an essential part of caring for oncologic patients. The criterion standard for nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia in these patients is cognitive-behavioral therapy, a multimodal approach using sleep hygiene and education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, and relaxation. Exercise and complementary and integrative medicine have been studied with varying results, and no firm recommendation can be made about their efficacy. PMID:25299144

Mansel, J Keith; Carey, Elise C

2014-01-01

252

An approach to space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

1990-01-01

253

Supervision: a 'fresh eyes' approach.  

PubMed

As recent reports question the safety of some maternity services and of the accuracy of identifying risk factors in midwifery practice, this article advocates the use of 'fresh eyes' reviews of our own practice, that of our peers and the practice within our organisations. If, as the literature indicates, there is no evidence of sustained transformational change through compliance as opposed to commitment, then our engagement and motivation to adopt 'fresh eyes' approaches to our practice, may lead to improved patient outcomes, including rates of mortality. PMID:22324129

Paeglis, Carol

2012-01-01

254

Hemorrhagic shock: The “physiology approach  

PubMed Central

A shift of approach from ‘clinics trying to fit physiology’ to the one of ‘physiology to clinics’, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology. PMID:23248495

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2012-01-01

255

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

SciTech Connect

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

256

HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

1994-05-01

257

Enamel microabrasion: a new approach.  

PubMed

Enamel microabrasion is a proven method of removing superficial intrinsic enamel discoloration defects. The method is safe, easily performed, and causes no discomfort for the patient. A new commercially available microabrasion system has been introduced by Ultradent Products Inc. In addition, a new tooth isolation material is available, along with a visible light-activated in-office hydrogen peroxide solution. This article describes these new products and documents tooth-color correction for two young patients using this new tooth-color correction approach. PMID:11326505

Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

2000-01-01

258

[Transradial approach for diagnostic angiography].  

PubMed

Seventy five arteriographies were performed via the transradial route using 5F 130cm - long catheter. Prior to puncture the radial artery was evaluated with Allen test. Satisfying quality examinations were obtained for the thoracic aorta, selective carotid arteries examinations, infra renal aorta, pelvic and legs arteries. The major advantages obtained for the technique were the very low rate complication and technical failure. Transradial route for arteriography is a reasonable alternative approach to transfemoral or brachial arteriography for out patient management (peripheral angiography) in case in which transfemoral route is not feasible but also with patients with important haemorragic-risks. PMID:15243382

Michel, C; Laffy, P Y; Leblanc, G; Le Guen, O; Le Blevec, G; Sarfati, L; Riou, J Y; Jue Denis, P

2004-06-01

259

Orthodontic–periodontics interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties. PMID:22628956

Vinod, K.; Reddy, Y. Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P.; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

2012-01-01

260

[New therapeutic approaches in glioblastomas].  

PubMed

New therapeutic approaches based on the understanding of brain tumour biology are emerging. Signal transduction inhibitors (mainly targeted against the EGF receptor, the PI3K/Akt or the Ras/Raf pathways), proteases inhibitors and antiangiogenic agents are currently under investigations in clinical trials. The recent development of convection-enhanced delivery technique allows the administration of drugs which do not cross the blood-brain-barrier, such as selective toxins or immunostimulating oligonucleotides. This article reviews these emerging therapies currently under clinical trials in glioblastomas. PMID:15888392

Carpentier, Antoine F

2005-04-01

261

Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to  

E-print Network

Trustworthy Computing | Microsoft's Approach to Compliance in the Cloud 1 The Microsoft Approach to Compliance in the Cloud Microsoft Trustworthy Computing Executive summary Microsoft recognizes that trust Microsoft cloud services create customer choice 11 #12;Trustworthy Computing | The Microsoft Approach

Chaudhuri, Surajit

262

Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.

2008-01-01

263

MCA: A multichannel approach to SAR autofocus  

E-print Network

We present a new noniterative approach to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus, termed the multichannel autofocus (MCA) algorithm. The key in the approach is to exploit the multichannel redundancy of the defocusing ...

Morrison, Robert L., Jr.

264

Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

Angus, Samuel F.

1989-01-01

265

TWO UNCONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSION  

E-print Network

TWO UNCONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO ELECTROMAGNETIC INVERSION Hierarchical Bayesian Inversion and Head, Department of Geophysics ii #12;ABSTRACT Electromagnetic methods are effective complementary approaches of electromagnetic inversion: hier- archical Bayesian inversion and inverse scattering series. We

Snieder, Roel

266

Two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting  

E-print Network

In this thesis two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting are developed. The first approach uses an expressive paint tool that enables anyone to paint 2D Chinese paintings in real-time. The realistic rendering of paint strokes...

Chan, Ching

2012-06-07

267

Walk, Haydel Approach to Process Heat Recovery  

E-print Network

Walk, Haydel has developed a two phase approach to optimize the recovery of process heat in energy intensive operations. While the approach can be used on 'grassroots' designs, it has been used primarily for revamps. The capital investment...

Waldsmith, R. W.; Hendrickson, M. J.

1983-01-01

268

Testing multifield inflation: A geometric approach  

E-print Network

We develop an approach for linking the power spectra, bispectrum, and trispectrum to the geometric and kinematical features of multifield inflationary Lagrangians. Our geometric approach can also be useful in determining ...

Peterson, Courtney M.

269

Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Alzheimer's Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are not classically considered mediated by inflammation or the immune system, in some instances the immune system may play an important role in the degenerative process. Furthermore, it has become clear that the immune system itself may have beneficial effects in nervous system diseases considered neurodegenerative. Immunotherapeutic approaches designed to induce a humoral immune response have recently been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. These studies have led to human trials that resulted in both beneficial and adverse effects. In animal models, it has also been shown that immunotherapy designed to induce a cellular immune response may be of benefit in central nervous system injury, although T cells may have either a beneficial or detrimental effect depending on the type of T cell response induced. These areas provide a new avenue for exploring immune system-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and will be discussed here with a primary focus on Alzheimer's disease. We will also discuss how these approaches affect microglia activation, which plays a key role in therapy of such diseases.

Monsonego, Alon; Weiner, Howard L.

2003-10-01

270

Fighting food allergy: current approaches.  

PubMed

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic reaction to allergens present in food and is associated with symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal discomfort to anaphylactic shock and death. The increase in prevalence and potential fatality of disease has led to increased efforts to find effective therapies and prophylaxis. While specific immunotherapy (SIT) is effective in desensitization against inhalant allergens, it is unadvised against food allergy because of the high risk of adverse side effects. A review of the recent literature shows that various approaches have been taken to develop safer and more effective SIT regimens. Here we discuss the use of recombinant allergens, peptides, DNA vaccines, immunostimulatory DNA sequences, and other bacterial products in SIT. In addition, we review nonspecific therapies such as anti-IgE administration and cytokine therapy as well as natural therapies such as probiotics and Chinese herbal medications. In conclusion, anti-IgE treatment and SIT using hypoallergenic recombinant allergens in combination with Th1-inducing adjuvants appear the most promising approaches. New initiatives to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunologic mechanisms of food allergy along with the molecular characterization of food allergens should pave the way towards safer and more effective ways of combating this debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:16387675

Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L

2005-11-01

271

Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick

2014-01-01

272

The acousto-ultrasonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

Vary, Alex

1987-01-01

273

Telescience testbedding: An implementation approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telescience is the term used to describe a concept being developed by NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) under the Science and Applications Information System (SAIS) Program. This concept focuses on the development of an ability for all OSSA users to be remotely interactive with all provided information system services for the Space Station era. This concept includes access to services provided by both flight and ground components of the system and emphasizes the accommodation of users from their home institutions. Key to the development of the telescience capability is an implementation approach called rapid-prototype testbedding. This testbedding is used to validate the concept and test the applicability of emerging technologies and operational methodologies. Testbedding will be used to first determine the feasibility of an idea and then the applicability to real science usage. Once a concept is deemed viable, it will be integrated into the operational system for real time support. It is believed that this approach will greatly decrease the expense of implementing the eventual system and will enhance the resultant capabilities of the delivered system.

Leiner, Barry M.; Weiss, James R.

1988-01-01

274

Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.  

PubMed

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-01

275

Global function approach in structural analysis: Basic approach, numerical results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural response to a given environment is described by the differential equations of motion of deformable bodies. Analytic solutions of such problems for a reasonably large class of structural configurations are not within the realm of the possible. Consequently, the mathematical problem is recast into a numerical problem for solution on the computer. New technology in the space and energy fields led to a growing demand for accurate analysis which at times cannot be met due to the limits set by available budgets for computer time. In response to this need for more efficient numerical analysis, the possibilities of reducing the number of freedoms in the system through a revival of the global function approach were explored.

Almroth, B. O.; Stehling, P.; Brogan, F. A.

1981-01-01

276

Superior semicircular canal occlusion—Transmastoid approach  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The condition superior semi-circular canal dehiscence was first described by Minor et al. in 1998. PRESENTATION Of Case We describe a novel surgical approach to the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Our surgical technique involves a transmastoid rather than middle cranial fossa approach to the superior semicircular canal. CONCLUSION We conclude that the transmastoid approach, if anatomically feasible, carries significant advantages compared to middle cranial fossa craniotomy approach for the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. PMID:22288041

Wijaya, C.; Dias, A.; Conlon, B.J.

2011-01-01

277

Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.

2004-01-01

278

Life support approaches for Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are

A. E. Drysdale; M. K. Ewert; A. J. Hanford

2003-01-01

279

Challenges to Implementing the Harm Reduction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work literature recently has supported greater use of the harm reduction approach in professional practice. Implementing this approach, however, presents its challenges. We explore how practitioners in a housing program for people with histories of psychiatric disabilities, substance use disorders, and homelessness perceived the harm reduction approach. Prior to the opening of this new program, agency staff completed

Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst; Francie Broderick; Scott Bayliff

2008-01-01

280

ASSESSING INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLS: A RUBRIC APPROACH  

E-print Network

ASSESSING INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLS: A RUBRIC APPROACH Megan J. Oakleaf A dissertation submitted Assessing Information Literacy Skills: A Rubric Approach (Under the direction of Dr. Helen Tibbo) Academic librarians should explore new approaches to the assessment of information literacy skills. Satisfaction

Oakleaf, Megan

281

A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

Wang, Hongyu

2013-01-01

282

Arnold Schwarzenegger NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor NOVEL APPROACHES FOR THE RECLAMATION AND REUSE OF POWER PLANT: Sahimi, Muhammad and Theodore T. Tsotsis. 2005. Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse of Power of the University of Southern California. The report is entitled Novel Approaches for the Reclamation and Reuse

283

Statistical and structural approaches to texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness, structural element, gray tone cooccurrence, run lengths, and autoregressive models. We discuss and generalize some structural approaches to texture based on more complex primitives than gray tone.

