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Exploring the bio-psycho–social approach to premenstrual experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bio-psycho–social approach to the premenstrual syndrome suggests that cyclical hormonal changes are acknowledged and interpreted in light of the expectations and the attitudes acquired in the process of socialization. In this study, attitudes toward menstruation and premenstrual experiences of 229 Israeli students of different ethnic groups and gender role orientations were explored. The findings were consistent with previous reports:

Ofra Anson



It is time for a more integrated bio-psycho-social approach to ADHD.  


The role of psychosocial factors in perpetuating and predisposing towards the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been neglected within the field of child mental health. Clinicians, when told that a child had a diagnosis of ADHD, have been found to underestimate the presence of psychosocial factors, and are less likely to ask about the possibility of neglect or abuse. This article details the considerable research showing links between ADHD symptoms and parental mental illness, child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attachment disorders and other environmental factors. Recent neuro-biological findings showing the impact on brain development of early abuse and attachment concerns are cited. The implications of these findings both for clinicians, and at policy level, are discussed, and the reasons underlying the need for a more integrated Bio-Psycho-Social approach to ADHD are outlined. PMID:23104966

Richards, Louise Marie-Elaine



Restructuring Model Inspired in the Bio-Psycho-Social Approach in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a description of the Project for the Development of the Center of Psychological Attention (CAP) at the University of Santiago de Chile's School of Psychology (EPUSACH). The time span is from 2001 to 2005 and the research looks into the bio-psycho-social components of health as well as public health indicators.


Bio-Psycho-Social Reasoning in GPs’ Case Narratives: The Discursive Construction of ME Patients’ Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes a discursive psychology approach to the analysis of medical case narratives. An analysis of interview extracts on the topic of ME (CFS) shows how GPs use bio-psycho-social reasoning to construct the patient’s identity and to define their illness as mental or physical. Patients’ identities are ‘talked up’ using bio-psycho-social ‘evidence’; they are constructed in the process of

Mary Horton-Salway



Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

Izumi, K.


Integration of PsychoSocial Models and Methods in NATO's Approach to Operations; A Review of NATO Research and Technology Organization (RTO) Systems Analysis Studies (SAS074)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NATO's Research and Technology Organization (RTO) Systems, Analysis, Studies Task Force (SAS-074) is currently de- veloping a process to increase the utilization of human and social-science based Theories, Models and Methods (TM&Ms) by planners and operational researchers in support of these operations. The paper outlines the approach the group is taking. A two-stage process has been developed which provides guidance

Timothy J. Bacon; Phillip Jones; Randall B. Garrett; Andreas Tolk



Employing a Community Based Participatory Research Approach to Bear Witness: Psycho-Social Impact of the 2010 Earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  


We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C



Sociological Speculations on Treating Problem GamblersA Clinical Sociological Imagination via a Bio-psycho-social-sociological Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential of a bio-psycho-social-sociological model as it pertains to C. Wright Mills's articulation of a sociological imagination and, especially, how these formulations may be used to help problem gamblers and their families. This tool might be seen as a “clinical sociological” one that complements, rather than replaces, existing psychologically oriented approaches. A number of speculations about

Bo J. Bernhard



The Psycho-Social Impact(s) of Breast Cancer

The Psycho-social Basis for Social Work in Oncology David K. Wellisch, Ph.D. Professor-in-Residence Department of Psychiatry U.C.L.A. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. • Social Worker is often the only mental health professional in the oncology setting • Other disciplines


Psycho-Social Parameters in Young Female Long Distance Runners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine selected psycho-social parameters associated with a group of teenage, female long distance runners. These young women, who train by running approximately 50-90 miles per week, had scores in certain physiological and anthropometric measurements which were among the most advantageous for running ever recorded in…

Burke, Edmund J.; And Others


Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.  


It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

Licanin, Ifeta; Redzi?, Amira



Effect Of Bio-Psycho-Social Changes On Older Consumers: Implications For Product Design And Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued rapid growth of the mature adult (over the age of 65) population and the tremendous variability in the needs, lifestyles, and demographic characteristics of this segment is creating lucrative opportunities for product designers marketers. This paper describes the evolving needs of mature adults especially due to the bio-psycho-social changes that accompany the aging process. By interfacing the gerontological

Monica Nandan



Creating an Awareness of Alternatives to Psycho-Social Situations in Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of 18 selected lessons from Dupont's Toward Affective Development (TAD) program for creating an awareness in students of alternatives to psycho-social situations. Using a sample of 60 subjects randomly selected from 111 sixth-grade students in northwest Wisconsin, two experimental and two…

LeCapitaine, John E.


Towards a bio-psycho-social model of autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-awareness and identity are important cornerstones of thinking in social psychology. On the basis of current knowledge and theories from the social, cultural, and biological sciences, this paper attempts to outline an integrative approach to the phenomena of memory and reminiscence. Reference to psycho-dynamic argumentation is made in addition, where appropriate. The central topic to our argumentation is autobiographical memory,

Harald Welze; Hans Markowitsch



Subjectivité et approche bio-psycho-sociale en psychiatrie  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is not enough importance given to subjectivity in modern psychiatry, when compared with the biological approach and diagnosis. History may explain why biologists are not interested in subjectivity. The notion of  “human sciences”, which seems specifically french may help in introducing subjectivity in a scientific psychiatry. In order to have a better understanding of the patient, there is a

J. S. Strauss



Teaching Social Work's Bio-Psycho-Social Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching a process of case theory construction provides students with a systematic approach to make sense of clients and formulate accurate assessments. Through a theory of the case students can account for problematic factors, explain the client, draw from the relevant literature and successfully intervene. Case material illustrates the importance of students' incorporation of the biological, psychological and social in

Cynthia D. Bisman



Impact of telephonic psycho-social support on adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa has one of the highest rates of both rape and HIV infections. Of great concern is the possibility of HIV transmission during the assault, but adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been varied and low. We developed a telephonic psycho-social support, leaflet and adherence diary intervention for rape victims and tested its impact on adherence to PEP. A

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Carl Lombard; Shanaaz Mathews; Jacquelyn Campbell; Banwari Meel



Epidemiology and psycho-social aspects of onchocercal skin diseases in northeastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Observations were made on the prevalence of onchocerciasis and Onchocercal Skin Diseases (OSD); frequency of occurrence and anatomical distribution of OSD in the Hawal River Valley, an established onchocerciasis endemic focus in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods Symptoms of OSD were diagnosed in 5 844 subjects using Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) while 1 479 of the subjects chosen from alternate households had their skin biopsies examined for active microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Also, Focal Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted at the Health District levels. Results O. volvulus was recorded in (19.0%) and OSD in (43.8%) of the subjects. The Mantel-Haenszel test for linear association showed a close agreement between onchocerciasis prevalence and the rate of OSD (?2 = 3.93; p < 0.05). The various forms of OSD occurred in the order: CPOD (17.7%), APOD (9.9%), DPM (9.0%), LOD (7.0%) and ATR (3.1%). The overall frequency of occurrence of various symptoms of OSD on different anatomical locations showed the locations in descending order of occurrence as lower limbs (24.6%), upper limbs (21.3%), buttocks (19.9%), shoulder & neck (19.1%), abdomen and trunk (11.3%), backside (10.6), and 'other' sites (7.5%). The Focal Group Discussion (FGD) revealed the most worrisome consequences of OSD as social isolation of victims (31.3%), shame and low self esteem (22.7%) and high cost of medication (15.6%). Conclusion It is recommended that Onchocerciasis control programmes in the Hawal River Valley and any other focus with high incidence of OSD should incorporate an aspect that would address the anxiety and depression caused by various OSD lesions since they carry lots of psycho-social implications. This would increase acceptance and compliance of the target population. The classification criteria of onchocerciasis endemicity should be based on either or both of the O. volvulus and onchocercal skin disease burden of any community and no longer on O. volvulus parasitic infection rate alone.

Okoye, Ikem Chris; Onwuliri, Celestine OE



The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male

M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard



Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms-A pilot survey among persons exposed to high levels of road traffic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high levels of road traffic noise during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by

E. Öhrström



Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present paper is a replication as well as an extension of the Hines et al. [(1986\\/87). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behaviour: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Education, 18, 1–8] meta-analysis on psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Based on information from a total of 57 samples the present meta-analysis finds mean correlations between

Sebastian Bamberg; Guido Möser



Narrative story stems with high risk six year-olds: Differential associations with mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's responses on a Narrative Story Stem Technique (NSST) were coded using scales reflecting essential attachment constructs, specifically, attachment, exploratory, sociability, and caregiving behavioral systems, as originally conceived by Bowlby (1973, 1982) and elaborated upon by his followers (Cassidy, 2008). NSST responses were examined in relation to both mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment and risk using the MacArthur Health &

Timothy Page; Neil W. Boris; Sherryl Heller; Lara Robinson; Shantice Hawkins; Rhonda Norwood



Impact of telephonic psycho-social support on adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after rape.  


South Africa has one of the highest rates of both rape and HIV infections. Of great concern is the possibility of HIV transmission during the assault, but adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been varied and low. We developed a telephonic psycho-social support, leaflet and adherence diary intervention for rape victims and tested its impact on adherence to PEP. A randomised control trial was conducted in the Western and Eastern Cape and 279 rape survivors were enrolled in two arms. The intervention involved the providing of an information leaflet including an adherence diary and follow-up support through telephone calls by a counsellor during the 28 days of taking the PEP. The controls received the leaflet. Follow-up interviews and tablet checks were done with 253 participants to assess adherence. The primary outcome was completion of 28 days of PEP with no more than three missed doses (94% adherence). There was more adherence in the intervention arm (38.2% vs. 31.9%), but the estimated intervention effect of 6.5% (95% CI: -4.6 to 17.6%) was not statistically significant, p=0.13. The intervention was associated with the reading of the pamphlet (p=0.07) and an increased use of the diary (p=0.01), but did not reduce depressive psychopathology. Overall adherence was greater amongst those who read the leaflet and used the medication diary. The study showed that the intervention was not effective in significantly improving adherence and adherence levels were low in both study arms. Further research to understand reasons for non-adherence is needed before further interventions are developed. PMID:20640949

Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Lombard, Carl; Mathews, Shanaaz; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Meel, Banwari



Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul



Pain-provoking behaviour as a driven reaction to psychological distress: the bio-psycho-social neurotic loop model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical psychology and psychiatry, different complaints are generally perceived as problems with a different ethiology, despite the fact that it can also be hypothesised that they share the same dimension. We believe that many clinicians share the heuristic insight that a pure categorical approach to psychopathology underscores the potential value of a dimensional approach. The neurotic loop model attempts

Rudi De Raedt; Rik Schacht; Paul Cosyns; Ingrid Ponjaert-Kristoffersen



An integrative approach to severe emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of integrative treatment for serious mental disorders based on the identification of specific needs and characteristics of the patient by means of a psychoanalytic approach. The treatment includes different types of bio-psycho-social techniques, both therapeutic and rehabilitative, which are utilised according to specific selection criteria. The authors describe the most important features of the conceptual

Giovanni Carlo Zapparoli



Identification, assessment and management of food-related microbiological hazards: historical, fundamental and psycho-social essentials.  


Microbiological risk assessment aimed at devising measures of hazard management, should take into account all perceived hazards, including those not empirically identified. It should also recognise that safety cannot be "inspected into" a food. Rather hazard management should be the product of intervention strategies in accordance with the approach made mandatory in the EU Directive 93/43 and the USDA FSIS Pathogen Reduction HACCP system; Final Rule. It is essential too that the inherent variability of the biological attributes affecting food safety is recognised in any risk assessment. The above strategic principles may be conceptualised as a four-step sequence, involving (i) identification and quantification of hazards; (ii) design and codification of longitudinally integrated ("holistic") technological processes and procedures to eliminate, or control growth and metabolism of, pathogenic and toxinogenic organisms; (iii) elaboration of microbiological analytical standard operating procedures, permitting validation of "due diligence" or responsible care, i.e. adherence to adopted intervention strategies. This should be supported by empirically assessed reference ranges, particularly for marker organisms, while the term "zero tolerance" is refined throughout to tolerable safety limit; (iv) when called for, the need to address concerns arising from lay perceptions of risk which may lack scientific foundation. In relation to infectious and toxic hazards in the practical context the following general models for quantitative holistic risk assessment are presented: (i) the first order, basic lethality model; (ii) a second approximation taking into account the amount of food ingested in a given period of time; (iii) a further adjustment accounting for changes in colonization levels during storage and distribution of food commodities and the effects of these on proliferation of pathogens and toxin production by bacteria and moulds. Guidelines are provided to address: (i) unsubstantiated consumer concern over the wholesomeness of foods processed by an innovative procedure; and (ii) reluctance of small food businesses to adopt novel strategies in food safety. Progress here calls for close cooperation with behavioural scientists to ensure that investment in developing measures to contain risk deliver real benefit. PMID:9562875

Mossel, D A; Weenk, G H; Morris, G P; Struijk, C B



Identification, assessment and management of food-related microbiological hazards: historical, fundamental and psycho-social essentials.  


Microbiological risk assessment aimed at devising measures of hazard management, should take into account all perceived hazards, including those not empirically identified. It should also recognise that safety cannot be "inspected into" a food. Rather hazard management should be the product of intervention strategies in accordance with the approach made mandatory in the EU Directive 93/43 and the USDA FSIS Pathogen Reduction HACCP system; Final Rule. It is essential too that the inherent variability of the biological attributes affecting food safety is recognised in any risk assessment. The above strategic principles may be conceptualised as a four-step sequence, involving (i) identification and quantification of hazards; (ii) design and codification of longitudinally integrated ("holistic") technological processes and procedures to eliminate, or control growth and metabolism of, pathogenic and toxinogenic organisms; (iii) elaboration of microbiological analytical standard operating procedures, permitting validation of "due diligence" or responsible care, i.e. adherence to adopted intervention strategies. This should be supported by empirically assessed reference ranges, particularly for marker organisms, while the term "zero tolerance" is refined throughout to tolerable safety limit; (iv) when called for, the need to address concerns arising from lay perceptions of risk which may lack scientific foundation. In relation to infectious and toxic hazards in the practical context the following general models for quantitative holistic risk assessment are presented: (i) the first order, basic lethality model; (ii) a second approximation taking into account the amount of food ingested in a given period of time; (iii) a further adjustment accounting for changes in colonization levels during storage and distribution of food commodities and the effects of these on proliferation of pathogens and toxin production by bacteria and moulds. Guidelines are provided to address: (i) unsubstantiated consumer concern over the wholesomeness of foods processed by an innovative procedure; and (ii) reluctance of small food businesses to adopt novel strategies in food safety. Progress here calls for close cooperation with behavioural scientists to ensure that investment in developing measures to contain risk deliver real benefit. PMID:9620129

Mossel, D A; Weenk, G H; Morris, G P; Struijk, C B



Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.



Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.  


An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR. PMID:18583297

Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M



[Validity of the existentialist approach in psychiatry].  


One essential premise of this revision work is to raise the impossibility of psychiatric action without a solid psychotherapeutic attitude. And before this position is the existentialist approach as an interesting possibility to consolidate the psychiatric clinic; a clinic which should not lose sight of the old Socratic ideal of applying philosophy to understand daily life and not be trapped in the modest role of prescribing drugs according to the "cartography" of diagnostic manuals. Existentialist psychotherapeutic trends add the spiritual instance to the traditional approach of the bio-psycho-social framework that tries to account for the human condition. In this work, another framework is proposed: bio-psycho-social (de-programmed)-mortal. On this existentialist conception, two essential aspects of philosophy and psychiatric clinic are emphasized: freedom and death. Finally, a type of classification that delimits two existential psychotherapeutic postures is proposed: one which is identified as existential dynamic psychotherapy, and another one, as existential psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:24255898

Dramisino, Hugo



[Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].  


The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe



Listening Partners: Psycho-Social Competence and Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Listening Partners Program examined the intellectual and ethical development of rural, isolated, impoverished mothers of children under 7 years of age. It investigated the relationship between these characteristics and the women's self-esteem, social ...

L. A. Bond M. F. Belenky J. S. Weinstock



Children of Chernobyl: A psycho-social empowerment project  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research has been to design and implement a social action project, using a Freirian Methodology for popular mental health among the victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltown disaster living in Belarus. Although Chernobyl is in the Ukraine, only 35 kilometers from Kiev, 70% of the 50 million curies of radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown fell on the Republic of Belarus. This continues to directly affect 2.4 million of the total population of 10 million people. These people, 800,000 of whom are children, still live in the radiated zones. They live with the knowledge that the food, the water, and the ground are slowly poisoning them through continued and ongoing exposure to radiation. While there has been some significant research on the medical effects of the disaster in the Ukraine, much more research needs to be done in Belarus. Very little research or treatment has responded to the emotional, mental health and psychosocial impacts of the disaster on individuals, families and communities. Following the introduction to the problem, a rationale for a new paradigm in Mental Health Treatment is presented in a chapter titled Liberation Psychology'. This chapter integrates fields of psychology, psychotherapy, social work, education, and community organization from a Freirian perspective. The Social Action Project is outlined and described in specific detail. The Social Action Project has led to medical, computer and school supplies being sent to Belarus. Workshops and training have been designed and implemented. Texts and manuals have been translated and published. Further, there is documentation of a joint conceptualization and design of this Children of Chernobyl' project with signed letters of agreement and a report of a fact finding mission to Belaraus. The Social Action Project is then evaluated with Future Planning discussed in the conclusion.

Kane, M.S.



Major Psycho-Social Problems and the Psychiatric Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations made at institutes and workshops conducted by the National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT) are included in this publication. Drug abuse, alcoholism, crisis intervention, mental retardation, and mental health manpower were the themes for these presentations: (1) "Mental Health Trends in California" by G. Duffy, (2) "The…

National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.


Psycho-social Profile of Abused Children in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the child abuse cases in India under categories based on different forms of child abuse, marital issues involved, parent child interactions, social and psychological characteristics, trends associated with the abused children, and remedial measures. Concludes with an emphasis on the need for empirical data on the extent and nature of child…

Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others



Psycho-social correlates of unmarried teenage mothers.  


A study of psychosocial correlates of institutionalized unwed teenage mothers, based on a sample of 44 teenagers at After-care Homes in Amritsar and Jullundur and a control group from Chandigarh, matched for age and occupation. EPI and Mittal's Adjustment Inventory were used and subjects were interviewed regarding their socioeconomic status, family size, home atmosphere, birth order, motivation for sex and number of sex partners. Monthly family income was somewhat lower among the unwed mothers and they came from larger and more frequently from broken homes; they were most often the eldest child. The most common reason for engaging in intercourse was promise of marriage; 59% had sex with only 1 partner. EPI scores for unmarried mothers suggests an antisocial personality; they are also found to be maladjusted with regard to all 4 areas (home, health/emotional, social, and school) covered by the Adjustment Inventory. PMID:12338591

Singh, A; Singh, S



Psycho-Social Problems and Causes: Indexes of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rate and direction of change in Canada's social problems by developing indexes for major problem areas. These measures show a period of relative stability in the 1950s and early 60s then worrisome inflation accompanied by out-of-control financial costs. Identifies crucial life stages where help is required. (JAC)

Nevison, Myrne B.



Family Time and the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Adolescent Siblings and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the implications of family time for first-born and second-born adolescent offspring, mothers, and fathers in 192 dual-earner families, defining family time as time shared by the foursome in activities across 7 days. Data were gathered in daily telephone interviews. For first-borns, higher levels of family time at Time 1…

Crouter, Ann C.; Head, Melissa R.; Mchale, Susan M.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins



[Psycho-social interventions in early psychoses within the schizophrenia spectrum].  


The possibilities for intervention in the early phases of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis were reviewed. Long duration of untreated psychosis is related to persistent psychotic symptoms. Early detection programmes can reduce the duration of untreated psychosis and thereby probably improve outcome. There is ample evidence that intensive specialised assertive intervention during the early phase of psychotic symptoms is effective in improving several outcomes. Family intervention reduces risk of remission and improve compliance with antipsychotic medication. PMID:19014724

Nordentoft, Merete; Bertelsen, Mette



Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification.



[Psycho-social stress in humans at mass slaughter of farm animals].  


Animal epidemics are part of everyday life in animal husbandry, as are the psychosocial effects of the killing/slaughter of animals on the animal keeper. So here we are talking about everyday life observations of concerned people and veterinarians. But now, after the mass slaughter of contaminated animals in conjunction with BSE and MKS, society and the church have taught us to take a much closer look and we now realise that pathological traumatic states are to be considered almost universal concomitant phenomena. Rural families as well as the veterinarians and slaughtering teams involved (Keulungsteams) have to bear the emotional consequences of the circumstances of the loss of these animal for a long time. For the sake of people and the vitalization of the human-animal-relationship the pastoral service ("Kirchlicher Dienst") has initiated an oecumenically organised and specially trained pastoral care task force in Lower Saxony. Its intention is to support the initiation of trauma coverage regarding psycho-religious ways of connectivity at the entrance point of the crisis. PMID:12822253

Wichert von Holten, S



Designing meaningful play within the psycho-social context of older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on a qualitative study, investigating the meaning of digital games in the lives of older adults. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and observations (n=35) we research the meaning of digital games from a lifespan perspective, and explore the specific role of playing digital games in a social setting. We conclude that the meaning of

Bob De Schutter; Vero Vanden Abeele



Implications for Counseling Practice of the Puerto Rican Psycho-Social Precursors Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental measures to identify individuals at high risk of drug use can be developed from study data. Negative side effects of identification efforts can be lessened or eliminated by the use of unobstrusive measures in the monitoring process. Regarding heroin use, different measures are suggested to monitor the following variables: academic…

Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; Nuttall, Ronald L.


Dissertation Completers and Non-Completers: An Analysis of Psycho-Social Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored personal and program experiences that affect dissertation completion and non-completion to provide insights that might help students and faculty in their decision-making and advising. Interviews were conducted with 13 graduates and 9 "all-but-dissertation" (ABD) students regarding the traits they felt led to…

Kluever, Raymond C.; And Others


Religion and Bio-Psycho- Social Health: A Review and Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research-based conceptual model respectively linking three dimensions of religious experience (religious practices, spiritual beliefs, and faith community) with three dimensions of health (biological, psychological, and social). The model is used as a framework to highlight findings in the religion-health knowledge base and to provide a broad survey of this domain of inquiry. Considerations for future research

Loren Marks



Psycho-Social Effects of Home Care: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the effectiveness of a program intended to provide home care services as a substitute for inhospital treatment is reported. The experimental home care program was established to serve three hospitals in an urban area. Patients transferred to th...

L. W. Gerson A. F. Berry



Les Valeurs en Education: Vers un Portrait Psycho-Social de L'Etudiant Quebecois  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a psychological definition of values and defines ways of measuring them. It also reports results of a study dealing with the evolution of educational values of different groups of students, and high school and college levels (N=400), and a comparison between the students' values and those of a group of teachers. (Author)

Perron, Jacques



Health-related behaviours and psycho-social characteristics of 18 year-old Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial variables associated with health-related behaviours for diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking were examined in 18 year-old Australian men (n = 301) and women (n = 282). These psychosocial variables included Type A behaviour and depression, perceived self-efficacy for engaging in healthy behaviours and perceived barriers to performing these behaviours. Self-efficacy for following a healthy diet and moderating

R. A. K. Milligan; V. Burke; L. J. Beilin; J. Richards; D. Dunbar; M. Spencer; E. Balde; M. P. Gracey



Pre-Adulthood Developmental PsychoSocial Influences Behind Women Becoming Engineers in Contemporary Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the pre-adulthood development of female engineers with a focus on influences behind their career choice. Pre-adulthood encompasses the ages 0. to 23 and includes all development prior to settling on a career (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1979). ,This area of study derives its importance from the continuing low proportion of women in engineering (9.6%; Kaspura,

Andrew Ruscoe



Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.  


When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

Carpenter, Brian D



Health in Restructuring. Innovative Approaches and Policy Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise restructuring can no longer be understood as a temporal crisis. Current developments show that for many organizations and even regions or sectors restructuring became a recurrent and continuous process. But often restructuring processes fail to produce the intended effects of secured or increased organizational profitability. On the contrary restructuring puts the physical and psycho-social health of all organizational members

Thomas Kieselbach; Elisabeth Armgarth; Sebastiano Bagnara; Anna-Liisa Elo; Steve Jefferys; Catelijne Joling; Karl Kuhn; Karina Nielsen; Jan Popma; Nikolai Rogovsky; Benjamin Sahler; Greg Thomson; Claude Emmanuel Triomphe; Maria Widerszal-Bazyl



For an overall approach to prevention: basic critical considerations.  