R. M. Haralick

1979-01-01

284

Surgical approaches for total hip arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total hip replacement is a commonly performed procedure. The National Joint Registry for England and Wales identifies the four most commonly used approaches. An understanding of the relevant anatomy, benefits and common complications for each approach is essential core knowledge for all orthopaedic surgeons. In this article we provide an overview of our preferred technique for the surgical approaches commonly

Andrew Graham Sloan; Henry Wynn Jones; Martyn Lonsdale Porter; Kevin Hardinge

2010-01-01

285

The problem of approaching several asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Zhirnov and Lidov (1983) on the problem of a single space probe approaching several asteroids is extended. Examples of the approach of N asteriods with N = 2,3,4,5 is considered. Variants are indicated in which the characteristic approach velocity w sub N for N asteriods does not exceed w sub 2 = 0.069, w sub 3 =

V. A. Zhirnov; M. L. Lidov

1989-01-01

286

World-line approach to Sign Problems  

E-print Network

World-line approach to Sign Problems Shailesh Chandrasekharan Duke University #12;Outline XY model + chemical potential world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! Two component bosons + Abelian world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! more flavors + solving sign problems

Aarts, Gert

287

Managing information systems security: a soft approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of reported computer security problems suggests that the highly structured and technical traditional approaches to the management of IS security do not appear to be successful. This paper presents the Orion Strategy, a participative approach to the planning and management of information security in organisations. The details of this approach are discussed along with an overview of

Helen L. James

1996-01-01

288

PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach  

E-print Network

PREPRINT 2007:20 A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov Model Nadia Lalam Department vetenskaper Göteborg 2007 #12;A quantitative approach for Polymerase Chain Reaction based on a Hidden Markov

Patriksson, Michael

289

Music, memory and cognition: a cybernetic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to the perception of music and the understanding of memory using cybernetic tools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The work uses a methodological approach based on realistic evaluation to deploy two well-established cybernetic models – the viable system model (VSM) and Luhmann's model of social systems – together with Harré's “Positioning

Mark Johnson

2011-01-01

290

Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

2003-01-01

291

The Beta distribution approach PAULA TATARU  

E-print Network

Betaspikes The Beta distribution approach PAULA TATARU AARHUS UNIVERSITY Bioinformatics Research distribution approach Paula Tataru paula@birc.au.dk AARHUS UNIVERSITY Bioinformatics Research Centre Motivation;Allele frequencies: the Beta distribution approach Paula Tataru paula@birc.au.dk AARHUS UNIVERSITY

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

292

A dynamic approach of test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a dynamic approach to test data generation, in which the path selection stage is eliminated. In this approach, test data are derived on the basis of the actual execution of the program under test, of dynamic data flow analysis, and of function minimization methods. The approach starts by executing a program for an arbitrary program input. During

Bogdan Korel

1990-01-01

293

Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches  

E-print Network

Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

2011-01-01

294

Industrial ecology: concepts and approaches.  

PubMed Central

Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies. It is a concept in which an industrial system is viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems but in concert with them. Industrial ecology seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material, to component, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal. To better characterize the topic, the National Academy of Sciences convened a colloquium from which were derived a number of salient contributions. This paper sets the stage for the contributions that follow and discusses how each fits into the framework of industrial ecology. PMID:11607253

Jelinski, L W; Graedel, T E; Laudise, R A; McCall, D W; Patel, C K

1992-01-01

295

Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. PMID:22265689

Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

2012-07-16

296

Bayesian Approach to Network Modularity  

PubMed Central

We present an efficient, principled, and interpretable technique for inferring module assignments and for identifying the optimal number of modules in a given network. We show how several existing methods for finding modules can be described as variant, special, or limiting cases of our work, and how the method overcomes the resolution limit problem, accurately recovering the true number of modules. Our approach is based on Bayesian methods for model selection which have been used with success for almost a century, implemented using a variational technique developed only in the past decade. We apply the technique to synthetic and real networks and outline how the method naturally allows selection among competing models. PMID:18643711

Hofman, Jake M.; Wiggins, Chris H.

2009-01-01

297

Approaches to resolving trade disputes.  

PubMed

The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

2003-08-01

298

Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions. PMID:24790643

Menon, Laila

2014-01-01

299

LED instrument approach instruction display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

1979-01-01

300

Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

Barton, Russell R.; Nowack, Craig A.; Smith, Robert P.; Zayas-Castro, Jose L.

2011-03-10

301

Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism. PMID:22392950

Imel, Erik A.

2012-01-01

302

How to approach chronic anemia.  

PubMed

We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2? kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts. PMID:23233579

Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa

2012-01-01

303

Anisotropic flow in transport + hydrodynamics hybrid approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution to the focus issue covers anisotropic flow in hybrid approaches. The historical development of hybrid approaches and their impact on the interpretation of flow measurements is reviewed. The major ingredients of a hybrid approach and the transition criteria between transport and hydrodynamics are discussed. The results for anisotropic flow in (event-by-event) hybrid approaches are presented. Some hybrid approaches rely on hadronic transport for the late stages for the reaction (so called afterburner) and others employ transport approaches for the early non-equilibrium evolution. In addition, there are ‘full’ hybrid calculations where a fluid evolution is dynamically embedded in a transport simulation. After demonstrating the success of hybrid approaches at high Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider energies, existing hybrid caluclations for collective flow observables at lower beam energies are discussed and remaining challenges outlined.

Petersen, Hannah

2014-12-01

304

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ New Approaches/ New Films  

E-print Network

THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES/ NEW FILMS New Approaches/ New An International Conference on New Approaches to Representing the Holocaust in Cinema Held in Conjunction with Prof Ribbat (Universität Paderborn) #12;THE HOLOCAUST ON SCREEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: NEW APPROACHES

Hellebrand, Sybille

305

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2011-07-01

306

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2012-07-01

307

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

...2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2014-07-01

308

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2010-07-01

309

33 CFR 167.502 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. 167.502 Section 167.502 Navigation...Coast § 167.502 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach: Western approach. (a) A separation zone is bounded...

2013-07-01

310

Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard and its associated risks in this highly dynamic environment. However, these risks are contextualised in relation to other, often more pressing, social concerns. We therefore argue for a more deliberative and reflexive approach to landslide risk management which avoids singular framings of what the problem and hence the solution might be. We suggest that this can only be achieved through interdisciplinary collaboration and the privileging of different knowledge types. Key words: Nepal; landslide; vulnerability; risk perception; interdisciplinary research

Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

2010-05-01

311

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

312

Two approaches to physics tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania

313

Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C

2013-04-01

314

MOND using a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOND has been proposed as a viable alternative to the dark matter hypothesis. In the original MOND formulation [1], a modification of Newtonian Dynamics was brought about by postulating new equations of particle motion at extremely low accelerations, as a possible explanation for the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies. In this paper, we attempt a different approach to modify the usual force laws by trying to link gravity with the probabilistic aspects of quantum mechanics [2]. In order to achieve this, one starts by replacing the classical notion of a continuous distance between two elementary particles with a statistical probability function, ?. The gravitational force between two elementary particles then can be interpreted in terms of the probability of interaction between them. We attempt to show that such a modified gravitational force would fall off a lot slower than the usual inverse square law predicts, leading to revised MOND equations. In the limit that the statistical aggregate of the probabilities becomes equal to the usual inverse square law force, we recover Newtonian/Einstein gravity.[3pt] [1] Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365 [2] Goradia, S. 2002, .org/pdf/physics/0210040

Raut, Usha

2009-05-01

315

Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

2014-05-01

316

Systems approaches to Coronavirus pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Coronaviruses comprise a large group of emergent human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV strains that cause significant morbidity and mortality in infected individuals, especially the elderly. As emergent viruses may cause episodic outbreaks of disease over time, human samples are limited. Systems biology and genetic technologies maximize opportunities for identifying critical host and viral genetic factors that regulate susceptibility and virus-induced disease severity. These approaches provide discovery platforms that highlight and allow targeted confirmation of critical targets for prophylactics and therapeutics, especially critical in an outbreak setting. Although poorly understood, it has long been recognized that host regulation of virus-associated disease severity is multigenic. The advent of systems genetic and biology resources provides new opportunities for deconvoluting the complex genetic interactions and expression networks that regulate pathogenic or protective host response patterns following virus infection. Using SARS-CoV as a model, dynamic transcriptional network changes and disease-associated phenotypes have been identified in different genetic backgrounds, leading to the promise of population-wide discovery of the underpinnings of Coronavirus pathogenesis. PMID:24842079

Schäfer, Alexandra; Baric, Ralph S; Ferris, Martin T

2014-06-01

317

Protein solubilization: A novel approach.  

PubMed

Formulation development presents significant challenges with respect to protein therapeutics. One component of these challenges is to attain high protein solubility (>50mg/ml for immunoglobulins) with minimal aggregation. Protein-protein interactions contribute to aggregation and the integral sum of these interactions can be quantified by a thermodynamic parameter known as the osmotic second virial coefficient (B-value). The method presented here utilizes high-throughput measurement of B-values to identify the influence of additives on protein-protein interactions. The experiment design uses three tiers of screens to arrive at final solution conditions that improve protein solubility. The first screen identifies individual additives that reduce protein interactions. A second set of B-values are then measured for different combinations of these additives via an incomplete factorial screen. Results from the incomplete factorial screen are used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). The "trained" ANN enables predictions of B-values for more than 4000 formulations that include additive combinations not previously experimentally measured. Validation steps are incorporated throughout the screening process to ensure that (1) the protein's thermal and aggregation stability characteristics are not reduced and (2) the artificial neural network predictive model is accurate. The ability of this approach to reduce aggregation and increase solubility is demonstrated using an IgG protein supplied by Minerva Biotechnologies, Inc. PMID:25270058

Johnson, David H; Wilson, W William; DeLucas, Lawrence J

2014-11-15

318

Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions. PMID:25071503

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert

2014-01-01

319

Combined approaches for HIV cure  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review A serious effort has begun to develop therapies that may be capable of eradicating established HIV infection in man. Because of the biological complexity of HIV infection that persists despite potent antiretroviral therapy, it is widely believed that if such therapies can be developed they will involve complex, multimodality approaches. We highlight some of the recent studies in this effort. Recent findings An inhibitor of histone deacetylase has been demonstrated to disrupt latency in man, and new histone deacetylase inhibitors have been identified. Other potential targets, such as histone methyltransferase, protein kinase C, and BRD4, have been recently studied. Model systems, both in primary cells and in animal models, are beginning to be validated. In the clinic, immune-based therapies to aid in the clearance of persistent infection are also being tested. Summary It is too early to know what combination eradication therapies for HIV infection will look like in the future, but candidate therapies and model systems to perform preclinical validation are beginning to take shape. PMID:23446138

Margolis, David M.; Hazuda, Daria J.

2014-01-01

320

Quantitative approaches to computational vaccinology.  

PubMed

This article reviews the newly released JenPep database and two new powerful techniques for T-cell epitope prediction: (i) the additive method; and (ii) a 3D-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (3D-QSAR) method, based on Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA). The JenPep database is a family of relational databases supporting the growing need of immunoinformaticians for quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes and to the Transporters associated with Antigen Processing (TAP). It also contains an annotated list of T-cell epitopes. The database is available free via the Internet (http://www.jenner.ac.uk/JenPep). The additive prediction method is based on the assumption that the binding affinity of a peptide depends on the contributions from each amino acid as well as on the interactions between the adjacent and every second side-chain. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (steric bulk, electrostatic potential, local hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities) on the affinity of peptides binding to MHC molecules were considered. Both methods were exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptides binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:12067414

Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

2002-06-01

321

Newer approaches to malaria control.  

PubMed

Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality. PMID:23508211

Damodaran, Se; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

2011-07-01

322

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them. PMID:19893645

Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.

2008-01-01

323

Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

Epstein, Kenneth J.

2008-07-01

324

The Wonder Approach to learning.  

PubMed

Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

L'Ecuyer, Catherine

2014-01-01

325

Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.

2009-09-01

326

Data science approaches to pharmacogenetics.  

PubMed

Pharmacogenetic studies rely on applied statistics to evaluate genetic data describing natural variation in response to pharmacotherapeutics such as drugs and vaccines. In the beginning, these studies were based on candidate gene approaches that specifically focused on efficacy or adverse events correlated with variants of single genes. This hypothesis driven method required the researcher to have a priori knowledge of which genes or gene sets to investigate. According to rational design, the focus of these studies has been on drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and drug targets. As technology has progressed, these studies have transitioned to hypothesis-free explorations where markers across the entire genome can be measured in large scale, population based, genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This enables identification of novel genetic biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and analysis of gene-gene interactions, which may reveal molecular mechanisms of drug activities. Ultimately, the challenge is to utilize gene-drug associations to create dosing algorithms based individual genotypes, which will guide physicians and ensure they prescribe the correct dose of the correct drug the first time eliminating trial-and-error and adverse events. We review here basic concepts and applications of data science to the genetic analysis of pharmacologic outcomes. PMID:25109795

Penrod, N M; Moore, J H

2014-01-01

327

Reflecting on holistic nursing: the contribution of an academic with lived experience of mental health service use.  