This article pleads for a comprehensive approach to the prevention of drug abuse, one which involves individuals throughout their lives and takes account of their psycho-social characteristics and spiritual values, as well as of differences among individuals. Certain drug abuse prevention programmes are identified as being counterproductive, such as inconsistent and incongruous programmes of the media that glamorize the life of celebrities who are abusing drugs, or drug information material that concurrently publicizes the use of legal drugs. Depersonalized drug education programmes have also proved to be counterproductive. Assistance and rehabilitation programmes for drug dependent persons and programmes for prevention of drug abuse among the young population, particularly children, should be provided simultaneously to avoid being caught up in a "vicious circle of assistance", brought about by disinterest in prevention and unrealistic expectations of society. The emphasis of prevention programmes should be on people rather than on drugs themselves. It is apparent that, up to now, development programmes have not succeeded, as universal remedies, for drug problems in replacing traditional values that ensure the cohesion of society. Any such programmes should be evaluated carefully to determine which aspect of development may be a cause of drug abuse and which prevents it. Recent associations of young people seeking spiritual values and helping drug addicts to stop taking drugs and to be reintegrated into society are among the most promising approaches because they involve young people in helping youngsters of their own age rather than promoting intervention by formal institutions. The family is also one of the promising community resources that can be utilized for the prevention and reduction of drug abuse. PMID:4075003

Rüegg, F



Psicoterapia en la institución pública. La aportación del modelo psicodinámico a la asistencia psiquiátrica extrahospitalaria de Vizcaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy has its own and important place in the current Mental Health Public Network, due to the accepted bio-psycho-social view, the abundant evidences of efficacy and the limitations of the current pharmacological approaches.There is a \\

Miguel Angel González Torres; Rita Touza Piñeiro


The adolescent sexual world and AIDS prevention: a democratic approach to programme design in Zimbabwe.  


The main aim of this study was to redress the under-representation of adolescent attitudes in AIDS prevention programme design and to discuss the implications of a democratic sexuality education approach within a health promotion context. The study surveyed the attitudes of adolescents (average age 16 years) on sex-related topics such as culture, marriage, sexual behaviour and sex education, identified similarities and differences in attitudes according to gender and socio-economic environments, and examined sources of students' knowledge of selected sex-related topics. Questionnaires were completed by 3429 secondary school students from different backgrounds. Findings showed significant differences in attitude related to gender and socio-economic settings and also in sources of information. The study drew on a democratic sexuality education approach. Using this approach, adolescents review ideological perspectives and decide which are most appropriate for them as guides in making decisions about their own lives. This type of education is fully consistent with the principles of democratic living and gives guidance to teenagers who are trying to decide how to live a healthy life. Study results suggest that programmers would be well advised to collect information from the adolescents' psycho-social-economic environment and link it with good governance and civil society strategies in developing AIDS prevention programmes that involve the adolescent in making lifestyle decisions. To achieve a more supportive environment for AIDS prevention, this approach can link adolescent attitudes and health promotion action to advocate for public policy reform, gender equality, multi-dimensional partnerships and social marketing. PMID:11356751

Schatz, P; Dzvimbo, K P



Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret



Acute psycho-social stress does not disrupt item-method directed forgetting, emotional stimulus content does  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that stress affects episodic memory in general, but knowledge about stress effects on memory control processes such as directed forgetting is sparse. Whereas in previous studies item-method directed forgetting was found to be altered in post-traumatic stress disorder patients and abolished for highly arousing negative pictorial stimuli in students, no study so far has investigated the

Bastian Zwissler; Susanne Koessler; Harald Engler; Manfred Schedlowski; Johanna Kissler



Discussion paper: what happened to the ‘bio’ in the bio-psycho-social model of low back pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Over 20 years ago the term non-specific low back pain became popular to convey the limitations of our knowledge of the pathological\\u000a source of most people’s low back pain. Knowledge of underlying pathology has advanced little since then, despite limited improvements\\u000a in outcomes for patients with low back pain. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper discusses potential misunderstandings related to diagnostic studies in the field

Mark J. HancockChris; Chris G. Maher; Mark Laslett; Elaine Hay; Bart Koes


Revisiting "Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp": A Nationwide Study of Ability Grouping and Psycho-Social Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We revisit Harry L. Gracey's perspective of kindergarten as academic boot camp where, at school entry, children acquire the student role through a structured program of activities. We provide further insights into the crucial mechanisms of socialization that occur in U.S. kindergartens by examining the relationship between within-class ability…

Catsambis, Sophia; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.



Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz



Dyslexia and Psycho-Social Functioning: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Self-Esteem and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the "Self-Perception Profile for Children"…

Terras, Melody M.; Thompson, Lucy C.; Minnis, Helen



Challenger: A Multi-agent System for Distributed Resource Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce Challenger, a multiagent system that performs completely distributed resource allocation. Challenger consists of agents which individually manage local resources; these agents communicate with one another to share their resources (in this particular instance, CPU time) in an attempt to more efficiently utilize them. By endowing the agents with relatively simple behaviors which rely on only

Anthony Chavez; Alexandros Moukas; Pattie Maes



Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc



Spectinamides: a challenge, a proof, and a suggestion.  


New drugs and shorter regimens are needed to fight resistant forms of tuberculosis. Screening of chemical libraries for mining hit compounds is the common approach to find new antituberculars. A new medicinal chemistry and biology directed research rational has recently been successfully described by Lee and coworkers in Nature Medicine. PMID:24636244

Viveiros, Miguel; Pieroni, Marco



Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies  

PubMed Central

Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement data synthesis, some additional scientific, ethico-legal and technical considerations must be addressed. The success of the DataSHaPER as a harmonization approach will depend on its continuing development and on the rigour and extent of its use. The DataSHaPER has the potential to take us closer to a truly collaborative epidemiology and offers the promise of enhanced research potential generated through synthesized databases.

Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L'Heureux, Francois; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R



Latin American Security Challenges: A Collaborative Inquiry from North and South.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Newport Paper 21, 'Latin American Security Challenges: A Collaborative Inquiry from North and South,' helps reopen the door to serious analyses of the relationship between Latin American national security issues and American strategic interests. The monog...

G. Wawro G. R. Delamer J. A. Cirino P. D. Taylor S. L. Elizondo



An investigation of psycho-social factors associated with the uptake of pre-pregnancy care in Australian women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.  


Pre-pregnancy care (PPC) reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes for women with pre-existing diabetes. Yet, despite the compelling case for PPC, participation rates remain poor. The reasons for poor participation are as yet unclear. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the factors-associated PPC uptake, particularly attitudes and beliefs towards PPC using models of health behaviour: The Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action. Participants comprised 123 women with type 1 and 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics for diabetes and pregnancy, who completed questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, exposure to a greater number of cues was a significant predictor of PPC participation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.13-3.28). Other significant predictors of PPC uptake were older age (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.26) and not having children (OR: 3.93; 95% CI: 1.28-12.06). The findings from this study support initiatives to provide cues to PPC for women with diabetes to enhance PPC uptake. Further, some groups such as younger women as well as women with children may possibly be considered for the focus of more vigorous intervention efforts. PMID:23701456

Komiti, A; Jackson, H J; Nankervis, A; Conn, J; Allan, C; Judd, F



Dental esthetics and its impact on psycho-social well-being and dental self confidence: a campus based survey of north Indian university students.  


To evaluate the subjects perceived satisfaction of their dental appearance and to compare it with a various attitudes and practices which may affect social and psychological behavior and dental self confidence. This was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study done in the campus of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). 426 students participated in the study. Questions were pooled in from various components of psychosocial impact of dental esthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) for various attitudes and practices. Quantitative analysis was done using descriptive analysis and Chi square test using SPSS software. Majority of subjects (57.7 %) was highly satisfied with their smile, more than one-third (37.3 %) were satisfied and there were only 4.9 % subjects who were not satisfied with their smile. Tooth color was the most common (27.9 %) smile component causing dissatisfaction amongst the subjects. More than two-fifth (42.5 %) liked to show their teeth, one-half (49.5 %) liked to see their teeth in mirror, photographs and videos, almost one quarter (23.9 %) subjects used to hide their teeth while smiling. As compared to females, significantly higher proportion of males was conscious of opposite sex while smiling. The proportion of subjects which was highly satisfied with their smile was significantly higher for the item 'like to show their teeth and who liked to see their teeth in mirror, photographs and video' whereas for all the other items the proportion of respondents which was not satisfied with their smile was significantly higher. Self perceived satisfaction of dental esthetics has positive impact on person's social and psychological behavior and dental self confidence. PMID:24431775

Afroz, Shaista; Rathi, Shraddha; Rajput, Geeta; Rahman, Sajjad Abdur



Winter Depression: Integrating mood, circadian rhythms, and the sleep/wake and light/dark cycles into a bio-psycho-social-environmental model  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The phase shift hypothesis (PSH) states that most patients with SAD become depressed in the winter because of a delay in circadian rhythms with respect to the sleep/wake cycle: According to the PSH, these patients should preferentially respond to the antidepressant effects of bright light exposure when it is scheduled in the morning so as to provide a corrective phase advance and restore optimum alignment between the circadian rhythms tightly coupled to the endogenous circadian pacemaker and those rhythms that are related to the sleep/wake cycle. Recent support for the PSH has come from studies in which symptom severity was shown to correlate with the degree of circadian misalignment: it appears that a subgroup of patients are phase advanced, not phase delayed; however, the phase-delayed type is predominant in SAD and perhaps in other disorders as well, such as non-seasonal unipolar depression. It is expected that during the next few years the PSH will be tested in these and other conditions, particularly since healthy subjects appear to have more severe symptoms of sub-clinical dysphoria correlating with phase-delayed circadian misalignment; critically important will be the undertaking of treatment trials to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of morning bright light or afternoon/evening low-dose melatonin in these disorders in which symptoms are more severe as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is delayed with respect to the sleep/wake cycle (non-restorative sleep should also be evaluated, as well as bipolar disorder). The possibility that some individuals (and disorders) will be of the phase-advanced type should be considered, taking into account that the correct timing of phase-resetting agents for them will be bright light scheduled in the evening and/or low-dose melatonin taken in the morning. While sleep researchers and clinicians are accustomed to phase-typing patients with circadian-rhythm sleep disorders according to the timing of sleep, phase typing based on the DLMO with respect to the sleep/wake cycle may lead to quite different recommendations for the optimal scheduling of phase-resetting agents, particularly for the above disorders and conditions.

Emens, Jonathan S.; Songer, Jeannie B.; Sims, Neelam; Laurie, Amber L.; Fiala, Steven C.; Buti, Allie L.



Síndrome pré-menstrual em adolescentes: um estudo transversal dos fatores biopsicossociais Premenstrual syndrome in adolescents: a transversal study of the bio-psycho-social factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify aspects related to the Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) in adolescents of private high school (Fundação Santo An- dré, Santo André - SP). Methods: Transversal study line, carried through with 360 students, ages varying from 14 to 18 years old. The evaluation had two phases. Phase one: standard protocol application to identify youths with

Maria Regina Domingues de Azevedo; Maria Ignez Saito; Eliezer Berenstein; Drauzio Viegas


A Bio-Psycho-Social model enhances young adults’ understanding of and beliefs about people with Alzheimer's disease: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is predicted to grow by multiples in the coming decades, and today's young adults will be formal and\\/or informal caregivers in unprecedented numbers. Their ability to support the independence and well-being of people with AD will depend on their ability to identify intact social and cognitive abilities, selfhood, and needs of people with AD.

Steven R. Sabat



A bio-psycho-social exercise program (RÜCKGEWINN) for chronic low back pain in rehabilitation aftercare - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is strong, internationally confirmed evidence for the short-term effectiveness of multimodal interdisciplinary specific treatment programs for chronic back pain. However, the verification of long-term sustainability of achieved effects is missing so far. For long-term improvement of pain and functional ability high intervention intensity or high volume seems to be necessary (> 100 therapy hours). Especially in chronic back

Christian Hentschke; Jana Hofmann; Klaus Pfeifer



Longitudinal surveys on effects of changes in road traffic noise-annoyance, activity disturbances, and psycho-social well-being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adverse effects of long-term exposure to a high volume of road traffic were studied in socio-acoustic surveys in 1997 and in 1999 after a substantial reduction in road traffic. The results obtained in 1997 showed a similar response pattern as in previously performed studies in the area in 1986 [Öhrström, J. Sound Vib. 122, 277-290 (1989)]. In 1999, road traffic had been reduced from 25 000 to 2400 vehicles per day, and this resulted not only in a large decrease in annoyance and activity disturbances, but also in a better general well-being. The results suggest that a reduction in both noise and other pollutants from road traffic contribute to these effects. To be able to use the outdoor environment and to have the possibility to keep windows open is essential for general well-being and daily behavior, which implies that access both to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of the residency is of importance for achievement of a healthy sound environment. More knowledge of long-term health consequences of exposure to noise and simultaneous pollutants from road traffic is needed. Studies should focus more on ``softer'' health outcomes and well-being than hitherto and preferably be performed in connection with traffic abatement measures.

Öhrström, Evy



A Pilot Theory-Based Intervention to Improve Resilience, PsychoSocial Well-Being and Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study aimed at fostering resilience among people living with HIV (PLWH) and improving the HIV-negative participants’ acceptance of PLWH. A group of 75 PLWH who were former blood\\/plasma donors and 36 HIV-negative fellow-villagers in rural China participated in the intervention. The eight sessions lasted for four months and were facilitated by trained local family planning officers. The intervention's

Xiaonan Yu; Joseph T. F. Lau; Winnie W. S. Mak; Yimin Cheng; Yanhong Lv; Jianxin Zhang



TREATMENT Validation of a Scale for Rating the Delivery of PsychoSocial Treatments for Alcohol Dependence and Misuse: The UKATT Process Rating Scale (PRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the development and validation of the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial Process Rating Scale (UKATT PRS), a manual based method for monitoring and rating the delivery of psychosocial treatments of alcohol dependence and misuse. Methods: Following adaptation and further development of a validated rating scale, the ability of the UKATT PRS to

Gillian Tober; Wendy Clyne; Olwyn Finnegan; Amanda Farrin; Ian Russell


76 FR 38670 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Neuropsychosocial Measures Formative Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection Title: Neuro-developmental and Psycho-Social...formative research featuring neuro-developmental and psycho-social...NCS Vanguard and Main Study neuro-developmental and psycho-social...environmental, social and cognitive science professional organizations...



Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna



Social Factors Associated with Pharmacists' Unauthorized Use of Mind-Altering Prescription Medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “medical model” ideology dominates the study of drug abuse among health care professionals. This perspective defines and approaches drug abuse as a disease. While this disease is said to have bio-psycho-social origins, scholars have principally focused on possible biological and psychological factors that produce a “predisposition” to drug abuse. Pertinent social factors have been largely overlooked. Drawing upon the

Richard C. Hollinger; Dean A. Dabney



Contemporary Psychotherapy: Promoting Personal Responsibility for Therapeutic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assortment of factors in modern society can be involved in the etiology and treatment of mental illness. Theories about etiology usually underlie, and therefore guide, most strategies for treatment. Although a comprehensive bio-psycho-social approach to mental illness can help to foster the collaboration of an interdisciplinary treatment team, a heavy emphasis on biological factors or cultural deprivation may reduce

James C. Overholser



Le programme de remédiation cognitive IPT (Integrated Psychological Treatment) destiné aux patients schizophrènes : une expérience en hôpital de jour de secteur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia severely impairs social insertion of patients. The therapeutic approach is now believed to be bio-psycho-social. Antipsychotic medication is necessary but not sufficient and needs to be completed by a rehabilitation program. The efficacy of the Integrated Psychological Treatment (IPT) program has been demonstrated in independent studies in Europe and North America. It is characterized by a combination of cognitive

M.-C. Dubeau; F. Salomé; F. Petitjean



Psychogenesis of Somatic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychogenesis, considered as a linear sequential process by which psychological influences lead to somatic disturbances, is only a link in a larger bio-psycho-social interactional field. Therefore, in practice, a multilateral approach of the whole person, in his psychological, social and somatic aspects, in health and disease, in his habitual and his therapeutical contacts, should be stressed. It seems unlikely that

R. A. Pierloot



Basic Physiology of Pain Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In science, pain is the subject of biology, medicine, psychology and the social sciences. As a result, a bio-psycho-social\\u000a perspective has been increasingly on the rise in medical science. In this article I will address the neurobiological mechanisms\\u000a of pain, while endeavoring to approach the issue from an interdisciplinary standpoint.

Manfred Zimmermann


Active treatment programs for patients with chronic low back pain: a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new studies have indicated that an active approach to patients with chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) seems effective. Some of these studies emphasize the importance of dealing with the patient's total situation in comprehensive multidisciplinary programs — the bio-psycho-social model. However, these programs are expensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation outcome from three

A. F. Bendix; T. Bendix; S. Ostenfeld; E. Bush; A. Andersen



Weaving Silos--A Leadership Challenge: A Cross-Functional Team Approach to Supporting Web-Based Student Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews the evolution of Web services--from information sharing to transactional to relationship building--and the progression from first-generation to fourth-generation Web sites. (Contains 3 figures.)

Kleemann, Gary L.



Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT) explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We

Carlos David Navarrete; Daniel M. T. Fessler


Meeting the ADD Challenge: A Multimodal Plan for Parents, Students, Teachers, and Physicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a collaborative model to serve students with attention deficit disorder (ADD). The multimodal approach involves close collaboration among the parents, teachers, the student, and the child's physician. The role of each team member is delineated, and the positive long-term benefits of this collaborative approach are noted.…

Fell, Bonnie; Pierce, Karen



Geropsychology: The Gender Gap in Human Aging – A Mini-Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between women and men in terms of gender gaps at late stages of their lives are the focus of this mini-review. We approach the matter by taking up the position of complex yet promising standpoints, the bio-psycho-social perspective on the one hand and approaches of developmental psychology on the other. Lifespan perspectives and the brain-behavior relationship are integrated and

Ilse Kryspin-Exner; Elisabeth Lamplmayr; Anna Felnhofer



Closure of a Long-Stay Ward: Five Years Onwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure of psychiatric hospitals has engendered much debate. There is a growing body of literature resulting from such closures. Lamb [1] in a lecture has pointed out the need for deinstitutionalisation to be clinically driven rather than by pre-conceived ideology. Bachrach [2] discussed the need to espouse a bio-psycho-social and humanistic approach coupled with the provision of adequate resources. In

Mahendra H. Perera; John Parkinson; Dhara Perera



Psychological characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic pain assessed by the Rorschach test  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients with chronic pain in Japan has become a major issue in terms of the patient's quality of life, medical costs, and related social problems. Pain is a multi-dimensional experience with physiological, affective, cognitive, behavioral and social components, and recommended to be managed via a combination of bio-psycho-social aspects. However, a biomedical approach is still

Kazumi Yamamoto; Kenji Kanbara; Hiromi Mutsuura; Ikumi Ban; Yasuyuki Mizuno; Tetsuya Abe; Maki Yoshino; Aran Tajika; Yoshihide Nakai; Mikihiko Fukunaga



The Paradigm of Complexity in Clinical Neurocognitive Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuro-cognitive science represents the modern approach to integrate the sub-disciplines aimed at a scientific study of the brain-mind system. This relatively new discipline recognizes, implicitly or explicitly, that this is a complex system whose states and processes are determined by multiple bio- psycho-social variables and order parameters. In a generic perspective, all neuro-cognitive science is complex as it is multidisciplinary

Franco F. Orsucci



Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug companies and the internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of drug-company funding on websites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Websites in the top 60 for either Google or Yahoo!Xtra with information about causation and treatment were analysed. Likert scales, based on those used in previous similar studies, were developed to rate aetiological explanations and recommended treatment approaches, on a dimension from psycho-social to biological.

Jessica Mitchell; John Read



The role of the sociotype in managing chronic disease: Integrating bio-psycho-sociology with systems biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problemAttempts have been made to replace the bio-medical approach with that of systems biology, which considers dynamic human behavior (internal factors) for chronic (rather than acute) disease management. They have not yet incorporated the Bio-psycho-social (BPS) model of Engel which adds patients’ background and cultural beliefs (external factors) contributing to their susceptibility to, and coping strategies for, non-communicable diseases

Elliot M. Berry



Adherence to and effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment for HIV infection : assessing the bidirectional relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-established that high adherence to HAART is a major determinant of virological and immunological success. Furthermore, psycho-social research has identified a wide range of adherence factors. Our objective was to assess the bi-directional relationship between adherence and response to treatment among patients enrolled in the ANRS CO8 APROCOCOPILOTE study. An econometric approach was implemented through a bivariate twoequation

Karine Lamiraud; Jean-Paul Moatti; François Raffi; Maria-Patrizia Carrieri; Camelia Protopopescu; Christian Michelet; Luminita Schneider; Fideline Collin; Catherine Leport; Bruno Spire



A Brunswikian evolutionary-developmental theory of adolescent sex offending.  


A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental model was developed to relate the sex offending behavior of adolescents to other forms of social deviance, tracing a history of repeated frustration and failure in various competitive sexual strategies and escalation to more extreme means of obtaining sexual gratification. Four hypothetical constructs were proposed as stages in the development of sexual criminality: (1) Psycho-Social Deficiency (PSD); (2) Non-Criminal Sexuality (NCS); (3) Non-Sexual Criminality (NSC); and (4) Sexual Criminality (SC). Significant direct and indirect pathways led from PSD to SC through both NCS and NSC, each time facilitated by an interaction with PSD. Although the causal orders between stages remain equivocal, the current results are consistent with our theory and establish the heuristic value of our theoretical approach, providing empirical support for otherwise counterintuitive predictions. This interpretation also offers hope for focusing preventative intervention at one major root cause of this unfortunate cascade of consequences, Psycho-Social Deficiency. PMID:10874291

Figueredo, A J; Sales, B D; Russell, K P; Becker, J V; Kaplan, M



Design challenges: A new path to understanding science concepts and skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tests an alternative strategy for developing science curricula based on two developmental models: skill theory (Fischer, 1980) and perceptual control theory (Powers, 1978). Traditional and Discovery Science programs are introduced as ways to map out a continuum of currently used strategies in science curriculum development. The continuum is used as a framework for understanding how the proposed alternative model of curriculum development compares with the Traditional and Discovery approaches. The alternative model incorporates activities already in development at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in a NSF funded program called DESIGNS (Doable Engineering Science Investigations Geared for Non-science Students). This thesis suggests a strategy for sequencing existing activities in DESIGNS as well as describes an approach for building and sequencing new activities in science. Microdevelopment, a phenomena observed in short term learning (Fischer & Granott, 1995), is used as a tool for refining the content of activities as well articulating the need for a developmental framework in curriculum development. Pedagogical criteria for all three approaches were defined first, and then used to build three two-week units on electromagnetism for middle school students. All three units were tested in two different schools in New England with 125 seventh and eighth grade students. Three measures were used: a concept assessment questionnaire to evaluate changes in understanding, a skills test (TIPS II) to evaluate changes in student's ability to choose appropriate skills in science experiments, and a reaction survey to assess the student thoughts on each activity in the unit. Results indicate that students participating in the DESIGNS curriculum showed significant improvement in conceptual understanding, and limited but significant improvement in skill development. The Discovery curriculum showed gains in concept understanding early in the unit, but the effect disappeared by the end of the study. There was no change in skill development in this group. The Traditional curriculum showed no gains in either concept understanding or skill development. Overall students preferred activities that required experimenting no matter which curriculum they were in.

Schwartz, Marc Stephan


Culturally Relevant Intervention Strategies for the Psycho-social Development of Children and Youth in Poverty. Workshop Report [of] the International Society for Study of Behavioural Development (India) South Asian Workshop (Chandigarh, India, November 20-23, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of the South Asian Regional Workshop of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD), this report was intended to identify problems of low-income families in South Asia and create methods to serve their needs. The report begins with an introduction to the India chapter of the ISSBD; it then provides an…

Unnikrishnan, Namita, Comp.


Misanthropy without borders: the international children's rights regime.  


The issue of children's rights has become key to human rights-based international security strategies. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is being operationalised in complex political emergencies. Children's rights now inform humanitarian principles. Universal concern for children is viewed as transcending political and social divides and able to mobilise societies to confront social problems and prevent war. The operationalisation of child rights is accompanied by the development of psycho-social programmes to rehabilitate the child victim. Critically analysing the implications of the children's rights regime for the right to self-determination, the paper unpacks the assumptions underlying children's rights and psycho-social intervention. The paper begins by examining the conceptualisation of the rights-holding subject universalised under the UN Convention and then goes on to consider Article 39 on the right to psycho-social intervention. Equally important as the novel conceptualisation of childhood and children's rights under the international children's rights regime is the (unspoken) mistrust of adulthood and political rights that informs the imperative to institutionalise children's rights as higher law. Moreover while the rights-based approach consciously sought to move away from the earlier moralising child-salvation model, psycho-social rehabilitation reveals a similar preoccupation with deviancy, but conducted through the paradigm of psychological functionalism. Rather than representing a trend towards more humane international relations, the paper suggests that the elevation of children's rights is premised on a profound disenchantment with humanity. The logical implication of the international children's rights regime is to challenge both the moral and political capacity of individuals and their right to self-determination and to institutionalise a more unequal international system. PMID:11434237

Pupavac, V



Cross-terminology mapping challenges: a demonstration using medication terminological systems.  