PubMed

The educational preparation of registered nurses is presumed to reflect a holistic approach with emphasis on the bio-psycho-social model of care. The broader literature suggests this goal is not always realised. The aim of this study is to present the views, experiences, and perceptions of undergraduate nursing students who were taught by an academic with a lived experience of mental health service use. In particular, we wanted to look at the expected impact of this approach to learning on their nursing practice. A qualitative, exploratory approach was used, involving in-depth individual interviews with 12 undergraduate nursing students completing the course, "recovery for mental health nursing practice," as part of a major in mental health nursing in a university in Queensland, Australia. Students were asked to reflect upon and discuss their experiences of being taught by a person with lived experience of mental health service use. Data were analysed following Colaizzi's steps to identify the main themes. The three main themes were (1) recovery--bringing holistic nursing to life; (2) influencing practice; and (3) gaining self-awareness through course assessment: challenge and opportunity. These themes suggest an appreciation for holistic nursing and an increased capacity for reflective understanding. The responses from participants suggest the Recovery course had a significant impact on their attitudes to nursing and that their nursing practice would be positively enhanced as a consequence. PMID:23566189

Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Welch, Anthony; Moxham, Lorna

2013-04-01

328

A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.

2000-01-01

329

A change management approach to evaluating ICT investment initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the availability of methods and techniques designed to assist with predictive and retrospective evaluation of ICT initiatives, management continues to struggle to perform meaningful evaluations, and the measurement of ICT investment payoff remains a challenge. A recurring problem associated with failed ICT-based investment is poor change management. This paper aims to focus on the value of understanding

Michael D. Williams; Janet Williams

2007-01-01

330

Preventing childhood sexual abuse: an ecological approach.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse is a significant public health problem that negatively affects victims, families, organizations, and society. This special issue presents innovative approaches designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of youth. Using both an ecological approach and the Spectrum of Prevention ( Parks, Davis & Cohen, 2010 ), the articles collected for this special issue highlight cutting-edge prevention approaches educating children, parents, professionals, organizations, and the general public. PMID:22809043

Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

2012-01-01

331

Promoting school connectedness through whole school approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider community. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A cross-disciplinary review of literature was

Fiona Rowe; Donald Stewart; Carla Patterson

2007-01-01

332

An Approach for Probabilistic Hydrological Drought Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to monitor and forecast hydrological drought in a probabilistic manner. The proposed approach\\u000a deals with the supply and demand variables and the role of carryover in a system to estimate the probability of drought severity\\u000a at different hydroclimatlogical conditions as well as different storage volume levels. This approach might be of significance\\u000a when the supply

Shahab Araghinejad

2011-01-01

333

Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

1995-01-01

334

Evaluating Exercise Adherence: A Solution Focused Approach .  

E-print Network

??ABSTRACT EVALUATING EXERCISE ADHERENCE: A SOLUTION FOCUSED APPROACH by Jonathan S. Schneider Master of Arts in Psychology: Psychological Science Option California State University, Chico Spring… (more)

Schneider, Jonathan

2011-01-01

335

Functional dyspepsia: a pragmatic approach.  

PubMed

Functional dyspepsia includes one or more of four cardinal symptoms: postprandial fullness, early satiety, pain or burning in the epigastrum. According to the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia, these symptoms must be present for the last 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. Functional dyspepsia is not the result of an underlying structural abnormality, but rather the consequence of multiple pathophysiological mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility, gastric and duodenal hypersensitivity to acid, Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspeptic patients over 50 or those with alarm symptoms should be investigated to detect any structural abnormality such as cancer, peptic ulcer or esophagitis. After structural abnormalities and gastroesophageal reflux disease are excluded the management of functional dyspepsia consists of either a test and treat approach (non invasive detection of Helicobacter pylori infection followed by eradication therapy) or empirical therapy. Although endoscopy was traditionally reserved for those patients without symptom relief after 6-8 weeks of therapy, the significant percentage of patients with functional dyspepsia with symptom breakthrough or relapse after antisecretory or prokinetic therapy discontinuation makes an initial endoscopic study a logical choice. Therapy with proton pump inhibitors yields results especially in those patients with regurgitation and epigastric burning sensation, while prokinetic agents with no extrapyramidal side effects (such as Domperidone and Itopride) alleviate satiation, bloating and nausea by accelerating gastric emptying. Second-line drugs with encouraging results in clinical trials which can be used in functional dyspepsia are low-dose tricyclic antidepressants as well as selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21180236

Giurcan, Roxana; Voiosu, T A

2010-01-01

336

Approaches to the Hubbard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis analyzes several theoretical approaches to the one band Hubbard model in hopes of extracting selected physical quantities in limits most closely corresponding to real materials. Along the way, three rather remarkable theorems of a much broader scope are proven. It is hoped that these may be of general interest in a variety of related physical and mathematical disciplines. In chapter one, the well-known mean field theory developed by Affleck and Marston is studied in the presence of a magnetic field. Through a rather straightforward numerical procedure, phase diagrams in t/delta ^ace are generated as a function of field. The results of this study are then extended to a magnetic susceptibility calculation and to the analysis of the phase diagram of fan alternate mean field theory, the "generalized flux phases" proposed by Anderson. Several interesting properties and symmetries of the solutions are then briefly discussed. In chapter two, the Gutzwiller projector is analyzed both analytically and numerically, with the results being used to calculate the momentum density function for a trial wavefunction also proposed by Anderson. Two of the above mentioned theorems are developed in this chapter, the one prescribing the expansion of a general restricted sum in terms of its related unrestricted sums, and the other presenting the exact diagonilization of a component of the projector which is equivalent through a U(1) gauge transformation to the total spin operator. In chapter three, we discuss the exact solutions to the one dimensional Hubbard model first derived by Lieb and Wu. From their large U limiting behavior, we extract the phonon scattering matrix elements and first order single particle energies for some finite systems. The third potentially general theorem, which related charge determinants with an arbitrary number of "gaps" between their rows to a comparatively simple function of the corresponding van der Monde determinants, is proven here.

Maguire, Cary Mcilwaine, Jr.

337

Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression.

Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.'

In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim.

The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

2006-01-01

338

Saxagliptin: a novel antiparkinsonian approach.  

PubMed

The emergence of glucagon-like peptide-1 as a crucial contender in modifying neurodegenerative diseases in the preclinical studies has instigated interest in investigating the antiparkinsonian effect of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibition. Notably, saxagliptin (SAX), the DPP-4 inhibitor, recently showed efficacy in ameliorating streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease; however, its effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) has not yet been elucidated. In a rat rotenone (ROT) model, SAX prominently improved motor performance as well as muscle coordination and corrected akinesia. Moreover, SAX preserved substantia nigra pars compacta tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity while halting the reduction in the striatal TH, dopamine (DA) and complex I. Meanwhile, SAX prevented the ROT-induced increment of striatal DPP-4 and the decline in cAMP, ATP/ADP and brain-derived neurotropic factor levels. Improvement in striatal energy level was associated with partial hindrance of ROT-induced body weight reduction. In addition, through its anti-inflammatory potential, SAX decreased the ROT-induced nuclear factor-??, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-?, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and myeloperoxidase. The antiapoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma-2 was enhanced by SAX, versus reduction in caspase-3 and its intrinsic apoptotic activator cytochrome C. Furthermore, SAX amended alterations induced by ROT in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the transcriptional factor Nrf-2 level. In conclusion, SAX can be introduced as a novel approach for the management of PD based on the remarkable improvement in motor functions denoting antiparkinsonian efficacy via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. These effects were linked to DPP-4 inhibition, reduced neurodegeneration and enhanced DA synthesis. PMID:25446674

Nassar, Noha N; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; Arab, Hany H; Abdallah, Dalaal M

2015-02-01

339

Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

Milton, Kim

2012-05-01

340

Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1995-01-01

341

Personalized medicine approaches in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy affects 50 million persons worldwide, a third of whom continue to experience debilitating seizures despite optimum anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment. Twelve-month remission from seizures is less likely in female patients, individuals aged 11-36 years and those with neurological insults and shorter time between first seizure and starting treatment. It has been found that the presence of multiple seizures prior to diagnosis is a risk factor for pharmacoresistance and is correlated with epilepsy type as well as intrinsic severity. The key role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of resistant epilepsy is becoming clear. Our work in this area suggests that high-mobility group box 1 isoforms may be candidate biomarkers for treatment stratification and novel drug targets in epilepsy. Furthermore, transporter polymorphisms contributing to the intrinsic severity of epilepsy are providing robust neurobiological evidence on an emerging theory of drug resistance, which may also provide new insights into disease stratification. Some of the rare genetic epilepsies enable treatment stratification through testing for the causal mutation, for example SCN1A mutations in patients with Dravet's syndrome. Up to 50% of patients develop adverse reactions to AEDs which in turn affects tolerability and compliance. Immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to AED therapy, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, are the most serious adverse reactions and have been associated with polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Pharmacogenetic screening for HLA-B*15:02 in Asian populations can prevent carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. We have identified HLA-A*31:01 as a potential risk marker for all phenotypes of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity with applicability in European and other populations. In this review, we explore the currently available key stratification approaches to address the therapeutic challenges in epilepsy. PMID:25338670

Walker, L E; Mirza, N; Yip, V L M; Marson, A G; Pirmohamed, M

2015-02-01

342

New approaches to molecular diagnosis.  

PubMed

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results. PMID:23571590

Korf, Bruce R; Rehm, Heidi L

2013-04-10

343

[Peripelvic tumors: approach and management].  

PubMed

The peripelvic area consists of the bony pelvis, hip joints and adjacent mesenchymal soft tissues. Malignant lesions in this area present unique diagnostic and therapeutic problems, in particular when tumor removal is involved. Between 1986 and 1988 we treated 7 females and a male, aged 8-75 years, for malignant tumors of this area. Diagnoses (histologic) included 4 cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a malignant schwannoma, a Ewing sarcoma, a chondrosarcoma, and an osteosarcoma. Operations included marginal resection (4 cases), radical resection and reconstruction (2), radical resection (1), and modified hemipelvectomy (2). Adjuvant therapy consisted of radiotherapy in 1 case, chemotherapy in 2, and a combination of both in another 2. A patient who underwent radical resection and reconstruction of his left hemipelvis and hip joint died of local infection that progressed to generalized sepsis 2 months after operation. 2 patients died of recurrent disease, 3 and 30 months, respectively, after primary therapy. 1 died of myocardial infarction 20 months after the first and 3 months after the last of a series of marginal resections. 3 patients are alive and well 3-24 months following their first operation, and the fourth is doing well 24 months following first operation and 23 months after resection of lung metastases. Soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumors encountered in the pelvis and peripelvic areas. Their varying grades of malignancy and metastatic potential influence the approach on the one hand, while invalidity and compromised quality of life associated with tumor resection, influence it on the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2167286

Said, M; Eldar, S; Nash, E; Mendes, D

1990-06-15

344

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

345

Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.  

PubMed

Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results. PMID:23848726

Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

2013-06-01

346

Implementation of a Data Repository-Driven Approach for Targeted Proteomics Experiments by Multiple Reaction Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), commonly employed for the mass spectrometric detection of small molecules, is rapidly gaining ground in proteomics. Its high sensitivity and specificity makes this targeted approach particularly useful when sample throughput or proteome coverage limits global studies. Existing tools to design MRM assays rely exclusively on theoretical predictions, or combine them with previous observations on the same type of sample. The additional mass spectrometric experimentation this requires can pose significant demands on time and material. To overcome these challenges, a new MRM worksheet was introduced into The Global Proteome Machine database (GPMDB) that provided all of the information needed to design MRM transitions based solely on archived observations made by other researchers in previous experiments. This required replacing the precursor ion intensity by the number of peptide observations, which proved to be an adequate substitute if peptides did not occur in multiple forms. While the absence of collision energy information proved largely inconsequential, successful prediction of unique transitions depended on the type of fragment ion involved. The design of MRM assays for iTRAQ-labeled tryptic peptides obtained from human platelet proteins demonstrated the usefulness of the MRM worksheet also for quantitative applications. This workflow, which relies exclusively on experimental observations stored in data repositories, therefore represents an attractive alternative for the prediction of MRM transitions prior to experimental validation and optimization. PMID:19121650

Walsh, Geraldine M.; Lin, Shujun; Evans, Daniel M.; Khosrovi-Eghbal, Arash; Beavis, Ronald C.; Kast, Juergen

2008-01-01

347

Physical approach to complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw

2012-06-01

348

Threat displays for final approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During periods of good visibility, airports can conduct Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (CSPA) and simultaneously operate parallel runways separated by more than 750 feet. When visibility degrades to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and pilots must fly exclusively by the instruments, the runway separation required to operate parallel runways increases to 3400 feet or more. For many airports around the country and the world this means the second runway must be closed and the airport operates at half capacity. To alleviate the delays caused by this capacity reduction many airports worldwide are planning to expand and build new runways. The projected cost of the ten largest airport projects in the United States is $8-16 Billion. Perhaps a less expensive solution can be found with innovative technology rather than real estate? This research presents the first ever design, implementation, and characterization of a synthetic vision display and the supporting flight system to attempt to achieve this solution. The display uses 3D graphics and an air to air datalink called Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast to present the pilot with the information necessary to aviate, navigate and monitor traffic. This thesis also documents the first series of flight experiments to test the applicability of synthetic vision displays to both runway incursion avoidance and CSPA. Finally, utilizing the results from the flight testing in a Monte Carlo analysis, the effect of deploying this display on minimum safe runway separation is calculated. It has been found that the minimum safe runway separation for IMC operation can safely be reduced to 1900 feet. If, in addition, significant changes are made in Air Traffic Control procedures for longitudinal aircraft spacing, the analysis shows that the display system presented herein will allow for runway separation of 1400 feet with no new restrictions on aircraft size or crosswind. Furthermore, with certain restrictions on aircraft size and crosswind the runway spacing can be reduced to 750 feet. These results have tremendous implications for pilots, controllers and the public. They will also have large impacts on the financial and environmental costs of airport expansion projects.

Jennings, Chad Warren

349

Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of biomarkers: those from extant life, such as DNA, those from extinct life such as hopanes, and those from organic compounds not necessarily associated with life such as PAHs, rocket exhaust contamination and other a/pre-biotic chemicals. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be used. Monoclonal antibodies react with a very specific compound, but polyclonal antibodies may react to any of a whole family of compounds. Furthermore the technique of phage display to raise antibodies against classically non-antigenic molecules is also being considered. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

2001-01-01

350

A Semantic Modeling Approach to Metadata.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores problems in information sharing; discusses the concept of metadata; illustrates its use on the World Wide Web, as well as other related approaches; and presents an approach to information sharing that uses a semantic modeling language (referent model language) as the basis for expressing semantics of information and designing metadata…

Brasethvik, Terje

1998-01-01

351

Current and Emerging Technology Approaches in Genomics  

PubMed Central

Purpose To introduce current and emerging approaches that are being utilized in the field of genomics so the reader can conceptually evaluate the literature and appreciate how these approaches are advancing our understanding of health-related issues. Organizing Construct Each approach is described and includes information related to how it is advancing research, its potential clinical utility, exemplars of current uses, challenges related to technologies used for these approaches, and when appropriate information related to understanding the evidence base for clinical utilization of each approach is provided. Web-based resources are included for the reader who would like more in-depth information and to provide opportunity to stay up to date with these approaches and their utility. Conclusions The chosen approaches– genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies, epigenomics, and gene expression– are extremely valuable approaches for collecting research data to help us better understand the pathophysiology of a variety of health-related conditions, but they are also gaining in utility for clinical assessment and testing purposes. Clinical Relevance Our increased understanding of the molecular underpinnings of disease will assist with better development of screening tests, diagnostic tests, tests that allow us to prognosticate, tests that allow for individualized treatments, and tests to facilitate post-treatment surveillance. PMID:23294727

Conley, Yvette P.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Gonsalves, Stephen; Merkle, Carrie J.; Kirk, Maggie; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

2013-01-01

352

Communicating Science: Exploring Reflexive Pedagogical Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the value of reflexive pedagogical approaches in the teaching of academic communication and writing. We focus on a course developed for pre-degree foundation students at a London higher education institution. Drawing on the students' learning journals, we examine their reflections of the approaches practised on the course.…

Burke, Penny Jane; Dunn, Sue

2006-01-01

353

Approaches to business process analysis: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing processes with the aim of improving them necessarily requires both analysis and critical evaluation of organizational practice. This article takes up the theme of business process analysis with the aim of highlighting and comparing alternative techniques and approaches. Four approaches have been identified: action analysis, process mapping, co-ordination analysis and social grammar analysis. An interpretative model of the fundamental

Stefano Biazzo

2000-01-01

354

Television, Technology, and Culture: A Contextualist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author offers a contextualist approach to contemporary debates about new (and old) media in different historical times and geographical places. This approach, rather than starting with the internal essence of a technology and then attempting to deduce its effects from its technical specifications, begins with an analysis of the interactional and cultural systems in play in

David Morley

2012-01-01

355

Multiple Sequence Comparison: A Peptide Matching Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper a peptide matching approach to the multiple comparison of a set of protein sequences. This approach consists in looking for all the words that are common to q of these sequences, where q is a parameter. The comparison between words is done by using as reference an object called a model. In the case of

Marie-france Sagot; Alain Viari; Henry Soldano

1995-01-01

356

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management  

E-print Network

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management M.C. Holliday and A.B. Gautam mechanism for adopting an ecosystem approach to living marine resource management. By April 2004, FEP encompassing regional marine ecosystem strategies across many sectors. This would enable other agencies

357

The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

358

Speculative Letters WHY USE THIS APPROACH?  

E-print Network

for success when using the job seeking approach, therefore, is to be persistent and resilient. Don't give upSpeculative Letters WHY USE THIS APPROACH? Making speculative applications to employers can why you want to work for that employer. An employer's website is often useful for finding out more

Royal Holloway, University of London

359

An Agile Course-Delivery Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

Capellan, Mirkeya

2009-01-01

360

Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

Lindquist, David H.

2011-01-01

361

Learning through Assessment: A Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the teacher certification program offered at the Fryeburg site of the University of Southern Maine's Extended Teacher Education Program and how the spirit of inquiry that is fostered through a project approach affects the interns and the practicing teachers with whom they work. The program uses a project approach to organize…

Hastings, Jan; And Others

362

A Probabilistic Model Approach for Fault Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel approach for fault diag- nosis based on probabilistic models. This approach is suitable for applications where reliable measurements are unlikely to occur or where a deterministic analyt- ical model is difficult to obtain. In particular, a com- bination of two Bayesian networks is used to detect and isolate faulty components. One Bayesian network, representing a

Pablo H. Ibarguengoytia; L. Enrique Sucar; Eduardo Morales

2000-01-01

363

Robot Motion Planning: A Distributed Representation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot's configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is consider ably faster than previous path planners and solves prob lems for robots with many more degrees

Jérôme Barraquand; Jean-Claude Latombe

1991-01-01

364

Interval regression analysis by quadratic programming approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we use linear programming in possibilistic regression analysis, some coefficients tend to become crisp because of the characteristic of linear programming. On the other hand, a quadratic programming approach gives more diverse spread coefficients than a linear programming one. Therefore, to overcome the crisp characteristic of linear programming, we propose interval regression analysis based on a quadratic programming approach.

Hideo Tanaka; Haekwan Lee

1998-01-01

365

Scaling Up in Ecology: Mechanistic Approaches  

E-print Network

of this "top-down" approach, community ecologists traditionally take a "bottom-up" perspective, using small 2007). Both top-down and bottom-up perspectives begin with empirical data. In contrast, ecologicalScaling Up in Ecology: Mechanistic Approaches Mark Denny1 and Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi2 1 Hopkins

Denny, Mark

366

An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.

2012-01-01

367

Contrasting Theoretical Approaches to Intergroup Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current forum is designed to assess the strengths and weaknesses of social identity, social dominance, and system justification as theoretical approaches to the study of inter- group relations. Each of these approaches tries to account for variation in the develop- ment of ingroup cohesion and outgroup antipathy among individual group members, across groups, and in different societies—three levels at

Leonie Huddy

2004-01-01

368

Statistical approach to discharge bearing currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical approach, which enables the prediction of the risk of the appearance of discharge bearing currents in a given drive that can damage the motor bearings. Using such an approach, the drives for the decisive but expensive, long-term destructive investigations can be selected. A comparative analysis is presented to

Robert Smolenski; Adam Kempski; Jacek Bojarski

2010-01-01

369

Stochastic approaches for modelling in vivo reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stochastic modelling has emerged as a physically more realistic al- ternative for modelling in vivo reactions. There are numerous stochastic approaches available in the literature; most of these assume that observed random uctuations are a consequence of the small number of reacting molecules. We review some im- portant developments of the stochastic approach and consider its suitability

Thomas E. Turner; Santiago Schnell; Kevin Burrage

2004-01-01

370

A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

Terry, W. Scott

2010-01-01

371

Visual Approaches to Global Health Course Syllabus  

E-print Network

Visual Approaches to Global Health Course Syllabus Instructor: Jonathan Smith, E: jonathan.p.smith@yale.edu P: 706.402.6297 Overview Visual Approaches to Global Health is a novel global health course offered, where students will learn to analyze global health issues through the prism of film and media. Students

372

January 1990 Parallel Distributed Approaches to Combinatorial  

E-print Network

January 1990 LU TP 90­2 Parallel Distributed Approaches to Combinatorial Optimization ­ Benchmark and summarize the results from 50­, 100­ and 200­city TSP benchmarks presented at the 1989 NIPS post this elastic net algorithm and the Potts approach [9][10][11]. Parallel to these developments genetic

Lunds Universitet,

373

Creative dynamics approach to neural intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust of this paper is to introduce and discuss a substantially new type of dynamical system for modelling biological behavior. The approach was motivated by an attempt to remove one of the most fundamental limitations of artificial neural networks — their rigid behavior compared with even simplest biological systems. This approach exploits a novel paradigm in nonlinear dynamics based

M. Zak

1990-01-01

374

Teaching French Cultural Analysis: A Dialogic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how a dialogic approach might relate to the French curriculum in theoretical terms and proposes a blueprint for a contemporary French culture course that places various approaches to cultural dialogue at the fore. Several key permutations o this way of analyzing culture are examined, and specific examples of how to integrate these…

Reeser, Todd W.

2003-01-01

375

System approach for reducing car pollution.  

PubMed

Federal policy emphasizes more exacting specifications for new cars to combat pollution. Some doubts are cast on this approach, and alternatives are suggested. Ease of maintenance, high reliability, and inspection are essential to pollution control and must be provided for in the specifications. A total system approach to reduce car pollution is outlined. PMID:4110415

Shinnar, R

1972-03-24

376

A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

Tassa, Tamir

2007-01-01

377

SPATIAL APPROACH TO PLANNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT DEFINES THE SPATIAL APPROACH TO PLANNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SUGGESTS A MORE NATURAL APPROACH TO A LESS RESTRICTED ARCHITECTURE. ONE OF THE TWO BASIC ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE SPATIAL CONCEPT IS THE HORIZONTAL SCREEN WHICH KEEPS THE SUN AND RAIN OFF, LETS IN LIGHT, KEEPS OUT SUN HEAT, RETAINS ROOM HEAT, AND…

BELLOMY, CLEON C.; CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.

378

[Use of mixed approaches in nursing science].  