Standardized terminological systems for biomedical information have provided considerable benefits to biomedical applications and research. However, practical use of this information often requires mapping across terminological systems-a complex and time-consuming process. This paper demonstrates the complexity and challenges of mapping across terminological systems in the context of medication information. It provides a review of medication terminological systems and their linkages, then describes a case study in which we mapped proprietary medication codes from an electronic health record to SNOMED CT and the UMLS Metathesaurus. The goal was to create a polyhierarchical classification system for querying an i2b2 clinical data warehouse. We found that three methods were required to accurately map the majority of actively prescribed medications. Only 62.5% of source medication codes could be mapped automatically. The remaining codes were mapped using a combination of semi-automated string comparison with expert selection, and a completely manual approach. Compound drugs were especially difficult to map: only 7.5% could be mapped using the automatic method. General challenges to mapping across terminological systems include (1) the availability of up-to-date information to assess the suitability of a given terminological system for a particular use case, and to assess the quality and completeness of cross-terminology links; (2) the difficulty of correctly using complex, rapidly evolving, modern terminologies; (3) the time and effort required to complete and evaluate the mapping; (4) the need to address differences in granularity between the source and target terminologies; and (5) the need to continuously update the mapping as terminological systems evolve. PMID:22750536

Saitwal, Himali; Qing, David; Jones, Stephen; Bernstam, Elmer V; Chute, Christopher G; Johnson, Todd R



Approachability & Visibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be approachable and visible may be one of the greatest lessons a retired middle level principal ever learned. Being approachable is an expectation of the principalship. Keeping the office door shut or restricting or limiting talk time with students, teachers, or parents sends a strong message to those constituents: "I've got more important…

Ruder, Robert



Antibiofilm Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria frequently attach to medical devices such as intravascular catheters by forming sessile multicellular communities known as biofilms, which can be the source of persistent infections that are recalcitrant to systemic antibiotic therapy. As a result of this persistence, a number of technologies have been developed to prevent catheter-associated biofilm formation. Whereas the most straightforward approaches focus on impregnating catheter

Paul N Danese



Health data use, stewardship, and governance: ongoing gaps and challenges: a report from AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting.  


Large amounts of personal health data are being collected and made available through existing and emerging technological media and tools. While use of these data has significant potential to facilitate research, improve quality of care for individuals and populations, and reduce healthcare costs, many policy-related issues must be addressed before their full value can be realized. These include the need for widely agreed-on data stewardship principles and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate data silos and protect patient privacy. AMIA's 2012 Health Policy Meeting brought together healthcare academics, policy makers, and system stakeholders (including representatives of patient groups) to consider these topics and formulate recommendations. A review of a set of Proposed Principles of Health Data Use led to a set of findings and recommendations, including the assertions that the use of health data should be viewed as a public good and that achieving the broad benefits of this use will require understanding and support from patients. PMID:24169275

Hripcsak, George; Bloomrosen, Meryl; FlatelyBrennan, Patti; Chute, Christopher G; Cimino, Jim; Detmer, Don E; Edmunds, Margo; Embi, Peter J; Goldstein, Melissa M; Hammond, William Ed; Keenan, Gail M; Labkoff, Steve; Murphy, Shawn; Safran, Charlie; Speedie, Stuart; Strasberg, Howard; Temple, Freda; Wilcox, Adam B



Preliminary report: Biomedical considerations for future manned space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavioral, psychological, and sociological aspects of space travel, particularly with emphasis on longer duration missions, are discussed along with the biomedical aspects of space flight. These factors may strongly interact with the various psycho-social factors and as such they stand as an immensely important area of concern in and of themselves. A foundation for understanding weightlessness related medical problems through a discussion of the history of symptoms reported specific details on the major areas of concern and approaches to their investigation are presented. Also, discussion is given to the possibility of various countermeasures. Some indication of the effects of various biomedical changes in performance are also covered.

Akins, F. R.



Challenging a Paradigm: Theoretical Calculations of the Protonation State of the Cys25-His159 Catalytic Diad in Free Papain  

PubMed Central

A central mechanistic paradigm of cysteine proteases is that the His – Cys catalytic diad forms an ion-pair NH(+)/S(?) already in the catalytically active free enzyme. Most molecular modeling studies of cysteine proteases refer to this paradigm as their starting point. Nevertheless, several recent kinetics and X-ray crystallography studies of viral and bacterial cysteine proteases depart from the ion-pair mechanism, suggesting general base catalysis. We challenge the postulate of the ion-pair formation in free papain. Applying our QM/SCRF(VS) molecular modeling approach, we analyzed all protonation states of the catalytic diad in free papain and its SMe derivative, comparing the predicted and experimental pKa data. We conclude that the His – Cys catalytic diad in free papain is fully protonated, NH(+)/SH. The experimental pKa=8.62 of His159 imidazole in free papain, obtained by NMR controlled titratin and originally interpreated as the NH(+)/S(?) ? N/S(?) equilibrium, is now assigned to the NH(+)/SH ? N/SH equilibrium.

Shokhen, Michael; Khazanov, Netaly; Albeck, Amnon



Engineered drug resistant ?? T cells kill glioblastoma cell lines during a chemotherapy challenge: a strategy for combining chemo- and immunotherapy.  


Classical approaches to immunotherapy that show promise in some malignancies have generally been disappointing when applied to high-grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We recently showed that ex vivo expanded/activated ?? T cells recognize NKG2D ligands expressed on malignant glioma and are cytotoxic to glioma cell lines and primary GBM explants. In addition, ?? T cells extend survival and slow tumor progression when administered to immunodeficient mice with intracranial human glioma xenografts. We now show that temozolomide (TMZ), a principal chemotherapeutic agent used to treat GBM, increases the expression of stress-associated NKG2D ligands on TMZ-resistant glioma cells, potentially rendering them vulnerable to ?? T cell recognition and lysis. TMZ is also highly toxic to ?? T cells, however, and to overcome this cytotoxic effect ?? T cells were genetically modified using a lentiviral vector encoding the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) from the O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) cDNA, which confers resistance to TMZ. Genetic modification of ?? T cells did not alter their phenotype or their cytotoxicity against GBM target cells. Importantly, gene modified ?? T cells showed greater cytotoxicity to two TMZ resistant GBM cell lines, U373(TMZ-R) and SNB-19(TMZ-R) cells, in the presence of TMZ than unmodified cells, suggesting that TMZ exposed more receptors for ?? T cell-targeted lysis. Therefore, TMZ resistant ?? T cells can be generated without impairing their anti-tumor functions in the presence of high concentrations of TMZ. These results provide a mechanistic basis for combining chemotherapy and ?? T cell-based drug resistant cellular immunotherapy to treat GBM. PMID:23326319

Lamb, Lawrence S; Bowersock, Joscelyn; Dasgupta, Anindya; Gillespie, G Yancey; Su, Yun; Johnson, Austin; Spencer, H Trent



Supporting Learning and Promoting Conceptual Change with Box and AVOW Diagrams. Part 1: Representational Design and Instructional Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to the teaching of electricity that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit that portray current, voltage, resistance, and power. The diagrams were developed as aids in learning, understanding, and problem solving and to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of…

Cheng, Peter C-H.; Shipstone, David M.



Interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and dieticians in nutrition education programs for children-at-risk.  


Bio-psycho-social risk factors may lead to situations of poor nutrition of children. However, despite the multiple risk factors involved in such situations, interdisciplinary collaboration between experts in the psycho-social dimensions and experts in the bio-dimension of poor nutrition has not been a common model of practice. An evaluation was conducted in Israel of the experience of collaboration between social workers and dieticians in leading nutrition-education programs. A qualitative methodology was implemented with 22 participants. The findings illuminate the potential that interdisciplinary collaboration has to enhance the response of each of the professions to the risks for poor nutrition. The barriers affecting collaboration are: (a) role ambiguity about the non-administrative functions of social workers; (b) the dieticians' lack of sufficient familiarity with the life circumstances of low-income families and how to adjust the nutrition-related contents to their circumstances; and (c) difficulties to achieve a balance between the structured methods of knowledge delivery of the dieticians and the less structured methods of intervention of social workers. The findings illuminate the significance of incorporating suitable approaches into the collaboration for reducing these barriers. PMID:20379904

Shor, Ron



Morpheus Surface Approach  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows the Project Morpheus lander flying a kilometer-long simulated surface approach while avoiding hazards in a landing field. The approach takes place at the Shuttle Landing Facili...


A Workshop Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The science workshop approach is a method of organizing learning centers in developmentally based primary programs. The approach centers on providing a series of meaningful experiences around core science concepts. These experiences are presented in the f

Jones, Ithel



Quarto Progetto di Ricerca sugli Aspetti Etici, Psico-Sociali, Giuridici, Comportamentali, Assistenziali e Della Prevenzione nel Campo dell'AIDS. Piano Executivo (Fourth Research Project on the Ethical, Psycho-social, Legal, Behavioral, Patient Care and Prevention Issues on AIDS. Operational Plan.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is divided into four sub-projects: (1) Prevention; (2) Health care; (3) Experimentation and diffusion of information on available treatments; (4) Evaluation of treatment. The report contains the funds given to each project (63 as a whole) and ...

P. Verani



Approach for dynamic grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids utilizing grid speeds computed from the time differentiation of a set of grid equations. In application for the computation of unsteady, inviscid flows, it is shown that the approach is more efficient and accurate than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference of the grid with respect to time.

Slater, J. W.; Liou, M. S.; Hindman, R. G.



Modular Approach for Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.



Microscopic approach to polaritons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned

T. Skettrup



Why the Capability Approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing operational challenges such as poverty or economic development, many researchers and practitioners wish to build upon insights raised by Sen's capability approach and related writings. This paper argues that the comprehensive reach and foundation of the human development and capability approach has a value independent from and additional to their practical outworkings, and yet also that operational specifications

Sabina Alkire



Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

Ramming, Thomas M.



Supracerebellar transtentorial approach.  


The supracerebellar transtentorial (SCTT) approach, a modification of the infratentorial supracerebellar approach, facilitates simple and minimally invasive access to posterior temporomedial structures without requiring retraction of the temporal or occipital lobe. The SCTT approach was used in 16 patients over a 3-year period. Eleven patients harbored tumors confined to, or located mainly within, the posterior hippocampal formation, three patients harbored aneurysms (one ruptured posterior cerebral artery [PCA] aneurysm at the P2-P3 junction, one ruptured giant PCA [P2] aneurysm, and one giant basilar artery-superior cerebellar artery aneurysm), one patient had juvenile-type moyamoya disease, and one patient suffered from medically intractable epilepsy. In these patients, the SC approach enabled tumor removal, aneurysm clipping, and vascular bypass procedures. The authors' experience suggests that this approach can be used routinely in treating lesions in the posterior temporomedial region. PMID:11702889

Panigrahi, M



SOHO Sees Venus' Approach  

NASA Video Gallery

This video taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows the Sun's corona and Venus' approach for the transit. This was taken with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) in ...


Windshear warning aerospatiale approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vugraphs and transcribed remarks of a presentation on Aerospatiale's approach to windshear warning systems are given. Information is given on low altitude wind shear probability, wind shear warning models and warning system false alarms.

Bonafe, J. L.



An Ordered Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a performance-based assessment approach utilizing science activities and questions to assess different levels of thinking. Objectives, materials, and procedures are provided for the assessment of student skills in classification, observation and inference, interpretation, and analysis. (PR)

Tetenbaum, Zelda



Radar Target Approach Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique employed to generate nondispersive, continuously variable microwave time delay for the simulation of the approach of a radar to its target is described. A bulk elastic wave excited in a transparent crystal enables thousands of feet of propagat...

H. A. Cook



Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.

Bornstein, Marc H.



Ten practice redesign approaches.  


As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches. PMID:24228375

Slayton, Val



Dynamic Approaches to Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic rule-based approaches have been a preferred way to study language and cognition. Dissatisfaction with rule-based approaches in the 1980s lead to alternative approaches to study language, the most notable being the dynamic approaches to language processing. Dynamic approaches provide a significant alternative by not being rule-based and…

Srinivasan, Narayanan



Disability: a welfarist approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species’ functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability.

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy



Abstract approach to music.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The moti...

H. G. Kaper, S. Tipei



Regularization Approaches to Demosaicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demosaicking is the process of reconstructing a full resolution color image from the sampled data acquired by a digital camera that apply a color filter array to a single sensor. In this paper, we propose a regularization approach to demosaicking, making use of some prior knowledge about natural color images, such as smoothness of each single color component and correlation

Daniele Menon; Giancarlo Calvagno




EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...


Optical iris localization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new iris segmentation approach based on correlation filters. The iris boundaries are detected using an original technique of composite filter called indexed composite filters. For each of the iris boundary detection, an indexed composite filter is generated using a database of circular contours corresponding to all boundary radius possible values. Experimental results of pupil and iris

O. El Kheir Abra; Esmail AHOUZI; Nawfel AZAMI; Fakhita REGRAGUI



Marketing Approaches in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the results of a survey of Bulgarian companies as part of a larger project funded by The European Commission. Investigates the marketing attitudes and approaches of Bulgarian companies using a mailed questionnaire based on a set of preliminary in-depth interviews and analyses the results using a cluster analysis. Results show the existence of four clusters: the first, where marketing

Marin Marinov; Tony Cox; George J. Avlonitis; Thanos Kouremenos




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




[A health economics approach].  


Frailty is a complex term and has a broad influence on the elderly patients. For evaluating the monetary impact of frailty it is necessary to approach in a differentiated way. It is of great interest to discover the relevance of multidisciplinary assessment and accordant preventive actions. In this article the costs of osteoporosis and (hip) fractures are briefly presented. PMID:18677699

Esslinger, Adelheid Susanne; Heppner, Hans Jürgen



Approach for Dynamic Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-...

J. W. Slater M. Liou R. G. Hindman



Marxian Approaches to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

Carnoy, Martin


Psoriasiform Dermatoses: Microscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Psoriasiform dermatoses often pose challenges to both dermatologists and pathologists alike. With proper clinicopathologic correlation and a systematic approach, it is possible to arrive at a specific diagnosis in most cases. This article attempts to outline a practical, step-wise method of looking at these cases and highlights some important clues in individual conditions.

Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi



New Ideas and Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

Lukov, V. A.



Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew



An Integrative Medicine Approach to Asthma: Who Responds?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of which patients with chronic illness tend to respond to integrative medicine interventions, by identifying a set of characteristics or qualities that are associated with a positive outcome in a randomized clinical trial of an integrative medicine approach to asthma that incorporated journaling, yoga breathing instruction, and nutritional manipulation and supplementation. Design The study used qualitative analysis using a grounded-theory approach comparing a group of responders in the parent trial (based on the Asthma Quality of Life Scale) to a group of nonresponders. Results Twelve (12) responders and 8 nonresponders were interviewed. Responders demonstrated an attitude of “change as challenge;” a view of themselves as “independent” and “leaders;” an ability to accept one's illness while still maintaining a feeling of control over one's choices; a connection to the deeper context or meaning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, as opposed to just “previous experience” of CAM; and a sense of determination, commitment, and “willingness to fight” for what one needs from the health care system. Nonresponders were more often uncertain and anxious in their relationship to their asthma, tending to fall back on denial, and lacking a connection to the deeper context or philosophy of CAM interventions. Conclusions It is possible to identify a set of characteristics that may predict a positive response to an integrative/lifestyle approach to asthma. These characteristics should be examined prospectively using both quantitative and qualitative methods in future integrative medicine clinical trials.

McKee, Melissa Diane; Sackett, Esther; Levenson, Hanniel; Kenney, Jeanne; Karasz, Alison



A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian


Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

Svensson, Lennart


Heritability of hallucinations in adolescent twins.  


Hallucinations are common in normal individuals and patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Traditionally psycho-social approaches have emphasized the importance of environmental factors that contribute to variation of hallucinations. Using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised (LSHS-R), we investigated genetic and environmental influences on hallucinations in 598 pairs of healthy South Korean adolescent twins. Parameter estimates in the best-fitting model indicated that additive genetic and individual specific environmental factors for the LSHS-R were 33% (95% CI: 23-42%) and 67% (95% CI: 60-77%), respectively. There was no evidence for sex-specific genes for hallucinations. The magnitudes of genetic and environmental influences on hallucinations were similar in males and females. These results have implications in future molecular genetic studies that search for genes for hallucinations. PMID:22578404

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cherny, Stacey S; Sham, Pak C



Ecological salivary cortisol analysis (Part 2): Relative impact of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, comorbidity, chronic stress, and known confounds on hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Background Although bio-psycho-social health research is an ideal, samples adequate for complex modeling require biomarker specimens from hundreds of participants. Ecological sampling departs from laboratory study norms, with implications for analysis. Objective This paper compares salivary cortisol levels and effect sizes of ‘focal’ psychiatric factors, such as trauma history, posttraumatic stress diagnosis, comorbidity, and chronic stress, and ‘nuisance’ factors, including endocrine disorders, medications, physiological factors, such as gestational age, and smoking, to inform ecological study designs. Study Design This is a descriptive analysis of ecologically collected cortisol specimens, assayed in an on-going perinatal psychobiological study, addressing methodological considerations. Results Focal and nuisance factors are often interdependent with similar effect sizes. Careful specimen deletion decisions and model specification are needed to achieve the hoped-for external validity while maintaining internal validity. Conclusions Results of multivariate models support the validity and usefulness of an ecological approach to incorporating biomarkers in health research.

King, Anthony; Leichtman, Jennifer; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia S.



Internet Training for Nurse Aides to Prevent Resident Aggression  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evaluate Internet training to help Nurse Aides decrease resident aggression. Design Randomized treatment and control design; pre-post assessment. Setting The study was conducted entirely on the Internet. Participants Nurse Aides; N=62 Intervention Internet based interactive training using video modeling and mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment participants. Results MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.001) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with large effect sizes; it was well received by the users. Conclusions Interactive training is an effective approach to shaping appropriate staff reactions to aggressive resident behaviors. The training can effectively be delivered on the Internet. In this research, it was both valued and well received by study participants.

Blair Irvine, A.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Billow, Molly; Seeley, John R.



[Hypophosphatasia: new therapeutic approaches].  


Hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone, liver and kidney) which leads to abnormal mineralization of skeletal and dental tissues. There are several forms of hypophosphatasia with wide variations in severity ranging from high-mortality neonatal presentation to mild forms in adults associated with fragility fractures and osteomalacia. The biochemical diagnosis is based on measurement of low levels of serum alkaline phophatase and increased serum or urine concentrations of phosphoethalnolamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate. To date, therapy has been quite heterogeneous with quite limited outcomes. The recent progress in research leads to new therapeutic approaches for this complex disease. The administration of parathyroid hormone in adult hypophosphatasia and enzyme replacement therapy using a novel soluble recombinant form of human alkaline phosphatase for severe forms of hypophosphatasia are currently the most promising approaches. PMID:19211064

Alonso, Guillermo; Varsavsky, Mariela; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel



Fuzzy approaches in pediatrics.  


In this paper we present a review of applications of fuzzy methods in children and adolescence health care. Based on the several examples, available from journal papers, conference proceedings and book chapters we have concentrate ourselves on problems in the pediatrics that have been or can be solved with the help of fuzzy methodology. The paper is organised as follows. In section I we consider the general considerations about fuzzy logic and medicine. Section II considers the basics of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, the main methodological approaches for medical practical applications. Section III describes problems and the way of their solving using fuzzy approaches in pediatrics. Conclusions summarise the review in Section IV. PMID:24940856

Kiseliova, T; Pagava, K



Extended transsphenoidal approach.  


Transsphenoidal surgery is well established as an effective primary treatment for tumors of the sellar region. The technique of transsphenoidal surgery has evolved over the years with many prominent surgeons contributing to its present state of refinement. The transsphenoidal approach can be modified in various ways to permit resection of parasellar tumors that otherwise would require a transcranial or transbasal operation. Our experience with these 'extended' techniques has primarily involved the transtuberculum sella approach in which bone is removed from the tuberculum sellae and the posterior portion of the planum sphenoidale. Experience with this technique continues to burgeon, and offers an excellent alternative to transcranial surgery in dealing with a difficult constellation of tumors. Meticulous attention to detail, particularly with respect to reconstruction and closure of the sellar floor, is necessary for its effective application. PMID:16474214

Dumont, Aaron S; Kanter, Adam S; Jane, John A; Laws, Edward R



[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  


There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A



The Community Reinforcement Approach  

PubMed Central

The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), originally developed for individuals with alcohol use disorders, has been successfully employed to treat a variety of substance use disorders for more than 35 years. Based on operant conditioning, CRA helps people rearrange their lifestyles so that healthy, drug-free living becomes rewarding and thereby competes with alcohol and drug use. Consequently, practitioners encourage clients to become progressively involved in alternative non-substance-related pleasant social activities, and to work on enhancing the enjoyment they receive within the “community” of their family and job. Additionally, in the past 10–15 years, researchers have obtained scientific evidence for two off-shoots of CRA that are based on the same operant mechanism. The first variant is Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which targets adolescents with substance use problems and their caregivers. The second approach, Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), works through family members to engage treatment-refusing individuals into treatment. An overview of these treatments and their scientific backing is presented.

Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen



Approaches to Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and answers; Index.

Oriti, Daniele



New approaches for immunosuppression  

SciTech Connect

New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.



The collaboratory approach  

SciTech Connect

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.



Therapeutic approaches to apraxia.  


Although identifying descriptions of apraxia are numerous in recent literature, few articles present guidelines for apraxia therapy. In this paper, several therapeutic techniques for apraxia are introduced and discussed. Sequencing of speech sounds is recognized as the apraxic patient's most characteristic problem. Rapid repetition of consonant plus /a/, build-up of speech sounds into syllables, and word attack by phone and syllable are all recommended for the purpose of improving sequencing. Facilitation techniques are discussed for the acquisition of articulatory postures. Case histories are presented to illustrate the therapy approach. PMID:1271787

Dabul, B; Bollier, B




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. GENERAL ELEVATION, FROM SOUTHWEST APPROACH, SHOWING APPROACH ROADWAY, FENDER SYSTEM IN RIVER AT CHANNEL, AND LENGTH OF TRUSS WITH COUNTERWEIGHT - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Sedden Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL


A Little Area Challenge: A Sod Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As partners in a professional development project, the authors jumped at the opportunity to use a real-life problem to engage elementary and middle school teachers in a one-day exploration of the concept of area. "Length times width"--a common response to the question, "What is area?"--is a rote formulaic expression that applies only to certain…

Myers, Perla L.; Pelak, Colleen N.



Humanitarian nursing challenges: a grounded theory study.  


In response to the 2004 tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean, the U.S. Navy deployed teams aboard the USNS Mercy to provide aid during Operation Unified Assistance (OUA). To date, few research studies have examined how Navy nurses prepared for and clinically performed during this relief operation. The current article describes the challenges faced by Navy nurses throughout OUA. A purposive convenience sample was recruited; 11 participated. Data were collected from interviews, observations, field notes, memos, and a demographic tool. Information was categorized, coded, compared to incoming data, then analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's open coding, axial coding, and selective coding methods. A theoretical model was developed to illustrate how participants experienced the mission. Key lessons learned were that most were unprepared for providing pediatric care, and saying "No" in delivering care. Recommendations include: deployment of advanced-practice nurses (specialists in pediatrics and well-mental health) and predeployment training on moral distress. PMID:20731277

Almonte, Angelica L C



The VSEPR Challenge: A Student's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To solve the challenge of learning VSEPR molecules in three dimensions, a high school student leverages her passion for 3D computer animation to develop a creative solution. This article outlines the process and story behind the creation of her unique video. (Contains 1 figure.)

Jennings, Ashley S.



"Taurodontism" an endodontic challenge: a case report.  


Taurodontism can be defined as a change in tooth shape caused by the failure of the Hertwig's epithelial sheath diaphragm to invaginate at the proper horizontal level. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor, and no constriction at the level of the cementoenamel junction are the characteristic features. Permanent molars are most commonly affected. Endodontic treatment of a taurodont tooth is challenging and requires special handling because of the proximity and apical displacement of the roots. Here, we report a case in which endodontic treatment of the maxillary right first molar with taurodontism was performed. In this case, the maxillary right second molar and maxillary left first and second molars were also taurodont teeth. PMID:19776518

Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem P; Wadhwani, Kulvindar K



Accepting the Utopian Challenge: A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) allows institutions to achieve the goals required for student learning and success. The purpose of this paper is to address recommendations for the implementation of SoTL that should have relevant input from students. These include, but are not limited to, better communication, evaluation, continuing…

Carman, Breanna R.



Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being.



Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.



Avenue of approach generation  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.



State Machine Approach: A Tutorial.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state machine approach is a general method for achieving fault tolerance and implementing decentralized control in distributed computing systems. This paper reviews the approach and identifies abstractions needed for coordinating ensembles of state ma...

F. B. Schneider



Open Systems Approach to Supportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The open systems approach is both a technical approach to weapons systems engineering and a preferred business strategy that is becoming widely applied by manufacturers of large complex systems. Today, legacy systems continue to be developed with their ow...

A. G. Larson C. K. Banning J. F. Leonard



A Narrative Approach to Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including "story,"…

Bell, Anne



Structural approaches to HIV prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition that social, economic, political, and environmental factors directly aff ect HIV risk and vulnerability has stimulated interest in structural approaches to HIV prevention. Progress in the use of structural approaches has been limited for several reasons: absence of a clear defi nition; lack of operational guidance; and limited data on the eff ectiveness of structural approaches to the reduction

Geeta Rao Gupta; Justin O Parkhurst; Jessica A Ogden; Peter Aggleton; Ajay Mahal



An abstract approach to music  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the

H. G. Kaper; S. Tipei



Coherence--A Practical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a nonmathematical approach to help students understand that there are two types of coherence and to associate coherence as a property of the illumination at an object itself. The approach also lends itself to an introduction to the Fourier approach for analyzing imaging systems. (JN)

Mooney, Robert J.



Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

Koczo, Steve



[Calciphylaxis: a multidisciplinary approach].  


Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare syndrome characterized by medial calcification of the small arteries and ischemia of the subcutaneous tissue that progresses to non-healing ulcers and gangrene. It is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), associated with high morbidity and mortality, and there is no standard treatment at the present time. We report a case of CUA developing in a 70-year-old woman on dialysis, with a normal plasma concentration of parathyroid hormone but a body mass index of 40 kg/m(2) and receiving oral anticoagulant therapy. She was successfully treated with a multidisciplinary approach focused on medical and surgical therapy. PMID:19644842

Piantanida, Mariassunta; Plastino, G; Valente, V; Tassinari, J; Fabrizi, T; Orlandino, G



Pelvic Exenteration: Surgical Approaches  

PubMed Central

Although the incidence of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer has decreased due to the understanding of the anatomy of pelvic structures and the adoption of total mesorectal excision, local recurrence in the pelvis still remains a significant and troublesome complication. While surgery for recurrent rectal cancer may offer a chance for a cure, conservative management, including radiation and chemotherapy, remain widely accepted courses of treatment. Recent improvement in imaging modalities, perioperative care, and surgical techniques, including bone resection and wound coverage, have allowed for reductions in operative mortality, though postoperative morbidity still remains high. In this review, the techniques, including surgical approaches, employed for management of locally recurrent rectal cancer are highlighted.



Investigational Approaches for Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients.

Surmont, Veerle F.; van Thiel, Eric R. E.; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.



Approaching attometer laser vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz



[Fibromyalgia syndrome - updated s3 guidelines].  


Patients with chronic widespread pain often present with musculo-skeletal pain and therefore often initially contact an orthopaedist. For these patients fibromyalgia syndrome is an important differential diagnosis. Recommendations for the diagnosis of and therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome based on the recent German S3 guidelines for fibromyalgia syndrome (AWMF registration number 041/004) are outlined in this paper. These guidelines were developed under the coordination of the German interdisciplinary association for pain management DIVS and two patient support groups. The history of a typical symptom complex and the exclusion of relevant somatic causes for the pain are epecially relevant for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Besides the exclusion of relevant orthopaedic causes for the pain, psycho-social aspects should always be evaluated. According to the modified ACR criteria 2010, chronic widespread pain and accompanying sleep disturbances and a physical as well as mental state of exhaustion lead to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. It is not mandatory to check tender points (ACR 1990 criteria). A graduated treatment approach depending on the severity level of the fibromyalgia syndrome in the individual patient is recommended. Active treatment options (aerobic training, meditative movement therapies, strength training) should be preferred to any drug therapy in the long-term treatment of fibromyalgia. If indicated, amitryptiline or duloxetine may be used to treat accompanying depressive or generalised anxiety disorder. Muscle relaxant medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioids should be avoided. The multimodal pain therapy considering all psycho-social aspects is a promising treatment option for fibromyalgia syndrome of moderate to high severity. PMID:24347415

Dreher, T; Häuser, W; Schiltenwolf, M



Psychosocial determinants of nutritional neglect in a developing country.  


Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. PMID:24848392

Mehnaz, Aisha; Shah, Nusrat; Mala, Ashfaq; Rai, Krishan; Arif, Fehmina; Munnawar, Uzma; Raj, Rakesh; Tariq, Abida; Yasin, Shahnaz



Surgical approach to the pterygopalatine fossa-comparison between anterior approach and lateral approach.  


The anterior and the lateral approach for resecting an invading tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa region were compared. An anterior approach was applied for resecting a malignancy that originated from the maxillary tuberosity, upper hard plate, and maxillary sinus, and a lateral approach was applied for resecting a malignancy that originated from the upper gingiva and buccal mucosa. The anterior approach was capable of exposing the whole maxilla, although it was difficult to achieve such exposure by the lateral approach. However, the submandibular incision technique used in the Dingman approach was useful for upper neck dissection as well as for exposure of the artery and vein to anastomose them for reconstruction. The anterior approach should be useful for resection of the pterygopalatine fossa concomitant with total maxillectomy. On the other hand, the lateral approach might have an advantage in terms of its cosmetic effects. PMID:23524736

Uehara, Masataka; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi



Robotic intra-abdominal vasectomy reversal: A new approach to a difficult problem  

PubMed Central

The management of obstructive azoospermia resulting from intra-abdominal vasal obstruction poses a formidable surgical challenge. A number of surgical methods have been described to address this problem, including both open and laparoscopic approaches to mobilize and sometimes even re-route the abdominal vas deferens prior to performing a re-anastamosis. We present the first report, to our knowledge, of robotic intra-abdominal vasectomy reversal used to repair obstructive azoospermia resulting from prior laparoscopic vasectomy. In doing so, we summarize the techniques described previously in the literature and build upon this body of surgical experience by combining robotic-assisted laparoscopic mobilization of the vas with robotic vasovasostomy. We believe this novel approach for repairing intra-abdominal vasal defects minimizes morbidity, while at the same time obviating the need for the operating microscope, and thus represents a practical alternative to existing techniques.

Barazani, Yagil; Kaouk, Jihad; Sabanegh, Edmund S.



Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection.  


A large body of evidence from postmortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in humans and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction from oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology, and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-coactivator and sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Beal, M Flint



COMPRENDO: Focus and approach.  


Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body's signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that "the dose makes the poison" may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose-response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters--Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates) . PMID:16818253

Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah



Pharmacogenomics: a systems approach  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involve the study of the role of inheritance in individual variation in drug response, a phenotype that varies from potentially life-threatening adverse drug reactions to equally serious lack of therapeutic efficacy. Pharmacogenetics-pharmacogenomics represents a major component of the movement to `individualized medicine'. Pharmacogenetic studies originally focused on monogenic traits, often involving genetic variation in drug metabolism. However, contemporary studies increasingly involve entire `pathways' that include both pharmacokinetics (PKs)—factors that influence the concentration of a drug reaching its target(s)—and pharmacodynamics (PDs), factors associated with the drug target(s), as well as genome-wide approaches. The convergence of advances in pharmacogenetics with rapid developments in human genomics has resulted in the evolution of pharmacogenetics into pharmacogenomics. At the same time, studies of drug response are expanding beyond genomics to encompass pharmacotranscriptomics and pharmacometabolomics to become a systems-based discipline. This discipline is also increasingly moving across the `translational interface' into the clinic and is being incorporated into the drug development process and governmental regulation of that process. The article will provide an overview of the development of pharmacogenetics-pharmacogenomics, the scientific advances that have contributed to the continuing evolution of this discipline, the incorporation of transcriptomic and metabolomic data into attempts to understand and predict variation in drug response phenotypes as well as challenges associated with the `translation' of this important aspect of biomedical science into the clinic.

Wang, Liewei



Combinatorial approach to modularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communities are clusters of nodes with a higher than average density of internal connections. Their detection is of great relevance to better understand the structure and hierarchies present in a network. Modularity has become a standard tool in the area of community detection, providing at the same time a way to evaluate partitions and, by maximizing it, a method to find communities. In this work, we study the modularity from a combinatorial point of view. Our analysis (as the modularity definition) relies on the use of the configurational model, a technique that given a graph produces a series of randomized copies keeping the degree sequence invariant. We develop an approach that enumerates the null model partitions and can be used to calculate the probability distribution function of the modularity. Our theory allows for a deep inquiry of several interesting features characterizing modularity such as its resolution limit and the statistics of the partitions that maximize it. Additionally, the study of the probability of extremes of the modularity in the random graph partitions opens the way for a definition of the statistical significance of network partitions.

Radicchi, Filippo; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Ramasco, José J.



Approaches to refractory epilepsy.  


Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

Engel, Jerome



Modeling prosody: Different approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prosody pervades all aspects of a speech signal, both in terms of raw acoustic outcomes and linguistically meaningful units, from the phoneme to the discourse unit. It is carried in the suprasegmental features of fundamental frequency, loudness, and duration. Several models have been developed to account for the way prosody organizes speech, and they vary widely in terms of their theoretical assumptions, organizational primitives, actual procedures of application to speech, and intended use (e.g., to generate speech from text vs. to model the prosodic phonology of a language). In many cases, these models overtly contradict one another with regard to their fundamental premises or their identification of the perceptible objects of linguistic prosody. These competing models are directly compared. Each model is applied to the same speech samples. This parallel analysis allows for a critical inspection of each model and its efficacy in assessing the suprasegmental behavior of the speech. The analyses illustrate how different approaches are better equipped to account for different aspects of prosody. Viewing the models and their successes from an objective perspective allows for creative possibilities in terms of combining strengths from models which might otherwise be considered fundamentally incompatible.

Carmichael, Lesley M.



Approaches to refractory epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

Engel, Jerome



Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas



Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1? and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders.

Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint



Voyager Approaches Final Frontier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.

The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.



Approaching pre-diabetes.  


As the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes continues to rise, the time has come to revisit our approach to pre-diabetes. Recently, much ado has been made about screening, diagnosis, pathophysiology and clinical interventions in pre-diabetes, and all for good reason as the key to reversing the diabetes epidemic likely lies therein. The somewhat controversial term "pre-diabetes" represents collective dysglycemic states intermediate between normal glucose regulation (NGR) and diabetes. Not all people with pre-diabetes will develop diabetes, but the majority will. In fact, up to 70% of those with pre-diabetes may acquire the disease over their lifetime. Furthermore, even when overt diabetes is delayed or prevented, both micro- and macrovascular disease appears more prevalent in those with pre-diabetes compared to their normoglycemic peers. Hence, there is growing consensus that NGR should be the goal for people with pre-diabetes. Nevertheless, there is much to consider in that pursuit. Herein, we provide an update on the global burden of pre-diabetes, its underlying pathophysiology and discuss clinical considerations in these individuals at high risk of developing diabetes. PMID:24342268

Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine



Compressors simultaneously approach surge  

SciTech Connect

A control algorithm has been developed to allow control of parallel gas compressors so that they unload simultaneously to their surge control limits. Equations describing the algorithm, the S Criteria, are given along with a description of how the control system operates. A description and the operating characteristics of the concept, used on an offshore gas compression station, are discussed. The first installment of this two-part article discussed the advantages of simulation control to the surge limit, and compared the concept with other common control methods. There are many possible algorithms for simultaneous approach to the surge control lines of centrifugal compressors. Obviously, each algorithm depends on measuring the distance from the operating point to the surge control line. Because compressors may differ in capacity and characteristics, the absolute distance of the operating point from the surge control line is not useful. The authors recommend using a dimensionless number expressing the relative distance from the surge control line. This measurement technique will now be incorporated into a control algorithm. The algorithm that will be described here is called the ''S'' Criteria.'' It is one possible method of improved control. The S Criteria was developed and patented by one of the authors.

Staroselsky, N.; Ladin, L.



Piecewise linear approach: a new approach in automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interests. High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and Stationary Target

YuJing Zeng; Janusz A. Starzyk



Skull base approaches in neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy.



Prepotential approach to quasinormal modes  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > A unified approach to both exactly and quasi-exactly solvable quasinormal modes. > A simple constructive approach without knowledge of underlying symmetry of the system. > Three new models admitting quasinormal modes. - Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate how the recently reported exactly and quasi-exactly solvable models admitting quasinormal modes can be constructed and classified very simply and directly by the newly proposed prepotential approach. These new models were previously obtained within the Lie-algebraic approach. Unlike the Lie-algebraic approach, the prepotential approach does not require any knowledge of the underlying symmetry of the system. It treats both quasi-exact and exact solvabilities on the same footing, and gives the potential as well as the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously. We also present three new models with quasinormal modes: a new exactly solvable Morse-like model, and two new quasi-exactly solvable models of the Scarf II and generalized Poeschl-Teller types.

Ho, Choon-Lin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)



Complications Related to Anterolateral Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The low and high retropharyngeal and precarotid prest-ernocleidomastoid approaches to the cervical spine allow one to expose\\u000a all the levels of the cervical spine, from the basis of the skull to the upper thoracic levels [1].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The low presternocleidomastoid approach is the most common direct approach to the middle and low cervical spine. It was first\\u000a described to expose the

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Rocco Papalia; Vincenzo Denaro


Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin



Approaches to adolescent sexuality education.  


The purpose of this review is to examine evidence in support of comprehensive and abstinence-only approaches to sexuality education for adolescents. In this article we review the effectiveness, medical accuracy, and ethical concerns related to different approaches to sexuality education. PMID:18453234

Ott, Mary A; Santelli, John S



Facilities management: a behavioural approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeks out whether technical performance indicators may be challenged by perception data thereby forcing a paradigm shift in building assessment. Reports the development of a conceptual framework and thereby justification of methodological approaches for a currently undertaken research project. Employs a subjective approach, based on inhabitants’ perceptions of their own environments. Concludes the measure of productivity used herein may be

David Fleming



Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

McMurray, Robert


Alternatives in Education -- 54 Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-four approaches identify ways by which students can learn, methods for teachers to employ, and approaches to a sequence of studies. A statement of philosophy notes the book's goal of providing a transition from individualized instruction to personalized instruction. The purpose, needs, philosophy and objectives of the open studies program…

Jekel, Jerome R.; Johnson, Robert E.


Periareolar approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy.  


In recent years advances in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have been aimed at reducing the number of video surgery ports, and especially major lung resections pose the greatest challenge. We describe a new minimally invasive as well as aesthetic approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy. The technique poses no difficulty for the surgeon and has certain advantages over other videothoracoscopic approaches. PMID:24694421

Cerezo Madueño, Francisco; Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Algar Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel



A Systems Approach to Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systematic approach to teaching provides a method for the functional organization and development of instruction. This method applies to preparation of materials for classroom use, as well as for print and non-print media. Inputs to the systems approach include well defined objectives, analysis of the intended audience, special criteria…

Kelly, Robert E.


Experimental Approaches to Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how experimental approaches to adult education, such as microteaching, video-tape feedback, and simulation techniques, can be useful to educators and their students. Offers an instructional design model to be tested and modified to meet individual educational needs as a means of facilitating the use of these approaches. (DMM)

Waddell, Geneva



Current Approaches to Norms Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilder- ness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to the norm problem. Doug Whittaker and

John L. Heywood


Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

Hesse, M. G., Ed.


An Approach to Systems Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term systems verification refers to the specification and verification of the components of a computing system, including compilers, assemblers, operating systems and hardware. We outline our approach to systems verification, and summarize the application of this approach to several systems components. These components consist of a code generator for a simple high-level language, an assembler and linking loader, a

William R. Bevier; Warren A. Hunt Jr.; J. Strother Moore; William D. Young



Adolescent Suicide: An Ecological Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an ecological approach to enhance our understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to the increased risk for suicide among adolescents. The ecological approach allows exploration of how adolescent suicide is determined by multiple factors related to the adolescent's personal history or ontogenic…

Ayyash-Abdo, Huda



Workplace English: Approach and Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two approaches to teaching vocational English as a second language: (1) describing work activities in terms of processes and procedures and (2) describing work activities in terms of specific human behaviors. Suggests a goal analysis as an initial step before deciding which approach to take in any training project. (SED)

Prince, David



Approach to population control.  


Due to the fact that India was the 1st nation to adopt population control as a state policy and that targets for various family planning methods are set by the Department of Family Planning, it is assumed that family planning is basically the concern of the Department of Family Planning. Consequently, family planning is viewed as a public sector activity that requires little participation on the part of the people. This presents a great danger to the success of the family planning program. Family planning needs to be the primary concern of the people and not the government. The new 20 point program emphasizes that family planning should be promoted on a voluntary basis as a people's movement. This has been interpreted by many to mean that increasingly more funds should be given to voluntary agencies working in the field of family planning. Yet, there is deep distrust on the part of the government departments regarding doling out funds to voluntary agencies. It is suggested that the government should adopt a new approach to the problem of population control through the promotion and mobilization of voluntary effort in rural areas. In view of the clear demonstration of the impact of female education on fertility levels, the Family Planning Department should announce a new scheme to help all voluntary agencies which focus attention on the education of girls in neglected rural areas and should launch a special schooling program for girls in the area of nutrition. In addition, the informal education of women through the mobilization of local talent and resources to generate social awareness should be undertaken. In India, Kerala has the distinction of having the highest literacy rate, the highest life expectancy, the lowest mortality and infant mortality rates, and the lowest birthrate. The birthrate in rural Kerala is 27/1000 in contrast to 40/1000 in rural Uttar Pradesh. A high average marriage age has contributed substantially to lowering the birthrate. The key variables in explaining the interstate fertility differentials in India are the level of education and the marriage age. At least in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan, the basic thrust of the family planning program for the next 5 years should be on raising the marriage age. In sum, decline in the rural birthrate can be accomplished if a 4-fold strategy is adopted: a special program for female education in neglected rural areas; an increase in the marriage age in rural areas to at least 18-20 years for girls and the strict enforcement of the Prevention of Child Marriage Act; massive support of the Health Guide Scheme in order to realize the goal of health for all by the year 2000; and innovative steps to generate and mobilize initiative in the field of health and education within local rural communities. PMID:12312004

Bose, A



Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris


76 FR 24497 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Neuropsychosocial Measures Formative Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health...activities relating to the collection of neuro- developmental and psycho-social...environmental, social and cognitive science professional organizations and...



Bethe ansatz approach to quench dynamics in the Richardson model  

SciTech Connect

By instantaneously changing a global parameter in an extended quantum system, an initially equilibrated state will afterwards undergo a complex nonequilibrium unitary evolution whose description is extremely challenging. A nonperturbative method giving a controlled error in the long time limit remained highly desirable to understand general features of the quench induced quantum dynamics. In this paper we show how integrability (via the algebraic Bethe ansatz) gives one numerical access, in a nearly exact manner, to the dynamics resulting from a global interaction quench of an ensemble of fermions with pairing interactions (Richardson's model). This possibility is deeply linked to the specific structure of this particular integrable model which gives simple expressions for the scalar product of eigenstates of two different Hamiltonians. We show how, despite the fact that a sudden quench can create excitations at any frequency, a drastic truncation of the Hilbert space can be carried out therefore allowing access to large systems. The small truncation error which results does not change with time and consequently the method grants access to a controlled description of the long time behavior which is a hard to reach limit with other numerical approaches.

Faribault, Alexandre [Department of Physics, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Calabrese, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Caux, Jean-Sebastien [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)



Clinical approach for the classification of congenital uterine malformations.  


A more objective, accurate and non-invasive estimation of uterine morphology is nowadays feasible based on the use of modern imaging techniques. The validity of the current classification systems in effective categorization of the female genital malformations has been already challenged. A new clinical approach for the classification of uterine anomalies is proposed. Deviation from normal uterine anatomy is the basic characteristic used in analogy to the American Fertility Society classification. The embryological origin of the anomalies is used as a secondary parameter. Uterine anomalies are classified into the following classes: 0, normal uterus; I, dysmorphic uterus; II, septate uterus (absorption defect); III, dysfused uterus (fusion defect); IV, unilateral formed uterus (formation defect); V, aplastic or dysplastic uterus (formation defect); VI, for still unclassified cases. A subdivision of these main classes to further anatomical varieties with clinical significance is also presented. The new proposal has been designed taking into account the experience gained from the use of the currently available classification systems and intending to be as simple as possible, clear enough and accurate as well as open for further development. This proposal could be used as a starting point for a working group of experts in the field. PMID:22611348

Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Campo, Rudi



Hierarchical approach to feature indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend our previous approach to 2-D shape indexing, data-driven indexed hypotheses, to hierarchical features. It is shown mathematically and experimentally that an index based on hierarchical features is more computationally efficient than one based on nonhierarchical features. Our approach addresses two types of hierarchies: a multilevel approximation of the contours of 2-D objects and a three-level feature indexing system. Our approach can easily be extended to 3-D objects. As we know, occluded object recognition should be based on local features. However, these features may sometimes be lost due to changes of scale as well as to occlusion. Our first hierarchical mechanism is used to complement the feature loss due to scale changes. It results in multilevel approximations of the contours of objects using scale-space approaches. This approach is also beneficial when there are few boundary points of maximal curvature so that standard polygonal approximation schemes don''t work very well. Our second hierarchical mechanism is to use sets of visible local features to hypothesize the presence of objects. Verification of the various hypotheses is done via normalization and boundary template matching. Using these two hierarchical mechanisms results in an approach to shape recognition which is very general in practice. Theoretically, many types of features can be recognized, though line features are preferred. Our technique offers a new approach to the construction of indexing systems for image databases on the basis of image features.

Grosky, William I.; Jiang, Charlie Z. W.



Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample

F. Marcellini; C. Giuli; R. Papa; G. Tirabassi; E. Faloia; M. Boscaro; A. Polito; D. Ciarapica; M. Zaccaria; E. Mocchegiani



Interdisciplinary Collaboration Between Social Workers and Dieticians in Nutrition Education Programs for Children-at-Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-psycho-social risk factors may lead to situations of poor nutrition of children. However, despite the multiple risk factors involved in such situations, interdisciplinary collaboration between experts in the psycho-social dimensions and experts in the bio-dimension of poor nutrition has not been a common model of practice. An evaluation was conducted in Israel of the experience of collaboration between social workers

Ron Shor



Novel Approach to Abrasion Resistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high abrasion and impact loads characteristic of many technologies require frequent maintenance or special materials. Conventional approaches to protection have used either extremely hard coatings or complaint elastomeric coatings. The former are typi...

W. A. Steele P. B. Mohr H. R. Leider T. B. Hirschfeld



System Approach to Contingency Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an architecture to be used in an automated methodology for the validation of operations plans (OPLANS). The approach uses high resolution stochastic and deterministic simulation to model the activities of implementing a contingency pl...

T. H. Riddle T. L. Snyder



Prepotential approach to quasinormal modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate how the recently reported exactly and quasi-exactly solvable models admitting quasinormal modes can be constructed and classified very simply and directly by the newly proposed prepotential approach. These new models were previously obtained within the Lie-algebraic approach. Unlike the Lie-algebraic approach, the prepotential approach does not require any knowledge of the underlying symmetry of the system. It treats both quasi-exact and exact solvabilities on the same footing, and gives the potential as well as the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously. We also present three new models with quasinormal modes: a new exactly solvable Morse-like model, and two new quasi-exactly solvable models of the Scarf II and generalized Pöschl-Teller types.

Ho, Choon-Lin



Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  


... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...


Alternative Regulatory Approaches: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an overview of the guidebook series on Alternative Regulatory Approaches. It summarizes definitions, costs, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of five alternative regulatory concepts: Marketable Rights, Performance Standards, Monetary I...



Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

Pearce, Robert W.



Classroom Interaction: A Sociological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors employ Bales' IPA and apply hypotheses from Homans' Human Group'' to present a sociological approach to the scientific study of classroom interaction at the elementary school level. (Authors)

Calonico, James M.; Calonico, Beth Ann



Mainstream--The Delaware Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Available from: Special Education in Canada, Dave Muir, Subscription Manager, 12 Doucett Place, Scarborough, Ontario M1G 3M2. Described is an approach to mainstreaming hearing impaired students which uses interpreter-tutors. (CL)

Holcomb, Roy; Corbett, Edward, Jr.



Inductrack Approach to Magnetic Levitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concepts developed during research on passive magnetic bearing systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gave rise to a new approach to magnetic levitation, the Inductrack. A passive induced-current system employing permanent magnets on the mo...

R. F. Post, D. D. Ryutov



Feminist Approaches in Teaching Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some of the approaches a feminist can use in the classroom and reports the student interest generated when women are included as subject matter in part of a regional geography course. (Author/AV)

Lee, David R.



Diakoptical approach in telecommunication engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

Oksana Yevsyeyeva



The Montessori Approach to Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Montessori approach to music education and specific techniques for teaching piano to young children using key and note cards above the piano keys. These materials isolate the teaching purpose, show errors, and stimulate self-correction. (MDM)

Barnett, Elise Braun



Mitigation Theory: An Integrated Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical model of mitigation by integrating cognitive and discourse approaches to appraisal and coping. Mitigation involves strategic, emotional, linguistic, and Theory of Mind processes on different levels of ...

B. Martinovski J. Gratch S. Marsella W. Mao



A Primitive Approach to Aeroacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primitive approach to aeroacoustics is presented using the aeroacoustic analogies. This aproach is illustrated by a few\\u000a examples like musical instruments, the Rijke tube, speech production etc.

Avraham Hirschberg; Christophe Schram



Layout Planning - A Practical Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive guide to the planning of facilities layouts using logical and algorithmic approaches is presented. Selection of the problem is followed by recording of information on the functioning of the layout, estimating the shape and area requirement...

J. Roe



Nuclear power: a balanced approach.  


A proposed technological approach to meeting recognized nuclear power needs is a symbiotic combination of breeders and advanced converter reactors. Breeders, situated in secured areas, would be fueled with and self-sufficient in plutonium. The excess fuel produced in the breeder would be uranium-233, sufficient in quantity to supply several advanced converters located near load centers. This approach is suggested as a balanced way to meet important criteria applicable to the continued development of nuclear power. PMID:17754022

Rickard, C L; Dahlberg, R C



Dynamical Approaches to Cognitive Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article, I review three rather different examples of such work,addressing the lexical and grammatical structure of language, Piagets classic A-not-B error, andactive categorical perception in an embodied, situated agent. From these three examples, I thenattempt to articulate the major differences between dynamical approaches and more traditionalsymbolic and connectionist approaches. Although the three models reviewed here varyconsiderably in their details,

Randall D. Beer



Fog and Stratus Forecast Approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module deals with identifying the characteristics of radiation versus advection fog events, determining which process is dominating, and applying that understanding when making ceiling and visibility forecasts. A forecast approach using a decision tree is also discussed. This decision tree outlines the basic steps involved in applying a thorough forecast approach to fog and stratus events. The module is based on live teletraining sessions offered in 2003 as part of the Distance Learning Aviation Course , DLAC1, on Fog and Stratus Forecasting.

Spangler, Tim



Approach aversion: Negative hedonic reactions toward approaching stimuli.  


We live in a dynamic world, surrounded by moving stimuli-moving people, moving objects, and moving events. The current research proposes and finds an approach aversion effect-individuals feel less positively (or more negatively) about a stimulus if they perceive it to be approaching rather than receding or static. The effect appears general, occurring whether the stimulus is initially negative or nonnegative and whether it moves in space (toward or away from "here"), in time (toward or away from "now"), or in probability (toward or away from "sure"). This research complements extensive existing research on perceived static distance of stimuli (near vs. far) by exploring perceived dynamic movement of stimuli (approaching vs. receding), showing that the effect of movement is distinct from the effect of distance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24749819

Hsee, Christopher K; Tu, Yanping; Lu, Zoe Y; Ruan, Bowen



Supporting learning and promoting conceptual change with box and AVOW diagrams. Part 1: Representational design and instructional approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to the teaching of electricity is described that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit which portray current, voltage, resistance and power. The diagrams have been developed as aids to learning, understanding and problem solving. They also have the potential to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of commonly held misconceptions. The diagrams have been incorporated into A-level teaching materials on d.c. circuit theory and the rationale for this approach is contrasted with a number of strategies that have previously been reported. Part 2 of this paper (Cheng and Shipstone, International Journal of Science Education, in press) will present the results of preliminary school-based trials.

Cheng, Peter C.-H.; Shipstone, David M.



Anomaly Detection Using Behavioral Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioral approaches, which represent normal/abnormal activities, have been widely used during last years in intrusion detection and computer security. Nevertheless, most works showed that they are ineffective for detecting novel attacks involving new behaviors. In this paper, we first study this recurring problem due on one hand to inadequate handling of anomalous and unusual audit events and on other hand to insufficient decision rules which do not meet behavioral approach objectives. We then propose to enhance the standard decision rules in order to fit behavioral approach requirements and better detect novel attacks. Experimental studies carried out on real and simulated http traffic show that these enhanced decision rules improve detecting most novel attacks without triggering higher false alarm rates.

Benferhat, Salem; Tabia, Karim


Surgical approaches of endobronchial neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Endobronchial tumors are a rare entity that presents with different pathological findings. The interventional pulmonologist, but also the thoracic surgeon have at their disposal the same techniques for diagnosis, however; the two modalities differentiate in the treatment approach. Diagnosis evaluation should include lymph node evaluation. Minimal invasive techniques under local or general anesthesia are usually preferred by the interventional pulmonologists, whereas in the surgical approach of the thoracic surgeons the general anesthesia is necessary. A more extensive surgical approach either lobotomy or pneumonectomy should be performed in cases with positive intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Carinal reconstruction should be performed skillfully to get a negative proximal margin whenever needed. In the current manuscript we will present the methods of patient evaluation and surgical techniques for the management of these lesions.

Li, Zhigang; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Kesisis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos



Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun



New Approach to Chemically Induced Silicon Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project New Approach to Chemically Induced Silicon Oxidation suggested a new and different approach to oxidation by the addition of small concentrations of a fluorine compound to the oxidation strain. This novel approach was successfully carried out w...

D. R. Young R. J. Jaccodine



Holistic approach to chronic constipation.  


By "holistic approach" (greek "olos" = "all") we mean a clinical approach which is not only confined to the diseased segment of the body, say the inert large bowel or the spastic pelvic floor in case of constipation, but takes under consideration the whole "mind and body complex", which is a unique indivisible entity. According to a prospective study carried out in our Unit and under press in Colorectal Disease, 66% of the patients with obstructed defecation suffer either from anxiety or depression, thus showing the major role played by an altered psyche in the etiology of their constipation. PMID:17139889

Pescatori, Mario



Writing approaches of nursing students.  


Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population. PMID:22112918

Lavelle, Ellen; Ball, Susan C; Maliszewski, Genevieve



Congestion Management Approach Using TCSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, deregulation of the electric industry in the world aims at creating competitive markets to trade electricity. For deregulated transmission networks, one of the major consequences of the nondiscriminatory open-access requirement is a substantial increase of power transfers. Congestion management of deregulated transmission networks is very important to accomplish always nondiscriminative network access. In this paper, the authors propose a congestion management approach by using Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in order to maximize transmission margin and minimize transmission loss without changing contracted power under constraints such as thermal, voltage, and stability limits. In the proposed approach, power flow through transmission lines can be flexibly controlled without changing contracted power by determining firing angle of TCSC. In order to check the validity of the proposed congestion management approach, numerical results are shown for 6 bus system model. Simulation results show effectiveness of the proposed congestion management approach by using TCSC, when congestion occurs at a transmission line in the system model.

Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Yonezawa, Hironori


Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches have appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles,

Thomas J. Meyer



Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

Stark, Richard B., Ed.


Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous.

Mauderly, J L



Multivariate Approach to Seasonal Adjustment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper suggests a new semi-parametric multivariate approach to seasonal ad- justment. The primary innovation is to use a large dimensional factor model of cross section dependence to estimate the trend component in the seasonal decomposition of each t...

R. Greenaway-McGrevy



Biological Approaches to Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. Introduction Progress had been made over the past 5 years toward the development of specific bi­ ological approaches to the treatment of cancer. The techniques of genetic engineer­ ing and mass cell culture, and improved techniques in protein and nucleic acid se­ quencing have made available biologics as highly purified molecules. The most defini­ tive investigations have been carried

K. A. Foonl


Pluralistic Approaches to Art Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…

Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.


Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are introduced. (LMO)

Whitman, Charles



Photochemical approaches to ordered polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photocyclization of o-benzyloxyphenyl ketone chromophores provides an efficient, high yield route to the synthesis of 2,3-diphenylbenzofurans. The synthesis and solution of photochemistry of a series of polymers containing this chromophore is described. The photocuring of these polymers is a potential new approach to the synthesis of highly conjugated polymers based upon a p-phenylene bisbenzofuran repeat unit.

Meador, Michael A.; Abdulaziz, Mahmoud; Meador, Mary Ann B.



Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry


A possibilistic approach to clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clustering problem is cast in the framework of possibility theory. The approach differs from the existing clustering methods in that the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values can be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes, i.e., the compatibilities of the points with the

Raghu Krishnapuram; James M. Keller




Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of international research on biomimicry in relation to the built environment identifies various obstacles to the employment of such a methodology. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clearly defined approach to biomimicry that designers with little specialist knowledge in the fields of biology or ecology can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review,

Maibritt Pedersen


Convective instability: A physicist's approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of apparently disparate problems from engineering, meteorology, geophysics, fluid mechanics and applied mathematics are considered under the unifying heading of natural convection. After a review of the mathematical framework that serves to delineate these problems, the heuristic approach to Bénard and Rayleigh convection is discussed with special attention to buoyancy and surface tension. Then consideration is given to

Christiane Normand; Yves Pomeau; Manuel G. Velarde



Response to the EGAS Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author commends Drs. Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo on their efforts to connect with and empower African American adolescent females. However, he does have some concerns regarding their Empowerment Groups for Academic Success (EGAS) approach to empowering this particular group of students. While he agrees with the authors about the…

Bailey, Deryl F.



Classical approach in atomic physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

Solov'ev, E. A.



Techniques to Learning--25 Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of 25 different approaches to learning are given, along with examples of each, areas to which each might be applicable, and possible instructional objectives and methods of evaluation. The selection of methods is rooted in the following premises: that the purpose of education is to serve the educational pursuits of students;…

Jekel, Jerome R.; Johnson, Robert E.


Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach  

PubMed Central

Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested. ImagesFig. 1

Percival, R.; Hargreaves, A. W.



Constructivist Approaches in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for a constructivist approach to behavioral and social science research, and studies which have applied this methodology, are reviewed. The author suggests that ethnographic techniques of explaining behavior patterns may be as valuable as or more appropriate than traditional behavioral science methods. (GDC)

Magoon, A. Jon



Profile Analysis: Multidimensional Scaling Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines an exploratory multidimensional scaling-based approach to profile analysis called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) (M. Davison, 1994). The PAMS model has the advantages of being applied to samples of any size easily, classifying persons on a continuum, and using person profile index for further hypothesis studies, but…

Ding, Cody S.



The Labelling Approach to Deviance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot



Technical Training: A Systematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To employ scarce personnel and money to best advantage, company management must diagnose critical training needs and assign them priorities. A systems approach is recommended, which gives focus to training design while accommodating most organization training goals. Included are suggestions for system design, facility management, and cost…

Gammuto, John J.



Designing for Uncertainty: Three Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education wishes to get long life and good returns on its investment in learning spaces. Doing this has become difficult because rapid changes in information technology have created fundamental uncertainties about the future in which capital investments must deliver value. Three approaches to designing for this uncertainty are described…

Bennett, Scott



Robotic approaches to the neck.  


This article introduces and evaluates the feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissection as well as robot-assisted neck surgery via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach. Robot-assisted neck surgery is feasible compared with conventional techniques and shows a clear cosmetic benefit. PMID:24882801

Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang



Consortial Approaches to International Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the College Consortium for International Studies, a consortium offering overseas study opportunities for U.S. students in 18 foreign countries. Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the consortial approach; how consortial membership works; and overcoming prejudice, inertia, and other obstacles. (DMM)

McLean, John J.



Teaching Creation: A Modular Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article describes a modular approach to teaching Genesis 1-3 that values depth over breadth even in an introductory class. The module allows students to learn about the text and its original context by orienting discussion around contemporary issues of practical concern. Specifically, the creation-evolution debates provide an…

Bosworth, David A.



A Freudian Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

Gartner, Sandra L.


A Backward Approach to Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sciences, the National Science Education Standards further emphasize that learning science is an inquiry-based process; therefore, teaching methods should be inquiry-based. Use a backwards design approach to ensure that academic standards are met during student-centered, inquiry-based investigations for daily class activities, classroom discussions, and assessment of student understanding.

Hendrickson, Sher



Tiedeman's Approach to Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic to Tiedeman's approach to career development and decision making is the assumption that one is responsible for one's own behavior because one has the capacity for choice and lives in a world which is not deterministic. Tiedeman, a cognitive-developmental theorist, views continuity of development as internal or psychological while…

Harren, Vincent A.


Anteromedial Approach to the Orbit  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the surgical results of the anteromedial approach for treatment of orbital lesions in 16 patients. Pre- and postoperatively, all patients underwent a complete physical examination focusing on the head and neck area including a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical approach was limited to a medial orbitotomy in five patients; the remaining 11 patients underwent a medial orbitotomy combined with an external sphenoethmoidectomy. The tumor was removed completely without damaging the intraorbital neurovascular structures in all but one patient whose recurrent clival chordoma extended beyond the limits of an extracranial approach. Fibro-osseous lesions, cavernous hemangiomas, and dermoid cysts were the most common pathologies. The follow-up ranged from 18 to 48 months, and no patient has shown evidence of a recurrence. One patient with a clival chordoma received radiation therapy. The lateral nasal skin incision healed with acceptable cosmetic results. The anteromedial approach to the orbit provides a wider working space and direct exposure while protecting neurovascular structures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Deda, Haluk; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Yorulmaz, Irfan; Kucuk, Babur



New approaches for inflationary cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Extended” and “hyperextended” inflationary models of the universe have been developed which avoid the extreme fine-tuning required by all previous approaches. The models also generate a new source of inhomogeneities that affect large-scale structure. The most surprising feature is the role that inflation can play in altering the nature of the gravitational force.

Accetta, Frank S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.



Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options. .

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail



Map Projections: Approaches and Themes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

Steward, H. J.



New Approach to Teaching Mathematics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a new approach to teaching discrete math: First, teach logic as a powerful and versatile tool for discovering and communicating truths; then use this tool in all other topics of the course. We spend 6 weeks teaching an equational style of propo...

D. Gries F. B. Schneider



Teacher Evaluation: A Functional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of methods of teacher assessment. The most heavily used methods of teacher assessment are standardized paper-and-pencil examinations and on-the-job ratings by supervisors. An alternative to the paper-and-pencil approach is explored, and preliminary evidence is presented in support of this assessment strategy.…

Shannon, David M.


Plasma transport from multicomponent approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma measurements in the Earth's magnetotail have revealed occasional existence of multiple plasma components. In this work, we present the first quantitative comparison between single-component and multicomponent approaches on the transport of mass and energy in the magnetotail with Geotail 3D plasma measurements. Two events are examined in detail, one during substorm expansion and the other during substorm recovery. It

A. T. Y. Lui; T. Hori; G. Ueno; T. Mukai



Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris



Geometrical Approach to Inverse Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a geometrical approach to the inverse scattering problem for the Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon equations. For given scattering operator S we show uniqueness of the potential, we give explicit limits of the high-energy be- havior of the scattering operator, and we give reconstruction formulas for the potential. Our mathematical proofs closely follow physical intuition. A key observation is that

Volker Enss; Wolf Jung


A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.  


Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp



Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation of the Total…



Teaching Genres: A Bakhtinian Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the cultural/historical nature of teaching, drawing on Bakhtin's theory of speech genres to approach classroom discourse as a composite genre reflecting the history of teaching in each locality. Analysis of a lesson observed in a rural Mexican school shows how genres drawn from various sources convey different sorts of knowledge as they…

Rockwell, Elsie



Writing Approaches of Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy



Organ donation: a communitarian approach.  


Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that members of society will recognize that donating one's organs, once they are no longer of use to the donor, is the moral (right) thing to do. This approach requires much greater and deeper efforts than sharing information and making public service announcements. It entails a moral dialogue, in which the public is engaged, leading to a change in what people expect from one another. Among the devices that could help change the moral culture are a public statement, endorsed by community members and leaders, that expresses the community sense that donation "is what a good person does" and a community-specific web page that lists those who have made the commitment. A change in law so that a person's wishes in the matter are recognized as final and binding are also desired. This position paper deals only with cadaver organs and not living donors. PMID:12807104

Etzioni, Amitai



Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.


New Approaches to Comparative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on research in comparative education are presented in 17 articles originally published in the "Comparative Education Review." The objective is to present an array of new viewpoints, orientations, and approaches. Titles and authors are: "Introduction: Perspectives on Comparative Education" (Philip G. Altbach, Gail P. Kelly); "Critical…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Kelly, Gail P., Ed.


Minimalist Approach to Perceptual Interactions  

PubMed Central

Work aimed at studying social cognition in an interactionist perspective often encounters substantial theoretical and methodological difficulties: identifying the significant behavioral variables; recording them without disturbing the interaction; and distinguishing between: (a) the necessary and sufficient contributions of each individual partner for a collective dynamics to emerge; (b) features which derive from this collective dynamics and escape from the control of the individual partners; and (c) the phenomena arising from this collective dynamics which are subsequently appropriated and used by the partners. We propose a minimalist experimental paradigm as a basis for this conceptual discussion: by reducing the sensory inputs to a strict minimum, we force a spatial and temporal deployment of the perceptual activities, which makes it possible to obtain a complete recording and control of the dynamics of interaction. After presenting the principles of this minimalist approach to perception, we describe a series of experiments on two major questions in social cognition: recognizing the presence of another intentional subject; and phenomena of imitation. In both cases, we propose explanatory schema which render an interactionist approach to social cognition clear and explicit. Starting from our earlier work on perceptual crossing we present a new experiment on the mechanisms of reciprocal recognition of the perceptual intentionality of the other subject: the emergent collective dynamics of the perceptual crossing can be appropriated by each subject. We then present an experimental study of opaque imitation (when the subjects cannot see what they themselves are doing). This study makes it possible to characterize what a properly interactionist approach to imitation might be. In conclusion, we draw on these results, to show how an interactionist approach can contribute to a fully social approach to social cognition.

Lenay, Charles; Stewart, John



Theoretical Approaches to Moral/Citizenship Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four theoretical approaches to moral/citizenship education are described and compared. Positive and negative aspects of the cognitive-decision, developmental, prosocial, and values approaches are discussed and ways of relating the four approaches to each other are suggested. The first approach, cognitive-decision, is distinctive for its…

Heslep, Robert D.


Intellectual capital : Management approach in ICS Ltd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the ICS intellectual capital methodology was developed starting from the underpinning academic theory. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is founded upon a number of theoretical strands. The basic intellectual capital approach is based on a development of the resource based theory of the firm. Most intellectual capital approaches have problems

S. Pike; L. Fernström; G. Roos



Psychotherapy and Alcoholics Anonymous: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a rationale for, and a method of, combining a nonprofessional self-help addiction recovery program, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and a professional treatment approach, psychotherapy. The two approaches share a common goal, target similar issues, and work toward similar outcomes. A psychotherapy approach that integrates the two approaches can be quite powerful. Treating a patient in psychotherapy who is

William A. Knack



A multiparadigm approach to nursing.  


Nursing theory development has made good progress in differentiating the domain of nursing from medicine; many of these theories are categorized as holistic theories. Nursing classification systems are also being developed to organize extant nursing practice. The dissonance between the two has been one of the most difficult contemporary issues for the leadership of nursing. A framework is proposed that would account for these disparate approaches. This proposed framework for the domain of healing is in keeping with the metaparadigm of health and uses a multiple paradigm approach. Nursing interventions are discussed in relation to the framework. It invites a dialogue in keeping with the scholarship of holism. Practice and scholarship implications are discussed. PMID:9266014

Engebretson, J



Malaysia implements the integrated approach.  


Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. PMID:12260250



Supersymmetric approach to excited states.  


We present here a supersymmetric (SUSY) approach for determining excitation energies within the context of a quantum Monte Carlo scheme. By using the fact that SUSY quantum mechanics gives rises to a series of isospectral Hamiltonians, we show that Monte Carlo ground-state calculations in the SUSY partners can be used to reconstruct accurately both the spectrum and states of an arbitrary Schrodinger equation. Since the ground state of each partner potential is nodeless, we avoid any "node" problem typically associated with the Monte Carlo technique. Although we provide an example of using this approach to determine the tunneling states in a double-well potential, the method is applicable to any 1D potential problem. We conclude by discussing the extension to higher dimensions. PMID:19919079

Bittner, Eric R; Maddox, Jeremy B; Kouri, Donald J



Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje



Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach.

Mehra, T; Koberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailander-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M




PubMed Central

Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal.

Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.



Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.  


Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf



Different approaches of spectral analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

Lacoume, J. L.



Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy: Transperitoneal Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radical nephrectomy, as described by Robson et al. in 1963, is the traditional gold standard approach to the management of\\u000a renal tumors (1). This procedure has an established success rate but is associated with significant postoperative pain and\\u000a prolonged convalescence, stemming from the flank, subcostal, Chevron or thoraco-abdominal incisions typically used. Laparoscopic\\u000a radical nephrectomy, as introduced by Clayman and associates

Leslie A. Deane; David I. Lee; Jaime Landman; Chandru P. Sundaram; Ralph V. Clayman


[Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].  


Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the formulation of causal hypotheses, which will be a basis for all methodological choices. Beyond this step, statistical analysis tools recently developed offer new possibilities to delineate complex relationships, in particular in life course epidemiology. PMID:24388738

Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R



Deconvolution: a wavelet frame approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper devotes to analyzing deconvolution algorithms based on wavelet frame approaches, which has already appeared in\\u000a Chan et al. (SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 24(4), 1408–1432, 2003; Appl. Comput. Hormon. Anal. 17, 91–115, 2004a; Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 14, 91–104, 2004b) as wavelet frame based high resolution image reconstruction methods. We first give a complete formulation\\u000a of deconvolution in terms

Anwei Chai; Zuowei Shen



[Psychosomatic approach for chronic migraine].  


From psychosomatic view point, the psychological or social stresses and depressive or anxiety disorders are very important factors in the course and the maintenance for migraine patients. These factors are very complex, and often lead the migraine becoming chronic. In the psychosomatic approach, not only the physical assessment for chronic migraine but also the assessments for stress and mental states are done. As the psychosomatic therapies for chronic migraine, autogenic training, biofeedback therapy and cognitive therapy are effective. PMID:22277516

Hashizume, Masahiro



Combinatorial Approaches to Gene Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of genes via exon assembly approaches leads naturally to the use of dynamic programming. We consider the general graph-theoretical formulation of the exon assembly problem and analyze in detail some specific variants: multicriterial optimization in the case of non-linear gene-scoring functions; context-dependent schemes for scoring exons and related procedures for exon filtering; and highly specific recognition of arbitrary gene

Mikhail A. Roytberg; Tatiana V. Astakhova; Mikhail S. Gelfand



An efficient iris segmentation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.



Weighted RAIM for Precision Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of differential GPS is becoming increasingly popular for real-time navigation systems. As these systems migrate to safety-of-life applications (e.g. precision approach and landing), their integrity becomes more important than their accuracy. One method for increasing both accuracy and integrity is the use of weighting in the navigation solution. This method uses a priori information to weight certain satellites

Todd Walter; Per Enge



Ionospheric instrumentation - A new approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design criterion is proposed for the realization of receivers suitable for ionospheric research. The goal of this criterion is to extend as much as possible the use of microprocessor-based systems to perform not only data handling and instrumentation control, but also to substitute classical radiotechnical circuitry, i.e., the software receiver approach. The motivations of such effort will be presented and discussed.

Ciraolo, L.; Spalla, P.


Pharmacological Approaches to Male Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alternatives to suppressing spermatogenesis by exogenous hormones for male contraception (see Chap. 29) include chemical approaches\\u000a to destroy pituitary gona-totrophes, immunological targeting of the hypothalamic GnRH, physically damaging the testis by local\\u000a heating and ultrasound application or administering toxicants that compromise Sertoli cell or germ cell function (Page et\\u000a al. 2008). They all lead to the same end result of

Trevor G. Cooper; Ching-Hei Yeung


Thermodynamic approach to generalized continua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Governing equations of dissipative generalized solid mechanics are derived by thermodynamic methods in the Piola-Kirchhoff framework using the Liu procedure. The isotropic small-strain case is investigated in more detail. The connection to the Ginzburg-Landau type evolution, dual internal variables, and a thermodynamic generalization of the standard linear solid model of rheology is demonstrated. Specific examples are chosen to emphasize experimental confirmations and predictions beyond less general approaches.