PubMed

The epistemological diversity which characterises modern day nursing science offers researchers a wide range of methodologies enabling them to explore their research themes. Mixed approaches, which combine qualitative and quantitative approaches, seem to appeal to a growing number of researchers. PMID:24941539

Debout, Christophe

2014-05-01

379

An interdisciplinary approach to occupational respiratory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide about 50 million new cases of occupational respiratory diseases emerge every year. Without preventative action, the burden of occupational diseases is expected to increase. In this thesis an alternative approach to deliver occupational health care is explored concerning work-related respiratory disorders in various worker populations. This approach is illustrated by a series of

G. B. G. J. van Rooy

2010-01-01

380

10 Interdisciplinary Approaches in Research for Sustainable  

E-print Network

207 10 Interdisciplinary Approaches in Research for Sustainable Development Jakob Zinsstag1 within the framework of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South. Along adapted to different contexts and thematic foci. Keywords: Interdisciplinary approach; natural sciences

Richner, Heinz

381

A Lightweight Approach to Program Specialization  

E-print Network

A Lightweight Approach to Program Specialization Claudio Ochoa, Josep Silva, and Germ´an Vidal DSIC, and merg- ing. In this work, we present a lightweight approach to program spe- cialization of lazy be dynamic or static, depending on whether a concrete program's input is provided or not. More detailed

Alpuente, María

382

Researching psychotherapy integration: A heuristic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moustakas argues that questions and methodology in heuristic research flow out of inner awareness, meaning and inspiration. The approach might arguably embrace a combination of qualitative research methods, and constitute a kind of bricolage. This paper describes a heuristic enquiry into psychotherapy integration that used such a combination of methods – an interpretative phenomenological approach, case studies, reflexive action, and

John Nuttall

2006-01-01

383

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches B.C. Eatona, a Department geometry equations relate the dimensions of the wetted channel to the stream discharge the channel conveys. One approach to hydraulic geometry considers temporal changes at a single location due to variations

Eaton, Brett

384

A computational vision approach to image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational vision approach is presented for the estimation of 2-D translation, rotation, and scale from two partially overlapping images. The approach results in a fast method that produces good results even when large rotation and translation have occurred between the two frames and the images are devoid of significant features. An illuminant direction estimation method is first used to

Qinfen Zheng; Rama Chellappa

1993-01-01

385

Near-Field Photometry: A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to near-field photometry and describes a novel nearfieldgoniophotometer and illuminance calculation method. The approach is based onhelios, which is a rationalization of the luminance concept for volume sources. Thegoniophotometer measures the three-dimensional vector field of light surrounding aluminaire rather than any of its intrinsic properties. The calculation method can predictthe illuminance at any point

Ian Ashdown

1992-01-01

386

Development Approaches for Sustainable Use of  

E-print Network

Development Approaches for Sustainable Use of Water Resources in Laikipia, Kenya Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Africa, Part IV Urs Wiesmann, 2008 (revised edition [19981]) #12; #12;Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Africa Part IV Development Approaches for Sustainable Use of Water

Richner, Heinz

387

Towards an Ecosystem Approach in British Columbia  

E-print Network

of Forests. This workshop reexamined traditional management approaches, and wrestled with the problem of how to apply an ecosy.s~em approach to the management of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in British Columbia. Ecosystem goals are generally qualitatively described and correspond to broad intentions. They deal

388

Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach  

E-print Network

of Scotland's biodiversity, and they provide us with healthy food and recreational opportunities. This new Wild deer are an important element of Scotland's biodiversity and ecology, an economic asset and valuedScotland's Wild Deer A National Approach #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach i Scotland's Wild

389

The social shaping approach to technology foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions are manifold, societal interests conflicting, and applications and markets are non-existing or still under construction. The emerging high

Michael Søgaard Jørgensen; Ulrik Jørgensen; Christian Clausen

2009-01-01

390

Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

2012-01-01

391

The "FORM" Approach to Reading Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The FORM approach is designed to help persons in the senior population with the task of filling out the forms or applications required for a myriad of societal and human needs. The acronym represents a four-part approach consisting of: Facing the issue; applying Overview; Rewriting headings as questions; and Matching information as appropriate…

Sandel, Lenore

392

Teaching Mathematical Induction: An Alternative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experience using a new approach to teaching induction that was developed by the Mathematical Methods in High School Project. The basic idea behind the new approach is to use induction to prove that two formulas, one in recursive form and the other in a closed or explicit form, will always agree for whole numbers. (KHR)

Allen, Lucas G.

2001-01-01

393

The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda

2004-01-01

394

The "White Canvas" Approach to Beginning Conducting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the white canvas approach to beginning conducting, a basic mirror conducting of both hands generating the symmetrical takt, or beat, that represents the basic foundation of conducting. Focuses on such issues as conducting as communication, conducting at the tip of the baton, and extension beyond the white canvas approach. (CMK)

Mailman, Matthew

2000-01-01

395

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

396

A neural network approach to ordinal regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinal regression is an important type of learning, which has properties of both classification and regression. Here we describe an effective approach to adapt a traditional neural network to learn ordinal categories. Our approach is a generalization of the perceptron method for ordinal regression. On several benchmark datasets, our method (NNRank) outperforms a neural network classificatio n method. Compared with

Jianlin Cheng; Zheng Wang; Gianluca Pollastri

2008-01-01

397

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

398

Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

Walker, Melanie

2005-01-01

399

An integrated approach to managing electronic records  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to managing electronic records by integrating the development and implementation of a corporate records management programme based on ISO 15489, the International Standard in Records Management, with the implementation of an electronic records management (ERM) software package. The approach involves developing file plans based on functional analyses and establishing electronic folder structures on existing network

Peter Benfell

2002-01-01

400

A Language Model Approach to Keyphrase Extraction  

E-print Network

We present a new approach to extracting keyphrases based on statistical language models. Our approach is to use pointwise KL-divergence between multiple language models for scoring both phraseness and informativeness, which can be unified into a single score to rank extracted phrases.

Takashi Tomokiyo; Matthew Hurst

2003-01-01

401

The Tutor's Approach in Base Groups (PBL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the concept of approach related to tutor functioning in problem-based learning (PBL) is explored and the significance of a phenomenological perspective of the body in relation to learning and tutoring is investigated. The aim has been to understand the concept of approach in a context where the individual, thoughts, emotions and…

Silen, Charlotte

2006-01-01

402

The Leadership Challenge: A National Study of Women Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, serious questions have been raised about the efficacy of the traditional leadership model, which relies on rigid hierarchical structure, competition, and control. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the leadership practices of rural and urban female superintendents in the United States. The study was two-fold: (1) a…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Grady, Marilyn L.

403

Reframing the Dissemination Challenge: A Marketing and Distribution Perspective  

PubMed Central

A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely. PMID:19833993

Bernhardt, Jay M.

2009-01-01

404

Education Grand Challenge: A New Kind of Liberal Education  

E-print Network

our understanding of ourselves and our environment that is, in order to develop our concepts, our the interaction between player and toy are. A modern digital computer is perhaps the most complex toy ever created by man. It can also be as richly interactive as a musical instrument. And it is certainly the most

Sloman, Aaron

405

Meeting the Energy Challenge -A White Paper on Energy  

E-print Network

: 36% gas, 37% coal, 18% nuclear and 4% from renewables, with the remainder accounted for by other to decrease GHG emissions from fossil fuels, to deal better with those emissions and to offer viable The consultation that informed the initial Energy Review was deemed to be flawed on the nuclear energy issue in R

Martin, Ralph R.

406

Ground Wheat Grain for Midlactation Cows: Challenging a Common Wisdom  

PubMed Central

The objective was to determine the effects of ground wheat grain (GW) inclusion rate, grinding extent (GE), and their interaction on lactating cow performance. Eight midlactation cows in 3 × 4?m individual boxes were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design study with 4 21 d periods. GW was fed at either 10% or 20% of diet dry matter (DM), as either finer or coarser particles. DM intake increased and net energy for lactation (NEL) intake tended to increase when GW was fed at 10% instead of 20% of diet DM. Milk energy yield, milk solids content and yield, and urine pH were unaffected. Fecal pH tended to increase at 20% versus 10% GW. Total tract apparent NDF, but not DM, digestibility tended to be greater for coarsely than finely GW and tended to be greater at 10% versus 20% GW. GW at 10% versus 20% of diet DM decreased blood BHBA and increased blood concentrations of total proteins and albumin. Data provide novel evidence that both finely and coarsely ground WG can be safely fed up to 20% midlactation cows. Commercial accessibility and cost will determine feeding preference of wheat grain to dairy cows. PMID:22666094

Nikkhah, A.; Amiri, F.; Amanloo, H.

2012-01-01

407

Institutional Directions and Challenges: A Discussion with Academic Department Chairs,  

E-print Network

per quintile and MSU's rank Federal Res Exps Less USDA, 2009 Federal Res Exps Less USDA per faculty Data Principal Federal Sponsors 2000-01 Distribution 2010-11 Distribution NSF, $40,079,264 40% USDA% USDA, $32,320,164 14% DOE, $26,710,350 12% NIH, $75,270,474 34% Dept of Ed, $16,368,846 7% #12;Source

408

Unbroken mirrors: challenging a theory Victoria Southgate1  

E-print Network

. We suggest the broken mirror theory of autism is premature and that better cognitive models of social], but it also has been implicated in other social­cognitive processes, including imitation [2], theory of mind proposes that the varied social­ cognitive difficulties characteristic of autism could be explained

Hamilton, Antonia

409

Textual Challenges: A Brief Guide to Choosing Shakespearean Editions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How should educators go about selecting appropriate editions of Shakespeare's plays for use in political science courses? Shakespeare is turning up on many politics syllabi, but, at times, the editions chosen seem to reflect primarily a concern for price or publisher reputation over pedagogical and scholarly considerations. This article offers an…

Cornell, Christine; Malcolmson, Patrick

2012-01-01

410

The Paper Airplane Challenge: A Market Economy Simulation. Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan features a classroom simulation that helps students understand the characteristics of a market economic system. The lesson plan states a purpose; cites student objectives; suggests a time duration; lists materials needed; and details a step-by-step teaching procedure. The "Paper Airplane Challenge" handout is attached. (BT)

Owens, Kimberly

411

The Bradley Challenge: A Sea Change for Australian Universities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a focus on the problematic nature of one key term in the Bradley Report. "Socioeconomic status," or SES as commonly used, lacks clear definition leading to ongoing debates about its measurement. A working consensus on SES and its measurement is necessary for the report's recommendations to proceed effectively. Next we…

Putnam, Thomas; Gill, Judith

2011-01-01

412

The Diversity Challenge: A Collection of Model Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model programs designed to promote diversity within the West Valley-Mission Community College District (WVMCCD) in California are discussed and described in this report. First, an introductory chapter, "The Importance of Cultural Issues to Higher Education," by Gustavo A. Mellander and Fred Prochaska, reviews the diversity recommendations of the…

Mellander, Gustavo A., Ed.; Prochaska, Fred, Ed.

413

Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

2013-01-01

414

Systems Engineering Challenges A Perspective from the B-2 Bomber  

E-print Network

-2 DESIGN #12;Why Stealth Conventional Bomber B-2 (Notional Detection Zones) B-2 Stealth Technology-2 Systems Group Wright-Patterson AFB, OH #12;· B-2 System Description · Benefits of Stealth · Systems Engineering Perspectives · Results of Stealth Overview #12;B-2 System Description 172 Ft High

415

“Internal root resorption: An endodontic challenge”: A case series  

PubMed Central

Management of internal root resorption is a challenge to the endodontists. It may occur in cases with chronic pulpal inflammation, following caries or due to trauma in the form of an accidental blow. Most cases of internal root resorption are seen in anterior teeth, due to their susceptibility to trauma. However, it may be seen in posterior teeth, most likely because of carious involvement of the pulp. Early diagnosis, removal of the cause, proper treatment of the resorbed root is mandatory for successful treatment outcome. This paper is an attempt to summarize the knowledge on internal root resorption and present various cases, which were successfully managed with different treatment modalities. PMID:25506152

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-01-01

416

Genuine Progress, Greater Challenges: A Decade of Teacher Effectiveness Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, the debate about American education was like a bad marriage. The arguments were about everything but the core issue--instructional quality. The other issues--education finance, school choice, standards--all matter, but are secondary to the importance of effective instruction. In the labor-intensive education field, effective instruction…

Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti

2014-01-01

417

Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. The phrase cloud computing originated from the diagrams used to\\u000a symbolize the internet. Cloud computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the grid Computing\\u000a paradigm, and other relevant technologies such as utility computing, cluster computing, and distributed systems in general.\\u000a With the development of cloud computing,

Amandeep Verma; Sakshi Kaushal

418

International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study  

SciTech Connect

Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.

Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Murakoshi, C. [Jyukankyo Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-10-01

419

Changes and Challenges: A 20/20 Vision of 2020  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delphine Hanna lecture is a memorial to the contributions and vision of a great leader. It is a tribute time-out, a moment in time when we stop what we are doing to look back thankfully and to commemorate her life. It is also an opportune moment to consider what we have made of her legacy today and to look forward to the world that awaits…

Charles, John M.

2005-01-01

420

Multitiered Approach Using Quantitative PCR To Track Sources of Fecal Pollution Affecting Santa Monica Bay, California  

PubMed Central

The ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in urban environments makes tracking of fecal contamination extremely challenging. A multitiered approach was used to assess sources of fecal pollution in Ballona Creek, an urban watershed that drains to the Santa Monica Bay (SMB) near Los Angeles, Calif. A mass-based design at six main-stem sites and four major tributaries over a 6-h period was used (i) to assess the flux of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli by using culture-based methods (tier 1); (ii) to assess levels of Enterococcus spp. by using quantitative PCR and to detect and/or quantify additional markers of human fecal contamination, including a human-specific Bacteroides sp. marker and enterovirus, using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (tier 2); and (iii) to assess the specific types of enterovirus genomes found via sequence analysis (tier 3). Sources of fecal indicator bacteria were ubiquitous, and concentrations were high, throughout Ballona Creek, with no single tributary dominating fecal inputs. The flux of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli averaged 109 to 1010 cells h?1 and was as high at the head of the watershed as at the mouth prior to discharge into the SMB. In addition, a signal for the human-specific Bacteroides marker was consistently detected: 86% of the samples taken over the extent during the study period tested positive. Enteroviruses were quantifiable in 14 of 36 samples (39%), with the highest concentrations at the site furthest upstream (Cochran). These results indicated the power of using multiple approaches to assess and quantify fecal contamination in freshwater conduits to high-use, high-priority recreational swimming areas. PMID:16461716

Noble, Rachel T.; Griffith, John F.; Blackwood, A. Denene; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Gregory, Jason B.; Hernandez, Ximena; Liang, Xiaolin; Bera, Angie A.; Schiff, Kenneth

2006-01-01

421

Do nurses provide holistic care to cancer patients?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In order to support cancer patients, nurses need to identify different physio-psycho- social needs of patients using a holistic approach. Focusing on Quality of Life (QoL) is congruent with the philosophy of a holistic approach in nursing. The main aim of this research study thus was to identify the level of agreement between cancer patients and nurses about cancer patients’ QoL. METHODS: The study was a survey which was completed in 2008. 166 cancer patients and 95 nurses were conveniently recruited from three major hospitals in Adelaide, Australia. Each patient and nurse was invited to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire separately. This questionnaire considers QoL across four domains or dimensions: physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environment. RESULTS: The proportion of the exact agreement between the two groups was 34.9%, 34.5%, 33.8% and 36.9% for the physical, psychological, social relationship, and environmental QoL domains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results may indicate that nurses do not have a holistic understanding of cancer patients’ QoL. QoL tools like the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQoL-BREF) might be used as guidelines for nurses to assess cancer patients’ QoL rather than relying heavily on their perceptions and intuitions. The results provide some implications for Iran. PMID:22049289

Bahrami, Masoud

2010-01-01

422

Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway) is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal) were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central) pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change. PMID:25254100

Voet, Caroline; le Polain de Waroux, Bernard; Forget, Patrice; Deumens, Ronald; Masquelier, Etienne

2014-01-01

423

Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and students' approaches to learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an empirical study which shows that qualitatively different approaches to teaching are associated with qualitatively different approaches to learning. More specifically, the results indicate that in the classes where teachers describe their approach to teaching as having a focus on what they do and on transmitting knowledge, students are more likely to report that they adopt

KEITH TRIGWELL; MICHAEL PROSSER; FIONA WATERHOUSE

1999-01-01

424

Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early…

Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane

2011-01-01

425

Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-11

426

Understanding the Reggio Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Second Edition. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Reggio Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Reggio Approach. Analysing the essential elements of the Reggio Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice, this new edition is fully updated with the latest…

Thornton, Linda; Brunton, Pat

2009-01-01

427

Psychological Approaches for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence-A Neurobehavioral Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of psychological approaches have been utilized for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Most information has been presented in case report format. However, several investigations have established integrated outpatient approaches which are currently being systematically evaluated. One of these approaches, the neurobehavioral model of cocaine dependency treatment establishes a clear timetable for cocaine recovery and focusses attention on four

Richard A Rawson; Jeanne Obert; Michael J. McCann; Walter Ling

1992-01-01

428

Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined the role of approach and avoidance motivation in models of personality. Specifically, it examined the hypothesis that approach and avoidance temperaments represent the foundation of several basic dimensions espoused in the trait adjective, affective disposition, and motivational system approaches to personality. Factor analytic support for the hypothesis was obtained in Studies 1, 2, and 6; measures

Andrew J. Elliot; Todd M. Thrash

2002-01-01

429

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

430

Analysis of accidents during instrument approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General aviation and air taxi approach phase accidents, which occurred during VFR and IFR, respectively over the last 25 years, were analyzed. The data suggest that there is a 204 percent higher risk during the approach and landing phase of VFR flights, than during similar IFR operations (14.82 vs 7.27 accidents/100,000 approaches). Alarmingly, the night single pilot IFR (SPIFR) accident rate is almost 8 times the rate of day IFR, 35.43 vs 4.47 accidents/100,000 approaches, and two and a half times that of day VFR approaches, 35.43 vs 14.82 accidents/100,000 approaches. Surprisingly, the overall SPIFR accident rates are not much higher than dual-pilot IFR (DPIFR), 7.27 vs 6.48 accidents/100,000 approaches. The generally static ratio of the statistics for SPIFR/DPIFR accident rates may be accounted for by little or no change in general aviation cockpit technology during the last 25 years, and because IFR operational flight task management training has not kept pace.

Bennett, C. T.; Schwirzke, M.

1992-01-01

431

Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach infrachiasmatic corridor.  

PubMed

An extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is required for skull base lesions extending to the suprasellar area. Inferior approach using the infrachiasmatic corridor allows access to the lesions through the tumor growth that is favorable for the extended transsphenoidal approaches. Infrachiasmatic corridor is a safer route for the inferior approaches that is made up by basal arachnoid membrane and Liliequist's membrane with its leaves (diencephalic and mesencephalic leaf). This area extends from the optic canal and tuberculum sella to the corpus mamillare. We performed extended endoscopic approach using the infrachiasmatic corridor in 52 cases, including tuberculum sella meningiomas (n:23), craniopharyngiomas (n:16), suprasellar Rathke's cleft cyst (n:6), pituitary adenoma (n:2), fibrous dysplasia (n:1), infundibular granulosa cell tumor (n:2), and epidermoid tumor (n:2). Total resection was achieved in 17 of 23 (74 %) with tuberculum sellae meningioma using infrachiasmatic approach. Twenty patients presented with visual disorders and 14 of them improved. There were two postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakages and one transient diabetes insipidus and one permanent diabetes insipidus. Sixteen patients were operated on by the infrachiasmatic approach for craniopharyngiomas. Improvement was reached in seven of eight patients presented with visual disorders. Complete tumor resection was performed in 10 of 16 cases and cyst aspiration in 4 cases, and there were remnants in two cases. Postoperative CSF leakage was seen in two patients. Infrachiasmatic corridor provides an easier and safer inferior route for the removal of middle midline skull base lesions in selected cases. PMID:25301446

Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Koc, Kenan; Cabuk, Burak

2015-01-01

432

Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

2009-01-01

433

Celebrating Diverse Minds: Using Different Pedagogical Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of science for all has been echoed nationwide. In order to be successfully implemented, inclusive quality pedagogical approaches are essential. These approaches should be authentic not just to the nature and content of science but also to children's diverse cultural and personal strengths. At the same time school systems will have to be aware of and avoid pitfalls that led to unequal access to science learning in the past. The question is: What do quality approaches look like? This chapter provides the answer to this pertinent question.

Hubert M. Dyasi

2006-01-01

434

[Approaching Physically Inactive -Elderly for Physical Activity.  

PubMed

The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participa-tion rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly. PMID:24756334

Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

2014-04-22

435

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians  

E-print Network

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians is developed in order to establish contact with other approaches to fluids. Three variants of the perfect fluid approach are looked at. The first is an explicit linear lagrangian constructed directly from the clebsch potentials, this has fixed equation of state and explicit expression for the pressure but is less general than a perfect fluid. The second is lagrangians more general than that of a perfect fluid which are constructed from higher powers of the comoving vector. The third is lagrangians depending on two vector fields which can represent both density flow and entropy flow.

Mark D. Roberts

2009-10-19

436

A Rank Approach to Equity Forecast Construction  

E-print Network

approach that brings these ideas together into a practical operational whole. The fundamental building blocks for our approach will be listed next. The prin- cipal tool will be the linear factor model; this is central to all quantitative portfolio analysis... . It is published solely for informational purposes and is not to be construed as a solicitation or an offer to buy or sell any securities or related financial instruments. 1 ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to present a rank based approach to cross...

Satchell, Stephen E; Wright, Stephen M

2006-03-14

437

Laparoscopic approach for rectosigmoidian resection in children.  

PubMed

Abdominoperineal approach for rectosigmoidian resection,first imagined and performed in 1948 by Orwar Swenson,was the surgical technique that opened the pathway in the treatment of congenital megacolon (1). B. Duhamel (1956) and F. Soave (1964) intended to correct the postoperative complications appeared after the Duhamel technique and proposed surgical procedures that keep the aganglionic rectum in transit (2,3). In 1994 K. Bax reproduces the Duhamel procedure using laparoscopic approach (4). K.Georgeson, in 1995, reproduced the Swenson technique for rectosigmoidian resection using minimal invasive surgery (5).Today, this approach represents the most frequently used procedure for the radical treatment of congenital megacolon. PMID:24524481

Oancea, M; Vatra, L; Kadar, A; Cop?escu, C

2014-01-01

438

Meson wave function from holographic approaches  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the light-front wave function for the valence quark state of mesons using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two kinds of wave functions obtained in different holographic Soft-Wall approaches.

Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Branz, Tanja; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-08-04

439

Salient object detection approach in UAV video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic detection of visually salient information from abundant video imagery is crucial, as it plays an important role in surveillance and reconnaissance tasks for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A real-time approach for the detection of salient objects on road, e.g. stationary and moving vehicle or people, is proposed, which is based on region segmentation and saliency detection within related domains. Generally, the traditional method specifically depends upon additional scene information and auxiliary thermal or IR sensing for secondary confirmation. However, this proposed approach can detect the interesting objects directly from video imagery captured by optical camera fixed on the small level UAV platform. To validate this proposed salient object detection approach, the 25 Hz video data from our low speed small UAV are tested. The results have demonstrated the proposed approach performs excellently in isolated rural environments.

Zhang, Yueqiang; Su, Ang; Zhu, Xianwei; Zhang, Xiaohu; Shang, Yang

2013-10-01

440

A new automated approach to cloud population  

E-print Network

This thesis presents vCloud Populator, a new approach to automating the cloud population process on VMware vCloud Director. Cloud population is the process during which a cloud instance is populated with entities to reflect ...

Tam, Hoki

2012-01-01

441

An Approach to Ionospheric Calibration Bill Erickson  

E-print Network

An Approach to Ionospheric Calibration Bill Erickson University of Tasmania Abstract. I am a low the south coast of Tasmania in the prevailing westerlies of the "Roaring Forties" where the nearest land

Ellingson, Steven W.

442

A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Bridges, Robert A [ORNL

2012-01-01

443

LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN APPROACH TO MODELING CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach predicts potential contaminant distributions resulting from the disposal of sewage sludge at the Deepwater Municipal Disposal Site off the northeast United States continental shelf. The Lagrangian aspect involves Monte-Carlo simulations of ...

444

Stochastic Approximation Approach to Stochastic Programming  

E-print Network

Monte Carlo sampling techniques, namely, the Stochastic Approximation (SA) and the Sample. Average ... than 5. The aim of this paper is to compare two computational approaches based on Monte. Carlo sampling ..... does not exceed M2.

2007-10-03

445

Combatting Student Burnout: A Structured Group Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a structure group approach designed to help college students prevent or combat the burnout phenomenon. Defines the facilitator role and outlines the group process including relaxation, time management, and understanding and combatting unrealistic expectations. (JAC)

Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

1983-01-01

446

A Systems Engineering Approach to Developing  

E-print Network

Engineering Process Funding Req't Analysis Business Model Business Detailed Design Business Processes Business Business Plan Business Requirements Analysis Business Customers State The Problem Determine Need #12A Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Business Models - Healthcare Presented by Gary

447

Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion  

SciTech Connect

We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.

Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J. [Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.92.43 (Portugal); Department of Physics and Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.93.22 (Portugal)

2009-03-16

448

An Optimisation Approach to Cartographic Generalisation  

E-print Network

with manual propagation performed by a cartographer. Keywords: cartographic generalisation, graphic: optimisation methods in graphic generalisation, and propagation of updates between cartographic data sets of different scales. To enable an optimisation approach to graphic generalisation several topics are studied

Harrie, Lars

449

A Bayesian approach to feed reconstruction  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we developed a Bayesian approach to estimate the detailed composition of an unknown feedstock in a chemical plant by combining information from a few bulk measurements of the feedstock in the plant along ...

Conjeevaram Krishnakumar, Naveen Kartik

2013-01-01

450

Extended frontobasal approach to the skull base.  

PubMed

The extended frontobasal approach provides an adequate midline exposure from the anterior cranial fossa to the sphenoclival region. Between November 1991 and August 1999, 13 patients with extensive anterior and anterolateral skull base tumours extending to supra and parasellar regions, cavernous sinus and sphenoclival regions were operated upon using this approach alone (7 patients) or in combination with subtemporal -infratemporal (4 patients) or transfacial (2 patients) approaches. Gross total excision was performed in 8 patients while in 4 patients with malignant tumours and in a patient with extensive skull base fungal granuloma, only partial excision was possible. Basal repair was performed using pedicled pericranium, temporalis muscle or fascia lata. The complications included increase in the cranial nerve paresis, endophthalmitis, facial oedema, CSF leak, frontal haematoma and internal carotid artery injury. This study reviews the operative technique, the indications and the complications of extended frontobasal approach. PMID:11593242

Banerji, D; Behari, S; Tyagi, I; Pandey, T; Jain, V K; Chhabra, D K

2001-09-01

451

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH What is Considered `Scientific Knowledge documents, observations and transcripts Basic Features of Qualitative Research (2) Research procedures'? Importance of methodology Need for empirical data Procedures and protocols in research Competing sources

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

452

An economic approach to environmental indices  

EPA Science Inventory

This study uses the directional output distance function from economic productivity theory as an alternative approach to environmental index construction. We use the directional output distance function to aggregate multiple environmental objectives into one measure of environme...

453

Human Health Research Program: Systems biological approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...

454

A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Recent advances in developmental biology have yielded detailed models of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) involved in cell specification and other processes in embryonic differentiation. Such networks form the bedrock on which a systems biology approach to developme...

455

A Multicultural Physical Education Approach. An Attitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a rationale for a multicultural approach to teaching physical education. Teachers don't need to know all of the culturally specific answers but must be aware that there may be differences in interactional styles. (MT)

Swisher, Karen; Swisher, Clark

1986-01-01

456

Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks  

E-print Network

A heat exchanger network constitutes the core of the plant energy systems interlinking the core process operation and the utility systems. This paper will illustrate an integrated approach for the revamp of a heat exchanger network by bringing...

Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

457

SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN DRAFT REPORT JUNE 22 1999 Jianfeng Zhang Ian Dobson Fernando L. Alvarado POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM

458

Interdisciplinary approaches to improving public health  

E-print Network

HEaltH Interdisciplinary approaches to improving public health began with the School's first dean. If the camera loses the target when it moves behind an organ, it does an intelligent search to reestablish its

Hone, James

459

Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

2014-03-01

460

A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1988-01-01

461

An Approach to Evaluating Equipment Efficiency Policies  

E-print Network

to the evaluation of these and related policy options is under development. The approach includes equipment classification and characterization, market characterization, and the subsequent evaluation of effectiveness and costs of the policy options. Technical...

Newsom, D. E.; Evans, A. R.

1980-01-01

462

Hierarchical Approach to Fault Diagnosis Master's Thesis  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Approach to Fault Diagnosis Master's Thesis Alexander Feldman November 14, 2004 for listening to my problems of hierarchical fault diagnosis. Thanks to Leo Breebaart, also from Science, Fault Diagnosis, Hierarchy, Partitioning, Structure, Propo- sitional Model, Backtracking #12

van Gemund, Arjan J.C.

463

A ”JOINT+MARGINAL” APPROACH TO PARAMETRIC ...  

E-print Network

solutions, can be estimated, e.g. by maximum entropy methods. Also, for a .... Hence, the approach is particularly interesting when the number ...... [2] K. Arrow, S. Karlin, and H. Scarf, Studies in the Mathematical Theory of Inventory and.

2010-01-13

464

Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

1988-01-01

465

Lightcurves for Five Close Approach Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightcurves for five near-Earth asteroids observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches between 2009 March and 2009 May are reported: (143651) 2003 QO104, 2009 FH, 2009 HM82, 2009 KW2 and 2009 KL8.

Birtwhistle, Peter

2009-10-01

466

Lightcurves for Five Close Approach Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightcurves for five near-Earth asteroids observed from Great Shefford Observatory during close approaches between 2009 March and 2009 May are reported: (143651) 2003 QO104, 2009 FH, 2009 HM82, 2009 KW2 and 2009 KL8.

Peter Birtwhistle

2009-01-01

467

Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review.

Kumer Biswas, Amit; Reazul Islam, Md; Sadek Choudhury, Zahid; Mostafa, Asif; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad

2014-12-01

468

A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence  

E-print Network

of an emotion might be fear produced by the sound of a rapidly approaching bus, or the sight of an angry such as the death of a loved one. Another example would be relief produced by the omission or termination

Rolls, Edmund T.

469

Systems Biology Approaches to New Vaccine Development  

PubMed Central

Summary The current “isolate, inactivate, inject” vaccine development strategy has served the field of vaccinology well, and such empirical vaccine candidate development has even led to the eradication of smallpox. However, such an approach suffers from limitations, and as an empirical approach, does not fully utilize our knowledge of immunology and genetics. A more complete understanding of the biological processes culminating in disease resistance is needed. The advent of high-dimensional assay technology and “systems biology” along with a vaccinomics approach [1;2] is spawning a new era in the science of vaccine development. Here we review recent developments in systems biology and strategies for applying this approach and its resulting data to expand our knowledge base and drive directed development of new vaccines. We also provide applied examples and point out new directions for the field in order to illustrate the power of systems biology. PMID:21570272

Oberg, Ann L.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Li, Peter; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Poland, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

470

Multidelity approaches for design under uncertainty  

E-print Network

Uncertainties are present in many engineering applications and it is important to account for their effects during engineering design to achieve robust and reliable systems. One approach is to represent uncertainties as ...

Ng, Leo Wai-Tsun

2013-01-01

471

DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL OZONE SAMPLERS: THREE APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigators funded under the HEI ozone sampler program, Drs. Hackney, Yanagisawa, and Koutrakis, and their collaborators used different approaches to develop personal ozone samples that would be sensitive, accurate, and amenable to use in epidemiological studies. ...

472

Nonlinear Dynamical Approaches to Human Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear dynamics and dynamical systems approaches and methodologies are increasingly being implemented into biomechanics and human movement research. Based on the early insights of Nicolai Bernstein (1967), a signifi- cantly different outlook on the movement control \\

A. Van Emmerik; Michael T. Rosenstein; William J. McDermott; Joseph Hamill

2004-01-01

473

Outsourced Energy Management- A Trustee Approach  

E-print Network

for outsourcing these responsibilities through the creation of a partnership with an independent firm of experienced energy experts, and outlines the advantages of this approach versus the other models now available....

Ciarlone, D. F.; O'Connor, T. W.

474

Optimization Online - Semidefinite Optimization Approaches to ...  

E-print Network

Sep 16, 2014 ... ... Approaches to Applications in Facility Layout and Logistics ... These layout problems are of special interest for optimizing flexible manufacturing systems. ... Category 2: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences ...

Philipp Hungerlaender

2014-09-16

475

Studying an Approach to Query Spatial XML  

E-print Network

(S) Catalog is queried by RQL #12;Approach based on RDF GML documents (or part of) are a resource. (Spatial operators) Extension of RQL to support spatial operators Extension of C-Web architecture to support

McBrien, Peter

476

New Algorithmic Approaches to Point Constellation Recognition  

E-print Network

New Algorithmic Approaches to Point Constellation Recognition Thomas Bourgeat1, Julien Bringer2-38025 Grenoble Cedex, France jclement@crocus-technology.com Abstract. Point constellation recognition is mainly motivated by fingerprint matching. Fingerprints are tradition- ally modelled as constellations

Mödersheim, Sebastian

477

Triton photodisintegration in three-dimensional approach  

E-print Network

Two- and three- particles photodisintegration of the triton is investigated in a three-dimensional (3D) Faddeev approach. For this purpose the Jacobi momentum vectors for three particles system and spin-isospin quantum numbers of the individual nucleons are considered. Based on this picture the three-nucleon Faddeev integral equations with the two-nucleon interaction are formulated without employing the partial wave decomposition. The single nucleon current as well as $\\pi-$ and $\\rho-$ like exchange currents are used in an appropriate form to be employed in 3D approach. The exchange currents are derived from AV18 NN force. The two-body t-matrix, Deuteron and Triton wave functions are calculated in the 3D approach by using AV18 potential. Benchmarks are presented to compare the total cross section for the two- and three- particles photodisintegration in the range of $E_{\\gamma}<30 MeV$. The 3D Faddeev approach shows promising results.

Shalchi, M A; 10.1140/epja/i2012-12006-9

2012-01-01

478

Triton photodisintegration in three-dimensional approach  

E-print Network

Two- and three- particles photodisintegration of the triton is investigated in a three-dimensional (3D) Faddeev approach. For this purpose the Jacobi momentum vectors for three particles system and spin-isospin quantum numbers of the individual nucleons are considered. Based on this picture the three-nucleon Faddeev integral equations with the two-nucleon interaction are formulated without employing the partial wave decomposition. The single nucleon current as well as $\\pi-$ and $\\rho-$ like exchange currents are used in an appropriate form to be employed in 3D approach. The exchange currents are derived from AV18 NN force. The two-body t-matrix, Deuteron and Triton wave functions are calculated in the 3D approach by using AV18 potential. Benchmarks are presented to compare the total cross section for the two- and three- particles photodisintegration in the range of $E_{\\gamma}<30 MeV$. The 3D Faddeev approach shows promising results.

M. A. Shalchi; S. Bayegan

2012-02-19

479

A STRATIFIED APPROACH FOR SOUND SPATIALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a multi-layer structure to mediate essential com- ponents in sound spatialization. This approach will facilitate artistic work with spatialization systems, a process which currently lacks structure, flexibility, and interoperability.

Nils Petersa; Trond Lossiusb; Jan Schacherc; Pascal Baltazard; Charles Bascoue; Timothy Placef

480

Harm reduction approaches to alcohol use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harm reduction approaches to alcohol problems have endured a controversial history in both the research literature and the popular media. Although several studies have demonstrated that controlled drinking is possible and that moderation-based treatments may be preferred over abstinence-only approaches, the public and institutional views of alcohol treatment still support zero-tolerance. After describing the problems with zero-tolerance and the benefits

G. Alan Marlatt; Katie Witkiewitz

2002-01-01

481

Ultrafast Pulse Shaping Approaches to Quantum Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum computing exploits the quantum-mechanical nature of matter to exist in multiple possible states simultaneously. This new approach promises to revolutionize the present form of computing. As an approach to quantum computing, we discuss ultrafast laser pulse shaping, in particular, the acousto-optic modulator based Fourier-Transform pulse-shaper, which has the ability to modulate tunable high power ultrafast laser pulses. We show

Debabrata Goswami

2003-01-01

482

Regression-fuzzy approach to land valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate that the fuzzy pricing model can improve regression analysis in applications where non-smoothness\\u000a appears. Combining the fuzzy and regression approaches it is capable of modelling complex non-linearities. The application\\u000a of this approach describes an effort to design a regression-fuzzy system to estimate real estate market values, especially\\u000a for vacant urban plots. The results are compared

Marija Bogataj; Danijela Tuljak Suban; Samo Drobne

483

Laparascopic nephrectomy: different techniques and approaches.  