Ván, Peter; Berezovski, Arkadi; Papenfuss, Christina



Current and Future Therapeutic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the pharmacotherapy of the “atypical” parkinsonian or “Parkinson plus” disorders have, as yet, met with little\\u000a success. Drugs attempting to replace or mimic specific neurotransmitters are relatively ineffective, as evidenced, for example,\\u000a by the inconsistent response rates to dopamine (DA) replacement by the administration of levodopa. This variable and modest\\u000a efficacy contrasts with the predictable and significant benefit

Elmyra V. Encarnacion; Thomas N. Chase


New approaches in GMO detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics,\\u000a genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected\\u000a that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection\\u000a of one target at a

Maddalena Querci; Marc Van den Bulcke; Jana Žel; Guy Van den Eede; Hermann Broll



Alternative Surgical Approaches in Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstay of epilepsy surgery is the resection of a presumed seizure focus or disruption of seizure propagation pathways.\\u000a These approaches cannot be applied to all patients with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE). Since 1997, vagus nerve stimulation\\u000a has been a palliative adjunct to the care of MRE patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in select locations has been reported\\u000a to reduce

Paul R. Gigante; Robert R. Goodman



Recommended approach to sofware development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of guideline for an organized, disciplined approach to software development, based on data collected and studied for 46 flight dynamics software development projects. Methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements analysis and ends with acceptance testing are described; maintenance and operation is not addressed. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and the products produced and their reviews are presented.

Mcgarry, F. E.; Page, J.; Eslinger, S.; Church, V.; Merwarth, P.



Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Richard Feynman and J.J. Sakurai, A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics lets professors expose their undergraduates to the excitement and insight of Feynman's approach to quantum mechanics while simultaneously giving them a textbook that is well-ordered, logical, and pedagogically sound. This book covers all the topics that are typically presented in a standard upper-level course in quantum mechanics, but its teaching approach is new: Rather than organizing his book according to the historical development of the field and jumping into a mathematical discussion of wave mechanics, Townsend begins his book with the quantum mechanics of spin. Thus, the first five chapters of the book succeed in laying out the fundamentals of quantum mechanics with little or no wave mechanics, so the physics is not obscured by mathematics. Starting with spin systems gives students something new and interesting while providing elegant but straightforward examples of the essential structure of quantum mechanics. When wave mechanics is introduced later, students perceive it correctly as only one aspect of quantum mechanics and not the core of the subject. Praised for its pedagogical brilliance, clear writing, and careful explanations, this book is destined to become a landmark text.

Townsend, John S.


A Novel Shape Parameterization Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a novel parameterization approach for complex shapes suitable for a multidisciplinary design optimization application. The approach consists of two basic concepts: (1) parameterizing the shape perturbations rather than the geometry itself and (2) performing the shape deformation by means of the soft objects animation algorithms used in computer graphics. Because the formulation presented in this paper is independent of grid topology, we can treat computational fluid dynamics and finite element grids in a similar manner. The proposed approach is simple, compact, and efficient. Also, the analytical sensitivity derivatives are easily computed for use in a gradient-based optimization. This algorithm is suitable for low-fidelity (e.g., linear aerodynamics and equivalent laminated plate structures) and high-fidelity analysis tools (e.g., nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and detailed finite element modeling). This paper contains the implementation details of parameterizing for planform, twist, dihedral, thickness, and camber. The results are presented for a multidisciplinary design optimization application consisting of nonlinear computational fluid dynamics, detailed computational structural mechanics, performance, and a simple propulsion module.

Samareh, Jamshid A.



Molecular Approaches to Sarcoma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors that have a relatively poor prognosis. Although conventional therapeutic regimens can effectively cytoreduce the overall tumor mass, they fail to consistently achieve a curative outcome. Alternative gene-based approaches that counteract the underlying neoplastic process by eliminating the clonal aberrations that potentiate malignant behavior have been proposed. As compared to the accumulation of gene alterations associated with epithelial carcinomas, sarcomas are frequently characterized by the unique presence of a single chromosomal translocation in each histological subtype. Similar to the Philadelphia chromosome associated with CML, these clonal abnormalities result in the fusion of two independent unrelated genes to generate a unique chimeric protein that displays aberrant activity believed to initiate cellular transformation. Secondary gene mutations may provide an additional growth advantage that further contributes to malignant progression. The recent clinical success of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, suggests that therapeutic approaches specifically directed against essential survival factors in sarcoma cells may be effective. This review summarizes published approaches targeting a specific molecular mechanism associated with sarcomagenesis. The strategy and significance of published translational studies in six distinct areas are presented. These include: (1) the disruption of chimeric transcription factor activity; (2) inhibition of growth stimulatory post-translational modifications; (3) restoration of tumor suppressor function; (4) interference with angiogenesis; (5) induction of apoptotic pathways; and (6) introduction of toxic gene products. The potential for improving outcomes in sarcoma patients and the conceptual obstacles to be overcome are discussed.

Olsen, R. J.; Tarantolo, S. R.



A possibilistic approach to clustering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuzzy clustering has been shown to be advantageous over crisp (or traditional) clustering methods in that total commitment of a vector to a given class is not required at each image pattern recognition iteration. Recently fuzzy clustering methods have shown spectacular ability to detect not only hypervolume clusters, but also clusters which are actually 'thin shells', i.e., curves and surfaces. Most analytic fuzzy clustering approaches are derived from the 'Fuzzy C-Means' (FCM) algorithm. The FCM uses the probabilistic constraint that the memberships of a data point across classes sum to one. This constraint was used to generate the membership update equations for an iterative algorithm. Recently, we cast the clustering problem into the framework of possibility theory using an approach in which the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values may be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes. We show the ability of this approach to detect linear and quartic curves in the presence of considerable noise.

Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.



Statistical approach to protein quantification.  


A major goal in proteomics is the comprehensive and accurate description of a proteome. This task includes not only the identification of proteins in a sample, but also the accurate quantification of their abundance. Although mass spectrometry typically provides information on peptide identity and abundance in a sample, it does not directly measure the concentration of the corresponding proteins. Specifically, most mass-spectrometry-based approaches (e.g. shotgun proteomics or selected reaction monitoring) allow one to quantify peptides using chromatographic peak intensities or spectral counting information. Ultimately, based on these measurements, one wants to infer the concentrations of the corresponding proteins. Inferring properties of the proteins based on experimental peptide evidence is often a complex problem because of the ambiguity of peptide assignments and different chemical properties of the peptides that affect the observed concentrations. We present SCAMPI, a novel generic and statistically sound framework for computing protein abundance scores based on quantified peptides. In contrast to most previous approaches, our model explicitly includes information from shared peptides to improve protein quantitation, especially in eukaryotes with many homologous sequences. The model accounts for uncertainty in the input data, leading to statistical prediction intervals for the protein scores. Furthermore, peptides with extreme abundances can be reassessed and classified as either regular data points or actual outliers. We used the proposed model with several datasets and compared its performance to that of other, previously used approaches for protein quantification in bottom-up mass spectrometry. PMID:24255132

Gerster, Sarah; Kwon, Taejoon; Ludwig, Christina; Matondo, Mariette; Vogel, Christine; Marcotte, Edward M; Aebersold, Ruedi; Bühlmann, Peter



On Approach: Jupiter and Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io

This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter.

Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot.

The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.



New approaches in GMO detection.  


The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches. PMID:19876618

Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann



An abstract approach to music.  

SciTech Connect

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.



Omic approaches in environmental issues.  


Biomonitoring requires the application of batteries of different biomarkers, as environmental contaminants induce multiple responses in organisms that are not necessarily correlated. Omic technologies were proposed as an alternative to conventional biomarkers since these techniques quantitatively monitor many biological molecules in a high-throughput manner and thus provide a general appraisal of biological responses altered by exposure to contaminants. As the studies using omic technologies increase, it is becoming clear that any single omic approach may not be sufficient to characterize the complexity of ecosystems. This work aims to provide a preliminary working scheme for the use of combined transcriptomic and proteomic methodologies in environmental biomonitoring. There are difficulties in working with nonmodel organisms as bioindicators when combining several omic approaches. As a whole, our results with heterologous microarrays in M. spretus and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in P. clarkii indicated that animals sustaining a heavy pollution burden exhibited an enhanced immune response and/or cell apoptosis. The proteomic studies, although preliminary, provide a holistic insight regarding the manner by which pollution shifts protein intensity in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), completing the transcriptomic approach. In our study, the sediment element concentration was in agreement with the intensity of protein expression changes in C. maenas crabs. In conclusion, omics are useful technologies in addressing environmental issues and the determination of contamination threats. PMID:21707425

Abril, Nieves; Ruiz-Laguna, Julia; Osuna-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Vioque-Fernández, Amalia; Fernández-Cisnal, Ricardo; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan; Pueyo, Carmen



Approach to managing elevated creatinine.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic approach to finding the underlying cause of an elevated creatinine level. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This diagnostic approach is based on a synthesis of information from reference works on nephrology, articles found through a MEDLINE search, and the author's personal experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Elevated creatinine levels suggest the differential diagnosis of renal failure (RF). History and a complete physical examination are important, keeping in mind that RF is often asymptomatic in the early stages. After repeating the creatinine test to verify results, baseline tests should be ordered to identify the cause of the RF. Comparing results of serial tests is essential for determining whether RF is acute or chronic, stable or progressive. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful for eliminating an obstructive cause; the size of the kidney can indicate whether disease is acute or chronic. Complementary blood tests and imaging studies might be useful. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing and managing RF can appear complex, but a systematic approach will help you find the cause and treat the condition.

Tremblay, Richard



Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.



Synchronized Flashing Lights For Approach And Docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed optoelectronic system for guiding vehicle in approaching and docking with another vehicle includes active optical targets (flashing lights) on approached vehicle synchronized with sensor and image-processing circuitry on approaching vehicle. Conceived for use in automated approach and docking of two spacecraft. Also applicable on Earth to manually controlled and automated approach and docking of land vehicles, aircraft, boats, and submersible vehicles, using GPS or terrestrial broadcast time signals for synchronization. Principal advantage: optical power reduced, with consequent enhancement of safety.

Book, Michael L.; Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Bell, Joseph L.



Novel Approaches for Glycodrug Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will give you an overview of recent approaches for drug development, focusing on the function and roles of carbohydrates. Section 2 will outline the biochemical functions of polysaccharide (neutral polysaccharide, chitin and chitosan, glycosaminoglycan, and synthetic polysaccharides) and glycopolymers and the perspectives of their medicinal/medical use. Section 3 will outline recent biopharmaceutical research and development, utilizing the functions of carbohydrates. Section 4 will outline drug discovery and development of new medicines targeting carbohydrates. In addition, recent advances in carbohydrate synthesis technology, needed for development of new medicines, will also be described.

Kondo, Hirosato


Chemoselective approaches to glycoprotein assembly  

SciTech Connect

Oligosaccharides on proteins and lipids play central roles in human health and disease. The molecular analysis of glycoconjugate function has benefited tremendously from new methods for their chemical synthesis, which provides homogeneous material not attainable from biosynthetic systems. Still, glycoconjugate synthesis requires the manipulation of multiple stereocenters and protecting groups and remains the domain of a few expert laboratories around the world. This account summarizes chemoselective approaches for assembling homogeneous glycoconjugates that attempt to reduce the barriers to their synthesis. The objective of these methods is to make glycoconjugate synthesis accessible to a broader community, thereby accelerating progress in glycobiology.

Hang, Howard C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.



'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.  


Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere. PMID:24620487

Call, Roger



[Ergonomic approach to risk control].  


The aim of the paper is to emphasise the role and the importance of the ergonomic approach to improve reduction and management of the risk related to repetitive strain injuries. The authors tried to select and to put in evidence the risk factors related to the investigated problem, proposing a critical analysis of them, and to detect some guide lines to design or correct workplaces and tasks. These guidelines are based on ergonomic principles and they aim at reducing the risk related to repetitive strain injuries. The proposed interventions are grouped by a risk-factor criterion. PMID:11505779

Alberti, M; Rossi, D



Talbot array illuminators: general approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a general approach for designing Talbot array illuminators (TAIL s). Beyond the scope of conventional TAIL s, in which each period of the replay field contains only one bright spot, I examine complex configurations ensuring various topologies of the output spots. The synthesis problem is stated in terms of constraints and degrees of freedom. Both the one-dimensional and two-dimensional cases are treated, and an example of constraints, namely the binarization of the TAIL, is discussed. For illustration, an application is proposed in which I consider a dynamic multilayer interconnection architecture involving a programmable TAIL.

Hamam, H.



New approaches in economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The level of detail of economic models has until recently been limited by the availability of computational capability. At present, the constraint is the systematic compilation of detailed and comprehensive economic and technical data and the ability to manipulate them. The effective use of enhanced data processing capabilities will have to proceed hand in hand with a concerted effort to develop the economic database and with the shift from analytic approaches based on aggregative data to those that can take advantage of detailed information. 11 references, 2 figures.

Leontief, W.; Duchin, F.; Szyld, D.B.



How can clinicians approach nutrition?  


A clinician reflects on how nutrition and exercise assessments are integral to the care of patients with diabetes and, more broadly, how these assessments can increase understanding of the patient. Nutrition, metabolic control, self-esteem, and self-care are often intertwined. Using a team approach and acknowledging patient effort and attitude change can help patients modify lifestyle patterns, although the road to change may be slow. Exercise counseling should be part of nutrition recommendations. Poor nutritional habits represent a major challenge to improving health status and will require the coordinated efforts of health care providers and other stakeholders in society. PMID:11326802

Teutsch, C



Hemorrhagic shock: The "physiology approach".  


A shift of approach from 'clinics trying to fit physiology' to the one of 'physiology to clinics', with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS(®) classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology. PMID:23248495

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe



Molecular approaches in obesity studies  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity as one of the most health concerns has increased globally. This kind of disease has been accounted for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, different types of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer. Obesity is a multifactorial disease that both environmental factors and genetics play important role in its susceptibly. In molecular biology, characterization of the adipocyte secretome is important in signaling to other organs and in regulating energy balance for evaluating underlines mechanism. Since better understanding of this disease lead to both preventive and post treatment of obesity which is achieved by molecular evaluations, this review underlies the importance of some molecular approaches in the field of obesity.

Vafaee, Reza; Azodi, Taghi; Omidi, Roghiyeh; Gilanchi, Samira; Azizi-Jalilian, Farid; Khodarahmi, Reza



An approach to space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.



Approaches to wind resource verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification of the regional wind energy resource assessments produced by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory addresses the question: Is the magnitude of the resource given in the assessments truly representative of the area of interest? Approaches using qualitative indicators of wind speed (tree deformation, eolian features), old and new data of opportunity not at sites specifically chosen for their exposure to the wind, and data by design from locations specifically selected to be good wind sites are described. Data requirements and evaluation procedures for verifying the resource are discussed.

Barchet, W. R.



Protein Design: A Hierarchic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de novo design of peptides and proteins has recently emerged as an approach for investigating protein structure and function. Designed, helical peptides provide model systems for dissecting and quantifying the multiple interactions that stabilize secondary structure formation. De novo design is also useful for exploring the features that specify the stoichiometry and stability of ?-helical coiled coils and for defining the requirements for folding into structures that resemble native, functional proteins. The design process often occurs in a series of discrete steps. Such steps reflect the hierarchy of forces required for stabilizing tertiary structures, beginning with hydrophobic forces and adding more specific interactions as required to achieve a unique, functional protein.

Bryson, James W.; Betz, Stephen F.; Lu, Helen S.; Suich, Daniel J.; Zhou, Hongxing X.; O'Neil, Karyn T.; Degrado, William F.



Setup reduction approaches for machining  

SciTech Connect

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.



Hemorrhagic shock: The "physiology approach"  

PubMed Central

A shift of approach from ‘clinics trying to fit physiology’ to the one of ‘physiology to clinics’, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology.

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe



Orthodontic-periodontics interdisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.

Vinod, K.; Reddy, Y. Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P.; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi



A rational approach to dementia.  

PubMed Central

Dementia is a common problem facing all medical practitioners and it frequently results in hospitalization and death. This review provides a framework for dealing with dementia in clinical practice that is based on both traditional concepts and recent advances in the understanding of the problem. Distinguishing at the bedside between dementia and other disorders of intellect is emphasized. The main causes of dementia and their clinical characteristics are reviewed and a rational approach to definitive diagnosis is developed. Simple, effective symptomatic forms of therapy are described.

Ropper, A H



Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.  


Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian



Mouse transgenic approaches in optogenetics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how universal behaviors, such as sensation, movement, cognition, and emotion, arise from the interactions of specific cells that are present within intricate neural networks in the brain. Dissection of such complex networks has typically relied on disturbing the activity of individual gene products, perturbing neuronal activities pharmacologically, or lesioning specific brain regions, to investigate the network’s response in a behavioral output. Though informative for many kinds of studies, these approaches are not sufficiently fine-tuned for examining the functionality of specific cells or cell classes in a spatially or temporally-restricted context. Recent advances in the field of optogenetics now enable researchers to monitor and manipulate the activity of genetically defined cell populations with the speed and precision uniquely afforded by light. Transgenic mice engineered to express optogenetic tools in a cell type-specific manner offer a powerful approach for examining the role of particular cells in discrete circuits in a defined and reproducible way. Not surprisingly then, recent years have seen substantial efforts directed towards generating transgenic mouse lines that express functionally relevant levels of optogenetic tools. In this chapter, we review the state of these efforts and consider aspects of the current technology that would benefit from additional improvement.

Zeng, Hongkui; Madisen, Linda



Approach/avoidance in dreams.  


The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. PMID:22196966

Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark



Neural Approaches to Machine Consciousness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`Machine Consciousness', which some years ago might have been suppressed as an inappropriate pursuit, has come out of the closet and is now a legitimate area of research concern. This paper briefly surveys the last few years of worldwide research in this area which divides into rule-based and neural approaches and then reviews the work of the author's laboratory during the last ten years. The paper develops a fresh perspective on this work: it is argued that neural approaches, in this case, digital neural systems, can address phenomenological consciousness. Important clarifications of phenomenology and virtuality which enter this modelling are explained in the early parts of the paper. In neural models, phenomenology is a form of depictive inner representation that has five specific axiomatic features: a sense of self-presence in an external world; a sense of imagination of past experience and fiction; a sense of attention; a capacity for planning; a sense of emotion-based volition that influences planning. It is shown that these five features have separate but integrated support in dynamic neural systems.

Aleksander, Igor; Eng., F. R.



Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification  

PubMed Central

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n?=?574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read



Approach to Rectal Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer is a distinct subset of colorectal cancer where specialized disease-specific management of the primary tumor is required. There have been significant developments in rectal cancer surgery at all stages of disease in particular the introduction of local excision strategies for preinvasive and early cancers, standardized total mesorectal excision for resectable cancers incorporating preoperative short- or long-course chemoradiation to the multimodality sequencing of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is also increasingly being adopted as the standard rectal cancer surgery approach following expertise of colorectal surgeons in minimally invasive surgery gained from laparoscopic colon resections. In locally advanced and metastatic disease, combining chemoradiation with radical surgery may achieve total eradication of disease and disease control in the pelvis. Evidence for resection of metastases to the liver and lung have been extensively reported in the literature. The role of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases is showing promise in achieving locoregional control of peritoneal dissemination. This paper summarizes the recent developments in approaches to rectal cancer surgery at all these time points of the disease natural history.

Chua, Terence C.; Chong, Chanel H.; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.



Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

Bonometti, Joseph A.



Simplified approach to percutaneous endopyelotomy.  


The purpose of this report was to describe a safe, simple, and rapid approach to percutaneous antegrade endopyelotomy. In contrast to standard percutaneous endopyelotomy techniques, in this procedure, the endopyelotomy stent is placed at the outset. The endopyelotomy incision is then made with an acorn-tipped Bugbee electrode directly down onto the stent, in a manner analogous to a ureteral meatotomy in the bladder. The advantage of this approach is twofold. Primary placement of the stent helps to define the appropriate site and direction for the endopyelotomy incision, allowing marsupialization of the proximal ureter into the renal pelvis. Use of this technique also obviates the need to pass a large-caliber stent after the endopyelotomy incision has been made, thereby avoiding a potential risk of ureteropelvic junction disruption. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was available in 29 (76%) of 38 patients who underwent this procedure. Success, defined as a resolution of symptoms and decrease in calicectasis, was achieved in 24 (83%) of the 29 patients. We have found primary placement of an endopyelotomy stent and use of electrocautery as a cutting mode safely facilitates a precise endopyelotomy incision. PMID:11068315

Savage, S J; Streem, S B



Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick



Multitherapy approach to onychomycosis therapy.  


New medications and new formulations have provided an increase in the cure rates for onychomycosis. Many cases of infection, however, are still not cured. It is not always obvious which factors are most relevant to reduction of cure, and factors may vary with each patient. For these reasons, a multitherapy approach to onychomycosis may be needed to individualize treatment to each patient's specific condition. Different presentations and severity levels of onychomycosis may respond differently to treatment modalities and require varying amounts of intervention. Nail débridement may be used to lessen the burden of infection in cases in which drug penetration may not occur adequately otherwise, such as dermatophytoma, onycholysis, or lateral infection. Ciclopirox nail lacquer has been approved for use in conjunction with regular débridement and represents the first approved multitherapy approach. Topical antifungals may be combined with oral antifungals to provide dual fronts of drug penetration. Similarly, two oral medications may be combined to provide a wider spectrum of antifungal activity and differential mode of action against the organisms, which may increase fungistatic or fungicidal action. There is a nonclinical component of therapy, represented by patient education on onychomycosis infection and treatment, which should be used to ensure that patient expectations are realistic and to encourage patient compliance with the chosen regimens. PMID:17204232

Claveau, Joël; Vender, Ronald B; Gupta, Aditya K



A QoS-Aware Service Selection Approach on P2P Network for Dynamic Cross-Organizational Workflow Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A workflow system is often composed of a number of subtasks in its pattern. In services computing environment, a dynamic cross-organizational workflow can be implemented by assigning services to its subtasks. It is often enabled by a service discovery process on Internet. Traditional service discovery approaches are centralized, and suffer from many problems such as one-point failure and weak scalability. Thus, decentralized P2P technique is a promising approach for service publishing and discovery. It is quite probable that there are more than one candidates which have exactly the same function after a service discovery process. It is often a challenging effort to select a qualified service from a group of candidates, especially on P2P networks. In view of this challenge, a QoS-aware service selection approach on unstructured P2P networks is presented in this paper. It aims at discovering and selecting services on two-layered unstructured P2P networks according to QoS parameters of services and preference of service requesters. This approach is applied to a case study based on a simplified P2P network with some virtual services.

Zhou, Jielong; Dou, Wanchun


The Team Approach to Pain Relief  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... is an example of a relatively new team approach to pain treatment, especially for cases of chronic ...


A Confirmatory Approach to Calibrating Congeneric Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates how the problem of calibrating measures can be formulated in terms of confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between traditional approaches and a confirmatory factor approach are specified. (Author/CTM)

Werts, C. E.; And Others



An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney



Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.



Novel Approach to Improved Submarine Escape Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional compressed air-based submarine excape techniques have been developed to the extent where only new approaches will yield a significant increase in performance. The novel approach suggested here is to substitute for nitrogen in the breathing mi...

D. J. Gait K. W. Miller



A Geometric Approach to Burgers' Riccati Equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The directrix approach, which gives powerful insight to the geometric structure of solutions of the general Riccati equation, is developed. Burgers' Riccati equation is derived, and conclusions are drawn using the directrix approach concerning the bounded...

G. L. Gallagher



EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.  


The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage. PMID:21730041

Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko



Integrative medicine approach to chronic pain.  


Chronic pain can be a frustrating condition for patient and clinician. The integrative medicine approach to pain can offer hope, adding safe complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies to mitigate pain and suffering. Such CAM therapies include nutrition, supplements and herbs, manual medicine, acupuncture, yoga, and mind-body approaches. The evidence is heterogeneous regarding these approaches, but some evidence suggests efficacy and confirms safety. The integrative medicine approach can be beneficial in a patient with chronic pain. PMID:20493343

Teets, Raymond Y; Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie



Statistical and structural approaches to texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this survey we review the image processing literature on the various approaches and models investigators have used for texture. These include statistical approaches of autocorrelation function, optical transforms, digital transforms, textural edgeness, structural element, gray tone cooccurrence, run lengths, and autoregressive models. We discuss and generalize some structural approaches to texture based on more complex primitives than gray tone.

R. M. Haralick



Teaching Elementary Mathematics Using Laboratory Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is a synthesis of the discussions that took place at a conference on the teaching of elementary mathematics using a laboratory approach. Presented is a definition of a laboratory approach followed by synopses on different settings for a laboratory approach, the role of the teacher, student produced materials and the use of activity…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.


Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel



The Peer Approach to Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the peer approach to teaching writing with adult students. Discusses theoretical ideas about adults-in-transition, particularly women, that make the peer approach important to their education. Describes specific instances in which the peer approach has been used successfully with adults. Discusses student response to the process. (JS)

Schneider, Helen M.



Approach, Avoidance, and Coping With Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of stress and coping points to two concepts central to an understanding of the response to trauma: approach and avoidance. This pair of concepts refers to two basic modes of coping with stress. Approach and avoidance are simply metaphors for cognitive and emotional activity that is oriented either toward or away from threat. An approach-avoidance model of coping

Susan Roth; Lawrence J. Cohen



A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

Wang, Hongyu



Diagnostic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis.  


Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is deemed a local event, which may fail to evoke a detectable systemic immune response. A correct diagnosis of the disease is a necessary basis for estimating its clinical burden. This is not so difficult in a typical clinical picture. In atypical cases, further diagnostic efforts are to be installed. Although the aqueous humor may be analyzed for specific antibodies or the presence of parasitic DNA, the DNA burden therein is low, and in rare instances a confirmation would necessitate vitreous sampling. A laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is frustrated by individual differences in the time elapsing between clinical symptoms and activation of specific antibody production, which may result in false negatives. In congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, a delay in the onset of specific local antibody production could reflect immune tolerance. Herein, the authors attempt to provide a simple and practicable algorithm for a clinically tailored diagnostic approach in atypical instances. PMID:21770803

Garweg, Justus G; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; Montoya, Jose G



Social competence: an evolutionary approach.  


'Social competence' refers to the ability of an individual to optimise its social behaviour depending on available social information. Although such ability will enhance social interactions and thus raise Darwinian fitness, its evolutionary and ecological significance has been largely ignored. Social competence is based on behavioural flexibility. We propose that the study of social competence requires an integrative approach that aims to understand how the brain translates social information into flexible behavioural responses, how flexibility might be constrained by the developmental history of an individual or by trade-offs with other (ecological) competences, and how social plasticity feeds back on fitness. Finally we propose a hypothesis of how social competence can become a driver of social evolution. PMID:23040461

Taborsky, Barbara; Oliveira, Rui F



Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions.  


Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions. PMID:24790643

Menon, Laila; Buscaglia, Jonathan M



Topological approach of Jungian psychology.  


In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes. PMID:20658172

Viret, Jacques



Graph approach to quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a graph approach to quantum systems, we show that descriptions of 3-dim Kochen-Specker (KS) setups as well as descriptions of 3-dim spin systems by means of Greechie diagrams (a kind of lattice) that we find in the literature are wrong. Correct lattices generated by McKay-Megill-Pavicic (MMP) hypergraphs and Hilbert subspace equations are given. To enable future exhaustive generation of 3-dim KS setups by means of our recently found stripping technique, bipartite graph generation is used to provide us with lattices with equal numbers of elements and blocks (orthogonal triples of elements)-up to 41 of them. We obtain several new results on such lattices and hypergraphs, in particular, on properties such as superposition and orthoraguesian equations.

Pavi?i?, Mladen; McKay, Brendan D.; Megill, Norman D.; Fresl, Krešimir



Redundancy approaches in spacecraft computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve redundancy techniques for spacecraft computers are analyzed. The redundancy schemes include: a single unit; two active units; triple modular redundancy; NMR; a single unit with one and two spares; two units with one, two, and three spares; triple units with one and two spares; and a single unit with a spare per module; the basic properties of these schemes are described. The reliability of each scheme is evaluated as a function of the reliability of a single unit. The redundancy schemes are compared in terms of reliability, the number of failures the system can tolerate, coverage, recovery time, and mean time between failure improvement. The error detection and recovery systems and the random access memory redundancy of the schemes are examined. The data reveal that the single unit with a spare per module is the most effective redundancy approach; a description of the scheme is provided.

Schonfeld, Chaim


Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism.

Imel, Erik A.



Episodic memory: a comparative approach.  


Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep



Hybrid Approach to Reinforcement Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforcement Learning (RL) is a general framework in which an autonomous agent tries to learn an optimal policy of actions from direct interaction with the surrounding environment (RL). However, one difficulty for the application of RL control is its slow convergence, especially in environments with continuous state space. In this paper, a modified structure of RL is proposed to speed up reinforcement learning control. In this approach, supervision technique is combined with the standard Q-learning, a model-free algorithm of reinforcement learning. The a priori information is provided to the RL by an optimal LQ-controller, used to indicate preferred actions at intermittent times. It is shown that the convergence speed of the supervised RL agent is greatly improved compared to the conventional Q-Learning algorithm. Simulation work and results on the cart-pole balancing problem are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Boulebtateche, Brahim; Fezari, Mourad; Boughazi, Mohamed



Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions  

PubMed Central

Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

Menon, Laila



[Current approaches in neovascular glaucoma].  


Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) has long been recognized as a very difficult case to manage for its very poor prognosis of visual function. NVG is also remarked as an 'end stage' of ocular diseases. Conventional treatments with extremely uncontrolled cases are retinal cryotherapy or enucleation. Currently, management of this medical condition is directed toward a new era with great advancement in diagnosis and treatment. Glaucoma drainage implant surgery brings a time window of normal range of intraocular pressure (IOP) for physicians to process underlying disease of NVG. Regression of iris neovascularization by employing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies create a chance to undertaken antiglaucomatous surgery. Adjunctive anti-VEGF treatment promotes the surgical success rate for NVG. Current approaches in NVG are able to provide patients with an individualized management using a sound treatment strategy according to etiology, stage of disease, visual potential and other factors. PMID:22943801

Zhang, Xiu-lan



Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research.

Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep



Approach and Instrument Placement Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) from the 2003 flight mission represents the state of the art technology for target approach and instrument placement on Mars. It currently takes 3 sols (Martian days) for the rover to place an instrument on a designated rock target that is about 10 to 20 m away. The objective of this project is to provide an experimentally validated single-sol instrument placement capability to future Mars missions. After completing numerous test runs on the Rocky8 rover under various test conditions, it has been observed that lighting conditions, shadow effects, target features and the initial target distance have an effect on the performance and reliability of the tracking software. Additional software validation testing will be conducted in the months to come.

Ator, Danielle



Asymptotic approach to combustion instability.  


This paper presents an asymptotic approach to combustion instability in premixed flames under the assumptions of large activation energy and small Mach number. The entire flow consists of four distinct yet fully interactive sub-regions, which accommodate the chemical reaction, heat transport, hydrodynamics and acoustics, respectively. A reduced system was derived to describe the intricate coupling between the flame and acoustics that underlies the combustion instability. The asymptotically reduced system was employed to study the weakly nonlinear interaction between the Darrieus-Landau instability and the longitudinal acoustic mode of the combustion chamber. The general asymptotic formulation includes the influence of enthalpy fluctuation in the oncoming mixture. It is shown that one-dimensional enthalpy fluctuation, through its interaction with flame, produces sound waves, and may cause parametric instability of the flame. The mutual coupling between the sound wave and parametric instability is analysed at the instability thresholds. PMID:16105784

Wu, Xuesong



Nonlinear Approach in Nuclear Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is focused on the various approaches that use the concept of nonlinear dispersive waves (solitons) in nonrelativistic nuclear physics. The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is shown that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The both instabilities may compensate each other and lead to stable solutions (solitons). A static scission configuration in cold ternary fission is considered in the framework of mean field approach. We suggest to use the inverse mean field method to solve single-particle Schrödinger equation, instead of constrained selfconsistent Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown, that it is possible to simulate one-dimensional three-center system in the approximation of reflectless single-particle potentials. The soliton-like solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation are using to describe collective excitations of nuclei observed in inelastic alpha-particle and proton scattering. The analogy between fragmentation into parts of nuclei and buckyballs has led us to the idea of light nuclei as quasi-crystals. We establish that the quasi-crystalline structure can be formed when the distance between the alpha-particles is comparable with the length of the De Broglia wave of the alpha-particle. Applying this model to the scattering of alpha-particles we obtain that the form factor of the clusterized nucleus can be factorized into the formfactor of the cluster and the density of clusters in the nucleus. It gives possibility to study the distribution of clusters in nuclei and to resolve what kind of distribution we are dealing with: a surface or volume one.

Gridnev, K. A.; Kartavenko, V. G.; Greiner, W.



A new approach to parathyroidectomy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To decrease the operative time for parathyroidectomy in patients with hypercalcemic (primary) hyperparathyroid disease, a combination of preoperative localization of a parathyroid tumor with an effective nuclear scan (scintigram) and intraoperative monitoring of parathyroid hormone (quick parathyroid hormone measurement) to ensure excision of all hyperfunctioning tissue was studied. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For many years, persistent hypercalcemia after parathyroidectomy (3% to 10%) has been constant and is usually due to the surgeon's failure to remove all hyperfunctioning glands. A marked decrease in parathormone level after excision of a single large gland predicts operative success and a return to normal calcium levels. Conversely, persistent high levels of parathyroid hormone indicate excess secretion by another gland(s) and the need for further exploration. Recently Tc-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy was shown to be more effective in localizing parathyroid tumors than previous methods. A combination of both techniques could be useful to the surgeon if they improve the operative success rate and are cost-effective. METHODS: Parathyroidectomy was performed on 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroid disease, with tumors localized by MIBI scintigrams. When excision of the identified parathyroid gland was accomplished, the operation was terminated and quick parathyroid hormone was measured to confirm that all hyperfunctioning tissue was removed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with positive results of scintigram had successful parathyroidectomies confirmed by quick parathyroid hormone measurement with a cervical approach. Two patients with mediastinal tumors localized by MIBI scintigraphy could not be resected using this approach. One false-positive/false-negative scintigram was obtained. Compared with patients having parathyroidectomy without localization and hormone monitoring, the average operative time was shortened from 90 to 36 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Localization and successful excision of parathyroid tumors with confirmation that no other hyperfunctioning glands were present by quick parathyroid hormone monitoring can predict a return to normal calcium levels and a decrease in operative time in parathyroidectomy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Irvin, G L; Prudhomme, D L; Deriso, G T; Sfakianakis, G; Chandarlapaty, S K



Surgical approaches to tinnitus treatment: A review and novel approaches  

PubMed Central

Background: Tinnitus, a profoundly widespread auditory disorder, is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of external stimulation. The aim of this work is to review the various surgical treatment options for tinnitus, targeting the various disruption sites along the auditory pathway, as well as to indicate novel neuromodulatory techniques as a mode of tinnitus control. Methods: A comprehensive analysis was conducted on published clinical and basic neuroscience research examining the pathophysiology and treatment options of tinnitus. Results: Stereotactic radiosurgery methods and microvascular decompressions are indicated for tinnitus caused by underlying pathologies such as vestibular schwannomas or neurovascular conflicts of the vestibulocochlear nerve at the level of the brainstem. However, subsequent hearing loss and secondary tinnitus may occur. In patients with subjective tinnitus and concomitant sensorineural hearing loss, cochlear implantation is indicated. Surgical ablation of the cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve, or dorsal cochlear nucleus, though previously suggested in earlier literature as viable treatment options for tinnitus, has been shown to be ineffective and contraindicated. Recently, emerging research has shown the neuromodulatory capacity of the somatosensory system at the level of the trigeminal nerve on the auditory pathway through its inputs at various nuclei in the central auditory pathway. Conclusion: Tinnitus remains to be a difficult disorder to treat despite the many surgical interventions aimed at eliminating the aberrant neuronal activity in the auditory system. A promising novel neuromodulatory approach using the trigeminal system to control such a bothersome and difficult-to-treat disorder deserves further investigation and controlled clinical trials.

Soleymani, Teo; Pieton, David; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Miller, Patrick; Gorgulho, Alessandra A.; Pouratian, Nader; De Salles, Antonio A.F.



Two approaches to physics tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In-depth tutoring' integrates these crucial notions into a didactical structure that deviates from the classical course structure proposed in reference works. Chapters and learning activities begin with key questions in an area of application that ties in with the interests of the students. In the case of biology students, they are invited to answer biomechanical questions on the basis of their ready knowledge of dynamics, to compare their answers with those from their fellow-students, and to evaluate. However, the questions are formulated in such a way that the students will encounter a problem: lack of knowledge, contradictions, ... This problem creates a need for new information and thus provides a motivation for the knowledge expansion foreseen in the curriculum. Through carefully designed assignments, the students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in order to be able to reach consensus on a scientifically substantiated answer to the initial question.

Solomaniuck, Tania


Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and some of our findings from their application. For example, our research has demonstrated that maculas of adult mammals retain the property of synaptic plasticity. Ribbon synapses increase numerically and undergo changes in type and distribution (p<0.0001) in type II hair cells after exposure to microgravity for as few as nine days. The finding of macular synaptic plasticity is pertinent to the clinic, and may help explain some. balance disorders in humans. The software used in our investigations will be demonstrated for those interested in applying it in their own research.

Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)



Repository Closure and Sealing Approach  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

A.T. Watkins



Deficient approaches to human neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal. In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

Stelzer, Johannes; Lohmann, Gabriele; Mueller, Karsten; Buschmann, Tilo; Turner, Robert



Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.



Approaches for prevention of restenosis.  


Coronary artery disease is characterized by a narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to the tissue of the heart. Continued restriction of blood flow manifests itself as angina and ultimately myocardial infarction (heart attack) for the patient. Heart bypass was once the only treatment for this condition, but over the years percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become an increasingly attractive alternative to medical therapy and surgical revascularization for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A vascular stent is a medical device designed to serve as a temporary or permanent internal scaffold, to maintain or increase the lumen of a blood vessel. Metallic coronary stents were first introduced to prevent arterial dissections and to eliminate vessel recoil and intimal hyperplasia associated with PCI. Further advancement in the treatment of coronary artery disease is the development of drug-eluting stents that dramatically reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis to less than 5%. Local drug delivery offers the advantages of allowing a relatively high local concentration of drug at the treatment site while minimizing systemic toxic effect. This review describes approaches for prevention of restenosis. It focuses on drugs for prevention of restenosis, bare metal stents, and drug-eluting stents. It also describes recent advances in bioresorbable stents. One of the chapters is dedicated to our novel composite bioresorbable drug-eluting fibers, designed to be used as basic elements in drug-eluting stents. PMID:18098192

Kraitzer, Amir; Kloog, Yoel; Zilberman, Meital



Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  


Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C



Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is aimed at providing an overview on recent theoretical and experimental works in which a thermodynamic description of the incoherent regime of supercontinuum generation has been formulated. On the basis of the wave turbulence theory, we show that this highly nonlinear and quasi-continuous-wave regime of supercontinuum generation is characterized by two different phenomena. (i) A process of optical wave thermalization ruled by the four-wave mixing effects: The spectral broadening inherent to supercontinuum generation is shown to result from the natural tendency of the optical field to reach its thermodynamic equilibrium state, i.e., the state of maximum nonequilibrium entropy. This approach also reveals the existence of a thermodynamic phase-matching. (ii) The generation of spectral incoherent solitons induced by the Raman effect in the low frequency part of the supercontinuum spectrum. Contrary to conventional solitons, spectral incoherent solitons do not exhibit a confinement in the space-time domain, but solely in the frequency domain. They owe their existence to the causality property underlying the Raman response function. Both phenomena of optical wave thermalization and spectral incoherent solitons are described in detail by the wave turbulence theory. In this way, we provide a unified nonequilibrium thermodynamic description of the incoherent regime of supercontinuum generation.

Kibler, Bertrand; Barviau, Benoît; Michel, Claire; Millot, Guy; Picozzi, Antonio



MOND using a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOND has been proposed as a viable alternative to the dark matter hypothesis. In the original MOND formulation [1], a modification of Newtonian Dynamics was brought about by postulating new equations of particle motion at extremely low accelerations, as a possible explanation for the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies. In this paper, we attempt a different approach to modify the usual force laws by trying to link gravity with the probabilistic aspects of quantum mechanics [2]. In order to achieve this, one starts by replacing the classical notion of a continuous distance between two elementary particles with a statistical probability function, ?. The gravitational force between two elementary particles then can be interpreted in terms of the probability of interaction between them. We attempt to show that such a modified gravitational force would fall off a lot slower than the usual inverse square law predicts, leading to revised MOND equations. In the limit that the statistical aggregate of the probabilities becomes equal to the usual inverse square law force, we recover Newtonian/Einstein gravity.[3pt] [1] Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365 [2] Goradia, S. 2002, .org/pdf/physics/0210040

Raut, Usha



A new approach to health.  


Although 3/4 of the population in most African countries lives in rural areas, 3/4 of the spending on medical care is in urban areas, and 3/4 of the physicians reside and practice in urban areas, so that any consideration of new approaches to health care services in Africa or in other parts of the developing world must take account of this urban-rural disparity, in addition to the existing population structure and inappropriateness of existing health care services. It is felt that in the past, decision-making in the health services in Africa and the developing countries has been largely in the hands of doctors trained in and practicing curative medicine, and as a result, the services have consisted largely of free hand-outs, making the population heavily dependent on them. The doctors have not considered it their responsibility to educate and teach their patients how to lead healthy lives and become involved in their own health care. Present health care systems fail to reach more than 20% of the population in most African countries, and change of emphasis towards primary health care will not be achieved through the university teaching structure. Emphasis must be placed on the ongoing training of all health care personnel who work in rural areas and slums. Developments in distance teaching techniques, if applied to health, should be effective and low in cost. It must be ensured that nets exist through which innovative ideas on health care can be spread. PMID:12309667

Morley, D



[Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging].  


We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10(6) to 10(22) Hz), Photonic Energy (10(-4) to 10(9) eV) and Wavelengths (10(-2) to 10(-15) m). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5. to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuropathology of neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). PMID:20120273

Tavitian, Bertrand



Approaches Towards Endogenous Pancreatic Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of pancreatic regeneration in mammals has been well documented. It has been shown that pancreatic tissue is able to regenerate in several species of mammal after surgical insult. This tissue is also known to have the potential to maintain or increase its ?-cell mass in response to metabolic demands during pregnancy and obesity. Since deficiency in ?-cell mass is the hallmark of most forms of diabetes, it is worthwhile understanding pancreatic regeneration in the context of this disease. With this view in mind, this article aims to discuss the potential use in clinical strategies of knowledge that we obtained from studies carried out in animal models of diabetes. Approaches to achieve this goal involve the use of biomolecules, adult stem cells and gene therapy. Various molecules, such as glucagon-like peptide-1, ?-cellulin, nicotinamide, gastrin, epidermal growth factor-1 and thyroid hormone, play major roles in the initiation of endogenous islet regeneration in diabetes. The most accepted hypothesis is that these molecules stimulate islet precursor cells to undergo neogenesis or to induce replication of existing ?-cells, emphasizing the importance of pancreas-resident stem/progenitor cells in islet regeneration. Moreover, the potential of adult stem cell population from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, liver, spleen, or amniotic membrane, is also discussed with regard to their potential to induce pancreatic regeneration.

Banerjee, Meenal; Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R.



Combined approaches for HIV cure  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review A serious effort has begun to develop therapies that may be capable of eradicating established HIV infection in man. Because of the biological complexity of HIV infection that persists despite potent antiretroviral therapy, it is widely believed that if such therapies can be developed they will involve complex, multimodality approaches. We highlight some of the recent studies in this effort. Recent findings An inhibitor of histone deacetylase has been demonstrated to disrupt latency in man, and new histone deacetylase inhibitors have been identified. Other potential targets, such as histone methyltransferase, protein kinase C, and BRD4, have been recently studied. Model systems, both in primary cells and in animal models, are beginning to be validated. In the clinic, immune-based therapies to aid in the clearance of persistent infection are also being tested. Summary It is too early to know what combination eradication therapies for HIV infection will look like in the future, but candidate therapies and model systems to perform preclinical validation are beginning to take shape.

Margolis, David M.; Hazuda, Daria J.



Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.



Endometriosis: a life cycle approach?  


To improve the still fragmented understanding of endometriosis, a life cycle approach was adopted that revealed unexpected aspects of the natural history of the disease throughout a woman's life. Three age-related stages of endometriosis are distinguished. In premenarcheal and adolescent endometriosis, 2 types can be distinguished: a classic form that can occur before menarche, and a congenital obstructive form that is caused by uterine anomaly and outflow obstruction. The lesions include superficial peritoneal implants, but adhesions and endometrioma can also occur. It is suggested that premenarcheal and possibly adolescent endometriosis develop by activation of resting stem cells shed at the time of neonatal retrograde uterine bleeding. In the adult, endometriosis can be related to uterine preconditioning by cyclic menstruations acting as a priming mechanism for deep placentation. In adult life, the typical lesions are peritoneal, ovarian, and deep or adenomyotic endometriosis. More recently, endometriosis has been associated with endometrial dysfunction and myometrial junctional zone hyperplasia. These uterine changes can be linked with some major obstetrical syndromes. In postmenopause, endometriosis can develop or be reactivated both in the presence or absence of exogenous estrogens and can spread to a variety of organs and structures causing constrictive lesions. PMID:23500453

Brosens, Ivo; Puttemans, Patrick; Benagiano, Giuseppe



Newer approaches to malaria control  

PubMed Central

Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality.

Damodaran, SE; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra



Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard and its associated risks in this highly dynamic environment. However, these risks are contextualised in relation to other, often more pressing, social concerns. We therefore argue for a more deliberative and reflexive approach to landslide risk management which avoids singular framings of what the problem and hence the solution might be. We suggest that this can only be achieved through interdisciplinary collaboration and the privileging of different knowledge types. Key words: Nepal; landslide; vulnerability; risk perception; interdisciplinary research

Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan



Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach.  


Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a "signal" leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca(++) (via IP? release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand--GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, 'pharmacogenetics') permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES). PMID:23063887

Farrell, Martilias S; Roth, Bryan L



Diagnostic approach to cardiac amyloidosis.  


Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease that may be underdiagnosed and could affect the entire human body. Many organs may be affected, which could increase the morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is the leading cause of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiac amyloidosis are usually admitted with heart failure. The clinical presentation varies greatly, and using the correct approach is important in identifying cardiac amyloidosis. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic heart failure. He had increased brain natriuretic peptide levels, a low ejection fraction, and left and right ventricular hypertrophy with granular sparkling as seen by echocardiography. These findings led us to perform a cardiac biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Further investigation revealed that the patient had amyloid light-chain type amyloidosis due to multiple myeloma. He is now undergoing the 3rd phase of chemotherapy. Congo-red stain is usually used by physicians to histologically confirm amyloidosis, with which apple-green birefringence indicates amyloid deposits. Other stains such as direct fast scarlet (DFS) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) can also confirm the presence of amyloid deposits. In the present case, DFS and HE were used, both of which suggested amyloid deposits surrounding myocardial cells. The use of a combination of stains can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of amyloidosis. However, the typical echocardiographic appearances would be enough to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis when it is impossible for the patient to undergo a cardiac biopsy, if an additional histological specimen from another tissue such as abdominal fat confirms amyloidosis. PMID:25011639

Amin, Hilman Zulkifli; Mori, Shumpei; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirata, Kenichi



Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien



Unified approach for incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

Chang, Tyne-Hsien



New approaches to molecular diagnosis.  


Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results. PMID:23571590

Korf, Bruce R; Rehm, Heidi L



Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

Milton, Kim



Surgical approaches to posterior third ventricular tumors.  


A variety of surgical approaches to the posterior third ventricle and pineal region exist. The choice of approach is influenced by the exact location of the lesion, its expected pathologic findings, and the comfort level of the operating surgeon with the approach that is being considered. For most pineal region masses that are situated in the midline below the deep venous system, we favor the supracerebellar-infratentorial approach in the sitting position. For pineal region lesions that displace the deep venous system inferiorly or have significant lateral extension, we prefer the occipital-transtentorial approach in the three-quarter prone or sitting position. For lesions that are truly in the posterior third ventricle without extension posterior to the splenium, we prefer the interhemispheric-transcallosal approach in the lateral position. PMID:15024799

Lozier, Alan P; Bruce, Jeffrey N



A Unified Approach to Modeling Multidisciplinary Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of existing methods to transfer information among various disciplines. For a multidisciplinary application with n disciplines, the traditional methods may be required to model (n(exp 2) - n) interactions. This paper presents a unified three-dimensional approach that reduces the number of interactions from (n(exp 2) - n) to 2n by using a computer-aided design model. The proposed modeling approach unifies the interactions among various disciplines. The approach is independent of specific discipline implementation, and a number of existing methods can be reformulated in the context of the proposed unified approach. This paper provides an overview of the proposed unified approach and reformulations for two existing methods. The unified approach is specially tailored for application environments where the geometry is created and managed through a computer-aided design system. Results are presented for a blended-wing body and a high-speed civil transport.

Samareh, Jamshid A.; Bhatia, Kumar G.



Pineal region tumor: surgical anatomy and approach.  