PubMed

Nephrectomy is, perhaps, one of the techniques in which laparoscopic approach has been widely used. It has quickly evolved since Clayman introduced it in 1990 with a renal tumor. Since then, its goodness has been extrapolated to most entities that require surgical removal of the kidney. We review the current most discussed aspects referred to the main laparoscopic nephrectomy techniques (simple nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, radical, and nephron-sparing nephrectomy) and particularities of this approach. PMID:25665707

González León, Tania

2015-02-01

484

New Approach for Basic Rough Set Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The standard rough set theory has been introduced in 1982 [5]. In this paper we use a topological concepts to investigate\\u000a a new definitions for the lower and upper approximation operators. This approach is a generalization for Pawlak approach and\\u000a the generalizations in [2, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. Properties of the suggested concepts are obtained. Also comparison

A. A. Allam; M. Y. Bakeir; E. A. Abo-tabl

2005-01-01

485

Simulating Fibre Suspensions: Lagrangian versus Statistical Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibre suspensions exhibit complex dynamical flow phenomena and are at the same time of immense practical importance, notably in the pulp and paper industries. NTNU and TU Delft have in a collaborative research project adopted two alternative strategies in the simulation of dilute fibre suspensions, namely a statistical approach [2] and a Lagrangian particle treatment [4]. The two approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we aim for the first time to compare the performance of the two.

Zhao, L. H.; Andersson, H. I.; Gillissen, J. J. J.; Boersma, B. J.

486

New approaches to weighted frequent pattern mining  

E-print Network

NEW APPROACHES TO WEIGHTED FREQUENT PATTERN MINING A Dissertation by UNIL YUN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2005 Major... Subject: Computer Science NEW APPROACHES TO WEIGHTED FREQUENT PATTERN MINING A Dissertation by UNIL YUN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Yun, Unil

2007-04-25

487

A Concept Hierarchy Based Ontology Mapping Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontology mapping is one of the most important tasks for ontology interoperability and its main aim is to find semantic relationships\\u000a between entities (i.e. concept, attribute, and relation) of two ontologies. However, most of the current methods only consider\\u000a one to one (1:1) mappings. In this paper we propose a new approach (CHM: Concept Hierarchy based Mapping approach) which can

Ying Wang; Weiru Liu; David A. Bell

2010-01-01

488

A Regional Approach to Community Development  

E-print Network

.. Hall, Inc. Freeman, R. Edward 1984 Strategic Management--A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman Publishing Inc. Hurst, David K. 1984 "Of Boxes, Bubbles, and Effective Management." Harvard Business Review, (May..June):78-88. Janowitz, Morris 1953 The Community...-American Review of Sociology Department of Sociology University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Abels, Paul and Michael J. Murphy 1981. Administration in the Human Services: A Normative Systems Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Bagby, Wesley M 1981...

Knox, Jerry

1987-04-01

489

A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

The process approach to NRQM offers a fourth framework for the quantization of physical systems. Unlike the standard approaches (Schrodinger-Heisenberg, Feynman, Wigner-Gronewald-Moyal), the process approach is not merely equivalent to NRQM and is not merely a re-interpretation. The process approach provides a dynamical completion of NRQM. Standard NRQM arises as a asymptotic quotient by means of a set-valued process covering map, which links the process algebra to the usual space of wave functions and operators on Hilbert space. The process approach offers an emergentist, discrete, finite, quasi-non-local and quasi-non-contextual realist interpretation which appears to resolve many of the paradoxes and is free of divergences. Nevertheless, it retains the computational power of NRQM and possesses an emergent probability structure which agrees with NRQM in the asymptotic quotient. The paper describes the process algebra, the process covering map for single systems and the configuration process covering map for multiple systems. It demonstrates the link to NRQM through a toy model. Applications of the process algebra to various quantum mechanical situations - superpositions, two-slit experiments, entanglement, Schrodinger's cat - are presented along with an approach to the paradoxes and the issue of classicality.

William H. Sulis

2014-09-07

490

Efficient Approximate Reliability Evaluation Using the Markovian Minimal Cut Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reliability analysis of information and automation systems has to cope with complex system structures and a large number of different components. Adapted to these re- quirements, the Markovian minimal cut approach has been developed. The Markovian minimal cut approach combines the advantages of two well-known approaches, the minimal cut and the Markovian path approach. The minimal cut approach allows

Hans-dieter Kochs; Holger Hilmer; Thomas Nisbach

1999-01-01

491

Using Data to Improve Instruction: Different Approaches for Different Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What data should teachers use, and how should they use these data to improve their teaching? In this review, a diverse set of literature that addresses this question is categorized according to three distinct approaches: the diagnostic approach, the methods approach, and the teacher approach. Within the diagnostic approach, teachers collect data…

Wieman, Rob

2014-01-01

492

Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

2008-01-01

493

Why do general practitioners prescribe antidepressants to their patients? A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The frequency of antidepressant (ADs) prescription is high, with general practitioners (GPs) responsible for about 80% of the prescriptions. Some studies considered prescriptions meet DSM criteria, while others stress inadequate use. The importance of biological and psychosocial determinants of GP prescription behaviour remains little explored. We aimed to describe the importance of these biological and psychosocial determinants and their weight in the daily practice of GPs’. Methods During a week chosen at random, 28 GPs collected the AD prescriptions made within the previous six months, regardless of the reason for the patient contact. Bio psychosocial and AD treatment characteristics were recorded for all patients. In a random sample of 50 patients, patient characteristics were assessed via a structured face-to-face interview with the GP. Results The frequency of AD prescription was 8.90% [3.94 -17.02]. The GPs initiated 65.6% [60.1-70.8] of the prescriptions. The rate of AD prescription for non-psychiatric conditions was 18%. Patients had from 1 to 9 conditions, showing a high level of multi-morbidity. There was a strong influence of past medical history and contextual problems, such as work related problems. Conclusion AD prescription is related to complex contextual situations and multi-morbid patients. GPs use a bio psycho social approach, rather than a purely biological assessment. Awareness of these influences could improve prescription by GPs. PMID:25110516

2014-01-01

494

Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique  

PubMed Central

Celiac Disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD) on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years). By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years) and parents (children younger than 8 years) were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside) and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life). Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment. PMID:24225846

Biagetti, Chiara; Naspi, Giulia; Catassi, Carlo

2013-01-01

495

A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders  

PubMed Central

This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more florid and distinct forms of psychopathology. Personality disorders affect at least 10% of the population, and the direct and indirect social costs associated with crime, substance abuse, increased need for medical care, family disruption, delayed recovery from clinical syndromes and medical diseases is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional formats for classifying personalities have gained more interest. Personality pathology has a complex and variable character of interwoven developmental bio-psycho-social influences. A number of reliable instruments for assessment of personality and its disorders have emerged during the last three decades and a wide range of tailored psychotherapeutic techniques are now available. Personality disorders are treatable and remission is more likely than treatment resistance. Education is needed for all health professionals in psychiatric services. The full WPA program is available to be downloaded for free from WPA’s website www.wpanet.org PMID:18560515

SIMONSEN, ERIK; RONNINGSTAM, ELSA; MILLON, THEODORE

2008-01-01

496

Update on Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis consists of use of drugs, physical measures, social work interventions, education and reconstructive surgery. The physician plays a co-ordinating role, since most patients with significant rheumatoid arthritis will require treatment by more than one member of the health-care team. Our drug armamentarium, including anti-inflammatory agents, disease suppressants, analgesics, rarely steroids, and even more rarely immunosuppressants, can be used to good effect in suppressing the synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis and in relieving pain. Physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing and social work interventions will help the patient to maintain function and to maintain their optimal level of fitness, including exercise tolerance, joint range, muscle strength and psycho-social function. Coping abilities can be greatly enhanced by a positive approach from the physician, and this, together with the very real benefits of the foregoing treatments, can produce a highly rewarding result for physician and patient alike, in terms of improved quality of life for the rheumatoid arthritis patient. PMID:21263856

Patterson, A. Caroline

1987-01-01

497

Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.  

PubMed

While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education. PMID:23679676

Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

2013-09-01

498

Fostering a Healing Presence and Investigating Its Mediators  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is the exploration and explication of the complex phenomena of “healing presence” and of appropriately supportive theoretical approaches to integrate emerging models for research design. Healing presence is described as an interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal to transcendent phenomenon that leads to a beneficial, therapeutic, and/or positive spiritual change within another individual (healee) and also within the healer. An integrated framework merging knowledge from diverse fields of research develops the multiple elements of healing presence, the healer, the healee's capacity for response and the healing effect as an entangled phenomenon. A conceptual systemic model is presented, and questions and dilemmas that emerge are delineated. An integrated qualitative-quantitative research design is proposed. A systemic relationship model, which includes the healer, the healee, and persons within the healee's environment is presented. The challenges are substantial, but the research questions are meaningful and worthwhile. The goal is to foster healing at bio-psycho-social-spiritual levels of the human being. PMID:15630820

KREITZER, MARY JO; BELL, IRIS R.

2008-01-01

499

Prediction and prevention of suicide in patients with unipolar depression and anxiety  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data suggest that between 59 and 87% of suicide victims suffered from major depression while up to 15% of these patients will eventually commit suicide. Male gender, previous suicide attempt(s), comorbid mental disorders, adverse life-situations, acute psycho-social stressors etc. also constitute robust risk factors. Anxiety and minor depression present with a low to moderate increase in suicide risk but anxiety-depression comorbidity increases this risk dramatically Contrary to the traditional psychoanalytic approach which considers suicide as a retrospective murder or an aggression turned in-wards, more recent studies suggest that the motivations to commit suicide may vary and are often too obscure. Neurobiological data suggest that low brain serotonin activity might play a key role along with the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Social factors include social support networks, religion etc. It is proven that most suicide victims had asked for professional help just before committing suicide, however they were either not diagnosed (particularly males) or the treatment they received was inappropriate or inadequate. The conclusion is that promoting suicide prevention requires the improving of training and skills of both psychiatrists and many non-psychiatrists and especially GPs in recognizing and treating depression and anxiety. A shift of focus of attention is required in primary care to detect potentially suicidal patients presenting with psychological problems. The proper use of antidepressants, after a careful diagnostic evaluation, is important and recent studies suggest that successful acute and long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy reduces suicide morbidity and mortality. PMID:17803824

Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kaprinis, George; Rihmer, Zoltan

2007-01-01

500

[Using arts therapies in psycho-oncology: evaluation of an exploratory study implemented in an out-patient setting].  

PubMed

According to the state-of-the-art in health psychology and psycho-oncology, a cancerous disease, as well as the accompanying medical treatments, is a source ofintense emotional stress. As feelings of insecurity and anxiety are likely to induce negative effects on immune defences, those effects may overlap with the cancerous disease and complicate its evolution. As arts therapies tend to favour the imaginary and symbolic elaboration of the tensions of daily life, as well as the re appropriation of one's body and personal history, different artistic mediations may occupy an important function in the psychological follow-up of the patient. Following an exploratory study in a hospital, we carried out an action-research in an out-patient setting during six moths. The arts therapeutic treatment comprehended alternatively drawing and writing sessions while listening to music, opening tracks for a thorough verbal elaboration. The evaluation was based on psychometric scales (HADS and MDBF), rating scales for the pictorial and literary production and a semi-structured interview. According to the results of the quantitative analyses, based on non parametric statistical procedures for small groups and non metric data, as well as to the qualitative content analyses, arts therapies could become a valuable treating measure within a multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social approach. PMID:23808110

Schiltz, L; Zimoch, A

2013-01-01