The pineal region is one of the surgically inaccessible areas in the brain. Many neurovascular structures form a formidable obstacle to the operative approach to this region. The approaches suitable for reaching the pineal region are the infratentorial supracerebellar, occipital transtentorial, posterior transcallosal, posterior transcortical and posterior subtemporal routes. Considerations important in selecting one of these surgical approaches are reviewed from the anatomical viewpoint. PMID:11767292

Yamamoto, I



A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

SciTech Connect

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA



A new denoising approach based on EMD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for explicitly denoising signals. The EMD decomposes a noisy signal into several intrinsic mode functions(IMFs), and the estimated signal is reconstructed by using the processed IMFs. In this paper, a piecewise EMD thresholding approach for denoising signal with strong noise is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance, especially in the cases where the noise is very strong.

Wu, Wei; Peng, Hua



Axiomatic Approach to Total Correctness of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here an axiomatic approach which enables one to prove by formal methods that his program is “totally correct” (i.e., it terminates and is logically correct—does what it is supposed to do). The approach is similar to Hoare's approach [3] for proving that a program is “partially correct” (i.e., that whenever it terminates it produces correct results). Our extension

Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli



Multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows by using unsteady or pseudo-unsteady methods is presented. This approach is based on a general technique of connecting together two domains in which hyperbolic systems (that may differ) are solved with the aid of compatibility relations associated with these systems. Some examples of this approach's application to calculating transonic flows in ideal fluids are shown, particularly the adjustment of shock waves. The approach is then applied to treating a shock/boundary layer interaction problem in a transonic channel.

Cambier, L.; Chazzi, W.; Veuillot, J. P.; Viviand, H.



Transzygomatic Approach to the Tentorial Incisura  

PubMed Central

A simple transzygomatic approach to the middle fossa centered on the inferior retraction of the temporal muscle after transection of the zygomatic arch is described. This approach allows a very low basal exposure of the middle and temporal fossa, minimizing the amount of temporal lobe retraction needed to approach intradural and extradural lesion in this location. This approach is simple, easily performed, does not require extensive skull base removal, and still offers excellent visualization of the middle fossa and of the region of the tentorial incisura. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

Ammirati, Mario; Ma, Jianya; Becker, Donald; Black, Keith; Cheatham, Mel; Bloch, Joseph



Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.



Physical approach to complex systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but turned out to be very useful also in physics - like, for example, fractal geometry. Further methods discussed borrow from the formalism of complex networks, from the theory of critical phenomena and from nonextensive statistical mechanics. Each of these methods is helpful in analyses of specific aspects of complexity and all of them are mutually complementary.

Kwapie?, Jaros?aw; Dro?d?, Stanis?aw



Threat displays for final approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During periods of good visibility, airports can conduct Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (CSPA) and simultaneously operate parallel runways separated by more than 750 feet. When visibility degrades to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and pilots must fly exclusively by the instruments, the runway separation required to operate parallel runways increases to 3400 feet or more. For many airports around the country and the world this means the second runway must be closed and the airport operates at half capacity. To alleviate the delays caused by this capacity reduction many airports worldwide are planning to expand and build new runways. The projected cost of the ten largest airport projects in the United States is $8-16 Billion. Perhaps a less expensive solution can be found with innovative technology rather than real estate? This research presents the first ever design, implementation, and characterization of a synthetic vision display and the supporting flight system to attempt to achieve this solution. The display uses 3D graphics and an air to air datalink called Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast to present the pilot with the information necessary to aviate, navigate and monitor traffic. This thesis also documents the first series of flight experiments to test the applicability of synthetic vision displays to both runway incursion avoidance and CSPA. Finally, utilizing the results from the flight testing in a Monte Carlo analysis, the effect of deploying this display on minimum safe runway separation is calculated. It has been found that the minimum safe runway separation for IMC operation can safely be reduced to 1900 feet. If, in addition, significant changes are made in Air Traffic Control procedures for longitudinal aircraft spacing, the analysis shows that the display system presented herein will allow for runway separation of 1400 feet with no new restrictions on aircraft size or crosswind. Furthermore, with certain restrictions on aircraft size and crosswind the runway spacing can be reduced to 750 feet. These results have tremendous implications for pilots, controllers and the public. They will also have large impacts on the financial and environmental costs of airport expansion projects.

Jennings, Chad Warren


CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.  


Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information and sales to lower income clients. PROFAMILIA CSM and community-based program sales are in a period of relative stagnation. Sales projections show only modest increases between 1981-85, despite the fact that a significant number of potential consumers remain unserved. Ultimately, PROFAMILIA may be faced with the need to reduce their number markedly as sales revenue is eroded by inflation while costs rise. A shift in duties back to motivation rather than distribution, combined with increased media promotion seems the clearest short-term response to the problem of unserved consumers. PMID:12264180

Samuel, S



Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians’ awareness of the psycho-social dimension of disease, and of the impact of peer influence and role modeling, seems promising in this regard, too. Stress and well-being seem to be closely related to physician empathy, and their modulation must take into account individual, social, and organizational factors. Further research should investigate whether or how these hypothetical conclusions can deepen our understanding of the determinants of physician empathy in order to help its promotion.



A change management approach to evaluating ICT investment initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the availability of methods and techniques designed to assist with predictive and retrospective evaluation of ICT initiatives, management continues to struggle to perform meaningful evaluations, and the measurement of ICT investment payoff remains a challenge. A recurring problem associated with failed ICT-based investment is poor change management. This paper aims to focus on the value of understanding

Michael D. Williams; Janet Williams



The lateral approach to laparoscopic splenectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLaparoscopic splenectomy has been shown to result in shorter hospital stays and a quicker return to work than conventional splenectomy. Having tried the anterior 5 trocar approach, we developed a 4 trocar lateral approach and now present our experience with 22 cases.

Adrian Park; Michel Gagner; Alfons Pomp



The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, parking, transfer, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and

Carlo Menon; Tobias Seidl; Michael Broschart


A Discriminative Approach for Wavelet Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a discriminative approach for wavelet denoising where a set of mapping functions (MF) are applied to the transform coefficients in an attempt to produce a noise free image. As opposed to the descriptive approaches, modeling image or noise priors is not required here and the MFs are learned directly from an ensemble of example images using least-squares

Yacov Hel-Or; Doron Shaked



Psychoeducational Drama: An Improvisational Approach to Outreach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of theatrical techniques combined with factual information creates dynamic, memorable programming on sensitive subjects while enhancing audience awareness and providing information. Psychoeducational Drama (PED) is an effective and powerful approach to educational programming. A model for PED, techniques, and uses of the approach in…

Caso, David S.; Finkelberg, Sarah L.



Changing approaches to teaching: A relational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of student learning have shown that students' conceptions of learning are strongly correlated with their approaches to study. Students who consider learning in quantitative terms are likely to find it very difficult to adopt a deep approach to learning. This study looks at the parallel situation for teachers. It looks at the conceptions of teaching and learning of a

Keith Trigwell; Michael Prosser



A Gentle Approach for Young Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gentle Approach is a method for lifting infants younger than 6 months that promotes security and reassurance during adult-imposed changes in position. Developed at the Emmi Pilker National Methodological Institute for Residential Nurseries in Budapest, Hungary, the approach provides continual support and less opportunity for unprotected…

Suskind, Diana; Kozma, Marta


Teaching Mathematical Induction: An Alternative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experience using a new approach to teaching induction that was developed by the Mathematical Methods in High School Project. The basic idea behind the new approach is to use induction to prove that two formulas, one in recursive form and the other in a closed or explicit form, will always agree for whole numbers. (KHR)

Allen, Lucas G.



A Layered Approach towards Domain Authoring support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to authoring support for Web courseware based on a layeredontological paradigm. The ontology-based layers in the courseware authoring architectureserve as a basis for formal semantics and reasoning support in performing generic authoringtasks. This approach represents an extension of our knowledge classification and indexingmechanism from a previously developed system, AIMS, aimed at supporting students whilecompleting learning

Lora Aroyo; Alexandra I. Cristea; Darina Dicheva



An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.



Information management in hospitals: an integrating approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for integrating existing heterogeneous databases in a hospital to achieve operational efficiency, effectiveness in diagnostic decision making, cost economy, better risk management, and strategic planning in a competitive health care environment is addressed. Considering all aspects of a hospital's information requirements, a virtual database integration approach is proposed for the database integration needed in a hospital. This approach

Ohia R. Liu Sheng; Hong-Mei Chen Garcia



A clustering fuzzy approach for image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Segmentation is a fundamental step in image description or classi1cation. In recent years, several computational models have been used to implement segmentation methods but without establishing a single analytic solution. However, the intrinsic properties of neural networks make them an interesting approach, despite some measure of ine5ciency. This paper presents a clustering approach for image segmentation based on a

Luigi Cinque; Gian Luca Foresti; Luca Lombardi



Therapeutic approaches to traumatized Cambodian refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of severely traumatized Cambodian refugees is a difficult task. Through an understanding of the patient's culture and the posttraumatic stress disorder, the author recommends several treatment approaches. These include: supportive long-term therapy, case management, reinforcing traditional values, socialization group therapy, and specific medication. Through a sensitive, flexible approach, the Western practitioner can greatly reduce the suffering of these

J. David Kinzie



The Wedding Project: Introducing the Project Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructivist education, based on the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, advocates an approach to curriculum and teaching that is student centered, inquiry based, integrated and intellectually engaging. One teaching strategy that provides such an experience is the Project Approach, reflective of the pedagogy of John Dewey and introduced as a model…

Sorrels, Barbara; Norris, Deborah; Sheeran, Linda



Researching psychotherapy integration: A heuristic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moustakas argues that questions and methodology in heuristic research flow out of inner awareness, meaning and inspiration. The approach might arguably embrace a combination of qualitative research methods, and constitute a kind of bricolage. This paper describes a heuristic enquiry into psychotherapy integration that used such a combination of methods – an interpretative phenomenological approach, case studies, reflexive action, and

John Nuttall



Organized crime: A social network approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies the anthropological approach of social networktheory to the study of organized crime in its local, domestic and transnational contexts. It argues that a social network approach transcends existing criminological paradigms like organizational, patron-client and enterprise theories in that it emphasizes a common supposition held by each paradigm – that human relationships form the basis for organized criminal

Jeffrey Scott McIllwain



Item Characteristic Curves: A New Theoretical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new approach to the development of the item characteristic curve (ICC), which expresses the functional relationship between the level of performance on a given task and an independent variable that is relevant to the task, is presented. The approach focuses on knowledge states, decision processes, and other circumstances underlying responses to…

Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Frary, Robert B.


Towards successful knowledge management: people development approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between people development management (PDM) as independent variable and knowledge management (KM) as dependent variable, in some Iranian healthcare centers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Applying the structural equation model (SEM) approach. Investigating causal relations of the variables through Lisrel software. Findings – Findings show that in the researched organizations there is a

Abbas Monavvarian; Zahra Khamda



Preventing Traumatic Stress: Public Health Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based approaches to the primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) focus on the prevention of the stressor itself. Policy decisions also consider ways to allocate resources to best reduce potential damage from traumatic stressors and to ameliorate any resulting harm. A balance between broad risk prevention approaches and narrower treatment and recovery strategies can redistribute the risk of exposure

Susan B. Sorenson



The IMF Approach to Economic Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the IMF approach to economic stabilization. It argues that a Fund-supported program is a process, comprising six broadly defined phases, that evolves along a multiplicity of potential pathways. The paper discusses the three-pronged approach to stabilization at the core of all IMF-supported programs, stresses the iterative character of \\

Michael Mussa; Miguel A. Savastano



COMMENTARY New Approach to Teaching Histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

At UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, we took a new approach in teaching histology to first year medical students. In keeping with the new trend in curricular change, we focused primarily on two objectives: 1) to make histology as clinically relevant as possible and 2) to reduce the lecture time. The core strategy of our approach was to make the laboratory

Amos G. Gona; Peter B. Berendsen; Elizabeth A. Alger


T Hooft's Polygonal Approach and Regge Calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the many approaches to (2+l)-d gravity, we focus here on two discrete ones, 't Hooft's scheme using polygons and Regge calculus, where there are striking similarites between some of the formulae. By studying how these relationships arise, we hope to improve our understanding of both approaches [1]...

Williams, Ruth M.



Operational approach to complementarity and duality relations  

SciTech Connect

We present a fully operational and consistent approach to complementarity. In contrast to previous approaches, in this proposal the duality relations emerge exclusively from the outcomes of simultaneous measurements performed on every run of the experiment and under the same experimental conditions. This can be done without assuming any definite relationship between the measurement performed and the complementary observables being studied.

Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)



An Objective Bayes Approach for Inventory Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approach to demand analysis, based on a mathematical technique called Bayesian inference, is described. Instead of trying to give a point estimate of the item's true mean demand, this approach estimates the probability that the item's mean demand is at...

G. J. Feeney C. C. Sherbrooke



Counseling the Mentally Retarded: A Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual and methodological aspects of various systems of counseling and psychotherapy are evaluated in relation to characteristics of the mentally retarded. A behavioral approach to modification of problem behaviors is presented as an alternative to the range of counseling and psychotherapy approaches reviewed and considered ineffective and…

Gardner, William I.; Stamm, John M.



Gene Transfer Approaches for Gynecological Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene transfer presents a potentially useful approach for the treatment of diseases refractory to conventional therapies. Various preclinical and clinical strategies have been explored for treatment of gynecological diseases. Given the direst need for novel treatments, much of the work has been performed with gynecological cancers and ovarian cancer in particular. Although the safety of many approaches has been demonstrated

Mari Raki; Daniel T. Rein; Anna Kanerva; Akseli Hemminki



Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise



Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…



Creative dynamics approach to neural intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust of this paper is to introduce and discuss a substantially new type of dynamical system for modelling biological behavior. The approach was motivated by an attempt to remove one of the most fundamental limitations of artificial neural networks — their rigid behavior compared with even simplest biological systems. This approach exploits a novel paradigm in nonlinear dynamics based

M. Zak



An Integrated Approach to Database Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an integrated approach for research related to the problem of database design. The process of database design is classified into five phases: requirements analysis, view modeling, view integration, view restructuring, and schema analysis and mapping. The input, processing steps, and output for each phase are described. The problems associated with each phase are pointed out. Existing approaches

S. Bing Yao; Shamkant B. Navathe; Jay-louise Weldon



Teaching Approaches and Occupational Therapy Psychoeducation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient education has become an important feature of any treatment program. Psychoeducational procedures dominate the treatment used by occupational therapy practitioners in psychiatric rehabilitation. Occupational therapy literature frequently describes the content of psychoeducational programs but rarely examines the teaching approach therapists use in them. It is necessary, therefore, to begin carefully questioning how we are approaching psychoeducation and justifying it

Rene Padilla



"1984": A Confessional Reading and Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to teaching George Orwell's "1984," emphasizing the main characters' struggles through the themes of innocence and experience, conformity and rebellion, love and hate, discovery and creation, and death. Notes that this reader-response approach forces students into the process of self-examination. (MM)

Tanenbaum, Miles



“Friendly” Complaining Behaviors: Toward a Relational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational approach is often presented as a strategy to retain customers, but it may also be an appropriate approach to encourage customers to complain, as a review of literature shows. Using information contained in complaints and giving the right answers (distributive, procedural and interactional) to such complaints is essential. Relational marketing may also be used to induce customers (but

Isabelle Prim-Allaz; Bernard Pras



Using a Systems Approach in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a basic definition of the systems approach and explains the school as an open social-technical system composed of five subsystems--goals and values, technical, psychosocial, structural, and managerial. Contrasts the systems approach with earlier management theories that emphasized particular subsystems and ignored others. (JHZ)

Johnson, William L.



The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

Girdano, Dorothy Dusek


The "White Canvas" Approach to Beginning Conducting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the white canvas approach to beginning conducting, a basic mirror conducting of both hands generating the symmetrical takt, or beat, that represents the basic foundation of conducting. Focuses on such issues as conducting as communication, conducting at the tip of the baton, and extension beyond the white canvas approach. (CMK)

Mailman, Matthew



A Domain Decomposition Approach to POD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is a popular approach for building reduced-order models for nonlinear distributed parameter systems. The approach is based on developing a reduced basis by post-processing one, and often multiple, high fidelity simulations of a nonlinear partial differential equation. The computational overhead required to perform just one simulation may involve the need to distribute the data and

Christopher A. Beattie; Jeff Borggaard; Serkan Gugercin; Traian Iliescu



Open source communities: an integrally informed approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To reframe analysis of the open source software (OSS) phenomenon from an AQAL perspective Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is a review of current research thinking and application of the AQAL framework to suggest resolution of polarizations. Findings – The authors find that AQAL is valuable as an integrating framework allowing a more holistic understanding of the complex economic,

Carla C. J. M. Millar; Chong Ju Choi; Edward T. Russell; Jai-Boem Kim



Adapting Courses to Distance Delivery: Three Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three approaches to adapting courses to distance delivery: the most common "dive-in" technique (little preparation other than adapting print on transparencies, practicing with technology controls, and test-running); the "chunking" approach (considering how the major "chunks" of teaching can be transported to new technologies); and the…

Landis, Melodee



Empirical Approaches to the Birthday Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will describe two activities in which students conduct experiments with random numbers so they can see that having at least one repeated birthday in a group of 40 is not unusual. The first empirical approach was conducted by author Cauto in a secondary school methods course. The second empirical approach was used by author Flores with…

Flores, Alfinio; Cauto, Kevin M.



An Outward-Looking Approach in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on the work of the international colloquy organized by the Council of Europe (Luxembourg, 1981). The aim of the colloquy was to explore how to foster an outward-looking approach in schools, and how to bring about a new approach to teaching man/environment relationships and ways in which people affect and are affected by their…

Clausen, Sten Krog


A Historical Approach for Teaching Introductory Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several pedagogical merits to teaching geology with a historical emphasis. Describes how concepts of relative time, the field aspects of geology, and the cultural relationships of science can be applied in a historical approach to the subject. Shortcomings to this sort of approach are also mentioned. (CS)

Dott, R. H., Jr.



A Linear Algebraic Approach to Teaching Interpolation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel approach for teaching interpolation in the introductory course in numerical analysis is presented. The interpolation problem is viewed as a problem in linear algebra, whence the various forms of interpolating polynomial are seen as different choices of a basis to the subspace of polynomials of the corresponding degree. This approach

Tassa, Tamir




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some project themes proposed by the authors and the methodology adopted in its supervision, in a transdisciplinary approach. We describe the projects and discuss the most relevant aspects of this approach, from the technical and pedagogical points of view. The stronger points of this methodology are some similarities with the environment that recent graduated students might find

J. Oliveira; J. Salvado


Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski



Approach phase ?V considerations for lunar landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology (ALHAT) project is studying the lunar landing descent phase from lunar orbit to the surface. In this paper, we give an overview of the timing and DeltaV implications for key activities during the lunar landing approach phase. Timing and DeltaV performance are evaluated while varying the approach phase design and key hazard detection

Babak E. Cohanim; Thomas J. Fill; Stephen Paschall II; Laura M. Major; Tye Brady



Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.



A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley\\/Milner-stylepolymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subjectreduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the useof rewriting techniques for the specification of the language semantics. The approacheasily extends from polymorphic functional languages to imperative languages thatprovide references, exceptions, continuations, and similar



Robot Motion Planning: A Distributed Representation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot's configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is consider ably faster than previous path planners and solves prob lems for robots with many more degrees

Jérôme Barraquand; Jean-Claude Latombe



Florida Residents' Preferred Approach to Sexuality Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is widespread support for sexuality education, whether to use an abstinence-only or comprehensive approach is hotly debated. This study assessed Florida residents preferred approach to school-based sexuality education. The 641 respondents were selected by random digit dialing, using methods to ensure ethnic and geographic…

Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele Johnson



Teaching Science through a Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott



A Deductive Approach to Program Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program synthesis is the systematic derivation of a program from a given specification. A deductive approach to program synthesis is presented for the construction of recursive programs. This approach regards program synthesis as a theorem-proving task and relies on a theorem-proving method that combines the features of transformation rules, unification, and mathematical induction within a single framework.

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger



Approaches to business process analysis: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing processes with the aim of improving them necessarily requires both analysis and critical evaluation of organizational practice. This article takes up the theme of business process analysis with the aim of highlighting and comparing alternative techniques and approaches. Four approaches have been identified: action analysis, process mapping, co-ordination analysis and social grammar analysis. An interpretative model of the fundamental

Stefano Biazzo



Empirical Phenomenology An Approach for Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. This approach builds upon the phenomenology of philosopher Edmund Husserl and sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their more theoretical insights can be used in an empirical approach. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and interested in safeguarding the subjective

Patrik Aspers


Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla



Approaches for Generating Animations for Lectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many software tools try to address the growing interest in supplementing course materials with animations. In this paper, we give a short review of the basic approaches for generating animations. Thus, teachers can determine the way best suited for them and are then better prepared to select a tool addressing their needs. For each basic approach, several example tools are

Bernd Freisleben



A Cognitive Approach to Preschool Screening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that the poor predictive validity of many preschool screening tests can be traced to heavy reliance on traditional psychometric approaches. Both theory and data are presented to illustrate the efficacy of an approach featuring active cognitive development. (Author/CL)

Greenfield, Daryl B.; Scott, Marcia S.



Stochastic approaches for modelling in vivo reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stochastic modelling has emerged as a physically more realistic al- ternative for modelling in vivo reactions. There are numerous stochastic approaches available in the literature; most of these assume that observed random uctuations are a consequence of the small number of reacting molecules. We review some im- portant developments of the stochastic approach and consider its suitability

Thomas E. Turner; Santiago Schnell; Kevin Burrage



Thoracic sympathetic block: A new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of approaches to the thoracic sympathetic ganglia are described, the risk of pneumothorax generally precludes this procedure for other than neurolytic ablation. The approach that is described uses the principle of inserting a needle in a direction away from a potential complication by taking advantage of very consistent anatomy. Making use of 2 radiologic landmarks, the tubercle

Michael Stanton-Hicks



Instability of confined rings: an experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a ring confined by a rigid boundary, subjected to circumferential end loads is investigated by an experimental approach. Dimensional analysis was used to establish the basic relationship of the critical buckling stress with material properties, geometric dimensions and initial geometric imperfections. The coefficients in the relationship were obtained experimentally. Compared to other theoretical methods, this approach is

C. Sun; W. J. D. Shaw; A. M. Vinogradov



Plural analysis: Multiple approaches to quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant approach to decision analysis in particular, and quantitative research in general, issingular, i.e., all conclusions are based on a single preferred model or approach. Inplural analysis, several singular analyses are pursued in parallel, the typically conflicting results are merged. Although it is a central feature of intelligent everyday thinking, plural analysis has largely been ignored by the research

Rex V. Brown; Dennis V. Lindley



STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining



Designing Interorganizational Logistic Networks: A Simulation Based Interdisciplinary Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Interorganizational logistics; Interorganizational logistic networks in practice; A design approach for interorganizational logistic networks; The approach applied; Revision of the design approach; The revised approach applied; Epilogue...

M. Babeliowsky



Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of post-procedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.

Korabathina, Ravikiran; Yadav, Sidharth S; Coppola, John T; Staniloae, Cezar S



Preparation of water soluble graphene using polyethylene glycol: Comparison of covalent approach and noncovalent approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulation of stable aqueous graphene solution is attempted either through esterification of GO with PEG and subsequent reduction in covalent approach or in situ chemical reduction of aqueous GO solution in the presence of NH2–PEG–NH2 in noncovalent approach. While covalent approach produces insoluble graphite-like precipitation, noncovalent approach produces practically homogeneous reduced graphene solution for several months without any precipitate. Noncovalent

Yeun-Jin Park; Sung Young Park



Initiating Hehe [see text] medical system of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine to realize health cycle of human beings.  


This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level. PMID:22139547

Wang, Jie-Hua



Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Broken bar detection in induction machines: comparison between current spectrum approach and parameter estimation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the diagnosis of induction machine rotor electrical faults is considered. Two approaches are compared: the current spectrum analysis and the apparent rotor resistance estimation. For the first approach the authors have developed several procedures based on different fault models of the machine. Their experience is used to approach the parameter estimation method from a theoretical point of

F. Filippetti; G. Franceschini; C. Tassoni; P. Vas



Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early…

Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane



Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill



Understanding the Reggio Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Second Edition. Understanding the... Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Understanding the Reggio Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Reggio Approach. Analysing the essential elements of the Reggio Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice, this new edition is fully updated with the latest…

Thornton, Linda; Brunton, Pat



Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and students' approaches to learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an empirical study which shows that qualitatively different approaches to teaching are associated with qualitatively different approaches to learning. More specifically, the results indicate that in the classes where teachers describe their approach to teaching as having a focus on what they do and on transmitting knowledge, students are more likely to report that they adopt




Mixture model clustering of binned uncertain data: the classification approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing cluster analysis on Gaussian mixture models is a powerful approach. In this context, two commonly used maximum likelihood approaches have been proposed: the mixture approach and the classification approach. Loosely speaking, the mixture approach aims to maximize the likelihood over the mixture parameters, whereas the classification approach aims to maximize the likelihood over the mixture parameters and over the

H. Hamdan



Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.  


Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine