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1

It is time for a more integrated bio-psycho-social approach to ADHD.  

PubMed

The role of psychosocial factors in perpetuating and predisposing towards the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been neglected within the field of child mental health. Clinicians, when told that a child had a diagnosis of ADHD, have been found to underestimate the presence of psychosocial factors, and are less likely to ask about the possibility of neglect or abuse. This article details the considerable research showing links between ADHD symptoms and parental mental illness, child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attachment disorders and other environmental factors. Recent neuro-biological findings showing the impact on brain development of early abuse and attachment concerns are cited. The implications of these findings both for clinicians, and at policy level, are discussed, and the reasons underlying the need for a more integrated Bio-Psycho-Social approach to ADHD are outlined. PMID:23104966

Richards, Louise Marie-Elaine

2012-10-26

2

[How should be a psychiatric hospital to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches in Japan? -- From the view point of psychiatry, medical model, medical system and economical management system].  

PubMed

The author developed argument that a cause of the present condition of our country, in which psycho-social approaches have not fully spread though its clinical efficacy has been well recognized, is in the medical institution side. Because, our psychiatric reforms over 17 years, that reduced the average duration of hospitalization from about 2156 days to 61 days, has attained by deployment of various psycho-social approaches based on "therapeutic community model" and "psychodynamic team treatment". Furthermore, it has done by the affinity, continuity and complementarities of "psychodynamic team treatment" and psychosocial approaches with following special features. That is, since psycho-social approaches is 1. techniques to acquire the social life skill and to prevent re-hospitalization, 2. the group psychotherapy by facilitating the patient's mutual help capability, 3. based on "acceptance of the disease" by "noticing the diagnosis". Even if the therapeutic orientation or assumption of the psychiatric hospital does not comprehend above all of 1-3, it is important whether it is in the same direction or not. In other words, it is the issue of the medical-economical-management system, medical model and also the kind of psychiatry that is the source of them. Our hospital is for short term hospitalization and in focus on the outpatient treatment with "psychodynamic team treatment" based on "therapeutic community model". That is why our hospital has a potential advantage to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches. On the other hand, there is the same reason why it is difficult for the traditional psychiatric hospital for long term hospitalization with higher hierarchical "physical medicine model" based on the descriptive psychiatry. The further problem is that both psychiatric hospital staff and psycho-social therapists do not realize it. The most important issue for us is having the recognition and exploring the method not to adapt to a psychiatric hospital but to improve and spread psycho-social approaches to psychiatric hospital. PMID:22420149

Horikawa, Kohei; Horikawa, Yuriko

2012-01-01

3

Justifying educational acquaintance with the moral horrors of history on psycho-social grounds: ‘Facing History and Ourselves’ in critical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive relationships. It is argued that this justification not only renders the specific historical content

Bruce Maxwell

2008-01-01

4

Physical and PsychoSocial Predictors of Adolescents’ Suicide Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between suicidal behaviors and physical and psycho-social predictors including\\u000a body image, weight control behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among Asian, African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic adolescents.\\u000a This study used the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The target populations were 11,134 adolescents (5,636 female and\\u000a 5,498 male) in 9th–12th grade who completed the survey.

Yi Jin Kim; Sung Seek Moon; Min Ju Kim

5

[The bio-psycho-social tridimensional constructivism of Socolas' School in the perspective of contemporary psychiatry (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors present the characteristics of the bio-psycho-social concept, developed by the School of Iasi, with pertinence and consequence on and after 1960. This one affirms its originality through its constructivistic psychiatric theory based on the tridimensional concept. The authors review several concepts of "constructivism" and analyze its implications in psychology, psychoanalysis, sociology, ethnology etc. This critical review shows once more the originality and specificity of the approach of the School of Socola. The bio-psycho-social concept is conceived as a dynamic and unitary concept and is applyed through a close link between psychiatric services and society and through an intense interdisciplinary activity aimed at the knowledge of the whole man. PMID:7331845

Branzei, P P; Nathanson, I N

6

Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.  

PubMed

It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

Licanin, Ifeta; Redzi?, Amira

2005-02-01

7

Psycho-social aspects of personal health monitoring: a descriptive literature review.  

PubMed

We aimed at providing a short review on already published studies addressing psycho-social issues of personal health monitoring (PHM). Both core questions addressed within this review are: What is the impact of PHM on intended psycho-social and health-related outcomes? And which psycho-social issues affected by or related to PHM have already been investigated? This descriptive review based on a literature search using various databases (Psycinfo, Psyndex, Pubmed, SSCI). Resulting 428 abstracts were coded regarding their psycho-social content. Inspection of results was carried out along the relevance of the papers regarding psycho-social issues. Research in PHM focuses on telemonitoring and smart home applications: Tele-monitoring studies are directed to outcome-related questions, smart home studies to feasibility issues. Despite of technological matters, comparability of both systems in psycho-social issues is lacking. Tele-monitoring has been proven for impact on patient groups with chronic diseases, yet smart home still lacks evidence in health-related and psycho-social matters. Smart home applications have been investigated with respect to attitudes, perceptions and concerns of end-users, telemonitoring regarding acceptance and adherence. PMID:23920455

Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke

2013-01-01

8

Psycho-social outcome in liver transplanted children: beware of emotional self-assessment!  

PubMed Central

Background Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT) is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child’s psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. Methods Inclusion criteria: LT at the Children’s University Hospital of Geneva 1992–2007, age >3?years, <16?years, time after LT >2?years. Children and their parents were questioned by their well-known, familiar nurse at the annual follow up visit about their personal well-being. To allow for evaluation of answers, scores (good, medium, bad) were attributed to the different questions. 46 children were included in the study. Results Mean age at enquiry was 9.7?years (SD 4?years), mean time after LT was 7.5?years (SD 4.2?years). The different themes were reported as good for: parent–child relationship (83%), relationship with peers (98%), relation with siblings (39%), sport activities (54%), play activities (78%), school performance (87%), expression skills (67%), and general behavior (89%). Conclusion Most of our LT children and their parents consider, during a personal interview with a closely related, familiar nurse, that the child’s psycho-social outcome is good. Yet, it is generally acknowledged that children after LT have negatively altered psycho-social outcomes. Thus, emotionally influenced reports about psycho-social outcome in children after LT must be looked at with care.

2012-01-01

9

The effects of witnessing domestic violence on young children's psycho-social adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have examined the serious consequences that spouse abuse may have on battered women's physical and psychological health. Considerably less attention has been given to the effects on children of witnessing domestic violence. This article reports an empirical study which examined the effects of witnessing domestic violence on the psycho-social adjustment of 54 young children aged three to six

Jennifer Smith; Ian OConnor; Donna Berthelsen

1996-01-01

10

Effect Of Bio-Psycho-Social Changes On Older Consumers: Implications For Product Design And Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued rapid growth of the mature adult (over the age of 65) population and the tremendous variability in the needs, lifestyles, and demographic characteristics of this segment is creating lucrative opportunities for product designers marketers. This paper describes the evolving needs of mature adults especially due to the bio-psycho-social changes that accompany the aging process. By interfacing the gerontological

Monica Nandan

2008-01-01

11

Who Cares about the Psycho-Social? Masculinities, Schooling and the Unconscious  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief article argues for the development of a stronger psycho-social perspective in the broad field of the sociology of education and, in particular, in studies of masculinities and schooling. The article suggests that such studies have much to gain from an understanding of unconscious fantasy and the mutually constitutive nature of the…

Redman, Peter

2005-01-01

12

Bio-psycho-social assessment of 9/11-bereaved children.  

PubMed

A comprehensive and integrated assessment bio-psycho-social model for the assessment of children who lost parents in the World Trade Center is necessary so that effective short-term and long-term care planning can be achieved. This model has been used to guide assessments of children in the Care Alliance project. Rationale for this model, as well as preliminary findings from the Care Alliance project are presented. PMID:16891602

Demaria, Thomas; Barrett, Minna; Kerasiotis, Bernadina; Rohlih, Jeanne; Chemtob, Claude

2006-07-01

13

Family Therapy and Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Pursuing Clinical and Bio\\/Psycho\\/Social Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is perceived as more complicated because of its complexity, pervasive duration, and impact on\\u000a individual and family functioning. Viewing the symptoms of childhood schizophrenia as creating a bio\\/psycho\\/social competence\\u000a within which the therapist and family must interact may help contribute to treatment success. Competent family therapists\\u000a working within this culture should be knowledgeable about the characteristics of childhood-onset

Roy A. Bean

2008-01-01

14

Students' perception of the psycho-social clinical learning environment: an evaluation of placement models.  

PubMed

Nursing is a practice based discipline. A supportive environment has been identified as important for the transfer of learning in the clinical context. The aim of the paper was to assess undergraduate nurses' perceptions of the psychosocial characteristics of clinical learning environments within three different clinical placement models. Three hundred and eight-nine undergraduate nursing students rated their perceptions of the psycho-social learning environment using a Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. There were 16 respondents in the Preceptor model category, 269 respondents in the Facilitation model category and 114 respondents in the clinical education unit model across 25 different clinical areas in one tertiary facility. The most positive social climate was associated with the preceptor model. On all subscales the median score was rated higher than the two other models. When clinical education units were compared with the standard facilitation model the median score was rated higher in all of the subscales in the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. These results suggest that while preceptoring is an effective clinical placement strategy that provides psycho-social support for students, clinical education units that are more sustainable through their placement of greater numbers of students, can provide greater psycho-social support for students than traditional models. PMID:16675069

Henderson, Amanda; Twentyman, Michelle; Heel, Alison; Lloyd, Belinda

2006-05-03

15

Access to psycho-social resources and health: exploratory findings from a survey of the French population.  

PubMed

We study the psycho-social determinants of self-assessed health in order to explain social inequalities in health in France. We use a unique general population survey to assess the respective impact on self-assessed health status of subjective perceptions of social capital, social support, and sense of control, controlling for standard socio-demographic factors (SES, income, education, age, and gender). The survey is unique in that it provides a variety of measures of self-perceived psycho-social resources (trust and civic engagement, social support, sense of control, and self-esteem). We find empirical support for the link between the subjective perception of psycho-social resources and health. Sense of control at work is the most important correlate of health status after income. Other important ones are civic engagement and social support. To a lesser extent, sense of being lower in the social hierarchy is associated with poorer health status. On the contrary, relative deprivation does not affect health in our survey. Since access to psycho-social resources is not equally distributed in the population, these findings suggest that psycho-social factors can partially explain of social inequalities in health in France. PMID:18793478

Jusot, Florence; Grignon, Michel; Dourgnon, Paul

2008-10-01

16

[Suicidal behaviour: psycho-social and psycho-pathological risk factor].  

PubMed

Suicide and attempted suicide are currently considered as an epidemic disease. According to WHO, in the world, one million of individuals commit suicide each year. Every 40 seconds, one person commits suicide and every 3 seconds, one person makes a suicide attempt. Over recent years, the risk of suicide and suicide attempt has considerably increased. Several risk factors have been identified: they are psycho-social, psychopathological, genetic or biological. Suicide is determined by the interaction of all these factors. The purpose of this paper is to present recent data from the literature concerning psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors. PMID:18669211

Pitchot, W; Paquay, C; Ansseau, M

17

Companion piece: Needs, rights, and the human family: a bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective.  

PubMed

This article sets forth a bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective on the needs and rights of children. Consideration is first given to the philosophical nature of need. The nature of rights is then examined in relation to need as a basis for social justice claims. Various need paradigms, such as human development needs, socially constructed needs, and needs hierarchies, are considered and compared to the rights paradigm presented in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Rationale for ratification is then presented. PMID:21361165

Sister Ann Patrick Conrad

2010-01-01

18

Adrenal Insufficiency and Colonic Inflammation after a Novel Chronic PsychoSocial Stress Paradigm in Mice: Implications and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated chronic psycho-social stress effects on stress- related parameters and on pathohistological changes in the murine colon. Moreover, we aimed to reveal the involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in chronic stress effects. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 d) resulted in reduced body weight gain, thymus atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, in- creased plasma norepinephrine, and increased anxiety. With respect to the

S. O. Reber; L. Birkeneder; A. H. Veenema; F. Obermeier; W. Falk; R. H. Straub; I. D. Neumann

2006-01-01

19

Impact of telephonic psycho-social support on adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa has one of the highest rates of both rape and HIV infections. Of great concern is the possibility of HIV transmission during the assault, but adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been varied and low. We developed a telephonic psycho-social support, leaflet and adherence diary intervention for rape victims and tested its impact on adherence to PEP. A

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Carl Lombard; Shanaaz Mathews; Jacquelyn Campbell; Banwari Meel

2010-01-01

20

Effects of citalopram and a brief psycho-social intervention on alcohol intake, dependence and problems.  

PubMed

Citalopram (C) decreased alcohol intake and desire to drink in short-term (2-4 weeks) studies with no other treatment. We tested the long-term effects of C combined with a brief psycho-social intervention. After a 2-week baseline, mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (35 males, 27 females) were randomized, double-blind to 12 weeks of C 40 mg/day (n = 31) or placebo (P) (n = 31) and a brief psycho-social intervention with follow-ups at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Alcohol intake was monitored daily and alcohol dependence (ADS) and problems (MAST) were assessed at intake and post-treatment. During the first week, the decrease (%) from baseline daily alcoholic drinks (mean +/- SEM) was greater with C (47.9 +/- 5.1 from 6.5 +/- 0.6) than with P (26.1 +/- 4.2 from 5.8 +/- 0.4) (p < 0.01). However, the 12-week decreases with C (35.1%) and P (38.8%) were similar. There were gender differences within the C group. The males had higher MAST scores at intake (mean +/0 SEM = 10.4 +/- 0.8; n = 15) than the females (6.4 +/- 0.9, n = 16) (p < 0.01) and were slightly heavier drinkers during baseline (7.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.9 drinks/day, NS). The response to C was greater in males (44% decrease) than females (26%) (p < 0.05) and correlated with MAST scores (r = 0.44, p = 0.01), but not with baseline alcohol intake (r = 0.2, NS). Craving and liking for alcohol and alcohol dependence (ADS) and problems (MAST) decreased similarly with C and P (p < 0.01). Thus, the short-term effects of C were replicated but no long-term effect was detected. Tolerance to citalopram, perhaps through some adaptive neurobiological changes, may have developed. The potential therapeutic use of C as a useful pharmacological adjunct in alcoholics remains to be determined. PMID:7888983

Naranjo, C A; Bremner, K E; Lanctôt, K L

1995-01-01

21

A comparison of self-perceived physical and psycho-social worker profiles of people with direct work injury, chronic low back pain, and cumulative trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psycho-social factors among injured workers and the influence of their psycho-social profile on the readiness of return to work. Sixty-four subjects with injuries on the upper limbs or lower limbs, low back pain, or cumulative trauma disorder were recruited. The workers' profiles (self-perceived physical health, mental health, and work readiness) together with the impact and types

Joseph Chung-Keung Cheng; Cecilia Wai-ping Li-Tsang

22

Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was

Matilda Mtaya; Anne N Astrom; Pongsri Brudvik

2008-01-01

23

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

24

Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion.  

PubMed

Purpose of this study was to correlate results from a survey on otitis media and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. This survey investigated prevalence of otitis media (OM) in our territory, influence on development of language and personality and social costs. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory is a suitable test to differentiate state anxiety caused by a specific event [in this case, otitis media with effusion (OME)] from a trait anxiety (anxious personality) in parents and caregivers. The otitis media study was conducted, retrospectively, in two primary public schools in Colle Val D'Elsa (Siena) on 252 children (6-11 years old). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test had been administered to the parents or caregivers of 20 paediatric outpatients (4-12 years, mean 6.8) at the ENT Department of Siena University. The results of the OM survey showed a correlation between OM and difficulties in speech and reading, delayed answering and limited vocabulary. All these problems improved as children grew up. On the other hand, psycho-social development appeared to be more problematic even in the 4th and 5th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or caregivers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly concerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or caregivers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an anxious personality. These findings could be helpful in understanding the real severity of symptoms. The two proposed tests could provide complementary data to evaluate children with OME: the OM survey can be used as a screening test to detect children with non-symptomatic OME, to establish whether delayed language development may be associated with OME, to predict prognosis and children's quality of life as well as social costs of OME; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test can be used to reveal a state or a trait anxiety in parents and caregivers in order to better understand their point of view. Parents' and caregivers' personality has a marked influence on the impact of OME on the children's quality of life. Quality of life in children with otitis media with effusion is one of the most important parameters to be taken into consideration on account of the possible correlation with problems in development. PMID:16749604

Bellussi, L; Mandalà, M; Passàli, F M; Passàli, G C; Lauriello, M; Passali, D

2005-12-01

25

Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

2012-01-01

26

Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms-A pilot survey among persons exposed to high levels of road traffic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot survey was undertaken to elucidate sleep quality, as well as psycho-social and medical symptoms and mood, among people who had lived for many years in an area with high levels of road traffic noise during night hours and inhabitants of a quiet control area: 106 personal interviews were performed and specific questionnaires on sleep and mood answered by

E. Öhrström

1989-01-01

27

Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

2012-01-01

28

Effects of a PsychoSocial Support Programme for Young Men — Randomised Trial of the Time Out! Getting Life Back on Track Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Time Out! Getting Life Back on Track support programme could influence the psycho-social well-being in an identified risk group of young men. A total of 356 young men exempted from military or civil service were randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. Men in the intervention group (N

Kaija Appelqvist-Schmidlechner; Maila Upanne; Markus Henriksson; Kai Parkkola; Eija Stengård

2010-01-01

29

The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male

M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard

1992-01-01

30

Exposure of Wistar rats to 24-h psycho-social stress alters gene expression in the inferior colliculus.  

PubMed

Recently, we have demonstrated that the exposure of Wistar rats to psycho-social stress results in a transient auditory hypersensitivity. Here, to learn more about modifications occurring in auditory brainstem, we have analyzed gene expression pattern in inferior colliculus using quantitative RT-PCR. As targets, we have chosen genes associated with: neural activity (FBJ osteosarcoma viral oncogene, cFos), hypoxia (nitric oxide synthase inducible, iNos; superoxide dismutase 2, Sod2), neuroprotection (nerve growth factor beta, Ngfb; heat shock factor 1, Hsf1; heat shock protein 70, Hsp70) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tnfa; tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor, Tnfar; substance P, Sp; cyclooxygenase 2, Cox2). We found that the expression of all genes was modified following stress, as compared to the controls. Immediately after stress, the number of transcripts encoding iNos, Sod2, Hsf1, Ngfb, Tnfa, Tnfar and Sp was significantly increased, suggesting possible modulation during exposure to stressor. Interestingly, we found that expression of Hsf1 and Ngfb at this particular time was left-right asymmetrical: there were more transcripts of both genes found in the left colliculi, as compared to the right colliculi. Three hours post-stress, iNos, Hsf1, Tnfa and Tnfar were still upregulated, Sod2, Ngfb and Sp went back to baseline and Cox2 was upregulated. Six hours post-stress, cFos mRNA became downregulated. The number of Hsp70 mRNA increased 24h post-stress. Except for the reduced number of cFos transcripts, expression of all other genes tested reached the baseline seven days post-stress. Presented results corroborate the concept of auditory system responding to the psycho-social stress. Post-stress changes in the IC gene expression could likely indicate shift from allostasis to homeostasis in the auditory brainstem. PMID:22922217

Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Klapp, Burghard F; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Olze, Heidi

2012-08-17

31

Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students

Sheila Sheu; Huey-Shyan Lin; Shiow-Li Hwang

2002-01-01

32

Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about the existence of independent location- or context specific forms of physical activity. This study sought to identify location-specific forms of physical activity in a sample of 9 and 15 years-olds Norwegian boys and girls, and examined their associations to psycho-social and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls) was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH) tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates. Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a) school commuting, b) informal games play at school and c) organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity. Conclusion Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity, in which age may come to moderate the efficiency of intervention efforts.

Ommundsen, Yngvar; Klasson-Heggeb?, Lena; Anderssen, Sigmund A

2006-01-01

33

Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery.…

Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

1996-01-01

34

PsychoSocial Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the previous chapters we addressed legislation for victims of terrorism and their needs. The following chapters will discuss\\u000a specific interventions that relate to the needs of victims of terrorism. These chapters are divided according to the main\\u000a headings of the CoE Guidelines for Victims of Terrorism, with Chapter 5 discussing access and administration of justice, Chapter\\u000a 6 discussing compensation,

Antony Pemberton

2010-01-01

35

Drought Mitigation and Gender Challenge: a Social Approach to a Mediterranean Environ m e ntal Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the arid and semi- arid areas, drought mitigation is something strictly related to a Country develop m e nt. A right, open- minded approach to gender- related problems is, equally, tightly linked to the real develop m e nt of a Nation or a population. The latter could give an important contribution to the solution of the former and

Rosanna Quagliariello

36

Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.  

PubMed

An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR. PMID:18583297

Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

2008-01-01

37

Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

1975-01-01

38

Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

1975-01-01

39

[Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

40

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy of the addition of a psycho-social intervention to standard-of-care services in reducing attrition and improving attendance among first-time users of methadone maintenance treatment in China.  

PubMed

Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an important means of HIV control, MMT clinics commonly have high attrition rates. The randomized controlled trial investigated the relative efficacy of adding a psycho-social intervention to the standard-of-care MMT in reducing attrition and non-attendance among first-time newly admitted MMT users in China (n = 288). Social workers implemented this three-phase intervention that was based on a behavioral maintenance theory. It also involved participants' family members and rectified some MMT-related misconceptions. As compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significantly lower likelihood of attrition (HR = 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80), lower estimated probability of attrition at Month 12 (0.35 vs. 0.55), and higher median number of days of attendance (Month 6: 147 vs. 91 days, p < 0.001; end-date: 225 vs. 142 days, p < 0.001). Further psycho-social services and translational research are warranted. PMID:23413126

Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Xu, Huifang; Zhong, Ying; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Yuteng; Fan, Lirui; Ling, Wenhua

2013-07-01

41

Flow and Health: A Bio-psycho-social Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health is so fundamental to the biocultural survival of individuals and groups that complex bodies of knowledge about preventive\\u000a lifestyles, disease, and treatment have been developed across cultures and millennia. This chapter deals with the role of\\u000a optimal experience in promoting health, by first presenting the dominant WHO definitions of health, held as universally valid\\u000a standards across cultures. It then

Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi

42

NEUROTIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN: A PSYCHO-SOCIAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thirty neurotic children and their parents seen consecutively at the C.G.C., Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, were studied with the help of a structured interview schedule and were subjected to detailed psychiatric assessment. The results were compared with that of thirty normal children and their parents who were studied in a like manner. Hysteria was found to be the commonest type of neurosis seen in C.G.C. population, followed by anxiety neurosis. In a number of cases there was a close similarity between symptoms presented by the children and the symptoms of parents who were suffering from neurotic or physical illness at the same time. The relevance of these findings are discussed.

Sharma, S. N; Bhat, V. K; Sengupta, J.

1980-01-01

43

The multi-channel challenge: A dynamic capability approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maturing of e-commerce, the diffusion of call centres into the B2B space and purchaser demands on price and service are leading to rapid change in the route to market in many B2B sectors, with shifting combinations of channels being offered to the customer in the search for advantage. In this situation managers can no longer rely on the channel

Hugh Wilson; Elizabeth Daniel

2007-01-01

44

Secrecy, anonymity, and deception in donor insemination: a genetic, psycho-social and ethical critique.  

PubMed

The number of medically assisted conceptions involving donors is increasing. At the same time, due to advances in medicine, greater emphasis has been placed on an individual's genetic origins. This trend places individuals who have no access to information on their genetic origins in a vulnerable position. Because of the secrecy and anonymity that has surrounded donor inseminations, many individuals who were so conceived are irreversibly cut off from any possible contact with or even knowledge about their genetic fathers, who will also never have the opportunity to meet their offspring. In view of the accumulated evidence concerning the detrimental effect of secrecy, anonymity and deception in donor insemination, this paper argues that these practices are not only psychologically and socially harmful but also ethically unacceptable. PMID:9711687

Landau, R

1998-01-01

45

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's \\/ Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health function, particularly in later life. This study assesses the health impact of the condition in a large group of patients. In addition, it assesses the similarity in age of diagnosis,

I Christopher McManus; Hannah M Mitchison; Eddie MK Chung; Georgina F Stubbings; Naomi Martin

2003-01-01

46

The Psycho-Social Dimensions of the Equity Struggle in Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The psychosocial dimensions of filing grievances in academia were studied, along with faculty members' views of the experience, factors contributing to success or failure, the effect of age and sex, and effectiveness in achieving sex equity. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 41 grievants at a major eastern university. Fifty-four percent…

Kahn, Ethel D.

47

Psycho-Social Factors as Predictors of Success in a Work-Release Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the significance of social and environmental factors as predictors of the rehabilitative potential of an inmate. Work history must be used as a whole. The more recent a good history, the more successful an inmate's jail record. Work factors may aid in selecting narcotics-addicted inmates for work-release programs. (Author/BEF)|

Brahen, Leonard S.; And Others

1979-01-01

48

The Relationship between Social Skills and Psycho-Social Functioning in Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between anxiety and performance dimensions of adolescents' social skills and their self-esteem, well-being, coping, and social support. Found that scores on a social skills measure and on measures of the four psychosocial factors were related. The social skills measure identified three subgroups (assertives,…

Bijstra, Jan O.; And Others

1994-01-01

49

Psycho-Social Aspects of Educating Epileptic Children: Roles for School Psychologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Epileptic children may have physical and emotional needs which can interfere with learning and socialization. Current prevalence estimates, definitions, and classifications of epilepsy are surveyed. Factors affecting the epileptic child's school performance and specific learning problems are addressed. Specific roles are presented for school…

Frank, Brenda B.

1985-01-01

50

'The Elephant Man' as 'self' and 'other': the psycho-social costs of a misdiagnosis.  

PubMed

'The Elephant Man's Disease' acquired enormous notoriety through the portrayals of the life of Joseph Merrick, 'The Elephant Man', on American stage, screen and television. These portrayals, inspired by Ashley Montagu's book, The Elephant Man (1971) parleyed the designation of Merrick's condition into a household phrase, a metaphor for the grimmest extreme of ugliness. This paper explores the impact of 'The Elephant Man' as the chief referent and role model for persons who believed they shared the condition of neurofibromatosis 1, a neurological genetic disorder, which was erroneously believed at the time his story was popularized to have affected Joseph Merrick. Data were gathered through interviews with sixty affected individuals and families about their responses to the media representations of 'The Elephant Man'. Informants were recruited from three NF Support Groups and two urban hospital caseloads in Northern California. PMID:7667653

Ablon, J

1995-06-01

51

Health-related behaviours and psycho-social characteristics of 18 year-old Australians.  

PubMed

Psychosocial variables associated with health-related behaviours for diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking were examined in 18 year-old Australian men (n = 301) and women (n = 282). These psychosocial variables included Type A behaviour and depression, perceived self-efficacy for engaging in healthy behaviours and perceived barriers to performing these behaviours. Self-efficacy for following a healthy diet and moderating alcohol intake was greater in females but males had higher self-efficacy for physical activity. Self-efficacy for smoking did not differ according to gender. Lack of willpower was perceived as a barrier to desirable dietary, smoking and physical activity behaviours. Other perceived diet-related barriers included buying suitable foods when eating out, ignorance about appropriate foods and, in young women, perceived expense. Barriers for desirable levels of physical activity included planning time, tiredness, limiting social life and lack of social support. Social occasions were the main perceived barriers preventing both alcohol moderation and quitting smoking. Lack of family support, stress and concerns about weight gain, particularly in women, were perceived barriers to smoking cessation. Type A behaviour was associated with smoking and "unsafe" drinking in both men and women, generally unhealthy dietary choices in young women but with greater physical activity in young men. Depressive affect was significantly higher in female smokers and "unsafe" drinkers and tended to have an inverse relationship with physical activity in men and women. Depressive affect was inversely related to self-efficacy in both men and women for each of the health behaviours examined. Health promotion in young adults should therefore attempt to increase self-efficacy and address perceived barriers to change, taking into account gender-related differences in attitudes and the influence of depression and Type A characteristics on health-related behaviours. PMID:9351145

Milligan, R A; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Richards, J; Dunbar, D; Spencer, M; Balde, E; Gracey, M P

1997-11-01

52

Divided Countries, Divided Mind 1: Psycho-Social Issues in Adaptation Problems of North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification.

2008-01-01

53

Parent, psycho-social, and household factors associated with urban children's active commuting to school  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Active commuting to school (ACS), i.e. walking or cycling to school, has been proposed as a method to increase physical activity. Few studies have examined children's ACS using the framework of behavior change theory. This study used social cognitive theory as the framework. The objective of this st...

54

The quality and quantity of social support: Stroke recovery as psycho-social transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of various types and amounts of social support is examined in the context of recovery from first stroke. We conceptualize the rehabilitation process as a psychosocial transition. In a longitudinal design, 44 patients were followed for 6 months following first stroke. Growth-curve analysis (repeated measures MANOVA) was utilized to examine the impact of three types of social support

Thomas A. Glass; George L. Maddox

1992-01-01

55

On the psycho-social conditions of psychotherapy in post-Soviet Georgia.  

PubMed

The article describes the social, economic and political conditions that influence the practice of psychotherapy in post-Soviet Georgia. The author looks at the specific Soviet and post-Soviet mentalities and defines certain characteristics of these mentalities, the master-slave relationship between the people and the State, the materialistic world view, the nostalgia for the past and idealization of Soviet times, the identity crisis produced by the socio-economic traumas. The paper then provides clinical illustrations of these phenomena and shows how they can interfere with the process of psychotherapy. PMID:12833811

Korinteli, Rezo

2003-06-01

56

Psycho-social dysfunctions in patients after recovery from mania and depression.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular opinion, complete functional recovery does not occur in approximately 25% of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorders. The current study aimed at finding the recovery status in major mood disorders. A sample group of 122 patients (77 bipolar and 45 major depression) was selected from the outpatient department, fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. All patients had their index episodes at least one year prior to their date of inclusion and were either asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic during that time. Manics and depressives were rated with the Bech Raefelson Mania Scale (BRMS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) respectively. All the patients were also rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Dysfunction Analysis Questionnaire (DAQ) and Global Evaluation Scale of Disability Assessment Schedule by WHO (GES/DAS). They were compared with 40 age and sex matched normal controls. It was found that the symptomatic recovery was better than the functional recovery in both manics and depressives and patients with major depression were marginally more dysfunctional compared to those with mania. It is concluded that a majority of patients of both mania and depression do not achieve complete functional recovery and are in need of on-going psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:10669980

Pradhan, S C; Sinha, V K; Singh, T B

1999-12-01

57

Information-Seeking Behaviour and PsychoSocial Interactions during the Genetic Testing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the information-seeking behaviour (ISB) of women attending cancer genetic consultations at which the possibility of BRCA testing is considered. We focused here specifically on ISB apart from the cancer genetic consultation, i.e. on what complementary sources of information about genetic testing were consulted and what factors were involved in this

C. Cypowyj; F. Eisinger; M. Morin; A. Mogoutov; H. Sobol; C. Julian-Reynier

2003-01-01

58

Erikson's Theory of Psycho-Social Development: The Socialization of Developmental Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Juxtaposes Erikson's theory of psychosocial development with Goldberg's concept of developmental drama. Suggests that research in this area could (1) strengthen the skills of directors, playwrights, and pedagogues and (2) offer educators and administrators a scientifically valid case for the value of children's theater in the schools. (PD)|

Woodruff, Marci

1982-01-01

59

Religion and Bio-Psycho- Social Health: A Review and Conceptual Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research-based conceptual model respectively linking three dimensions of religious experience (religious practices, spiritual beliefs, and faith community) with three dimensions of health (biological, psychological, and social). The model is used as a framework to highlight findings in the religion-health knowledge base and to provide a broad survey of this domain of inquiry. Considerations for future research

Loren Marks

2005-01-01

60

Psycho-social aspects of HIV infection and AIDS in multiple transfused thalassemic children.  

PubMed

Two hundred and three multi-transfused children with thalassemia attending the thalassemia clinic of the Charak Palika Hospital, New Delhi were screened for human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) antibodies by ELISA test. All positive cases were confirmed by the Western blot test. Of the 203 children screened, 17 (8.37%) were HIV seropositive and the other 3 children referred to the AIIMS were from neighbouring states. These children were compared with 20 age matched HIV negative thalassemics as controls. Of the 20 HIV positive children, four were diagnosed to have clinical AIDS according to the WHO criteria. The clinical features were similar to those described in pediatric AIDS from other parts of the world. This paper describes the clinical features, behavioural problems, cognitive functions and developmental milestones of the children with AIDS. PMID:1452260

Khan, M A

61

Urinary Incontinence among older Mexican American men: Risk factors and psycho-social consequences  

PubMed Central

Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic White and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditionsand men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey.

Gerst, K.; Ray, L.A.; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D.V; Markides, K.S.

2011-01-01

62

PsychoSocial Processes in Dealing with Legal Innovation in the Community: Insights from Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the\\u000a conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land\\u000a and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental\\u000a protection. In this article,

Paula Castro; Carla Mouro

2011-01-01

63

Demographic and Psycho-Social Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several demographic and psychosocial variables affect assessment and treatment of chronic pain patients. The variables include demographic characteristics, life styles, family constellations, job conditions, financial status, support networks, and leisure activities. In recent years clinics and programs have emerged in a variety of…

Auvenshine, Dwight

64

[Demand of diagnosis and treatment for work-related psycho-social discomfort: trend of phenomenon].  

PubMed

This study is aimed at updating the knowledge on case records of workers examined at the "Center for Occupational Stress and Harassment" of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" in Milan. A sample of patients examined between 2009 and 2011 (n = 198) was compared with a sample examined in 2003 (n = 226). Compared to the past case records, the latter sample included a significantly higher number of graduates (chi2 = 6.6; p < 0.05) and managers (chi2 = 21.5; p < 0.01), employees from the private sector (chi2 = 11.3; p < 0.01), trade (chi2 =22.6; p < 0.01) and micro/small enterprises (chi2 = 41.9; p < 0.001). Company changes and organizational conflicts were the main antecedents for workplace bullying. PMID:23393875

Punzi, S; Castellini, G; Cassitto, M G; Leocata, G; Costa, G

65

Challenger: A Multi-agent System for Distributed Resource Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce Challenger, a multiagent system that performs completely distributed resource allocation. Challenger consists of agents which individually manage local resources; these agents communicate with one another to share their resources (in this particular instance, CPU time) in an attempt to more efficiently utilize them. By endowing the agents with relatively simple behaviors which rely on only

Anthony Chavez; Alexandros Moukas; Pattie Maes

1997-01-01

66

The adolescent sexual world and AIDS prevention: a democratic approach to programme design in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to redress the under-representation of adolescent attitudes in AIDS prevention programme design and to discuss the implications of a democratic sexuality education approach within a health promotion context. The study surveyed the attitudes of adolescents (average age 16 years) on sex-related topics such as culture, marriage, sexual behaviour and sex education, identified similarities and differences in attitudes according to gender and socio-economic environments, and examined sources of students' knowledge of selected sex-related topics. Questionnaires were completed by 3429 secondary school students from different backgrounds. Findings showed significant differences in attitude related to gender and socio-economic settings and also in sources of information. The study drew on a democratic sexuality education approach. Using this approach, adolescents review ideological perspectives and decide which are most appropriate for them as guides in making decisions about their own lives. This type of education is fully consistent with the principles of democratic living and gives guidance to teenagers who are trying to decide how to live a healthy life. Study results suggest that programmers would be well advised to collect information from the adolescents' psycho-social-economic environment and link it with good governance and civil society strategies in developing AIDS prevention programmes that involve the adolescent in making lifestyle decisions. To achieve a more supportive environment for AIDS prevention, this approach can link adolescent attitudes and health promotion action to advocate for public policy reform, gender equality, multi-dimensional partnerships and social marketing. PMID:11356751

Schatz, P; Dzvimbo, K P

2001-06-01

67

Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

2007-01-01

68

Psycho-social Reactions of Palestinian Families in Israel and the West Bank Following War-related Losses.  

PubMed

Background: Mental health practitioners in Israel encounter clients from a variety of ethnic groups and cultural backgrounds. Yet, culturally-informed practice standards have neither been defined nor promoted by the professional establishment. Method: A model for cultural-competence training for mental health professionals is presented and evaluated based on self-reports of 51 trainees. Results: An increase in the trainees' understanding of their clients' cultural experiences is elicited, as well as the expansion of their cultural self-awareness, empathy and respect for cultural diversity. limitations: this is a qualitative evaluation with a limited number of respondents and provides data only on short term effects of the training. Conclusions: the evaluation demonstrates positive training effects on the practice. Hopefully, this experience will encourage addressing cultural issues in the practice and training of mental health professionals in Israel. PMID:23314093

Mirsky, Julia

2012-01-01

69

Discussion paper: what happened to the ‘bio’ in the bio-psycho-social model of low back pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Over 20 years ago the term non-specific low back pain became popular to convey the limitations of our knowledge of the pathological\\u000a source of most people’s low back pain. Knowledge of underlying pathology has advanced little since then, despite limited improvements\\u000a in outcomes for patients with low back pain. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper discusses potential misunderstandings related to diagnostic studies in the field

Mark J. HancockChris; Chris G. Maher; Mark Laslett; Elaine Hay; Bart Koes

70

Bridging the Gap: Can Impairment-Based Therapy for Anomia Have an Impact at the Psycho-Social Level?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Studies of therapy with people with aphasia tend to use impairment-based and functional measures of outcome. The views of participants are not formally evaluated. Current health and socialcare practice requires intervention to be explicitly client-centred and evidence-based. It is therefore important to investigate the broader effects…

Best, Wendy; Greenwood, Alison; Grassly, Jennie; Hickin, Julie

2008-01-01

71

Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz

2011-01-01

72

Dyslexia and Psycho-Social Functioning: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Self-Esteem and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the "Self-Perception Profile for Children"…

Terras, Melody M.; Thompson, Lucy C.; Minnis, Helen

2009-01-01

73

Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.  

PubMed

To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations. PMID:20012203

Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

2011-04-01

74

[Psycho-social and religious impact of cancer diagnosis on Moroccan patients: experience from the National Oncology Center of Rabat].  

PubMed

The impact cancer occurrence is variable according to the sociocultural issue, specific to each context and each area. In order to determine the psychosocial profile of Moroccan patients that have developed cancers, four studies were performed at the National institute of oncology (INO) in Rabat. These studies were prospective, included between 125 and 1,600 patients and were based on questionnaires developed by a medical oncologist, a psychologist and a sociologist. These studies were focused on the psychosocial characteristics of the Moroccan cancer occurrence on patients, the impact of cancer on the religious practice as well as the impact of cancer and its treatments on patients' sexuality. In this article, we will develop the particular characteristics of moroccan patients that were specific to their sociocultural context. PMID:20385518

Errihani, H; Mrabti, H; Sbitti, Y; Kaikani, W; El Ghissassi, I; Afqir, S; Boutayeb, S; Farik, M; Riadi, A; Hammoudi, M; Chergui, H

2010-04-01

75

An evaluation of in-patient alcohol\\/drug treatment using psycho-social functioning and substance use criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis conducted an evaluation of Australian alcohol\\/drug treatment effectiveness by examining the interaction of client psychosocial and substance use characteristics with the characteristics of two different treatment programmes of different durations and operating from different philosophical positions. Information was gathered from clients in treatment at various stages of their engagement with their programmes of choice with the aim of

Mario Antony Farina

1998-01-01

76

Self-Reported Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) Among Older Mexican–American Men: Risk Factors and PsychoSocial Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic Whites and little is known about ethnic\\u000a minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican–American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004\\/5) of the Hispanic Established\\u000a Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported\\u000a UUI and the impact of

K. GerstL; L. A. Ray; R. Samper-Ternent; D. V. Espino; K. S. Markides

77

A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

Phillips, Susi Erika

78

Agile approaches to meet complex system of system engineering challenges: A defence perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies four challenges facing researchers and practitioners of Systems Engineering and Systems Thinking in defence capability: Language, Complexity, Longevity and Agility. Its purpose is to stimulate a debate on how best to meet these through systems research and systems engineering. It argues that this will require innovation in the development of new systems engineering practices for all parts

David Oxenham

2010-01-01

79

Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

Raines, J. Thayer

1991-01-01

80

Tackling Today's Data Center Energy Efficiency Challenges—A Software-oriented Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is a growing concern for data centers. Advances in server equipment technologies and increased demand for computing power have increased load densities in the computer room, which in turn has caused corresponding increases in data center power consumption. Energy efficiency measures are thus of high importance for data center designers, operators, and owners. This article outlines a software-based

James Parker; Hugh Lindsay; Bill Brown

2009-01-01

81

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc

2010-01-01

82

Meeting the nutrition challenge: a call to arms.  

PubMed

Recent data points to a slowdown in the rate of nutritional advance in many regions of the world and a downturn in some countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This slowdown, however, is unnecessary. Even over the past 5 years, major advances have been made in some areas of nutrition, particularly in reducing by 1.5 billion the number of people at risk from iodine deficiency disorders. The world, working together as an international community, can make progress in nutrition. In 1992, the governments of 159 countries adopted the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition, declaring their determination to eliminate hunger and reduce all forms of malnutrition. By adopting the declaration and plan of action, governments agreed to develop national plans of action, using the technical expertise of UN agencies. As of 1996, 106 countries had prepared national plans of action for nutrition and most countries in which the national plan has been endorsed by the government are actively pursuing its implementation. Several countries, however, especially the poorest, lack the human and financial resources needed for implementation. Now, almost 5 years after the adoption of the plan, the global impact upon almost all forms of malnutrition falls far short of that required to meet the goals for the year 2000. If current trends continue, no region except Latin America and the Caribbean will achieve the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition and 1990 World Summit for Children goals to reduce levels of child malnutrition by 2000. A holistic, international approach is needed to prevent malnutrition. PMID:12321586

1997-07-01

83

Subjective Response to Alcohol Challenge: A Quantitative Review  

PubMed Central

Background Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol, as measured by laboratory-based alcohol challenge, have been identified as a candidate phenotypic risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Two models have been developed to explain the role of subjective response to alcohol, but predictions from the two models are contradictory, and theoretical consensus is lacking. Methods This investigation used a meta-analytic approach to review the accumulated evidence from alcohol-challenge studies of subjective response as a risk factor. Data from 32 independent samples (total N = 1,314) were aggregated to produce quantitative estimates of the effects of risk group status (i.e., positive family history of AUDs or heavier alcohol consumption) on subjective response. Results As predicted by the Low Level of Response Model (LLRM), family history positive groups experienced reduced overall subjective response relative to family history negative groups. This effect was most evident among men, with family history positive men responding more than half a standard deviation less than family history negative men. In contrast, consistent with the Differentiator Model (DM), heavier drinkers of both genders responded 0.4 standard deviations less on measures of sedation than did lighter drinkers but nearly half a standard deviation more on measures of stimulation, with the stimulation difference appearing most prominent on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve. Conclusions The accumulated results from three decades of family history comparisons provide considerable support for the LLRM. In contrast, results from typical consumption comparisons were largely consistent with predictions of the DM. The LLRM and DM may describe two distinct sets of phenotypic risk, with importantly different etiologies and predictions for the development of AUDs.

Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

2011-01-01

84

76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...110420251-1255-01] The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated...Administration announces the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (Accelerator...Federal agencies and bureaus to accelerate innovation-fueled job creation and economic...

2011-04-27

85

Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies  

PubMed Central

Background Proper understanding of the roles of, and interactions between genetic, lifestyle, environmental and psycho-social factors in determining the risk of development and/or progression of chronic diseases requires access to very large high-quality databases. Because of the financial, technical and time burdens related to developing and maintaining very large studies, the scientific community is increasingly synthesizing data from multiple studies to construct large databases. However, the data items collected by individual studies must be inferentially equivalent to be meaningfully synthesized. The DataSchema and Harmonization Platform for Epidemiological Research (DataSHaPER; http://www.datashaper.org) was developed to enable the rigorous assessment of the inferential equivalence, i.e. the potential for harmonization, of selected information from individual studies. Methods This article examines the value of using the DataSHaPER for retrospective harmonization of established studies. Using the DataSHaPER approach, the potential to generate 148 harmonized variables from the questionnaires and physical measures collected in 53 large population-based studies (6.9 million participants) was assessed. Variable and study characteristics that might influence the potential for data synthesis were also explored. Results Out of all assessment items evaluated (148 variables for each of the 53 studies), 38% could be harmonized. Certain characteristics of variables (i.e. relative importance, individual targeted, reference period) and of studies (i.e. observational units, data collection start date and mode of questionnaire administration) were associated with the potential for harmonization. For example, for variables deemed to be essential, 62% of assessment items paired could be harmonized. Conclusion The current article shows that the DataSHaPER provides an effective and flexible approach for the retrospective harmonization of information across studies. To implement data synthesis, some additional scientific, ethico-legal and technical considerations must be addressed. The success of the DataSHaPER as a harmonization approach will depend on its continuing development and on the rigour and extent of its use. The DataSHaPER has the potential to take us closer to a truly collaborative epidemiology and offers the promise of enhanced research potential generated through synthesized databases.

Fortier, Isabel; Doiron, Dany; Little, Julian; Ferretti, Vincent; L'Heureux, Francois; Stolk, Ronald P; Knoppers, Bartha M; Hudson, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R

2011-01-01

86

Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey  

PubMed Central

Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP) patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT), Treatment Based Classification (TBC), Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC), Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI), and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS) schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i) loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC) aimed at eliciting a phenomenon of centralisation of symptoms; and (ii) modified movement strategies (MSI, OCS) targeted towards documenting the movement impairments associated with the pain state. Conclusions Schemes vary on: the extent to which loading strategies are pursued; the assessment of movement dysfunction; and advocated treatment approaches. A biomechanical assessment predominates in the majority of schemes (MDT, PBC, MSI), certain psychosocial aspects (fear-avoidance) are considered in the TBC scheme, certain neurophysiologic (central versus peripherally mediated pain states) and psychosocial (cognitive and behavioural) aspects are considered in the OCS scheme.

2012-01-01

87

SaveDisney.com and Activist Challenges: A Habermasian Perspective on Corporate Legitimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a Habermasian framework for evaluating and generating challenges to organizational legitimacy. The launch of the SaveDisney.com web site represents an innovative example of an Internet-based activist public successfully challenging a corporation's legitimacy and advocating for changes in corporate governance. Legitimacy research has focused on strategies used by organizations to build legitimacy (e.g., Dowling & Pfeffer, 1975; Metzler,

Sarah Bonewits Feldner; Rebecca J. Meisenbach

2007-01-01

88

Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a routine diabetes clinic: the association of psycho-social factors, diabetes knowledge and glycaemic control to insulin regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In controlled trials intensified diabetes therapy including multiple insulin injection regimes has been shown to improve glycaemic and microvascular disease outcomes in insulin dependent diabetes but this is not clear in routine outpatient practice. We undertook a pragmatic cross sectional study of 200 patients with Type 1 diabetes aged 18–50 years. There were 108 on two insulin injections\\/day (conventional) and

Bhupinder K. Pawar; Simon Walford; Baldev Malkit Singh

1999-01-01

89

Children of mothers who are at psycho-social risk. Mental health, behaviour problems and incidence of child abuse at age 8 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 1575 pregnant women registered at the public Antenatal Health Care Service in the city of Linköping, Sweden, during 1983, an index-group of 78 women were identified who met specific well-defined psychosocial risk-criteria related to drug addiction, mental insufficiency, and particular social circumstances of possible relevance to problems of pregnancy and early child development. Seventy-eight pregnant women who did

C. G. Svedin; M. Wadsby; G. Sydsjö

1996-01-01

90

TREATMENT Validation of a Scale for Rating the Delivery of PsychoSocial Treatments for Alcohol Dependence and Misuse: The UKATT Process Rating Scale (PRS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the development and validation of the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial Process Rating Scale (UKATT PRS), a manual based method for monitoring and rating the delivery of psychosocial treatments of alcohol dependence and misuse. Methods: Following adaptation and further development of a validated rating scale, the ability of the UKATT PRS to

Gillian Tober; Wendy Clyne; Olwyn Finnegan; Amanda Farrin; Ian Russell

91

[The Professor Luis Cerqueira Center for Psycho-Social Care Photocopier Project: from the reproduction of things to a productive life].  

PubMed

This study was born out of the necessity manifested by a portion of the population which uses the mental health service linked to the process of production of materialistic life through work. The intention was to comprehend the significance of work using historical and dialectic materialism as a reference, based upon the concepts of psycosocial rehabilitation and was performed through the analysis of discourses of the users. The site is the Prof. Luis Cerqueira Center for Psyco-Social Care (CAPS). The results evidence the comprehension of work as an instrument which enabled the users access to the field of social rights. PMID:12876848

e Silva, Ana Luisa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria

2002-12-01

92

Psycho-social, ethical and legal arguments for and against the retrospective release of information about donors to donor-conceived individuals in Australia.  

PubMed

In the February 2011 report on its inquiry into the past and present practices of donor conception in Australia, the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee called for the introduction of legislation to regulate donor conception in all jurisdictions that do not have it in place "as a matter of priority". It further called for the establishment, "as a matter of priority", of a national register of donors to enable donor-conceived individuals to access identifying information about their donor. The Senate Committee left open the question as to whether the legislation and central register should have retrospective effect. This article focuses upon that question. It shows that arguments concerning the privacy, confidentiality and anonymity of some donors who may wish to remain anonymous are outweighed by the manifest injustice faced by donor-conceived individuals who are denied access to such information, as well as their families and donors who wish to exchange this information, PMID:22320008

Allan, Sonia

2011-12-01

93

A Pilot Theory-Based Intervention to Improve Resilience, PsychoSocial Well-Being and Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study aimed at fostering resilience among people living with HIV (PLWH) and improving the HIV-negative participants’ acceptance of PLWH. A group of 75 PLWH who were former blood\\/plasma donors and 36 HIV-negative fellow-villagers in rural China participated in the intervention. The eight sessions lasted for four months and were facilitated by trained local family planning officers. The intervention's

Xiaonan Yu; Joseph T. F. Lau; Winnie W. S. Mak; Yimin Cheng; Yanhong Lv; Jianxin Zhang

2012-01-01

94

Dangerous encounters? Boys' peer dynamics and neighbourhood risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered subjectivities are shaped by the specific

Jenny Parkes; Anna Conolly

2012-01-01

95

Psychiatric evaluation in dermatology: an overview.  

PubMed

Psychodermatology is an exciting field which deals with the close relationship that exists between dermatological and psychiatric disorders. A combined bio-psycho-social approach is essential for effective evaluation and treatment of these conditions. This review aims to give the practicing clinician an overview of psychiatric evaluation in patients with dermatological conditions. PMID:23372211

Ghosh, Sreyoshi; Behere, Rishikesh V; Sharma, Psvn; Sreejayan, K

2013-01-01

96

Adolescent Female Assent in Clinical Trials: A Model Assent Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple issues concerning the assent process for adolescent female participation in clinical trials are present in a process that has historically been based on an adult developmental and cognitive perspective. Adolescents are experiencing physiological and psycho-social, sexual growth and, therefore, should not be approached as though they are adults. This paper addresses important assent elements from the unique developmental perspective

Debra Mattison; Terry M. VandenBosch; Errol Soskolne; Becky Ward

2002-01-01

97

O modelo de atenção integral à saúde para tratamento de problemas decorrentes do uso de álcool e outras drogas: percepções de usuários, acompanhantes e profissionais* Integral healthcare model for treating problems caused by alcohol and other drugs: perceptions of users, their companions and practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an integral healthcare model for the users of alcohol and other drugs, the ex- pansion of Brazil's Psycho-Social Care Centers ? Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS-AD) is guided by the acknowledgement of users as citizens rather than patients, aiming at social reinsertion through an intersectoral approach and damage control, as well as other principles designed to build up integral

Maristela Moraes

98

Diabetes and behavioral medicine: The second decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes management depends almost entirely on behavioral self-regulation. Behavioral scientists have continued a collaboration with other health systems researchers to develop a holistic approach to this disease. The authors summarized the literature in 4 major areas: self-management of diabetes, psycho- social adjustment and quality of life, neuropsychological impact, and psychobehavioral intervention development. Progress made in each of these areas over

Linda A. Gonder-Frederick; Daniel J. Cox; Lee M. Ritterband

2002-01-01

99

Dangerous Encounters? Boys' Peer Dynamics and Neighbourhood Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article traces links between subjectivity, peer relations and neighbourhood risk for a group of boys living in an area of London with high levels of crime, gang activity and socio-economic inequality. Drawing on data from a qualitative study of young people and neighbourhood risk, we use a psycho-social approach to analyse how gendered…

Parkes, Jenny; Conolly, Anna

2013-01-01

100

COTS approach to a utility VTOL UAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many UAVs are in the market place but few are very profitable. After studying the lessons learned form our predecessors, a commercial off the shelf approach was chosen to meet the price performance challenge. A multi-mission capable aircraft was chosen to provide exposure to the widest possible market. Using an analysis tool developed for DARPA, the Vigilante VTOL UAV was

Jay R. Snyder

1998-01-01

101

A Labor Market Approach to the Crisis of Health Care Professionals in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adopts a labor market economics perspective to understanding the crisis of health care professionals in Africa. Five challenges resulting from this crisis are identified: a production challenge, an underutilization challenge, a distributional challenge, a performance challenge, and a financing challenge. Differences between the labor market approach and others used in the health field are noted. We conclude that

Mabel Andalón; Gary Fields

2011-01-01

102

Multiple Imputations Applied to the DREAM3 Phosphoproteomics Challenge: A Winning Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

DREAM is an initiative that allows researchers to assess how well their methods or approaches can describe and predict networks of interacting molecules [1]. Each year, recently acquired datasets are released to predictors ahead of publication. Researchers typically have about three months to predict the masked data or network of interactions, using any predictive method. Predictions are assessed prior to

Nicolas Guex; Eugenia Migliavacca; Ioannis Xenarios; Mark Isalan

2010-01-01

104

Design challenges: A new path to understanding science concepts and skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tests an alternative strategy for developing science curricula based on two developmental models: skill theory (Fischer, 1980) and perceptual control theory (Powers, 1978). Traditional and Discovery Science programs are introduced as ways to map out a continuum of currently used strategies in science curriculum development. The continuum is used as a framework for understanding how the proposed alternative model of curriculum development compares with the Traditional and Discovery approaches. The alternative model incorporates activities already in development at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in a NSF funded program called DESIGNS (Doable Engineering Science Investigations Geared for Non-science Students). This thesis suggests a strategy for sequencing existing activities in DESIGNS as well as describes an approach for building and sequencing new activities in science. Microdevelopment, a phenomena observed in short term learning (Fischer & Granott, 1995), is used as a tool for refining the content of activities as well articulating the need for a developmental framework in curriculum development. Pedagogical criteria for all three approaches were defined first, and then used to build three two-week units on electromagnetism for middle school students. All three units were tested in two different schools in New England with 125 seventh and eighth grade students. Three measures were used: a concept assessment questionnaire to evaluate changes in understanding, a skills test (TIPS II) to evaluate changes in student's ability to choose appropriate skills in science experiments, and a reaction survey to assess the student thoughts on each activity in the unit. Results indicate that students participating in the DESIGNS curriculum showed significant improvement in conceptual understanding, and limited but significant improvement in skill development. The Discovery curriculum showed gains in concept understanding early in the unit, but the effect disappeared by the end of the study. There was no change in skill development in this group. The Traditional curriculum showed no gains in either concept understanding or skill development. Overall students preferred activities that required experimenting no matter which curriculum they were in.

Schwartz, Marc Stephan

105

COTS approach to a utility VTOL UAV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many UAVs are in the market place but few are very profitable. After studying the lessons learned form our predecessors, a commercial off the shelf approach was chosen to meet the price performance challenge. A multi-mission capable aircraft was chosen to provide exposure to the widest possible market. Using an analysis tool developed for DARPA, the Vigilante VTOL UAV was successfully competed against both Outrider and Predator.

Snyder, Jay R.

1998-11-01

106

Orbitozygomatic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is an extension of the basic frontotemporal (FT) approach, which is associated with an OZ\\u000a osteotomy and eventually with zygomatic arch resection. We emphasize that the basic FT approach, for us as for other authors,\\u000a always includes resection of the sphenoid bridge (frontotemporopterional craniotomy).

Renato J. Galzio; Manfred Tschabitscher; Alessandro Ricci

107

Transitional Group Therapy to Promote Resiliency in First-Time Foster Children: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foster care places children at high risk for immediate and long-term psycho-social-educational problems. A therapeutic “cocktail”—transitional group therapy (TGT)—has been developed as an inoculation for first-time foster children in order to inhibit these undesirable effects. TGT combines best practices culled from diverse therapeutic approaches to foster children. Psychoeducational and play therapeutic interventions are included in a group therapy context. This

Patricia A. Craven; Robert E. Lee

2010-01-01

108

Subtemporal Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The subtemporal approach is historically known as the standard approach for the treatment of tumoral, vascular and inflammatory\\u000a lesions of the middle cranial fossa, the tentorium, the anterior and middle tentorial incisura, the upper-third of the clivus\\u000a and the petroclival region.

Pasqualino Ciappetta; Pietro I. D’Urso

109

Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion Qualità di vita e sviluppo psico-sociale nei bambini con otite media secretiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or care- givers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly con- cerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anx- iety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or care- givers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an

L. BELLUSSI; M. MANDALÀ; F. M. PASSÀLI; G. C. PASSÀLI; M. LAURIELLO; D. PASSALI

110

Culturally Relevant Intervention Strategies for the Psycho-social Development of Children and Youth in Poverty. Workshop Report [of] the International Society for Study of Behavioural Development (India) South Asian Workshop (Chandigarh, India, November 20-23, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A product of the South Asian Regional Workshop of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD), this report was intended to identify problems of low-income families in South Asia and create methods to serve their needs. The report begins with an introduction to the India chapter of the ISSBD; it then provides an…

Unnikrishnan, Namita, Comp.

111

Why did an effective Dutch complex psycho-social intervention for people with dementia not work in the German healthcare context? Lessons learnt from a process evaluation alongside a multicentre RCT.  

PubMed

Background The positive effects of the Dutch Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia programme on patients' daily functioning were not found in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) in Germany. Objectives To evaluate possible effect modification on the primary outcome within the German RCT with regard to (1) participant characteristics, (2) treatment performance and (3) healthcare service utilisation; and (4) to compare the design and primary outcome between the German and the original Dutch study. Methods (1) The impact of participant baseline data on the primary outcome was analysed in exploratory ANCOVA and regression analyses. (2) Therapists completed questionnaires on context and performance problems. The main problems were identified by a qualitative content analysis and focus-group discussion. Associations of the primary outcome with scores of participant adherence and treatment performance were evaluated by regression analysis. (3) Utilisation rates of healthcare services were controlled for significant group differences. (4) Differences in the Dutch and German study design were identified, and the primary outcome was contrasted at the item level. Results (1) Participant characteristics could not explain more than 5% of outcome variance. (2) The treatment performance of some active intervention components was poor but not significantly associated with the primary outcome. (3) There were no significant group differences in the utilisation of healthcare resources. (4) In contrast to the Dutch waiting-control group, the active intervention in the German control group may have reduced group differences in the current RCT. The German patients demonstrated a higher independence at baseline and less improvement in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusion The differences in outcome may be explained by a more active control treatment, partially poor experimental treatment and less room for improvement in the German sample. Future cross-national transfers should be prepared by pilot studies assessing the applicability of the intervention and patient needs specific to the target country. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, DRKS00000053. PMID:22021759

Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian; Graff, Maud; Leonhart, Rainer; Hüll, Michael; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

2011-08-09

112

Rapid elevations in both steroid hormones and vocal signaling during playback challenge: a field experiment in Gulf toadfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that plasma androgens are rapidly released in response to aggressive or sexual stimuli in a broad array of vertebrates. However, experimental work on behavioral functions of rapid androgen elevation is rare. A combination of field-based behavioral experiments and lab-based neuroendocrinological approaches is beginning to show how steroid hormones rapidly regulate the expression of vocal communication signals

Luke Remage-Healey; Andrew H. Bass

2005-01-01

113

Educational approaches.  

PubMed

Three papers were presented in the session focusing on educational approaches: Anu Narusk reported on an Estonian study on the influence of the family on adolescents' substance use, Bernadette Roussille presented a French mass media campaign aimed at reducing heavy drinking by young people, and Sally Casswell analysed the public discourse on alcohol, which is an important part of the social and political context in which decisions are taken about public policies. Each of the papers highlighted in its own way the complex relationships between people's behaviour, its social and cultural context, and the wider economic and political environment. PMID:9167298

Montonen, M

1997-03-01

114

[Neuroprotective approaches].  

PubMed

After introduction of vitreoretinal surgery more than 40 years ago, further development of the procedure involved a continuous reduction of potential toxic effects by irrigating solutions, endoillumination or mechanical manipulation. Recently, additional efforts were made to prevent neurodegeneration via pharmacological intervention. Taurine as additive for irrigating solutions can be considered as an example for neuroprotectants in vitreoretinal surgery. Approval of neuroprotective agents demands an increased effort for preclinical and clinical evaluation. To date, only few neuroprotective substances are used in clinical routine in the context of vitreoretinal surgery, however, experimental data suggest a high potential of various neuroprotective agents. The following article gives an overview of current neuroprotective approaches feasible for vitreoretinal surgery and a critical analysis of their clinical relevance. PMID:24046168

Thaler, S; Haritoglou, C; Schuettauf, F

2013-10-01

115

Multitiered Approach Using Quantitative PCR To Track Sources of Fecal Pollution Affecting Santa Monica Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in urban environments makes tracking of fecal contamination extremely challenging. A multitiered approach was used to assess sources of fecal pollution in Ballona Creek, an urban watershed that drains to the Santa Monica Bay (SMB) near Los Angeles, Calif. A mass-based design at six main-stem sites and

Rachel T. Noble; John F. Griffith; A. Denene Blackwood; Jed A. Fuhrman; Jason B. Gregory; Ximena Hernandez; Xiaolin Liang; Angie A. Bera; Kenneth Schiff

2006-01-01

116

Challenging a Paradigm: Theoretical Calculations of the Protonation State of the Cys25-His159 Catalytic Diad in Free Papain  

PubMed Central

A central mechanistic paradigm of cysteine proteases is that the His – Cys catalytic diad forms an ion-pair NH(+)/S(?) already in the catalytically active free enzyme. Most molecular modeling studies of cysteine proteases refer to this paradigm as their starting point. Nevertheless, several recent kinetics and X-ray crystallography studies of viral and bacterial cysteine proteases depart from the ion-pair mechanism, suggesting general base catalysis. We challenge the postulate of the ion-pair formation in free papain. Applying our QM/SCRF(VS) molecular modeling approach, we analyzed all protonation states of the catalytic diad in free papain and its SMe derivative, comparing the predicted and experimental pKa data. We conclude that the His – Cys catalytic diad in free papain is fully protonated, NH(+)/SH. The experimental pKa=8.62 of His159 imidazole in free papain, obtained by NMR controlled titratin and originally interpreated as the NH(+)/S(?) ? N/S(?) equilibrium, is now assigned to the NH(+)/SH ? N/SH equilibrium.

Shokhen, Michael; Khazanov, Netaly; Albeck, Amnon

2009-01-01

117

Engineered Drug Resistant ?? T Cells Kill Glioblastoma Cell Lines during a Chemotherapy Challenge: A Strategy for Combining Chemo- and Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Classical approaches to immunotherapy that show promise in some malignancies have generally been disappointing when applied to high-grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We recently showed that ex vivo expanded/activated ?? T cells recognize NKG2D ligands expressed on malignant glioma and are cytotoxic to glioma cell lines and primary GBM explants. In addition, ?? T cells extend survival and slow tumor progression when administered to immunodeficient mice with intracranial human glioma xenografts. We now show that temozolomide (TMZ), a principal chemotherapeutic agent used to treat GBM, increases the expression of stress-associated NKG2D ligands on TMZ-resistant glioma cells, potentially rendering them vulnerable to ?? T cell recognition and lysis. TMZ is also highly toxic to ?? T cells, however, and to overcome this cytotoxic effect ?? T cells were genetically modified using a lentiviral vector encoding the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) from the O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) cDNA, which confers resistance to TMZ. Genetic modification of ?? T cells did not alter their phenotype or their cytotoxicity against GBM target cells. Importantly, gene modified ?? T cells showed greater cytotoxicity to two TMZ resistant GBM cell lines, U373TMZ-R and SNB-19TMZ-R cells, in the presence of TMZ than unmodified cells, suggesting that TMZ exposed more receptors for ?? T cell-targeted lysis. Therefore, TMZ resistant ?? T cells can be generated without impairing their anti-tumor functions in the presence of high concentrations of TMZ. These results provide a mechanistic basis for combining chemotherapy and ?? T cell-based drug resistant cellular immunotherapy to treat GBM.

Lamb, Lawrence S.; Bowersock, Joscelyn; Dasgupta, Anindya; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Su, Yun; Johnson, Austin; Spencer, H. Trent

2013-01-01

118

Engineered drug resistant ?? T cells kill glioblastoma cell lines during a chemotherapy challenge: a strategy for combining chemo- and immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Classical approaches to immunotherapy that show promise in some malignancies have generally been disappointing when applied to high-grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We recently showed that ex vivo expanded/activated ?? T cells recognize NKG2D ligands expressed on malignant glioma and are cytotoxic to glioma cell lines and primary GBM explants. In addition, ?? T cells extend survival and slow tumor progression when administered to immunodeficient mice with intracranial human glioma xenografts. We now show that temozolomide (TMZ), a principal chemotherapeutic agent used to treat GBM, increases the expression of stress-associated NKG2D ligands on TMZ-resistant glioma cells, potentially rendering them vulnerable to ?? T cell recognition and lysis. TMZ is also highly toxic to ?? T cells, however, and to overcome this cytotoxic effect ?? T cells were genetically modified using a lentiviral vector encoding the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) from the O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) cDNA, which confers resistance to TMZ. Genetic modification of ?? T cells did not alter their phenotype or their cytotoxicity against GBM target cells. Importantly, gene modified ?? T cells showed greater cytotoxicity to two TMZ resistant GBM cell lines, U373(TMZ-R) and SNB-19(TMZ-R) cells, in the presence of TMZ than unmodified cells, suggesting that TMZ exposed more receptors for ?? T cell-targeted lysis. Therefore, TMZ resistant ?? T cells can be generated without impairing their anti-tumor functions in the presence of high concentrations of TMZ. These results provide a mechanistic basis for combining chemotherapy and ?? T cell-based drug resistant cellular immunotherapy to treat GBM. PMID:23326319

Lamb, Lawrence S; Bowersock, Joscelyn; Dasgupta, Anindya; Gillespie, G Yancey; Su, Yun; Johnson, Austin; Spencer, H Trent

2013-01-11

119

[The inhibition of action. Interdisciplinary approach of its mechanisms and physiopathology].  

PubMed

The author recalls his group's work during the three past decades and how, starting from the study of traumatic states, he established the distinction between shock and stress, physiologically and biologically speaking. According to him, stress supposes a memory process, i.e. the learning of the inefficiency of action in controlling the environmental characteristics. This learning involves cerebral areas and nerve tracks which, as behavioural consequences produce action inhibition. In the neurophysiological field, he underlines the importance, for these mechanisms, of the cortex, dorsal Ammon's horn, lateral tonsil and subthalamic nucleus. He shows why it seems obvious that the mediators of the action inhibiting system are acetylcholine and serotonin. He also recalls the many experimental facts which allow to say that the action inhibiting system is responsible for the release of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenocortical reaction and of the peripheric sympathetic adrenergic reaction to aggression. He finally shows the function of these two systems where the main pathological accidents originate. He also stresses the discovery and the introduction in the therapeutical paraphernalia of a new molecule minaprine, which he considers as inhibiting action inhibition, and as such, as an indirect anti-depressive drug. The pathology, which is said psychosomatic, thus becomes a pathology of action inhibition, where unconscious memory of past interdictions and failures, relates the subject and his present reaction to environment, to his whole psycho-social past. PMID:2904238

Laborit, H

1988-06-01

120

Common clinical problems in children living with HIV/AIDS: systemic approach.  

PubMed

Clinical manifestations in children living with HIV/ AIDS differ from those in adults due to poorly developed immunity that allows greater dissemination throughout various organs. In developing countries, HIV-infected children have an increased frequency of malnutrition and common childhood infections such as ear infections, pneumonias, gastroenteritis and tuberculosis. The symptoms common to many treatable conditions, such as recurrent fever, diarrhea and generalized dermatitis, tend to be more persistent and severe and often do not respond as well to treatment. The use of Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) has greatly increased the long term survival of perinatally infected children so that AIDS is becoming a manageable chronic illness. As the immunity is maintained, the incidence of infectious complications is declining while noninfectious complications of HIV are more frequently encountered. Regular clinical monitoring with immunological and virological monitoring and the introduction of genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing where resources are available have allowed for dramatically better clinical outcomes. However, these growing children are left facing the challenges of lifelong adherence with complex treatment regimens, compounded by complex psycho-social, mental and neuro-cognitive issues. These unique challenges must be recognized and understood in order to provide appropriate medical management. PMID:23015361

Merchant, Rashid H; Lala, Mamatha M

2012-09-27

121

Supporting learning and promoting conceptual change with box and AVOW diagrams. Part 1: Representational design and instructional approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the teaching of electricity is described that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit which portray current, voltage, resistance and power. The diagrams have been developed as aids to learning, understanding and problem solving. They also have the potential to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of commonly

Peter C-H Cheng; David M. Shipstone

2003-01-01

122

Is there a Role of Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India?  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in medical care have improved the survival of newborn babies born with various problems. Despite this death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an inevitable reality. For babies who are not going to “get better,” the health care team still has a duty to alleviate the physical suffering of the baby and to support the family. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to relieve the physical, psycho social, and spiritual suffering of patients and their families. Palliative care provision in the Indian NICU settings is almost nonexistent at present. In this paper we attempt to “build a case” for palliative care in the Indian NICU setting.

Dighe, Manjiri P; Muckaden, Maryann A; Manerkar, Swati A; Duraisamy, Balaji P

2011-01-01

123

Safeguards Challenges: a Japanese View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strengthening of international and regional\\/national safeguards is a vital element for improving the global non-proliferation regime. Japan has been actively involved in promoting the program for strengthening and streamlining IAEA safeguards both within the framework of INFCIRC\\/153 and through additional measures including those under the Additional Protocol (AP) or \\

Kaoru Naito

124

A Workshop Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The science workshop approach is a method of organizing learning centers in developmentally based primary programs. The approach centers on providing a series of meaningful experiences around core science concepts. These experiences are presented in the f

Jones, Ithel

1999-11-01

125

Project planning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the project planning approach utilized by Rockwell Hanford Operations in outdoor cleanup activities. The discussion will address the rationale and requirements as well as description of the planning documents. In addition, a recommended adaptation of this approach to a large scale environmental cleanup process is included. The three major elements of Rockwell Hanford's project planning approach

Toomey

1979-01-01

126

Coupled Cluster Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview concerning the motivations and the development of the coupled cluster approach to the many-electron correlation problem for both closed and open shell systems is given. The basic characteristics and applications of this approach are briefly summarized as well as its relationship to other approaches.

J. Cizek; J. Paldus

1980-01-01

127

The effect of 6-week treatment with escitalopram on CCK-4 challenge: a placebo-controlled study in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5 ± 5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50 ?g) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p = 0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies. PMID:22939006

Tõru, Innar; Maron, Eduard; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Nutt, David J; Shlik, Jakov

2012-08-29

128

Introducing Systems Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven\\u000a track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay\\u000a Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development\\u000a and Analysis (SODA: with

Martin Reynolds; Sue Holwell

2010-01-01

129

The Forgotten Interest Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The interest approach is a vital part of each lesson. Various motivational devices are discussed: photographs, specimens, publications, student experiences, gimmicks, demonstrations, and the multiple option problem. (MW)|

Moore, Gary E.

1974-01-01

130

Modular Approach for Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

131

Generic approaches to transfer.  

PubMed

A review of methods which have been used to describe and predict transfer of radionuclides in biota was undertaken. The intent was to identify approaches that might prove useful in extending predictive estimates to other organisms and environments. Empirical approaches, such as found in the use of transfer factors, were examined. Kinetic methodologies were also presented. Allometric functions, with their ability to make broad generalizations, were also discussed. Data from several earlier radioecological assessments were tested for their potential utility in developing allometric relationships, with the result implying that such an approach might prove useful. PMID:17869391

Higley, K A; Bytwerk, D P

2007-09-14

132

Introducing Systems Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

133

[Evaluation scales, ICF and rehabilitative medicine: correlations in terms of participation level, work abilities and health status. The example of chronic low back pain].  

PubMed

This article aims to report the clinical and research approaches to current Rehabilitative Medicine, to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluation and measurement scales. The Authors introduce the bio-psycho-social model to Disability, outlining the main differences with the biomedical and social models. It is underlined the usefulness of the ICF model, the ICF Core Sets, and the proper choice of measurement scales. Of these latter ones, we present their methodological features, operating procedures to make the right choice, outcome typologies, limits and psychometrics properties. Moreover, the Authors illustrates the possible correlations between ICF model and evaluation scales, outlining the importance of identifying the appropriate outcome scales, covering the rehabilitative thought at the basis of the bio-psycho-social model. By way of an example, we report chronic low back pain bio-psychosocial syndrome, presenting, on the basis of what existing and up-and-coming in International Literature, the possible correlations between ICF constructs and outcome scales, with particular regard to domains of body functions, body structures, activity, participation, personal and environmental factors, health status. PMID:17886761

Monticone, M; Giovanazzi, E

134

A model of the eustress system for health/illness.  

PubMed

The stress response system, as vital mediator of the individual's health/illness dynamics at physical, psychological, and social levels, is modeled through a systems approach. This extremely complex self-regulating system involves multiple causal factors, nonlinearities, and time delays. Key basic functions are surveillance, mobilization of resources, feedback, and purpose. The underlying physiological stress response comprises three main mechanisms: autonomic nervous system, hormonal system, and immune response system. Their afferent pathways are presented in a flow diagram, and integrated into the full system which includes the psycho-social dimensions. The main features of this overall system comprise: psycho-social dynamics, feedback and feedforward monitors, self-concept, evaluation and strategy-decision making, generalized coping resources, mobilization of response strategies, and behavioral control. Stressors, as potential producers of stress, are illustrated in the physical, psychological, and social domains. A U-shaped universal dose-response curve is helpful in understanding stressor-destressor actions. Destressors are similarly considered, with special relation to lifestyle. Finally, the concept of eustress is developed as the ideal condition toward which this complex homeostatic system works. PMID:4051935

Milsum, J H

1985-10-01

135

[The construction of a "good death" at different stages of life: reflections on the palliative care approach for adults and children].  

PubMed

This article deals with the vision of Palliative Care leading to a "good death" for adults and children. The differences and similarities between the care of adults and children are examined based on the scrutiny of textbooks, manuals and articles, as well as the observation of courses and congresses within the specialty, which focus on patients diagnosed as "beyond therapeutic cure possibilities." Health teams seek to provide care for the "bio-psycho-social-spiritual totality" of the patients and their family members, to offer "quality of life," with full autonomy and control of their symptoms. In accordance with the palliative care model, the social actors involved in care must accept the end of life inevitability. It is a question of ensuring a "good death," "with dignity," peaceful, accepted, transparent and socially shared, with the support of a multi-professional team. It is a complex configuration, as various factors and circumstances come into play. This is especially true in the case of children, when a paradox arises, since terminal illness at this stage of life - so highly valued in contemporary Western culture - constitutes a social drama. PMID:23989572

Menezes, Rachel Aisengart; Barbosa, Patricia de Castro

2013-09-01

136

Approaches to Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

137

Editor's Note: Approaching Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students approach adaptations lessons, keep in mind that according to research, most lower-elementary school students are still forming a basic understanding of how animals survive in their environments. For example, many students understand a simple f

Froschauer, Linda

2010-01-01

138

Approaches to Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

139

Histology - A Systems Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this book a systems approach has been applied to the design of instruction in histology and microanatomy, with emphasis on microanatomical organization and related principles of learning. The presentation has utilized flow charts for the factual aspect...

I. Bhargava

1981-01-01

140

REPORT APPROACH AND OUTLINE  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... OUTLINE Page 2. General Approach • Develop framework for report ... Page 3. Framework • Adopt/modify framework in background note Page 4. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

141

Ares I Integration Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the planned Integration approach for the Ares I Launch vehicle. It includes organization charts, and diagrams showing responsibilities for the various activities of the launch. Included is also a timeline with milestones fo...

J. Reuter

2008-01-01

142

The case study approach  

PubMed Central

The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports.

2011-01-01

143

Phenomenological Approach to Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current approaches to training attempt to break complex tasks into simple, discrete steps. This attempt while valuable for teaching procedural tasks, may not be optimal for teaching complex perceptual and motor tasks; it is valuable for initial stages of ...

G. A. Klein

1977-01-01

144

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

145

Suboccipital Lateral Approaches (Retrosigmoid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The lateral suboccipital or the retrosigmoid approach (RSA) was developed by Fedor Krause and utilized for the first time\\u000a by him in 1898. During the following decades it was developed and became one of the main and most frequently applied operative\\u000a approaches in neurosurgery [1–5]. Various pathological entities located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), the internal auditory canal (IAC), the

Madjid Samii; Venelin M. Gerganov

146

Determining satellite close approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical method to evaluate close approaches of two satellites. The algorithm is based on a space curve modeling technique originally developed by Overhauser, presented here as an independent derivation. The method to determine minimum spacing between two space objects is based on creating a relative distance waveform, delta(t), versus time. The waveform is produced from either uniform or arbitrarily spaced data points, from which intervals of close approach are obtained by extracting the real roots of a localized cubic polynomial. This method is free of both transcendental equations and the computation of acceleration terms of the two objects of interest. For this study, a close approach truth table is constructed using a 0.1 second sequential step along the orbits, then differencing the two position vectors. The close approach entrance and exit times for an ellipsoidal quadric surface are then located using a piecewise linear interpolator, and serve as a benchmark for comparison. The simulation results show this algorithm produces encounter times almost identical to those in the truth table, with a 99.84 percent reduction in computer runtime. The results, created from real orbital data, include solution sets for three operational uses of close-approach logic. For this study, satellite orbital motion is modeled using first-order secular perturbations caused by mass anomalies.

Alfano, Salvatore; Negron, David, Jr.

1993-06-01

147

Disability: a welfarist approach  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species’ functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability.

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

2011-01-01

148

Landauer approach to thermoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many efforts have been made to search for materials that maximize the thermoelectric (TE) figure of merit, ZT, but for decades, the improvement has been limited because of the interdependent material parameters that determine ZT. Recently, several breakthroughs have been reported by applying nanotechnology. To further enhance ZT, a clear understanding of electronic and thermal transport is necessary. The objectives of this thesis are: 1) to evaluate the electronic and thermal performance with a Landauer approach using full band electronic bandstructure and a full dispersion description of phonons, 2) to show how the Landauer treatment gives new insights to the understanding of thermoelectrics, and 3) to discuss possibilities for enhancing TE performance. We first present a Landauer approach for computing TE parameters using a full band electronic bandstructure. The full band results are related to the more common effective mass formalism. Next, a full dispersion description of phonons is used to calculate the thermal conductivities of bulk and thin films using a Landauer approach. It is shown that simplified dispersion models for phonons should be used with caution and that the Landauer approach provides a relatively simple (but accurate) technique to treat phonon transport from the ballistic to diffusive regimes. We also address the question of how to engineer the electronic structure to enhance the performance of a thermoelectric material by re-visiting from a Landauer perspective the question of what bandstructure produces the best thermoelectric device performance. Next, we explore the possibilities of increasing ZT through multi-barrier structures, quantum engineered graphene and molecules, high valley degeneracy, or by distorting the density-of-states. Finally, we shift our attention to nanocomposite thermoelectric materials and discuss a new approach to model nanocomposite TE devices. Using polycrystalline graphene as a testbed of our model, we study how grain boundaries affect the electronic performance of large-area polycrystalline graphene and propose the new approach of `percolation-doping by nanowires' to beat the transparency-conductivity constraints.

Jeong, Changwook

149

[Psychotraumatology: Recent therapy approaches].  

PubMed

Present-day therapy approaches in psychotraumatology center around the problem of effective access to specific trauma symptoms: intrusions; affective blunting and avoidance behaviors; hyperarousal. Taking its bearings from the German and American PTSD therapy guidelines, the article outlines the most important therapy methods and assesses them in terms of relevant quality criteria. EMDR, cognitive/behavioral approaches, modified psychodynamic methods and trauma-adapted inpatient psychotherapy can be recommended as long as they are used in conjunction with stabilizing therapy elements. Normally, further therapeutic interventions are also necessary, drawing on traditional methods for integrating the trauma into the patient's biography. PMID:11833008

Seidler, Günter H

2002-01-01

150

Creativity: A social approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early thinking in the modern era often regarded creativity as a somewhat asocial means of individual expression, self?realization, and self?fulfillment. However, it also is a socially influenced phenomenon that serves society. A social approach offers the opportunity of distinguishing between large and small amounts of novelty, as well as between “orthodox” and “radical” novelty. Disciplines, teachers, and students differ from

Arthur Cropley

2006-01-01

151

Psoriasiform Dermatoses: Microscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Psoriasiform dermatoses often pose challenges to both dermatologists and pathologists alike. With proper clinicopathologic correlation and a systematic approach, it is possible to arrive at a specific diagnosis in most cases. This article attempts to outline a practical, step-wise method of looking at these cases and highlights some important clues in individual conditions.

Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

2013-01-01

152

Abstract approach to music.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The moti...

H. G. Kaper S. Tipei

1999-01-01

153

The ethnonarrative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much research within narrative theory has focused on discourse in organizations, context should be a central focus because it is material in the production of meaning. In this article, I suggest an ethnonarrative approach that seeks to combine ethnographic methods and narrative methods in conducting hermeneutic analyses of narratives and stories, shifting not only between texts and contexts, but

Hans Hansen

2006-01-01

154

Marxian Approaches to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

Carnoy, Martin

155

The Project Approach Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project is an extended, in-depth investigation of a topic, ideally one worthy of children's attention and energy. This catalog, prepared for an annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, combines articles explaining the project approach in the classroom with summaries of projects displayed at the meeting. It…

Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

156

Marxian Approaches to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

Carnoy, Martin

157

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing

Marc H. Bornstein

2012-01-01

158

Reflexology: recent research approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this paper is to examine recent published research in the field of reflexology and healthcare and consider the way forward for research work in reflexology. It will explore the various research approaches and methods, which have and could be used in answering questions about reflexology practice and outcomes for patients. The recommendations of the Foundation for Integrated

P Mackereth; S. L Dryden; B Frankel

2000-01-01

159

Novel Approach to Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a new, memory-based approach to graphic animation of 2D and 3D objects. Instead of the standard paradigm in computer graphics of 3D modeling, physical simulation and rendering we propose to use a set of 2D views to synthesize a network that gen...

T. Poggio R. Brunelli

1992-01-01

160

SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TO PERMIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT SAN MATEO, FIVE INSTITUTIONS WITH SYSTEMS PROGRAMS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF TRIP NOTES. OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE HAS BEEN COMPLETELY ORGANIZED AROUND THE VOLUNTARY WORK-STUDY LABORATORY APPROACH TO LEARNING. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY, OKLAHOMA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, HENRY FORD…

WIENS, JACOB H.

161

Emphasis: Different Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this publication either deal with one of a variety of topics involved under the broad heading of the teaching of English or, more specifically, concern the different approaches to the teaching of literature. Titles are "The Psychology of Remediation"; "Non-Standard Negro Dialect: Myth or Reality"; "The Teaching of Pronunciation in the…

Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

1974-01-01

162

Approaches to Relevance Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is relevance filtering, whichreduces communication and processing requirements byrelaying only relevant event and state information. Theemphasis in this paper has been placed on entity state trafficfor clarity and concreteness. Even so, the concepts andapproaches presented can certainly be extended to other datatypes as well.Two approaches to relevance filtering are examined: gridbasedand object-based. The key difference between these twoschemes

Daniel J. Van Hook; Steven J. Rak; James O. Calvin

1994-01-01

163

Approach for Dynamic Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-...

J. W. Slater M. Liou R. G. Hindman

1994-01-01

164

Islamic Approach in Counseling.  

PubMed

A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah. PMID:23563898

Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

2013-04-01

165

An Integrative Medicine Approach to Asthma: Who Responds?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of which patients with chronic illness tend to respond to integrative medicine interventions, by identifying a set of characteristics or qualities that are associated with a positive outcome in a randomized clinical trial of an integrative medicine approach to asthma that incorporated journaling, yoga breathing instruction, and nutritional manipulation and supplementation. Design The study used qualitative analysis using a grounded-theory approach comparing a group of responders in the parent trial (based on the Asthma Quality of Life Scale) to a group of nonresponders. Results Twelve (12) responders and 8 nonresponders were interviewed. Responders demonstrated an attitude of “change as challenge;” a view of themselves as “independent” and “leaders;” an ability to accept one's illness while still maintaining a feeling of control over one's choices; a connection to the deeper context or meaning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, as opposed to just “previous experience” of CAM; and a sense of determination, commitment, and “willingness to fight” for what one needs from the health care system. Nonresponders were more often uncertain and anxious in their relationship to their asthma, tending to fall back on denial, and lacking a connection to the deeper context or philosophy of CAM interventions. Conclusions It is possible to identify a set of characteristics that may predict a positive response to an integrative/lifestyle approach to asthma. These characteristics should be examined prospectively using both quantitative and qualitative methods in future integrative medicine clinical trials.

McKee, Melissa Diane; Sackett, Esther; Levenson, Hanniel; Kenney, Jeanne; Karasz, Alison

2012-01-01

166

Community-based post-stroke service provision and challenges: a national survey of managers and inter-disciplinary healthcare staff in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background The extent of stroke-related disability typically becomes most apparent after patient discharge to the community. As part of the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC), a national survey of community-based allied health professionals and public health nurses was conducted. The aim was to document the challenges to service availability for patients with stroke in the community and to identify priorities for service improvement. Methods The study was a cross-sectional tailored interview survey with key managerial and service delivery staff. As comprehensive listings of community-based health professionals involved in stroke care were not available, a cascade approach to information gathering was adopted. Representative regional managers for services incorporating stroke care (N?=?7) and disciplinary allied health professional and public health nurse managers (N?=?25) were interviewed (94% response rate). Results Results indicated a lack of formal, structured community-based services for stroke, with no designated clinical posts for stroke care across disciplines nationally. There was significant regional variation in availability of allied health professionals. Considerable inequity was identified in patient access to stroke services, with greater access, where available, for older patients (? 65 years). The absence of a stroke strategy and stroke prevalence statistics were identified as significant impediments to service planning, alongside organisational barriers limiting the recruitment of additional allied health professional staff, and lack of sharing of discipline-specific information on patients. Conclusions This study highlighted major gaps in the provision of inter-disciplinary team community-based services for people with stroke in one country. Where services existed, they were generic in nature, rarely inter-disciplinary in function and deficient in input from salient disciplines. Challenges to optimal care included the need for strategic planning; increased funding of healthcare staff; increased team resources and teamwork; and removal of service provision barriers based on age. There were notably many challenges beyond funding. Similar evaluations in other healthcare systems would serve to provide comparative lessons to serve to tackle this underserved aspect of care for patients with stroke and their families.

2012-01-01

167

Approach to hemorrhoids.  

PubMed

Hemorrhoids are a very common anorectal disorder defined as the symptomatic enlargement and abnormally downward displacement of anal cushions. The current pathophysiologies of hemorrhoids include the degenerative change of supportive tissue within the anal cushions, vascular hyperplasia, and hyperperfusion of hemorrhoidal plexus. Low-grade hemorrhoids are easily and effectively treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, medical intervention, and some office-based procedures. An operation is usually indicated in symptomatic high-grade and/or complicated hemorrhoids. Whilst hemorrhoidectomy has been the mainstay of surgical treatment, more recently other approaches have been employed including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, and doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Post-procedural pain and disease recurrence remain the most challenging problems in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This article deals with modern approaches to hemorrhoids based on the latest evidence and reviews of the literature. The management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations is also discussed. PMID:23715885

Lohsiriwat, Varut

2013-07-01

168

Genetic Immunotherapy Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of exploiting the immune system to treat tumors (cancer immunotherapy) is at least a century old. Immunotherapy is generally classified into two functional approaches: Passive immunotherapy administers preformed elements of the immune system (tumor-reactive antibodies, antitumor cytokines, or tumoricidal effector\\u000a cells) to patients with the intent that these agents will directly attack the cancer cells. Active immunotherapy (including

Denise R. Shaw; Albert F. LoBuglio

169

Diagnostic approach to myeloneuropathy.  

PubMed

Disorders that concomitantly affect the spinal cord and peripheral nerves can be characterized as myeloneuropathies. Such conditions can be broadly categorized as metabolic, inflammatory, infectious, or hereditary disorders. Because these disorders may present with predominantly myelopathic or peripheral neuropathic signs and symptoms, a careful neurologic examination and a thoughtful diagnostic evaluation are necessary to establish a diagnosis of myeloneuropathy. This article outlines an approach to the identification, evaluation, and treatment of myeloneuropathy. PMID:22810929

Goodman, Brent P

2011-08-01

170

Mitochondrial Diseases: Therapeutic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is\\u000a woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review,\\u000a we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice\\u000a and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of

Salvatore DiMauro; Michelangelo Mancuso

2007-01-01

171

Halitosis: An interdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To summarize the experience in our halitosis clinic, emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach.Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients with a primary complaint of halitosis were evaluated. Their health was established by a questionnaire, by clinical examination, and by laboratory analysis. Halitosis was evaluated organoleptically by a dentist and an otolaryngologist (odds ratio [OR] = 5.7). The volatile sulfide levels were measured

Hannah Ben-Aryeh; Gershon Horowitz; Dan Nir; Dov Laufer

1998-01-01

172

Disability: a welfarist approach.  

PubMed

In this paper, we offer a new account of disability. According to our account, some state of a person's biology or psychology is a disability if that state makes it more likely that a person's life will get worse, in terms of his or her own wellbeing, in a given set of social and environmental circumstances. Unlike the medical model of disability, our welfarist approach does not tie disability to deviation from normal species' functioning, nor does it understand disability in essentialist terms. Like the social model of disability, the welfarist approach sees disability as a harmful state that results from the interaction between a person's biology and psychology and his or her surrounding environment. However, unlike the social model, it denies that the harm associated with disability is entirely due to social prejudice or injustice. In this paper, we outline and clarify the welfarist approach, answer common objections and illustrate its usefulness in addressing a range of difficult ethical questions involving disability. PMID:22140353

Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

2011-03-01

173

[A dynamic neuropsychological approach].  

PubMed

There are at least two approaches in evaluating neuropsychological patients. One is to analyze negative symptoms and find a correlation between a damaged brain lesion and a lost function. The other is to focus on the nature of positive symptoms and find a principle ruling a behavioral change caused by a lesion. Although both approaches are equally important, I focused on the latter approach in this symposium. Two syndromes, i.e. forced manipulation of tools and hyperlexia are interpreted in terms of the rivalry between the top-down process of inhibition and bottom-up process of stimulus processing, resulting in the predominance of the latter. Two other symptoms, i.e. misperception in a case of associative visual agnosia and habitual behavior in a frontal damaged-dementia are interpreted in the same terms, but resulting in the predominance of the top-down process. These syndromes clearly illustrate that the behavior is organized on the dynamic balance between the information generated internally and the one coming in from the environment. PMID:11464476

Yamadori, A

2000-12-01

174

Psychosocial influence on the physical and mental development of Swedish children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editor's introduction Rolf ZetterstrOm discusses the psycho social influence of physical and mental development of Swedish children. In an ongoing Swedish longitudinal prospective study the results indicate that boys seem to be much more vulnerable to psycho social stress in the family than girls. It also seems, in a well-developed country like Sweden, that factors relating to the families' economic

R. Zetterström

1996-01-01

175

Short stature as an effect of economic and social conditions in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few studies on the effect of environmental factors on height are based on adults and none. that we could find, relates adult height to both economic and psycho-social conditions in childhood. The aim of this study is to investigate whether four indicators of economic and psycho-social conditions during childhood are related to a variation in adult height and

Maria Nyström Peck; Olle Lundberg

1995-01-01

176

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of Camber, Detail of Framing of Arch Member of Bottom Chord, Isometric of T Blocks in Bottom Chord - Wood-Covered Bridge, Spanning Main Licking River, Butler, Pendleton County, KY

177

Section CC West Approach, Reconstruction of Approaches, General Plan ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section C-C - West Approach, Reconstruction of Approaches, General Plan - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

178

The collaboratory approach  

SciTech Connect

A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

Peskin, A.M.

1997-04-01

179

[Psychosomatic approach in dermatovenerology].  

PubMed

Psychosomatic approach is a component of psychodermatology, which accentuates a holistic principle and psychosocial unity of man. Research data concerning the neurogenic modulation of skin inflammations, together with the prevalence of psychosocial influences in dermatological patients, motivate an increased interest of dermatovenereologists in psychodermatology and in the interdisciplinary cooperation with clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and other pertinent specialists. The Section of the Psychodermatology of the Czech Dermatovenereological Society was established in September 3rd 2004, in order to improve dermatovenereological care and the quality of life in dermatological patients. PMID:16521399

Pánková, R

2006-01-01

180

New approaches for immunosuppression  

SciTech Connect

New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.

1980-01-01

181

[Transcultural approach in perinatality].  

PubMed

Over the last years, our approach to the perinatal period has become more complex with the integration of new tools designed for better comprehension and cultural awareness. In this area of medical practice, perhaps more than in others, the complementary contribution of different approaches, ways of thinking, and practical interventions is essential. Pregnancy, delivery, early mother-infant interactions, and construction of the parent-child relationship involve not only profoundly intimate, intrapsychic and intersubjective events but also medical, social, and cultural events which all become a part of the process of transmitting life in an open group. The junction between somatic, intrapsychic, intersubjective and cultural elements was analyzed in the everyday clinical setting of a multicultural suburban area near Paris. The therapeutic impact of this perspective was noted. Two therapeutic processes specific to the perinatal period were studied: the need to assist vulnerable migrant mothers in reconstructing their defense systems (possible because of the psychic transparency and the primary maternal priority of this special period of life) and direct work with the baby. Working directly with the baby and not only the mother creates an open triad around the baby. This baby/mother/therapist group relationship develops progressively and is initially perceived as a virtual group before developing into a more concrete transferential relationship based on familial and social resources. The perinatal clinic is by definition a very pluridisciplinary and very context-related unit. PMID:14968011

Moro, M R

2004-02-01

182

Avenue of approach generation  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting research on developing a dynamic planning capability within an Army corps level combat simulation. Central to this research is the development of a computer based ability to ''understand'' terrain and how it is used in military planning. Such a capability demands data structures that adequately represent terrain features used in the planning process. These features primarily relate to attributes of mobility and visibility. Mobility concepts are abstracted to networks of mobility corridors. Notions of visibility are, for the purposes of planning, incorporated into the definition of key terrain. Prior work at Los Alamos has produced algorithms to generate mobility corridors from digitized terrain data. Mobility corridors, by definition, are the building blocks for avenues of approach, and the latter are the context in which key terrain is defined. The purpose of this paper is to describe recent work in constructing avenues of approach, characterization of avenues using summary characteristics, and their role in military planning. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Powell, D.R.; Storm, G.

1988-01-01

183

Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.  

PubMed

1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care. PMID:16700889

Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

184

Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

Oseguera, A. Anthony

185

Open Systems Approach to Supportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The open systems approach is both a technical approach to weapons systems engineering and a preferred business strategy that is becoming widely applied by manufacturers of large complex systems. Today, legacy systems continue to be developed with their ow...

A. G. Larson C. K. Banning J. F. Leonard

2002-01-01

186

Approaches for Learning Prolog Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding Prolog programming is a challenge for many beginners, and many instructors and researchers have proposed and adopted varied teaching approaches to help learners to understand Prolog easily. However, it is not known whether any of the teaching approaches currently in use is appropriate from a learner's perspective. This paper reports the results of an investigation into which approaches are

Shanshan Yang; Mike Joy

187

A Narrative Approach to Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…

Bell, Anne

2003-01-01

188

Organ Donation: A Communitarian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesir- able side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that mem- bers of society

Amitai Etzioni

2003-01-01

189

Editorial: Approaching 125.  

PubMed

With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PMID:22329705

Goodman, Sherryl

2012-02-01

190

Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach  

SciTech Connect

Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references.

Schor, N.F. (Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-07-01

191

Modelling approaches for angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The development of a functional vasculature within a tumour is a requisite for its growth and progression. This fact has led to the design of therapies directed toward the tumour vasculature, aiming either to prevent the formation of new vessels (anti-angiogenic) or to damage existing vessels (vascular targeting). The development of agents with different mechanisms of action requires powerful preclinical models for the analysis and optimization of these therapies. This review concerns 'classical' assays of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, recent approaches to target identification (analysis of gene and protein expression), and the study of morphological and functional changes in the vasculature in vivo (imaging techniques). It mainly describes assays designed for anti-angiogenic compounds, indicating, where possible, their application to the study of vascular-targeting agents. PMID:15120043

Taraboletti, G; Giavazzi, R

2004-04-01

192

Program approach document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Command, Control, Communications Countermeasures (C3CM) Joint Test Force (JTF) was established to plan for, conduct, and report the results of Joint Test and Evaluation (JT&E) activities directed toward the following mission: to provide information which can be applied by combat commanders in the field so that they may improve the effectiveness of their forces by disrupting the enemy's command, control and communication system. This document describes the Program Approach proposed to fulfill the requirements of the C3CM JTF mission. This document represents the current JTF view on a feasible test program and serves as the framework within which changes can be accommodated and from which a Program Design Plan can be developed.

1983-07-01

193

Endoscopic approach to achalasia.  

PubMed

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ? 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to < 15 mmHg and/or an improved radiological esophageal clearance post-PD. However PD has a significant risk for esophageal perforation, which occurs in about 2%-3% of cases. In randomized, controlled studies BT injection was inferior to PD and surgical cardiomyotomy, whereas the efficacy of PD, in patients > 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393

Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till

2013-08-16

194

Investigational Approaches for Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients.

Surmont, Veerle F.; van Thiel, Eric R. E.; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.

2011-01-01

195

Humanitarian Nursing Challenges: A Grounded Theory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the 2004 tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean, the U.S. Navy deployed teams aboard the USNS Mercy to provide aid during Operation Unified Assistance (OUA). To date, few research studies have examined how Navy nurses prepared for and clinica...

A. L. Almonte

2009-01-01

196

Disneyland in Hong Kong — Green Challenge (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-1999, the Walt Disney Company and the Hong Kong Government were involved in intense discussions about the possibility of building the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park on Lantau Island. This case presented detailed information about the proposed theme park and the associated decision making process with a particular emphasis on sustainable development. It also lays out the characteristics of

Terence Tsai; Shubo Philip Liu

2011-01-01

197

THE CHALLENGE ... A PROGRAM FOR GIFTED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE NONGRADED PRIMARY SCHOOL ALLOWS EACH CHILD TO PROGRESS AT HIS OWN RATE. LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT ARE SET UP FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND SCIENCE. THE BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE DIVIDED INTO EIGHT LEVELS, BY THE TIME THE CHILD HAS COMPLETED THE EIGHTH LEVEL, HE HAS DEVELOPED MOST OF HIS NECESSARY READING SKILLS. A NINTH LEVEL IS INCLUDED…

CARTER, C. DOUGLAS

198

Challenging a paradigm: Toward integrating indigenous species ...  

Treesearch

Forest landscape restoration: Integrating natural and social sciences. World Forests 15. Dordrecht: Springer Science and Businees Media. p. ... (FAO 2011) , it is still severe enough to warrant a concerted effort to slow or reverse this trend.

199

THE CHALLENGE ... A PROGRAM FOR GIFTED CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE NONGRADED PRIMARY SCHOOL ALLOWS EACH CHILD TO PROGRESS AT HIS OWN RATE. LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT ARE SET UP FOR LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND SCIENCE. THE BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE DIVIDED INTO EIGHT LEVELS, BY THE TIME THE CHILD HAS COMPLETED THE EIGHTH LEVEL, HE HAS DEVELOPED MOST OF HIS NECESSARY READING SKILLS. A NINTH LEVEL IS INCLUDED…

CARTER, C. DOUGLAS

200

The VSEPR Challenge: A Student's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To solve the challenge of learning VSEPR molecules in three dimensions, a high school student leverages her passion for 3D computer animation to develop a creative solution. This article outlines the process and story behind the creation of her unique video. (Contains 1 figure.)|

Jennings, Ashley S.

2010-01-01

201

Modeling prosody: Different approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prosody pervades all aspects of a speech signal, both in terms of raw acoustic outcomes and linguistically meaningful units, from the phoneme to the discourse unit. It is carried in the suprasegmental features of fundamental frequency, loudness, and duration. Several models have been developed to account for the way prosody organizes speech, and they vary widely in terms of their theoretical assumptions, organizational primitives, actual procedures of application to speech, and intended use (e.g., to generate speech from text vs. to model the prosodic phonology of a language). In many cases, these models overtly contradict one another with regard to their fundamental premises or their identification of the perceptible objects of linguistic prosody. These competing models are directly compared. Each model is applied to the same speech samples. This parallel analysis allows for a critical inspection of each model and its efficacy in assessing the suprasegmental behavior of the speech. The analyses illustrate how different approaches are better equipped to account for different aspects of prosody. Viewing the models and their successes from an objective perspective allows for creative possibilities in terms of combining strengths from models which might otherwise be considered fundamentally incompatible.

Carmichael, Lesley M.

2002-11-01

202

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

2012-01-01

203

COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach  

PubMed Central

Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates).

Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmuller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jorg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

2006-01-01

204

The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.

205

Intersubband antipolaritons: Microscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates that the coupling between light and intersubband excitations in semiconductors is fundamentally different from the well understood coupling to interband transitions that leads to excitonic polaritons. Numerical results for III-V quantum wells under nonequilibrium conditions are given by direct evaluation of analytical approximations obtained from a Keldysh Green’s-function formalism. It is shown that bosonic approximations required for a Hamiltonian theory can be manipulated and turned “on and off” in the regime of excitations where the signatures of the coupling are stable and well defined. This is in contrast to interband polaritons, whose dispersions lose resolution as the exciton absorption is bleached and the bosonic approximation is violated. Thus, bosonic effects can be, in principle, controlled by manipulating the intersubband carrier injection. Furthermore, the evolution of the quasiparticle with injected carrier density is opposite to that of the conventional polariton. The approach consistently describes dispersions found experimentally if light is absorbed due to intersubband transitions and predicts anomalous dispersions under population inversion conditions. A more appropriate intersubband antipolariton is introduced to describe the light-intersubband excitation coupling. The influence of the dominant many-body effects on the quasiparticle dispersion is also discussed.

Pereira, M. F., Jr.

2007-05-01

206

[Postmenopausal osteoporosis: therapeutic approaches].  

PubMed

The preventive and therapeutical measures to be implemented the post-menopausal osteoporosis are varied, although there is no clear, single protocol of intervention. ESTROGENS AND PROGESTOGENS: It si verify that the administration of estrogens and/or progestogens prevents bone loss with an action on mineral components of bone and on collagenic metabolism. BIPHOSPONATES: Operate inhibiting mineralization and, particularly, bone reabsorption. At present its use, in low dosages, is reserved to "fast bone loser" patients. CALCITONIN: It increases bone mass and significantly reduces the frequency of fractures in comparison with only calcium, but its use is limited by high costs. IPRIFLAVONE: Anti-reabsorption effects has on bone and stimulates osteoblastic activity; besides, it seems to developed the effect of estrogens on the bone. FLUORIDES: Fluorides also operate on both components of bone turnover, with a most important action on bone formation. An interesting approach is the association of low doses of monofluorophosphate with calcium. However, further confirmation of the "quality" of neoformed bone is necessary. CALCIUM: Calcium supplementation is obligatory where the alimentary supply of calcium is lower then 1 g/die or where an osteomalacic component coexists; only dosages higher than 15 g/die can produce/pharmacological effects on bone turnover. CALCITRIOL: The use is still disputed. The calcitriol-calcium association seems convincing haveved. ORG: OD 14. The efficacy of this synthetic steroid to prevent bone loss is probably superimposable on the efficacy of classic estrogen therapy. PMID:9173338

Affinito, P; Palomba, S; Sorrentino, C; Pellicano, M; Morgera, R; Nappi, C

1997-03-01

207

Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

2012-06-01

208

Compressors simultaneously approach surge  

SciTech Connect

A control algorithm has been developed to allow control of parallel gas compressors so that they unload simultaneously to their surge control limits. Equations describing the algorithm, the S Criteria, are given along with a description of how the control system operates. A description and the operating characteristics of the concept, used on an offshore gas compression station, are discussed. The first installment of this two-part article discussed the advantages of simulation control to the surge limit, and compared the concept with other common control methods. There are many possible algorithms for simultaneous approach to the surge control lines of centrifugal compressors. Obviously, each algorithm depends on measuring the distance from the operating point to the surge control line. Because compressors may differ in capacity and characteristics, the absolute distance of the operating point from the surge control line is not useful. The authors recommend using a dimensionless number expressing the relative distance from the surge control line. This measurement technique will now be incorporated into a control algorithm. The algorithm that will be described here is called the ''S'' Criteria.'' It is one possible method of improved control. The S Criteria was developed and patented by one of the authors.

Staroselsky, N.; Ladin, L.

1986-11-10

209

[Economic approaches to smoking].  

PubMed

In order to assess regulator's legitimacy in discouraging people from smoking, economists model tobacco addiction. In this paper, we review the extent economic literature about tobacco consumption and tobacco addiction. Two main approaches are singled out. In the first section, we detail the main characteristics of the two main theoretical models : rational addiction on one hand, which stylises individual choosing now to give up their future liberty to choose whether or not to smoke; and health capital on the other hand, following which individuals trade off between current pleasure and life expectancy. Second section gives account of the empirical tests of these two theories, before a last section briefly discusses and concludes. We show that the health capital theory seems to pass the test better than the rational addiction model. It is important to discriminate between these two models, from a political economy point of view. Were rational addiction true, a constant and strong increase of taxes on tobacco would be the soundest policy to curb consumption. On the contrary, if smokers are trapped into addiction and can't stop without pain, then tax increase is imposing too much strain on them, for no result. An efficient policy would be to subsidise quitting programmes, or to help smokers reducing their consumption through partial prohibition (in public transports for instance). PMID:15361350

Grignon, Michel; Pierrard, Bertrand

210

Skull base approaches in neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy.

2010-01-01

211

Complications Related to Anterolateral Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The low and high retropharyngeal and precarotid prest-ernocleidomastoid approaches to the cervical spine allow one to expose\\u000a all the levels of the cervical spine, from the basis of the skull to the upper thoracic levels [1].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The low presternocleidomastoid approach is the most common direct approach to the middle and low cervical spine. It was first\\u000a described to expose the

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Rocco Papalia; Vincenzo Denaro

212

An Interactive Approach to Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification, entangled with obscurity and complexity, is not a task performed with ease. The obscurity in differentiating\\u000a empirical taxonomy from conceptual typology plus the complexity of people’s perceptions as well as the difficulty in developing\\u000a a versatile approach—all impinge on the path towards settling a classification structure grounded in consensus. This paper\\u000a reviews the conventional approach and the prevailing approach

Nien-Tsu Tuan

2010-01-01

213

The Dutch energy transition approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the Dutch energy transition approach as an example of an industrial policy approach for sustainable\\u000a growth. It is a corporatist approach for innovation, enrolling business in processes of transitional change that should lead\\u000a to a more sustainable energy system. A broad portfolio of options is being supported. A portfolio of options is generated\\u000a in a bottom-up, forward

René Kemp

2010-01-01

214

Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

Chacko, George K., Ed.

215

Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

216

Approaches to Professional Development Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various approaches to the professional development school (PDS)--each designed for its respective audience, mission, and purpose for engagement--have shaped the professional development school effort during the past 25 years. Central to these approaches is improving teacher quality in the service of student learning. This provides direction for…

Neapolitan, Jane E.; Levine, Marsha

2011-01-01

217

Synthetic approach to optimal filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

As opposed to the analytic approach used in the modern theory of optimal filtering, a synthetic approach is presented. The signal\\/sensor data, which are generated by either computer simulation or actual experiments, are synthesized into a filter by training a recurrent multilayer perceptron (RMLP) with at least one hidden layer of fully or partially interconnected neurons and with or without

James Ting-Ho Lo

1994-01-01

218

Profile invalidation approaching rapid prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a novel rapid prototyping (RP) approach and verifying its feasibility. This alternative solution is to bring several merits from both selective laser sintering and laminated object manufacturing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The phenolic resin coated sand is used in this method. It could be cured at an appropriate temperature and be invalidated

Yang Tong; Yao Shan; Zeng Feng

2010-01-01

219

A Sociological Approach to Misappropriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science and law are not strangers. In analyzing legal issues, scholars have often utilized theoretical or methodological approaches from the social sciences. While economics appears to be the prevalent branch of social science in legal analysis, sociology, with its focus on group (as opposed to individual) behavior, can be a suitable approach where, for instance, the application and interpretation

Elizabeth A. Rowe

2009-01-01

220

Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

Hesse, M. G., Ed.

221

Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression: A Computational Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment ...

C. H. Juang X. H. Huang J. W. Fleming

1992-01-01

222

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

223

Ecological salivary cortisol analysis (Part 2): Relative impact of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, comorbidity, chronic stress, and known confounds on hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Background Although bio-psycho-social health research is an ideal, samples adequate for complex modeling require biomarker specimens from hundreds of participants. Ecological sampling departs from laboratory study norms, with implications for analysis. Objective This paper compares salivary cortisol levels and effect sizes of ‘focal’ psychiatric factors, such as trauma history, posttraumatic stress diagnosis, comorbidity, and chronic stress, and ‘nuisance’ factors, including endocrine disorders, medications, physiological factors, such as gestational age, and smoking, to inform ecological study designs. Study Design This is a descriptive analysis of ecologically collected cortisol specimens, assayed in an on-going perinatal psychobiological study, addressing methodological considerations. Results Focal and nuisance factors are often interdependent with similar effect sizes. Careful specimen deletion decisions and model specification are needed to achieve the hoped-for external validity while maintaining internal validity. Conclusions Results of multivariate models support the validity and usefulness of an ecological approach to incorporating biomarkers in health research.

King, Anthony; Leichtman, Jennifer; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia S.

2011-01-01

224

Specificity revisited and updated.  

PubMed

Typicality is probably a better representation of Alexander, Dunbar and others' conclusions than specificity, which was always too absolute a term. As such it became a valid cause of objection by opponents. No genuine attempts to repeat the original studies have been made and most of the original opposition to the concept is now acknowledged as invalid. Typicality (specificity) in psychosomatic disorders appears to be conferred by coping mechanisms acquired through interaction with mother and early surrogates in infancy and childhood as a means of reducing tensions and restoration of homeostatic emotional equilibrium. Psychosomatic medicine patients share one such mechanism, notably superstability/alexythymia, but contained within it are coping mechanisms typical for differing disorders. Examples are listed, and also mention of typicality of recurrently provocative life events/situations. Until typicality is appreciated, taught, learned and practised, success in management of psychosomatic disorders will be limited. The current bio-psycho-social approach is too imprecise. PMID:1866439

Paulley, J W

1991-01-01

225

Hidradenitis suppurativa: viewpoint on clinical phenotyping, pathogenesis and novel treatments.  

PubMed

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory, debilitating follicular skin disease with recurring flare-ups. The painful, deep-seated, inflamed lesions in the inverse areas of the body cause severe discomfort, and hence, serious psycho-social and economic costs. HS is common, but often misdiagnosed and mechanistically poorly understood. Furthermore, HS is notoriously difficult to treat resulting in a high unmet medical need. To provoke debate, rational experimentation and initiate strategic studies, we here present a concise viewpoint on seven topics: the diagnosis of HS, the role of mechanical friction, the critical importance of accurate clinical subgrouping, smoking and obesity, the role of bacteria, and our comprehensive view on HS pathogenesis with a central role for keratin clearance, and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22882284

van der Zee, Hessel H; Laman, Jon D; Boer, Jurr; Prens, Errol P

2012-08-07

226

Clinical approach for the classification of congenital uterine malformations.  

PubMed

A more objective, accurate and non-invasive estimation of uterine morphology is nowadays feasible based on the use of modern imaging techniques. The validity of the current classification systems in effective categorization of the female genital malformations has been already challenged. A new clinical approach for the classification of uterine anomalies is proposed. Deviation from normal uterine anatomy is the basic characteristic used in analogy to the American Fertility Society classification. The embryological origin of the anomalies is used as a secondary parameter. Uterine anomalies are classified into the following classes: 0, normal uterus; I, dysmorphic uterus; II, septate uterus (absorption defect); III, dysfused uterus (fusion defect); IV, unilateral formed uterus (formation defect); V, aplastic or dysplastic uterus (formation defect); VI, for still unclassified cases. A subdivision of these main classes to further anatomical varieties with clinical significance is also presented. The new proposal has been designed taking into account the experience gained from the use of the currently available classification systems and intending to be as simple as possible, clear enough and accurate as well as open for further development. This proposal could be used as a starting point for a working group of experts in the field. PMID:22611348

Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Campo, Rudi

2012-03-10

227

Inelastic transport: a pseudoparticle approach.  

PubMed

We discuss a pseudoparticle NEGF approach as a tool to describe transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states of the molecule. A method developed by Oh et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 205302] is applied to inelastic transport in the case of strong electron-vibron interaction. The approach can be seen as a generalization of the exact mapping developed by Bonca and Trugman [Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995, 75, 2566] which includes information on the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi electron distribution in the leads. Within simple model calculations of inelastic transport in junctions, we compare the pseudoparticle approach to other approximate NEGF schemes. PMID:22797677

White, Alexander J; Galperin, Michael

2012-07-16

228

[Surgical approaches to thalamic tumors].  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the results of surgical treatment of patients with thalamic tumors of different topographic variants. Since 1985 till 2010 127 patients were operated, 147 direct surgical interventions were performed. Repeated surgeries were required due to partial resection of a tumor or recurrence. In most cases resection of tumors was performed via transcallosal (48%) and occipital interhemispheric (29%) approaches. Less common approaches included transcortical (frontal, temporal, parietal) (14%), pterional through lateral and basal parts of Sylvian fissure (6%) and subtentorial supracerebellar (3%). Selection of approach is based on topographic features of tumor within thalamus, direction of its growth and relations with adjacent structures (internal capsule, brainstem, hypothalamus, ventricular system). Each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks which are highlighted in the paper. PMID:21698917

Konovalov, A N; Kadyrov, Sh U

2011-01-01

229

Four Approaches to Entrepreneurship II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four approaches to teaching advanced entrepreneurship in current use are as follows: (1) advanced options such as franchises and buyouts and international entrepreneurship; (2) preentrepreneurship courses; (3) starting a business; and (4) structured experience. (JOW)|

Meyer, Earl C.; Nauta, Tom

1994-01-01

230

Ontological Approaches to Modelling Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline a simple taxonomy of approaches to modelling narrative, explain how these might be realised ontologically, and describe our continuing work to apply these techniques to the problem of Memo- ries for Life.

Mischa M Tueld; David E Millard; Nigel R Shadbolt

231

Classroom Interaction: A Sociological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors employ Bales' IPA and apply hypotheses from Homans' Human Group'' to present a sociological approach to the scientific study of classroom interaction at the elementary school level. (Authors)

Calonico, James M.; Calonico, Beth Ann

1972-01-01

232

Giant resonances: reaction theory approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of giant resonances through the use of reaction theory approach is presented and discussed. Measurements of cross-sections to the many available decay channels following excitation of giant multipole resonances (GMR) led one to view these phenom...

A. F. R. Toledo Piza G. A. Foglia

1989-01-01

233

Teaching Biochemistry: A Topical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the subject of enzymes to illustrate the topical approach to teaching biochemistry at the secondary level. Includes the procedures for three experiments dealing with various aspects of enzymes. (JN)

Maier, Mary L.

1986-01-01

234

Approaches of Qualitative Process Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes new approaches for qualitative reasoning of steady state processes. The qualitative model can be developed by abstracting quantitative equations or by using e.g. a flowsheeting program to evaluate derivatives, from which the qualitativ...

M. Hurme

1997-01-01

235

Intrabeam scattering in stochastic approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beam emittance growth caused by intrabeam scattering in particle accelerators is examined in a stochastic approach with the Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with ordinary analysis based on binary Coulomb collisions which have been develope...

Y. Mori

1990-01-01

236

Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... this view, I mean this is the traditional Smith Meet Jeu De view of the acetabulum,. I ... re using only part of what’s called the “Smith-Peterson approach.” The true SmithPeterson, you would take ...

237

Terrorist Approach to Information Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides insight into how terrorist organizations exploit the information environment to achieve their objectives. The study establishes an analytical 10 framework, by integrating US military doctrine with a fundamental approach to 10 theory. ...

R. S. Ear N. E. Emery

2003-01-01

238

An approach to duodenal biopsies  

PubMed Central

The introduction of endoscopy of the upper digestive tract as a routine diagnostic procedure has increased the number of duodenal biopsy specimens. Consequently, the pathologist is often asked to evaluate them. In this review, a practical approach to the evaluation of a duodenal biopsy specimen is discussed. An overview of the handling of specimens is given and the normal histology and commonly encountered diseases are discussed. Finally, a description of commonly seen infections is provided, together with an algorithmic approach for diagnosis.

Serra, S; Jani, P A

2006-01-01

239

Laparoscopic Approaches to Colonic Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last two decades have witnessed the surge and success of laparoscopic approaches in several surgical arenas. Laparoscopic\\u000a cholecystectomy, laparoscopic solid organ surgery, and laparoscopic gastric bypass have become the standard of care. Adoption\\u000a of laparoscopic colectomy has remained low until the middle of this decade and is approaching 10% for benign disease [1].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Concerns over the appropriateness of laparoscopic

Juliane Bingener; Heidi Nelson

240

A New Approach to the Approach to Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider a gas confined to the left half of a container. Then remove the wall separating the two parts. The gas will start spreading and soon be evenly distributed over the entire available space. The gas has approached equilibrium. Why does the gas behave in this way? The canonical answer to this question, originally proffered by Boltzmann, is that the system has to be ergodic for the approach to equilibrium to take place. This answer has been criticised on different grounds and is now widely regarded as flawed. In this paper we argue that these criticisms have dismissed Boltzmann's answer too quickly and that something almost like Boltzmann's answer is true: the approach to equilibrium takes place if the system is epsilon-ergodic, i.e. ergodic on the entire accessible phase space except for a small region of measure epsilon. We introduce epsilon-ergodicity and argue that relevant systems in statistical mechanics are indeed espsilon-ergodic.

Frigg, Roman; Werndl, Charlotte

241

New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis. PMID:22905033

Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Pietrella, Donatella

2012-08-13

242

New Approaches in the Development of a Vaccine for Mucosal Candidiasis: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis.

Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Pietrella, Donatella

2012-01-01

243

Surgical approaches of endobronchial neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Endobronchial tumors are a rare entity that presents with different pathological findings. The interventional pulmonologist, but also the thoracic surgeon have at their disposal the same techniques for diagnosis, however; the two modalities differentiate in the treatment approach. Diagnosis evaluation should include lymph node evaluation. Minimal invasive techniques under local or general anesthesia are usually preferred by the interventional pulmonologists, whereas in the surgical approach of the thoracic surgeons the general anesthesia is necessary. A more extensive surgical approach either lobotomy or pneumonectomy should be performed in cases with positive intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Carinal reconstruction should be performed skillfully to get a negative proximal margin whenever needed. In the current manuscript we will present the methods of patient evaluation and surgical techniques for the management of these lesions.

Li, Zhigang; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Kesisis, Georgios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

244

Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

Wang, Yingchun

2010-01-01

245

Global Approach to Image Texture Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This new approach is based on linear unmixing of texture measures calculated over an entire image (called a global approach), as opposed to most present texture analysis techniques that compute texture over small neighborhoods (called a local approach). T...

R. J. Holyer

1990-01-01

246

Systems biology approach to bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ?black box? in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ?black box?.

Chakraborty, R.; Wu, C. H.; Hazen, T. C.

2012-01-01

247

Slicing approach to bispectrum estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast approach is described for the estimation of bispectra of 2D objects at high light levels. By radially slicing each 2D specklegram to produce a set of 1D signals the number of calculations required becomes 0(N exp 3) instead of 0(N exp 4) for (N x N)-sized specklegrams. The speed-up factor is 175 when N = 512, for example. Computer simulations of this algorithm are described and their results are summarized. The results show that high quality is feasible if each reconstructed slice can be accurately centered. Some approaches to solution of this problem are discussed.

Granrath, Douglas J.; Lawler-Covell, Mary R.

1990-11-01

248

Aircraft aerodynamic noise during approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of approach velocity, nose and flap inclination, and undercarriage position on aircraft noise was studied. The A 300 B and SN 601 aircraft made two approach passes over a chain of noise recorders. The sound fields and noise spectra show that increasing the speed and flap angle or lowering the undercarriage produces a general increase in noise level such that the directivity of the aerodynamic noise source is hardly changed. All noise spectra increase. Pure frequencies (400 to 500 Hz) accompany flap deployment for the SN 601.

Parant, J. L.

249

Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.  

PubMed

The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors. PMID:18579876

Ault, Steven K

2008-01-01

250

Approaches to mechanical coronary thrombectomy.  

PubMed

Coronary thrombi are an integral part of acute coronary syndromes. Since the introduction of the AngioJet Rheolytic thrombectomy device in 1999, mechanical thrombectomy has replaced intracoronary thrombolysis during catheter-based procedures. Other approaches include simple suction aspiration, cut and aspirate devices and clot disruption by ultrasound or laser-induced cavitation. These device classes differ in the completeness of thrombus removal, ease of use, complication profile, as well as clinical evidence of benefit. The current approaches to mechanical thrombectomy are reviewed from these perspectives. PMID:16883030

Baim, Donald S

2006-07-01

251

Progress in Impulse Approach Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report entails the progress made during the first contract year in the research of Impulse Approach (IA) modeling. The IA technique was successfully applied to the Ar-CsF scattering system with results that compared favorably with observations. Limit...

H. Dothe J. M. Sindoni

1992-01-01

252

Management approaches for pediatric obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is a worldwide problem that has reached epidemic proportions, resulting in an increased prevalence of premature obesity-related morbidities, and, thus, probable increased health-care costs to treat children. The development of viable approaches to manage this epidemic is crucial. Most experts in the field of childhood obesity agree that the prevention of obesity in children should be the first

Janet H Silverstein; Jennifer L Miller

2007-01-01

253

Approaches to Rural Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three professional development approaches have shown promise in raising the competency level of early childhood professionals in rural areas. Provider registry systems gather information that provides a foundation for further professional development initiatives and systemic development. Statewide professional development systems designed to…

Thornburg, Kathy R.; Scott, Jacqueline L.

2006-01-01

254

Colonic Drug Delivery: Prodrug Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colon is largely being investigated as a site for administration of protein and peptides, which are degraded by digestive enzymes in the upper GIT. Also for local diseases of the colon, drug administration to the site of action can not only reduce the dose to be administered, but also decrease the side effects. One of the approaches used for

V. R. Sinha; Rachna Kumria

2001-01-01

255

A Bayesian Approach to Discretization  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The performance of many machine learning algorithms can be substantially improved with aproper discretization scheme. In this paper we describe a theoretically rigorous approach to discretization ofcontinuous attribute values, based on a Bayesian clustering framework. The method produces a probabilisticscoring metric for different discretizations, and it can be combined with various types of learning algorithmsworking on discrete data. The

Henry Tirri; Petri Kontkanen; Petri Myllymaki; Tomi Sil

1997-01-01

256

PERTURBATION APPROACH FOR QUANTUM COMPUTATION  

SciTech Connect

We discuss how to simulate errors in the implementation of simple quantum logic operations in a nuclear spin quantum computer with many qubits, using radio-frequency pulses. We verify our perturbation approach using the exact solutions for relatively small (L = 10) number of qubits.

G. P. BERMAN; D. I. KAMENEV; V. I. TSIFRINOVICH

2001-04-01

257

The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

Nord, James R.

1987-01-01

258

Pluralistic Approaches to Art Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…

Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.

259

Variational Approach to Melting. Ii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variational approach to the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of an original system based upon an inequality for the Helmholtz free energy of that system is introduced. A system with molecules obeying the cell model of Lennard-Jones and Devonshire, a...

G. A. Mansoori F. B. Canfield

1969-01-01

260

Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.

261

Chemical Calculations; An Audiotutorial Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audiotutorial approach to problem-solving in college chemistry relying upon audio tapes is available. The program is designed to increase the teacher's effectiveness by providing individualized attention to student difficulties related to problem-solving. Problem solutions are recorded on audio tapes (designed for use with Sony TC-160 cassettes…

Lower, Stephen K.

262

Novel Teaching Approaches in Pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the turn of the century, modern pharmacology has emerged as an increasingly distinct discipline with a recognized career training pathway. In recent years undergraduate training in pharmacology has been revolutionized with adoptions of new methods of teaching that focus on supportive learning through novel teaching approaches like small group discussions, role plays, computer assisted learning,using audio-visual aids, clinical and

Rashmi Sharma; Ujala Verm; Bhuvneshwar Kapoor; V. S. Chopra

263

Chemical Calculations; An Audiotutorial Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An audiotutorial approach to problem-solving in college chemistry relying upon audio tapes is available. The program is designed to increase the teacher's effectiveness by providing individualized attention to student difficulties related to problem-solving. Problem solutions are recorded on audio tapes (designed for use with Sony TC-160…

Lower, Stephen K.

264

Oncoplastic approaches to breast conservation.  

PubMed

When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemibatwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, inframammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate. PMID:22295216

Holmes, Dennis R; Schooler, Wesley; Smith, Robina

2011-08-22

265

Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options. .

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

266

New Approaches to Comparative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on research in comparative education are presented in 17 articles originally published in the "Comparative Education Review." The objective is to present an array of new viewpoints, orientations, and approaches. Titles and authors are: "Introduction: Perspectives on Comparative Education" (Philip G. Altbach, Gail P. Kelly); "Critical…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Kelly, Gail P., Ed.

267

An Ontological Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Distinguishing the contextual realm addressed by ontological education as a valid area for inquiry by those who think about language and communication, this paper discusses an approach to education that is ontological in nature, in that its focus is the "being" of human beings rather than their knowledge. The paper explores several ideas drawn…

Hyde, Bruce

268

New Synthetic Approaches to TAT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Technical Report describes some additional approaches to 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, 'TAT', related to the former Contract DAJA 45-85-C-0016; R&D 4480-CH-01. The development of alternative and simple TAT syntheses startin...

H. Wamhoff J. Nagelschmitz M. Essen

1990-01-01

269

New Approaches to Comparative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perspectives on research in comparative education are presented in 17 articles originally published in the "Comparative Education Review." The objective is to present an array of new viewpoints, orientations, and approaches. Titles and authors are: "Introduction: Perspectives on Comparative Education" (Philip G. Altbach, Gail P. Kelly); "Critical…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Kelly, Gail P., Ed.

270

Markov Games: Receding Horizon Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors consider a receding horizon approach as an approximate solution to two-person, zero-sum Markov games with infinite horizon discounted cost and average cost criteria. They first present error bounds from the optimal equilibrium value of the gam...

H. S. Chang S. I. Marcus

2001-01-01

271

Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry

272

Convective instability: A physicist's approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of apparently disparate problems from engineering, meteorology, geophysics, fluid mechanics and applied mathematics are considered under the unifying heading of natural convection. After a review of the mathematical framework that serves to delineate these problems, the heuristic approach to Bénard and Rayleigh convection is discussed with special attention to buoyancy and surface tension. Then consideration is given to

Christiane Normand; Yves Pomeau; Manuel G. Velarde

1977-01-01

273

Workplace Stress: An Organisational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) proposal that the assessment and control cycle approach, already applied to physical health and safety risks, be adopted to manage stress at work, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) developed an Organisational Stress Health Audit (OSHA). The OSHA has three tiers: stage one involves the identification of sources of stress and opportunities for

Rebecca Lancaster; Maria Butler; Adele Pilkington

1998-01-01

274

New management approaches for gastroparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of patients with gastroparesis is challenging. Although the syndrome has multiple causes and knowledge of the pathophysiology and natural history is far from complete, a number of common management principles can be applied. The relatively poor correlation between upper-gastrointestinal symptoms and disordered gastric emptying represents a major difficulty in the therapeutic approach, and evidence to support the efficacy of

Michael Horowitz; Christopher K Rayner

2005-01-01

275

Charismatic theology: approaches and themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the irruption of Pentecostal spirituality within Protestant and Roman Catholic denominations, there has been a gradual emergence of what might be called ‘charismatic theology’. To be sure a lot of this theology is and has been written at a popular level, but within the last twenty years there has evolved a distinct theology with discernable approaches and common

Mark J. Cartledge

2004-01-01

276

Molecular approaches to nontoxic antifouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consequence of environmental and human health concerns arising from the use of toxic metals in marine antifouling coatings has been to recognise the need for a nontoxic alternative to fouling control. Recent research has focused on two approaches to this problem: the development of (a) foul-release coatings that work on the principle of either low surface free energy or

A. S. CLARE; D. RITTSCHOF; D. J. GERHART; J. S. MAKI

1992-01-01

277

Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

Ferrari, Loris

2011-01-01

278

Response to the EGAS Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author commends Drs. Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo on their efforts to connect with and empower African American adolescent females. However, he does have some concerns regarding their Empowerment Groups for Academic Success (EGAS) approach to empowering this particular group of students. While he agrees with the authors about the…

Bailey, Deryl F.

2005-01-01

279

Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous.

Mauderly, J L

1993-01-01

280

Family Research: An Ethnographic Approach  

PubMed Central

An ethnographic approach based on in-depth interviewing, naturalistic and participant observation, narrative description, and contextual interpretation is proposed as a tool for family health care research. The multiple meanings of family, both for research clinicians and for society, are considered. The problem of how a family orientation is incorporated into biomedical' health care is discussed.

Stein, Howard F.

1991-01-01

281

Dynamical Systems Approach to Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, turbulence has evolved into a very active field of theoretical physics. The origin of this development is the approach to turbulence from the point of view of deterministic dynamical systems, and this book shows how concepts developed for low dimensional chaotic systems are applied to turbulent states. This book centers around a number of important simplified models

Tomas Bohr; Mogens H. Jensen; Giovanni Paladin; Angelo Vulpiani

1998-01-01

282

ISTAR and the contractual approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISTAR is a production-quality project support environment that was first released commercially during 1986. ISTAR is language and method independent, supports distributed projects, is portable and includes a rich and open ended tool set; its architecture and tools are described more fully elsewhere (see [DOWSON87a]). This description concentrates on the underlying approach to software development built in to ISTAR and

Mark Dowson

1987-01-01

283

Fundamental approach to dipmeter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, in dipmeter analysis, depositional patterns are delineated for environmental, structural, and stratigraphic interpretations. The proposed method is a fundamental approach using raw data measurements from the dipmeter sonde to help the geologist describe subsurface structures on a stratigraphic scale. Raw data are available at the well site, require no post-processing, are cost effective, easy to use, require only a

M. B. Enderlin; D. K. T. Hansen

1988-01-01

284

Social learning analytics: five approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that Social Learning Analytics (SLA) can be usefully thought of as a subset of learning analytics approaches. SLA focuses on how learners build knowledge together in their cultural and social settings. In the context of online social learning, it takes into account both formal and informal educational environments, including networks and communities. The paper introduces the broad

Rebecca Ferguson; Simon Buckingham Shum

2012-01-01

285

An Approach to Systems Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with an approach toward system design in a alrge learning center. Three subjects are discussed: basic principles, design steps and potential pitfalls. The first section contains four conceptual principles to be used as guidelines for system design. The second section discusses four…

Amromin, Joel L.

1973-01-01

286

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

287

Map Projections: Approaches and Themes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

Steward, H. J.

1970-01-01

288

Hybrid Nanorobotic Approaches to NEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic manipulation at the nanometer scale is a promising technology for structuring, characterizing and assembling nano building blocks into nanoelec- tromechanical systems (NEMS). Combined with recently developed nanofab- rication processes, a hybrid approach to building NEMS from individual car­ bon nanotubes (CNTs) and SiGe\\/Si nanocoils is described. Nanosensors and nanoactuators are investigated from experimental, theoretical, and design per­ spectives.

Bradley J. Nelson; Lixin Dong; Arunkumar Subramanian; Dominik J. Bell

2005-01-01

289

Strategic Approach for Space Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impending federal budget reduction is a watershed event for the Department of Defense (DoD) and presents the DoD with an opportunity to implement a new strategic approach for managing its space acquisition portfolio. The looming funding reduction, in ...

T. Rade

2012-01-01

290

A Backward Approach to Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sciences, the National Science Education Standards further emphasize that learning science is an inquiry-based process; therefore, teaching methods should be inquiry-based. Use a backwards design approach to ensure that academic standards are met during student-centered, inquiry-based investigations for daily class activities, classroom discussions, and assessment of student understanding.

Hendrickson, Sher

2006-01-01

291

Assessment Approaches and Cognitive Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined outcomes on multiple-choice tests and performance-based assessments for 102 field-independent and field-dependent college students. Finds a substantial interaction between cognitive style and assessment approach. Results suggest that performance-based assessment tends to favor field-independent subjects. (SLD)|

Lu, Chin-hsieh; Suen, Hoi K.

1995-01-01

292

Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

Armstrong, Harry

293

Bacterial adhesion: A physicochemical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces was studied using a physicochemical approach. Adhesion to negatively charged polystyrene was found to be reversible and could be described quantitatively using the DLVO theory for colloidal stability, i.e., in terms of Van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. The influence of the latter was assessed by varying the electrolyte strength. Adhesion increased with

Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht; Johannes Lyklema; Willem Norde; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

1989-01-01

294

Science Teaching: A Dilemmatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine the nature of primary science expertise using an ethnographic and sociocultural approach and a theoretical analysis that conceptualises educational practice in terms of the resolution of dilemmas. Using data from an in-depth investigation of the perspective and practice of a single teacher, I discuss some of the "dilemmas"…

Traianou, Anna

2012-01-01

295

BIOMIMETIC APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of international research on biomimicry in relation to the built environment identifies various obstacles to the employment of such a methodology. One barrier of particular note is the lack of a clearly defined approach to biomimicry that designers with little specialist knowledge in the fields of biology or ecology can initially employ. Through a comparative literature review,

Maibritt Pedersen

296

Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and illustrate using data from insects an integrative approach to modelling animal nutrition. This framework enables the unification within simple geometrical models of several nutritionally relevant measures. These include: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required to be ingested and allocated to growth by an animal over a given time period (the intake and growth targets, respectively);

D. Raubenheimer; S. J. Simpson

1999-01-01

297

Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide…

Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

2013-01-01

298

Random Approach to Motion Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The motion planning problem demands determination of a collision free path for a robot amongst a set of obstacles. An approach for solving this problem, based on the construction of a random network of possible motions, connecting the source and goal conf...

M. H. Overmars

1992-01-01

299

A pragmatic approach to adaptive antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach for efficient computation of adaptive weights in phased-array antennas. The fundamental philosophical differences between adaptive antennas and adaptive signal-processing methodology are also delineated. This approach, unlike the conventional statistical techniques, eliminates the requirement for an interference covariance matrix, and represents a rethinking of the entire conventional approach to adaptive processing. This approach provides greater

Tapan K. Sarkar; Jinwan Koh; Raviraj Adve; Richard A. Schneible; Michael C. Wicks; Seungwon Choi; Magdalena Salazar Palma

2000-01-01

300

Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects

B Gottstein; J Eckert

2002-01-01

301

[Narrative Approach to Moral Development.] Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elaborates on some issues in the debate between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and a narrative, relativistic, approach to studies of moral development. Reviews the concept of self in both approaches, ideas on the Cartesian rationality underlying Kohlberg's theories, and the reliance of the self on language in narrative approaches.…

Lapsley, Daniel K.

1996-01-01

302

Biopsychosocial approach to orthotic intervention.  

PubMed

Orthotic intervention should be individualized and patient or client centered. The best outcomes occur when orthotic interventions are designed with patient involvement and holistic consideration of the individual's unique personal attributes, context, and environment. The authors discuss Shelley's story, which illustrates an approach to orthotic intervention that is based on Engel's biopsychosocial model and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Fifteen guiding principles for the biopsychosocial orthotic approach are presented. Orthoses that are thoughtfully designed with patient input, carefully constructed and monitored, and modified as needed, can make a difference in a person's life by relieving pain, providing joint stabilization, protecting vulnerable tissues and enabling valued activity and participation. This, in turn, promotes physical and emotional well-being. PMID:21055903

McKee, Pat R; Rivard, Annette

2010-11-05

303

Approaches to neuroscience data integration  

PubMed Central

As the number of neuroscience databases increases, the need for neuroscience data integration grows. This paper reviews and compares several approaches, including the Neuroscience Database Gateway (NDG), Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and Entrez Neuron, which enable neuroscience database annotation and integration. These approaches cover a range of activities spanning from registry, discovery and integration of a wide variety of neuroscience data sources. They also provide different user interfaces for browsing, querying and displaying query results. In Entrez Neuron, for example, four different facets or tree views (neuron, neuronal property, gene and drug) are used to hierarchically organize concepts that can be used for querying a collection of ontologies. The facets are also used to define the structure of the query results.

Lim, Ernest; Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Marenco, Luis; Holford, Matthew E.; Morse, Thomas M.; Mutalik, Pradeep; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

2009-01-01

304

Observability during planetary approach navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

305

Fronto-Orbito Zygomatic Approach  

PubMed Central

The fronto-orbito zygomatic approach is part of the surgical armamentarium of modern skull base surgery. As described in the literature, it requires costly technological tools such as powerful drills and saws, to be performed. In the present communication we describe a technical modification that allows the zygoma to be elevated “en bloc” together with the fronto-orbital bone flap by means of appropriate use of the Gigli's saw. Using this technique, adequate replacement of the craniotomy flap requires only two silk sutures. This technical modification, which was already successfully used in over 20 cases, would also allow this useful approach to be performed in those neurosurgical environments where modern costly technology for cranial base surgery is not available. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

Spallone, Aldo; Rizzo, Antonella; Konovalov, Alexander N.; Giuffre, Renato

1996-01-01

306

BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO APHASIA TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

Herein, we review the basic mechanisms neural regeneration and repair and attempt to correlate the findings from animal models of stroke recovery to clinical trials for aphasia. Several randomized, controlled clinical trials that have involved manipulation of different neurotransmitter systems, including noradrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, have shown signals of efficacy. Biological approaches such as anti-Nogo and cell-replacement therapy have shown efficacy in preclinical models, but have yet to reach proof of concept in the clinic. Finally, noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques have been used in a few small trials, and have shown promising results. It appears that the efficacy of all of these platforms can be potentiated through coupling with speech-language therapy. Given this array of potential mechanisms that exist to augment and/or stimulate neural reorganization after stroke, we are optimistic that approaches to aphasia therapy will transition from compensatory models to models where brain reorganization is the goal.

Small, Steven L.; Llano, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

307

Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies  

PubMed Central

The expansive use of immunosuppressive medications in fields such as transplantational medicine and oncology, the higher frequency of invasive procedures in an aging population and the HIV/AIDS pandemic have increased the frequency of systemic fungal infections. At the same time, increased resistance of pathogenic fungi to classical antifungal agents has led to sustained research efforts targeting alternative antifungal strategies. In this review, we focus on two promising approaches: cationic peptides and the targeting of fungal virulence factors. Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments which exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins, and cathelicidins, as well as novel synthetic peptides. Amongst fungal virulence factors, the targeting of candidal secreted aspartic proteinases seems to be a particularly promising approach.

Mehra, T; Koberle, M; Braunsdorf, C; Mailander-Sanchez, D; Borelli, C; Schaller, M

2012-01-01

308

Therapeutic approaches to muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and wasting. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy, and although the molecular mechanisms of the disease have been extensively investigated since the discovery of the gene in 1986, there is currently no effective treatment. However, new gene-based therapies have recently emerged with particular noted advances in using conventional gene replacement strategies, RNA-based technology and pharmacological approaches. While the proof of principle has been demonstrated in animal models, several clinical trials have recently been undertaken to investigate the feasibility of these strategies in patients. In particular, antisense-mediated exon skipping has shown encouraging results and holds promise for the treatment of dystrophic muscle. Here, we summarize the recent progress in therapeutic approaches to muscular dystrophies, with an emphasis on gene therapy and exon skipping for DMD.

Goyenvalle, Aurelie; Seto, Jane T.; Davies, Kay E.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

309

Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.  

PubMed

Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

2008-06-01

310

Current approach to seronegative myasthenia.  

PubMed

The group of patients with weakness or fatigue who have electrophysiological evidence of neuromuscular transmission defects, but no antibodies against either acetyl choline receptor or muscle specific kinase, need special evaluation and therapeutic consideration. Such seronegative patients may have low affinity antibodies but may also be late onset of a congenital myasthenic syndrome. This review discuss the practical approach toward the condition of seronegative myasthenia. PMID:20852878

Argov, Zohar

2010-09-18

311

Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary clinical approach.  

PubMed

This article provides a clinical step-by-step approach for assessing a patient with tinnitus as primary complaint. The medical diagnosis of the disease provoking the tinnitus has to be made first in a comprehensive evaluation, including imaging. The psycho-acoustic characteristics and the influence on health-related quality of life is a compulsory complementary assessment to establish a complete picture of the patient. PMID:18225603

Van de Heyning, P; Meeus, O; Blaivie, C; Vermeire, K; Boudewyns, A; De Ridder, D

2007-01-01

312

A Narrative Approach to Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the ways that narratives can be used in groups to create meaning, organize the past, explain the present and consider alternatives for the future. Narratives are formats for self-creation; they can also be used to provide support or education, promote self-understanding and interpersonal effectiveness. Already familiar in self-help groups and reminiscence groups for the elderly, narrative approaches

Ruth Grossman Dean

1998-01-01

313

Industrial Beamline Technologies And Approaches  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes industrial charged particle beamline technologies and design approaches. Beamlines accommodate myriad constraints in the radioisotope production, electron beam processing, and ion implantation market segments, and some very strange yet interesting solutions result. In this paper, a detailed look at a particular injection beamline solution gives some sense of the complexity of research and development required, and the sophistication of the beamline solutions that are utilized. A brief review of beamline applications in each industrial segment follows.

Dehnel, M. P. [D-Pace, Inc. P.O. Box 201, Nelson, B.C., V1L 5P9 (Canada)

2011-06-01

314

Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy: Transperitoneal Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radical nephrectomy, as described by Robson et al. in 1963, is the traditional gold standard approach to the management of\\u000a renal tumors (1). This procedure has an established success rate but is associated with significant postoperative pain and\\u000a prolonged convalescence, stemming from the flank, subcostal, Chevron or thoraco-abdominal incisions typically used. Laparoscopic\\u000a radical nephrectomy, as introduced by Clayman and associates

Leslie A. Deane; David I. Lee; Jaime Landman; Chandru P. Sundaram; Ralph V. Clayman

315

An integrative approach to health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I make the case for using an integrative approach to health, broadly defined as social, emotional, mental,\\u000a and physical well-being; for studying health among the young as an important marker for future health and well-being across\\u000a the life course; and for understanding health disparities among the young as both causes and consequences of social stratification.\\u000a An integrative

Kathleen Mullan Harris

2010-01-01

316

The enter-educate approach.  

PubMed

This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

1992-03-01

317

Alternative Surgical Approaches in Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstay of epilepsy surgery is the resection of a presumed seizure focus or disruption of seizure propagation pathways.\\u000a These approaches cannot be applied to all patients with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE). Since 1997, vagus nerve stimulation\\u000a has been a palliative adjunct to the care of MRE patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in select locations has been reported\\u000a to reduce

Paul R. Gigante; Robert R. Goodman

2011-01-01

318

An efficient iris segmentation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

2011-10-01

319

Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical approaches to the understanding of superionic conductivity in polycrystalline, glassy and polymeric materials\\u000a are briefly reviewed. Phase transitions to the superionic conducting state in the AgI family are apparently triggered by cluster\\u000a formation and strong mobile ion interaction within the clusters. Anomalous conductivity and related physical properties are\\u000a explained in the cluster induced distortion model. Ionic composites such

C. S. Sunandana; P. Senthil Kumar

2004-01-01

320

[Psychodynamic approach to sex disorders].  

PubMed

When treating patients with sexual disorders, the necessary distinction between organic and functional dysfunction is far from being sufficient in itself, and may even inspire an over-inflexible and rigid therapeutic attitude. The psychodynamic approach sets out to take into consideration the patient's appeal in its entirety, including the symptoms described. In psychodynamic theory, sexotherapy is one form of psychotherapy, but the therapeutic attitude will not be fundamentally modified by the fact that a disorder is functional or organic. PMID:6529220

Mimoun, M S

1984-05-01

321

Neuromodulation: selected approaches and challenges.  

PubMed

The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The 'wiring' of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromodulation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes has been proven effective in the modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture and in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing 'misfiring' neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real-time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us. PMID:23190025

Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A; Tass, Peter A; Bennet, Kevin E; Meyyappan, M; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H; Andrews, Russell J

2012-12-26

322

Interval approach to braneworld gravity  

SciTech Connect

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of 'straight gauges', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge-fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical 'brane-bending' modes.

Carena, Marcela [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2005-10-15

323

An Integrative Approach to Health  

PubMed Central

In this article, I make the case for using an integrative approach to health, broadly defined as social, emotional, mental, and physical well-being; for studying health among the young as an important marker for future health and well-being across the life course; and for understanding health disparities among the young as both causes and consequences of social stratification. An integrative approach bridges biomedical sciences with social and behavioral sciences by understanding the linkages between social, behavioral, psychological, and biological factors in health. It is furthermore vital that integration occur in all steps of the research process: in theory, design, data collection, and analysis. I use the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, or Add Health, as an example of an integrative approach to health and of the importance of adolescence and the transition to adulthood years for setting health trajectories into adulthood. Evidence is also presented on the linkages between health trajectories during adolescence and the transition to adulthood and social stratification in adulthood.

HARRIS, KATHLEEN MULLAN

2010-01-01

324

An abstract approach to music.  

SciTech Connect

In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

1999-04-19

325

Fracture Recess: Asymmetric Continuum Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is based on the Asymmetric Continuum Theory, which could be applied both for the solids, fluids and extreme motions: fractures, vortices, turbulence and shock waves. This theoretical approach is based on the papers concerning the solid and fluid continua (Teisseyre, 2009, publ. in "Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am." ; Teisseyre, 2010: publ. in "Acta Geophys."; Teisseyre, 2011, publ. in "Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am." and Teisseyre, 2012, publ. in "Acta Geophys."). These papers lead us also to the fracture processes situated in a kind of fracture recess, where the continuum might contain both solid and fluid elements. A similarity to the solid-fluid debris-flow models by Hutter and Schneider (2010, publ. in "Continuum Mech. Thermodyn.", parts 1,2) is underlined. In this approach the deformations and thus also strains are treated as the independent fields governed by the respective equations of motion. We derive such basic motion relations by an uniform approach; we extend our considerations to include also the extreme motions; a role of the release-rebound processes is underline. Our aim is to present a new attempt to describe the fracture processes which may appear inside a kind of fracture recess in a solid body; here such a recess is considered as a mixed continuum with both the solid and fluid phases.

Teisseyre, R.

2012-04-01

326

Molecular Approaches to Sarcoma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors that have a relatively poor prognosis. Although conventional therapeutic regimens can effectively cytoreduce the overall tumor mass, they fail to consistently achieve a curative outcome. Alternative gene-based approaches that counteract the underlying neoplastic process by eliminating the clonal aberrations that potentiate malignant behavior have been proposed. As compared to the accumulation of gene alterations associated with epithelial carcinomas, sarcomas are frequently characterized by the unique presence of a single chromosomal translocation in each histological subtype. Similar to the Philadelphia chromosome associated with CML, these clonal abnormalities result in the fusion of two independent unrelated genes to generate a unique chimeric protein that displays aberrant activity believed to initiate cellular transformation. Secondary gene mutations may provide an additional growth advantage that further contributes to malignant progression. The recent clinical success of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, suggests that therapeutic approaches specifically directed against essential survival factors in sarcoma cells may be effective. This review summarizes published approaches targeting a specific molecular mechanism associated with sarcomagenesis. The strategy and significance of published translational studies in six distinct areas are presented. These include: (1) the disruption of chimeric transcription factor activity; (2) inhibition of growth stimulatory post-translational modifications; (3) restoration of tumor suppressor function; (4) interference with angiogenesis; (5) induction of apoptotic pathways; and (6) introduction of toxic gene products. The potential for improving outcomes in sarcoma patients and the conceptual obstacles to be overcome are discussed.

Olsen, R. J.; Tarantolo, S. R.

2002-01-01

327

A Comprehensive Rehabilitation Research and Demonstration Programme for Patients in an Urban Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive research and demonstration project was undertaken in Bombay, India, to study the problems of the rehabilitation of lepers from the social, psychological, medical, and economic points of view. Psycho-social studies were conducted with the a...

1975-01-01

328

[Psychology of patient management: evaluation and quality assurance of psychosocial management in pediatric oncology].  

PubMed

Since the introduction of health-care reform in Germany, quality assurance of inpatient care is required. In paediatric oncology this also includes quality assurance measures of psycho-social care. Care Psychology deals with the development, testing and continual improvement of high-quality psycho-social care. Based on clinical experience, scientific knowledge and ascertained requirements a handbook and manual of service delivery of psycho-social care is formulated and tested in everyday practice. Service performance analyses are carried out, and verified improvements are re-tested in practice. This, as well as additional attempts, should lead to total quality management (TQM) of psycho-social care in paediatric oncology according to the criteria of the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM). PMID:9156631

Kusch, M; Labouvie, H; Jäger, R S; Bode, U

1997-02-01

329

the psychology of dental patient careThe determinants of dental health attitudes and behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of psycho-social factors as determinants of health behaviour. It examines the development of dental health attitudes from the patient, professional and societal perspectives.

Ruth Freeman

1999-01-01

330

Home hygiene: a risk approach.  

PubMed

The need to place "prevention through hygiene" at the core of strategies for infection prevention has been emphasised by recent events. Indications are that re-evaluation of current practice and the promotion of improved hygiene in the domestic setting could have a significant impact in reducing infectious disease. If the public are to play a part however they must be properly informed. Encouraging the concept of the home as a setting in which the whole range of activities occur, including food hygiene, personal hygiene and hygiene related to medical care, provides the opportunity for a rational approach to home hygiene based on risk assessment. In the home surfaces (including hand surfaces) and other sites play an important part in the transmission of infection, especially food-borne infections. From an assessment of the frequency of occurrence of pathogens and potential pathogens at reservoirs, disseminators and hand and food contact sites together with the potential for transfer within the home, the risks of exposure can be assessed. This can be used to develop a rational approach in which effective hygiene procedures involving cleaning and disinfection as appropriate are targeted at these sites to reduce risks of cross contamination. This approach is consistent with the view that good home hygiene is not about "getting rid of household germs" but about targeting hygiene measures appropriately to reduce exposure to germs and thereby prevent cross infection. In motivating change, education programmes must take account of concerns related to antimicrobial resistance, the environment and the "health" of the immune system. PMID:12621897

Bloomfield, Sally F

2003-01-01

331

Adaptive approach to negative scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for accurate color reproduction has never been as high as today. Not only in the high-end electronic prepress market, but also in the desktop publishing and home office markets, the availability of both input and output devices is increasing rapidly. Most of the input devices today capture positive originals: scanners capture either reflective or transmissive originals; digital cameras are capable of capturing real life scenes as well. In some market segments (such as, e.g., the newspaper environment), there also is a definite interest in scanning negative originals. Especially with the new emerging APS standard for film (where manual manipulation of the film strips is no longer necessary), the demand for negative scanning will also increase in the home office market. Scanning negatives, however, is a very delicate process. Not only the input device should be characterized properly, but also the negative film itself is a parameter which needs to be studied carefully. On negative film, the information is stored inverted and due to the color dye layers within the negative film, there also is a density shift between the red, green and blue planes. The main problem, however, is caused by the fact that, due to the variations in the development process, the characteristics of a strip of developed negative film can differ considerably from other strips of the same film type. In this paper, we first give a brief survey of our approach to scanning negatives presented in the past. Then, we show how the unpredictable properties of negative films can cause this approach to fail and discuss some substantial improvements. In this respect, we show how the adaptive approach taken in the conventional photofinishing environment can be used electronically. In a following section, we describe how the inverted positive image data can be transformed into a well-known, calibrated color space. In the last section, we briefly discuss the minimal requirements for an ideal negative scanner.

Tuijn, Chris

1997-02-01

332

Hemorrhagic shock: The "physiology approach"  

PubMed Central

A shift of approach from ‘clinics trying to fit physiology’ to the one of ‘physiology to clinics’, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology.

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2012-01-01

333

BFKL approach and dipole picture  

SciTech Connect

Inter-relation of the BFKL approach and the colour dipole model is discussed. In the case of scattering of colourless objects the colour singlet BFKL kernel can be taken in the special representation called Moebius form. In the leading order (LO) it coincides with the kernel of the colour dipole model. In the next-to-leading order (NLO) the quark parts of the Moebius form and the colour dipole kernel are in accord with each other, but the gluon parts do not agree. Possible sources of this discrepancy are analyzed.

Fadin, V. S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-03-23

334

Materials: An interdisciplinary integrative approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full-year survey-of-materials-science course as offered at Bowling Green State University for the past 5 years is described. The course has several unique features, including a modular, team-taught approach with a laboratory component. The laboratory segment is the most demanding portion of the course to set up, and alternatives are discussed in adapting equipment on hand to the course. The feasibility of offering a course in materials science in a nonengineering setting is discussed and some problems associated with offering the course in the ``arts and sciences'' context are examined.

Boughton, Robert I.

2001-08-01

335

Setup reduction approaches for machining  

SciTech Connect

Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

Gillespie, L.K.

1997-04-01

336

Synergies of virtual screening approaches.  

PubMed

Virtual screening is a knowledge driven approach. Therefore, synergies between different virtual screening methods using information about the drug target as well as about known ligands in combination promise the best results. Finding novel active scaffolds is often a more important success criterion than hit rates of virtual screens. Novelty should also be considered in balance with often weaker activities of virtual screening hits. Virtual screening is most effective if performed in iterations following up on weak primary hits of interest through testing of structural analogs and additional synthesis of compounds. PMID:18691150

Muegge, Ingo

2008-08-01

337

Bayesian Approach to Network Modularity  

PubMed Central

We present an efficient, principled, and interpretable technique for inferring module assignments and for identifying the optimal number of modules in a given network. We show how several existing methods for finding modules can be described as variant, special, or limiting cases of our work, and how the method overcomes the resolution limit problem, accurately recovering the true number of modules. Our approach is based on Bayesian methods for model selection which have been used with success for almost a century, implemented using a variational technique developed only in the past decade. We apply the technique to synthetic and real networks and outline how the method naturally allows selection among competing models.

Hofman, Jake M.; Wiggins, Chris H.

2009-01-01

338

Parallel Mapping Approaches for GNUMAP  

PubMed Central

Mapping short next-generation reads to reference genomes is an important element in SNP calling and expression studies. A major limitation to large-scale whole-genome mapping is the large memory requirements for the algorithm and the long run-time necessary for accurate studies. Several parallel implementations have been performed to distribute memory on different processors and to equally share the processing requirements. These approaches are compared with respect to their memory footprint, load balancing, and accuracy. When using MPI with multi-threading, linear speedup can be achieved for up to 256 processors.

Clement, Nathan L.; Clement, Mark J.; Snell, Quinn; Johnson, W. Evan

2013-01-01

339

Renewable resources. A systematic approach  

SciTech Connect

The use of a renewable resource as a source of raw material for energy or simply for satisfaction of ecological needs, is a complex problem involving a series of disciplines, decisions at different levels, and intense, community participation. This book brings together a series of papers related to the use of renewable resources seen from different perspectives: from that of the biologist who searches for new techniques for the massive propagation of plants to the chemist who has found numerous chemical alternatives for the conversion of many sources of raw materials and energy to cellulose. The social and physical impacts of renewable resource exploitation are analyzed using different approaches.

Campos-Lopez, E. (ed.)

1980-01-01

340

Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using nonequilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum-kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

Frossard, T.; Garny, M.; Hohenegger, A.; Kartavtsev, A.; Mitrouskas, D.

2013-04-01

341

Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level.

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M.; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-01

342

Integrated approach to pollution control  

SciTech Connect

Integrated pollution control (IPC) is viewed here as an approach that seeks the most cost-effective way of reducing the overall risk to human health and the environment from all pollutants in all environmental media. It does this by simultaneously taking into account all pollutant discharges, all available control options, the transport of all pollutants in the environment following discharge, and the resulting risk to human health and environment. The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is technically feasible to implement the IPC approach. IPC is considered technically feasible if a methodology capable of selecting a pollution control strategy under an IPC framework can be developed and if the methodology is reliable, i.e., the assumptions underlying the model are valid, and adequate data are available. A typical IPC methodology involves identifying pollutant sources and pollution control options, tracing the pollutants through the environment, determining risks to human health and the environment resulting from the ambient pollutant concentrations, and identifying the most cost effective pollution control alternative. In this study, three submodels - pollution control and cost, pollution transport, and risk assessment - are used to provide information for the first three steps of the IPC methodology.

Munshi, U.

1986-01-01

343

Approaches to antiviral drug development.  

PubMed Central

At present, only a few drugs have been approved by the FDA for therapy of viral infections in humans. There is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity, as well as drugs to treat viral diseases for which no drug or vaccine is currently available. Two approaches for development of antiviral drugs are described--an empirical strategy and a rational strategy--with several examples of each. Although many compounds have potent antiviral activity in cell culture, only a small fraction of these will go on to become antiviral drugs for use in humans. At this time, only seven synthetic compounds and alpha interferon have been approved by the FDA for therapy of viral infections in humans. None of these approved drugs are without toxicities, however, and hence there is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity, as well as for drugs to treat viral diseases for which no drug or vaccine is currently available. Two approaches for the development of antiviral drugs--the empirical and the rational strategies--and their applications and future directions are discussed.

Prusoff, W. H.; Lin, T. S.; August, E. M.; Wood, T. G.; Marongiu, M. E.

1989-01-01

344

The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology.  

PubMed

Recent and long-term sympatries between humans and nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) are central to the behavioral ecology, conservation, and evolutionary trajectories of numerous primate species. Ethnoprimatology emphasizes that interconnections between humans and primates should be viewed as more than just disruptions of a "natural" state, and instead anthropogenic contexts must be considered as potential drivers for specific primate behavioral patterns. Rather than focusing solely on the behavior and ecology of the primate species at hand, as in traditional primatology, or on the symbolic meanings and uses of primates, as in socio-cultural anthropology, ethnoprimatology attempts to merge these perspectives into a more integrative approach. As human pressures on environments continue to increase and primate habitats become smaller and more fragmented, the need for a primatology that considers the impact of human attitudes and behavior on all aspects of primate lives and survival is imperative. In this special issue, we present both data-driven examples and more general discussions that describe how ethnoprimatological approaches can be both a contribution to the core theory and practice of primatology and a powerful tool in our goal of conservation action. PMID:20806335

Fuentes, Agustin; Hockings, Kimberley J

2010-09-01

345

Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

2001-12-01

346

Thermochronological approaches to provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochronological approaches to provenance studies may use high temperature methods to determine the formation age structure of source terrain lithologies and low temperature methods to monitor post-metamorphic cooling, mostly in response to denudation. A fundamental assumption of detrital thermochronological studies is that the measured ages relate directly to a sediment source area and that they have not been subject to a multi-stage history the consequence of either long-term sediment storage or polyphase recycling. Use of ages from grains affected by storage or recycling can lead to misinterpretation of sediment provenance unless a suitable protocol is adopted to detect multi-stage histories. For example detrital zircon U-Pb data from Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and modern sediments across SE Asia reveals the same age signature. The durability of the zircon U-Pb system means that 250 Myrs of recycling has not changed the spectrum of zircon source ages yet the origin of Cretaceous sediments in Thailand is different from Triassic sediments in southwestern China, although ultimately they all contain material from the same original source. To avoid these issues it is recommended that any study combine high and low-temperature methods based on different minerals. This allows for detection of recycling and storage and importantly, enables monitoring of low-temperature exhumation histories which often provide the key evidence for discriminating between sources. Data are presented to illustrate the benefits of adopting an integrated thermochronological approach.

Carter, A.

2003-04-01

347

Functional genomics approaches in arthritis.  

PubMed

The post-genomic era of functional genomics and target validation will allow us to narrow the bridge between clinically correlative data and causative data for complex diseases, such as arthritis, for which the etiological agent remains elusive. The availability of human and other annotated genome sequences, and parallel developments of new technologies that allow analysis of minute amounts of human and animal cells (peripheral blood cells and infiltrating cells) and tissues (synovium and cartilage) under different pathophysiological conditions, has facilitated high-throughput gene mining approaches that can generate vast amounts of clinically correlative data. Characterizing some of the correlative/causative genes will require reverting to the hypothesis-driven, low throughput method of complementary experimental biology using genomic approaches as a tool. This will include in silico gene expression arrays, genome-wide scans, comparative genomics using various animal models (such as rodents and zebrafish), bioinformatics and a team of well trained translational scientists and physicians. For the first time, the "genomic tools" will allow us to analyze small amounts of surgical samples (such as needle biopsies) and clinical samples in the context of the whole genome. Preliminary genomic analysis in osteoarthritis has already resurrected the debate on the semantic issues in the definition of inflammation. Further analyses will not only facilitate the development of unbiased hypotheses at the molecular level, but also assist us in the identification and characterization of novel targets and disease markers for pharmacological intervention, gene therapy, and diagnosis. PMID:14987120

Attur, Mukundan G; Dave, Mandar N; Amin, Ashok R

2004-01-01

348

Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.  

PubMed

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria. PMID:20975934

Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P Read

2010-10-21

349

Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.  

PubMed

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-07

350

Microfluidic approaches to malaria detection.  

PubMed

Microfluidic systems are under development to address a variety of medical problems. Key advantages of micrototal analysis systems based on microfluidic technology are the promise of small size and the integration of sample handling and measurement functions within a single, automated device having low mass-production costs. Here, we review the spectrum of methods currently used to detect malaria, consider their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss their adaptability towards integration into small, automated micro total analysis systems. Molecular amplification methods emerge as leading candidates for chip-based systems because they offer extremely high sensitivity, the ability to recognize malaria species and strain, and they will be adaptable to the detection of new genotypic signatures that will emerge from current genomic-based research of the disease. Current approaches to the development of chip-based molecular amplification are considered with special emphasis on flow-through PCR, and we present for the first time the method of malaria specimen preparation by dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation. Although many challenges must be addressed to realize a micrototal analysis system for malaria diagnosis, it is concluded that the potential benefits of the approach are well worth pursuing. PMID:14744562

Gascoyne, Peter; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

2004-02-01

351

'Probabilistic' approach to Richardson equations.  

PubMed

It is known that solutions of Richardson equations can be represented as stationary points of the 'energy' of classical free charges on the plane. We suggest considering the 'probabilities' of the system of charges occupying certain states in the configurational space at the effective temperature given by the interaction constant, which goes to zero in the thermodynamical limit. It is quite remarkable that the expression of 'probability' has similarities with the square of the Laughlin wavefunction. Next, we introduce the 'partition function', from which the ground state energy of the initial quantum-mechanical system can be determined. The 'partition function' is given by a multidimensional integral, which is similar to the Selberg integrals appearing in conformal field theory and random-matrix models. As a first application of this approach, we consider a system with the constant density of energy states at arbitrary filling of the energy interval where potential acts. In this case, the 'partition function' is rather easily evaluated using properties of the Vandermonde matrix. Our approach thus yields a quite simple and short way to find the ground state energy, which is shown to be described by a single expression all over from the dilute to the dense regime of pairs. It also provides additional insight into the physics of Cooper-paired states. PMID:22301673

Pogosov, W V

2012-02-22

352

Neural Approaches to Machine Consciousness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`Machine Consciousness', which some years ago might have been suppressed as an inappropriate pursuit, has come out of the closet and is now a legitimate area of research concern. This paper briefly surveys the last few years of worldwide research in this area which divides into rule-based and neural approaches and then reviews the work of the author's laboratory during the last ten years. The paper develops a fresh perspective on this work: it is argued that neural approaches, in this case, digital neural systems, can address phenomenological consciousness. Important clarifications of phenomenology and virtuality which enter this modelling are explained in the early parts of the paper. In neural models, phenomenology is a form of depictive inner representation that has five specific axiomatic features: a sense of self-presence in an external world; a sense of imagination of past experience and fiction; a sense of attention; a capacity for planning; a sense of emotion-based volition that influences planning. It is shown that these five features have separate but integrated support in dynamic neural systems.

Aleksander, Igor; Eng., F. R.

2008-10-01

353

Approach to Rectal Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer is a distinct subset of colorectal cancer where specialized disease-specific management of the primary tumor is required. There have been significant developments in rectal cancer surgery at all stages of disease in particular the introduction of local excision strategies for preinvasive and early cancers, standardized total mesorectal excision for resectable cancers incorporating preoperative short- or long-course chemoradiation to the multimodality sequencing of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is also increasingly being adopted as the standard rectal cancer surgery approach following expertise of colorectal surgeons in minimally invasive surgery gained from laparoscopic colon resections. In locally advanced and metastatic disease, combining chemoradiation with radical surgery may achieve total eradication of disease and disease control in the pelvis. Evidence for resection of metastases to the liver and lung have been extensively reported in the literature. The role of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases is showing promise in achieving locoregional control of peritoneal dissemination. This paper summarizes the recent developments in approaches to rectal cancer surgery at all these time points of the disease natural history.

Chua, Terence C.; Chong, Chanel H.; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.

2012-01-01

354

Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification  

PubMed Central

We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n?=?574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read

2010-01-01

355

Fast approach for toner saving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

2011-01-01

356

Hermeneutical Portrait of Today’s 18–22 Year Old Young Adult Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article’s objective is to help uncover today’s 18–22 year old young adult male in his modern day milieu in order to paint\\u000a a hermeneutical portrait of his maleness and masculinity. It will attempt to do so utilizing two main categories: (1) psycho-social\\u000a development and (2) socio-cultural types and archetypes. Psycho-social development refers to the meaning and telos of the young

Robert J. Parmach

2010-01-01

357

Employability during unemployment: Adaptability, career identity and human and social capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii) human and social capital. The aim of the current paper was to empirically test Fugate

Sarah McArdle; Lea Waters; Jon P. Briscoe

2007-01-01

358

A INSERÇÃO DA FAMÍLIA NOS CENTROS DE ATENÇÃO PSICOSSOCIAL SOB A ÓTICA DE SEUS ATORES SOCIAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper ia cut-off of the qualitative phase of evaluation research a Psycho-social Support Centers, in southern Brazilian. It represents a case study carried out in the city of São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. It aims to represent the insertion of families in the Psycho-social Support Centers from the point of view of interest groups, users, relatives, and staff.

Valquíria de Lourdes; Machado Bielemann; Luciane Prado Kantorski; Luana Ribeiro Borges; Rita Maria Heck

2009-01-01

359

[Acquiring a sexual identity].  

PubMed

Progressive acquisition from childhood onwards to adulthood of a procreative and psycho-emotional sexual identity is presented in all its bio-psycho-social complexity. Gender identity disorders (GDI) and the different sexual orientations (hetero-, homo- or bisexual) are included with their possible etiologies. Different medico-psycho-social programs and projects are presented targeting persons having difficulties in this developmental process of their identity. PMID:23547360

Kjellberg, G

2013-03-20

360

OBESITY AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) IN RELATION TO LIFE-STYLE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample

F. Marcellini; C. Giuli; R. Papa; G. Tirabassi; E. Faloia; M. Boscaro; A. Polito; D. Ciarapica; M. Zaccaria; E. Mocchegiani

2009-01-01

361

A robustness approach to facilities design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single period plant layout problem under uncertainty is discussed. Solution procedures for dealing with this problem, mainly the robustness approach, are recommended. The effectiveness of the robustness approach to this problem is illustrated by a numerical example.

MEIR J. ROSENBLATT; HAU L. LEE

1987-01-01

362

Evaluation of Revised Approach Lighting Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has directed conversion of all ALSF-1 Category I ILS approach lighting systems with sequenced flashing lights to the Simplified Short Approach Lighting System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights (SSALR) and Med...

K. J. Kerkering G. C. Armstrong

1977-01-01

363

Approaches to Enhance Sensemaking for Intelligence Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This essay describes four approaches to enhance sensemaking for intelligence analysis. Sensemaking refers to how individuals, groups, and organizations make sense out of their situation and environment. The four approaches are to attack every problem as a...

M. S. McBeth

2002-01-01

364

An Artefactual Approach to Ancient Arithmetic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes work with elementary school students which combines a documentary approach to humanizing mathematics education together with two other artifactual approaches: students' own construction of objects and documents imitating those studied and using ancient calculating devices in modern reconstruction. (MM)|

Percival, Irene

2001-01-01

365

CONST - A Constructive Approach to Information Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An approach to information modelling is presented which is based on the principles of a constructive theory and employes the formalism of production rules. In the paper a constructive approach is taken concerning the nature and representation of abstract ...

B. G. Lundberg

1985-01-01

366

Descriptive Complexity Approaches To Inductive Inference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a critical review of descriptive complexity approaches to inductive inference. Inductive inference is defined as any process by which a model of the world is formed from observations. The descriptive complexity approach is a formalization of Oc...

K. Atteson

1991-01-01

367

Complexity reduction approach for solving hyperbolic problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complexity reduction approach has been used to solve various science and technology problems. In this paper we will discuss the implementation of the approach to solve some hyperbolic equation such as first order hyperbolic problem and the Maxwell Equations. For solving the Maxwell equations, we implement a weighted average fourth order truncation with the complexity reduction approach. The approach shown to successfully reduce the complexity of original method. Results show to increase the speed up of its original method significantly.

Hasan, M. K.; Sulaiman, J.; Karim, S. A. A.

2013-04-01

368

Superior semicircular canal occlusion--Transmastoid approach  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The condition superior semi-circular canal dehiscence was first described by Minor et al. in 1998. PRESENTATION Of Case We describe a novel surgical approach to the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Our surgical technique involves a transmastoid rather than middle cranial fossa approach to the superior semicircular canal. CONCLUSION We conclude that the transmastoid approach, if anatomically feasible, carries significant advantages compared to middle cranial fossa craniotomy approach for the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

Wijaya, C.; Dias, A.; Conlon, B.J.

2011-01-01

369

Computational modeling of cell adhesion and movement using a continuum-kinetics approach.  

PubMed

Adhesion of leukocytes to substrate involves the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, and existing models of cell adhesion do not use full cellular information. To address these challenges, a multiscale computational approach for studying the adhesion of a cell on a substrate is developed and assessed. The cellular level model consists of a continuum representation of the field equations and a moving boundary tracking capability to allow the cell to change its shape continuously. At the receptor-ligand level, a bond molecule is mechanically represented by a spring. Communication between the macro/micro- and nanoscale models is facilitated interactively during the computation. The computational model is assessed using an adherent cell, rolling and deforming along the vessel wall under imposed shear flows. Using this approach, we first confirm existing numerical and experimental results. In this study, the intracellular viscosity and interfacial tension are found to directly affect the rolling of a cell. Our results also show that the presence of a nucleus increases the bond lifetime, and decreases the cell rolling velocity. Furthermore, it is found that a cell with a larger diameter rolls faster, and decreases the bond lifetime. This study shows that cell rheological properties have significant effects on the adhesion process contrary to what has been hypothesized in most literature. PMID:14507692

N'Dri, N A; Shyy, W; Tran-Son-Tay, R

2003-10-01

370

Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Economic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two approaches to the analysis of economic data: the exclusively econometric approach recommended by Hendry and Ericsson and the more eclectic approach that we employed in our books MONETARY HISTORY and MONETARY TRENDS. It concludes that the article by Hendry and Ericsson is mislabeled. Their article is not in any relevant sense an evaluation of our \\

Milton Friedman; Anna J Schwartz

1991-01-01

371

Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

Svabo, Connie

2009-01-01

372

Modeling in branding: a critical ethnography approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to shed light on the potential of ethnography to provide a dialectical approach to modeling the process of branding as its focus widens from managerial to social. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A critical approach to ethnography is adopted and implemented in light of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's ethnographic modeling technique of “participant objectification”. Findings – The

Ayman El-Amir; Steve Burt

2010-01-01

373

Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

Svabo, Connie

2009-01-01

374

The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students.…

Stinner, Arthur

2006-01-01

375

Anxious Uncertainty and Reactive Approach Motivation (RAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects.

Ian McGregor; Kyle Nash; Nikki Mann; Curtis E. Phills

2010-01-01

376

Limitations to Empirical Approaches to Jury Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superiority of social scientific approaches to voir dire is questioned on two grounds. First, the advantage of social scientific methods over normative approaches has not been established. Indeed, we have little empirical understanding of normative approaches to voir dire and therefore have little basis for comparison. Second, the variability in voir dire procedure from courtroom to courtroom and the

Lori Van Wallendael; Brian Cutler

2004-01-01

377

The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students. The…

Stinner, Arthur

2006-01-01

378

A dynamic approach of test data generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a dynamic approach to test data generation, in which the path selection stage is eliminated. In this approach, test data are derived on the basis of the actual execution of the program under test, of dynamic data flow analysis, and of function minimization methods. The approach starts by executing a program for an arbitrary program input. During

Bogdan Korel

1990-01-01

379

A benchmark approach for baseball evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a new analytical approach for baseball evaluation, referred to as “A Benchmark Approach”, by combining DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) with OERA (Offensive Earned-Run Average). An important feature of the proposed approach is that it can select a best performer among many baseball players and their ranking scores. The DEA is an evaluation technique of various entities in

Toshiyuki Sueyoshi; Kenji Ohnishi; Youichi Kinase

1999-01-01

380

[Narrative Approach to Moral Development.] Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach and narrative, relativistic, approaches to moral development--which are seemingly opposed--may be integrated, each addressing an aspect of moral concerns. Explains how the approaches may address different aspects of theories of self, stresses the need for better interpretive rationale in…

Puka, Bill

1996-01-01

381

NARRATIVE APPROACHES TO SUPERVISION AND CASE FORMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative approaches to understanding personality and psychotherapy are widely accepted. This article proposes that a constructionist approach to supervision allows an integration of narrative approaches with the supervisory process. Supervision and case formulation are discussed as the result of a dialogue between the supervisor and supervisee about the client’s story, the supervisee’s story about the client, and the professional story

Sheila R. Bob

1999-01-01

382

Life support approaches for Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are

A. E. Drysdale; M. K. Ewert; A. J. Hanford

2003-01-01

383

Hierarchical Latent Trait Approach in Test Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach is described that reveals the hierarchical test structure (HTS) based on the cognitive demands of the test items, and conducts a linear trait modeling by using the HST elements as item difficulty components. This approach, referred to as the Hierarchical Latent Trait Approach (HLTA), employs an algorithm that allows all test items to…

Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

384

Neurobiological approach to computing devices.  

PubMed

According to the old metaphor of classical cybernetics the brain can be considered as a computer. Newer theoretical endeavours reverse the question and ask: what could neurobiology offer to engineers of near-future generation computer systems? Three not completely disjoint abstract functions of the nervous system, namely pattern formation, pattern recognition and action, can be treated in a unified conceptual framework. Storage and retrieval mechanisms of information are connected to fault-tolerant, adaptive parallel structures. "Learning" and "plastic behaviour" are interpreted in terms of the theory of non-linear dynamic systems. As neural development and plasticity can be approached by deterministic models superimposed by random influence, noise might also have a positive role to play during the operation of technical computing devices. Molecular computation is discussed in relation to eventual hardware realization of "neurobiology-based" computers. PMID:3355882

Erdi, P

1988-01-01

385

Feminist approaches to nursing history.  

PubMed

Nursing history, similar to women's history, has followed the progression of feminist movements, garnering approach and direction from emerging feminist thought. In this article, in a chronological format, women's and nursing history are juxtaposed with feminist movements. Brief representations of scholarship in women's history are used to set the context for nursing history, which forms the bulk of the analysis. Although the purpose of this article is to delineate the evolution/direction of Canadian nursing history, past and current historiography is framed within important international scholarship; hence, discussion of works by Celia Davies, Barbara Melosh, and Susan Reverby, for example, is included. New directions in Canadian nursing history should include attention to everyday work experiences from which nurses and nursing students construct their identity. In addition, comparisons to other workers will be helpful. PMID:15068556

Melchior, Florence

2004-04-01

386

A New Approach for FCSRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Feedback with Carry Shift Registers (FCSRs) have been proposed as an alternative to Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) for the design of stream ciphers. FCSRs have good statistical properties and they provide a built-in non-linearity. However, two attacks have shown that the current representations of FCSRs can introduce weaknesses in the cipher. We propose a new “ring” representation of FCSRs based upon matrix definition which generalizes the Galois and Fibonacci representations. Our approach preserves the statistical properties and circumvents the weaknesses of the Fibonacci and Galois representations. Moreover, the ring representation leads to automata with a quicker diffusion characteristic and better implementation results. As an application, we describe a new version of F-FCSR stream ciphers.

Arnault, Francçois; Berger, Thierry; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pousse, Benjamin

387

Satellite control: A comprehensive approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prelaunch and post launch controls undertaken by the Telemetry Tracking and Telecommand (TTC) systems operated under the executive control of the Earth Segment using the European Test and Operations Language (ETOL) are discussed. The condition and status of the European Space Agency communication satellites that are in orbit are also monitored through ETOL. To employ common equipment and methodology throughout the complete life cycle of the satellite, prelaunch activities must be a simulation of expected post launch conditions. Such a comprehensive approach gives opportunities for reusing equipment and methodologies; it was applied to small satellites with industrial partners under direct ESA control using the CSMF (Communication Satellite Monitoring Facility) stand alone workstations and presents a cost effective solution enhancing safety of system operations.

Garner, J. T.

1993-01-01

388

A practical approach to rickets.  

PubMed

Rickets is a condition in which there is failure of normal mineralisation (osteomalacia) of growing bone. Whilst osteomalacia may be present in adults, rickets cannot occur. It is generally caused by a lack of mineral supply which can either be as a result of deficiency of calcium (calciopaenic rickets) or of phosphate (phosphopaenic rickets) although, in addition, renal tubular acidosis may also interfere with the process of mineralisation and cause rickets. Only calciopaenic and distal renal tubular disorders will be discussed in this chapter. The commonest cause of rickets is still vitamin D deficiency which is also responsible for problems other than rickets. Disorders of vitamin D metabolism or responsiveness may also cause similar problems. Distal renal tubular acidosis may be caused by a variety of metabolic errors similar to those of osteoclasts. One form of DRTA also causes a form of osteopetrosis. This chapter describes these conditions in detail and sets out a logical approach to treatment. PMID:19494664

Allgrove, Jeremy

2009-06-03

389

Four approaches to doing ethics.  

PubMed

Within the field of medical ethics there is a startling amount of diversity regarding which issues and relationships are deemed relevant for ethical inquiry and analysis, what strategies are appropriate for examining and resolving ethical conflict, what should be the goals for medical ethics, even who should participate in that project. What I will try to make clear in this paper is that how we go about this process of doing medical ethics, of examining, reflecting, decisionmaking, and behaving, makes a practical difference, and not just a philosophical one, in terms of the understandings we will reach about ethical matters. Without attempting to resolve any of the conflicts within or between different conceptions of doing ethics, I will try to articulate the differences in orientation, and particularly the tone and educational emphasis, that attend four major contemporary approaches to ethical inquiry and analysis: deductivism, principlism, modern casuistry, and feminist/relationist ethics. PMID:8740882

Levi, B H

1996-02-01

390

Synthetic approaches for noncentrosymmetric molybdates.  

PubMed

The use of second-order Jahn-Teller active Mo (VI) centers and chiral organic amines is discussed as an approach to crystallographic noncentrosymmetry. Several series of reactions, conducted under mild hydrothermal conditions, were designed to probe important reaction variables. Correlations between reagent and solvent concentrations and the molybdate structure were investigated using composition space analysis, which allows for the isolation of specific reaction variables. The effects of amine structure variation were probed using multiple series of related amines, which consisted of either linear diamines or ethylenediamine derivatives. The addition of fluoride results in the loss of amine-based structural variations. Chiral organic amines were used to demonstrate the viability of using such components to control the three-dimensional symmetry in new materials. The synthesis, structure, and characterization of eight new organically templated polyoxomolybdates and polyoxofluoromolybdates are reported. PMID:18821818

Hubbard, Desmond J; Johnston, Alexander R; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Sarjeant, Amy Narducci; Norquist, Alexander J

2008-10-01

391

Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism.

Imel, Erik A.

2012-01-01

392

Approaches to resolving trade disputes.  

PubMed

The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

2003-08-01

393

SIMD approach to IDA* search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heuristic search is a fundamental component of artificial intelligence applications. Because search routines are frequently a computational bottleneck, numerous methods have been explored to increase the efficiency of search. While sequential search methods use exponential amounts of storage and yield exponential run times, parallel algorithms designed for MIMD machines significantly reduce the time spent in search. In this paper, we present a massively- parallel SIMD approach to search named MIDA* search. The components of MIDA* include a very fast distribution algorithm which biases the search to one side of the tree, and an incrementally-deepening depth-first search of all the processors in parallel. We show the results of applying MIDA* to instances of the fifteen puzzle problem. Results reveal an efficiency of 76% and a speedup of 8553% and 492% over serial and 16- processor MIMD algorithms, respectively.

Lyons, Gary; Cook, Diane J.

1992-03-01

394

Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach  

PubMed Central

Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research.

Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

2013-01-01

395

Interim Approach to the MRS facility design  

SciTech Connect

The purpose is to present the proposed Interim Approach to the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility design development. This Interim Approach document fulfills the function allocated to the OCRWM-SEMP (DOE/RW-0051REVlP, March 1990, Section 5.2 Approach to the MRS Design) until the MRS section of the OCRWM-SEMP is approved. Until completion of the OCRWM-SEMP, this Interim Approach document will be approved and controlled according to the Program Change Control Procedure (DOE/RW-0223REV3P). This document discusses the general approach to Conceptual Design (CD), Title I Design, and Title II Design activities.

Not Available

1992-01-01

396

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

397

Petrosal approaches to posterior circulation aneurysms.  

PubMed

Complex posterior circulation aneurysms are formidable lesions with an abysmal natural history. Their management continues to present a challenge to both endovascular and open microsurgical approaches. Affording an expansive, combined supra- and infratentorial exposure, the petrosal approaches are well suited for these challenging lesions when located along the basilar trunk or at a low-lying basilar apex. This report evaluates the evolution and application of petrosal approaches to these lesions. Excluding transsigmoid, infratentorial, or labyrinth-sacrificing approaches, the authors found 23 reports with 61 posterior circulation aneurysms treated via a petrosal approach. Although early morbidity was not negligible, rates of aneurysm occlusion (95% overall) and long-term outcome were quite laudable in light of the challenge posed by these lesions. Moreover, with accumulating experience with petrosal approaches, rates of complications are likely to wane, as neurosurgeons capitalize on the expansive exposure afforded by these indispensable approaches. PMID:22853840

Gross, Bradley A; Tavanaiepour, Daryoush; Du, Rose; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Dunn, Ian F

2012-08-01

398

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology.  

PubMed

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations-from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers-where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to n

Demming, Anna

2013-10-15

399

An intelligent approach to nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned nanowires. In particular, the arrays of high aspect ratio nanowires have piqued recent interest for potential piezoelectric 'nanogenerator' applications. Yet just because you can does not mean you should, and as always any alleviation of the structural requirements for exploiting these systems is helpful. Interest in the piezoelectric properties motivated a theoretical and finite element analysis of the behaviour of aligned ZnO nanowires under compression by Romano and researchers in the US and Italy [9]. Their study concludes that the nanowire length does not significantly affect the output piezopotential, which as they suggest 'is an important result for wet-chemistry fabrication of low-cost, CMOS- or MEMS-compatible nanogenerators'. Evidently exploiting nanostructures requires an intelligent approach so that we can harness the eccentricities of their behaviour most effectively for empowering new technologies. However, as G M Sacha and P Varona point out in this issue, that intelligence need not be human [1]. They describe a number of situations—from modelling scanning probe tools and interpreting their data to extracting solutions from DNA computers—where genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can take the place of an expert, and for some applications achieve what broaches the impossible with the methods otherwise available. Over the past few decades computers have infiltrated everyday life at an astonishing rate and it is widely recognized that now without them, the Western world would fall apart. Yet what machine learning and fuzzy logic may offer could trivialize even our existing machine reliance. Real implementation of artificial intelligence is so far scarce in technology. However it has been on the radar in science fiction for so long it almost sounds retro, and its popularity in dystopian futuristic novels has tinged the term with a melodrama that may seem inappropriate for science. In fact as the review in this issue illustrates, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches already offer a potent suite of tools to nanotechnolo

Demming, Anna

2013-11-01

400

Suprapubic approach for laparoscopic appendectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the results of laparoscopic appendectomy using two suprapubic port incisions placed below the pubic hair line. Design: Prospective hospital based descriptive study. Settings: Department of surgery of a tertiary care teaching hospital located in Rohtas district of Bihar. The study was carried out over a period of 11months during November 2011 to September 2012. Participants: Seventy five patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: All patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy with three ports (one 10-mm umbilical for telescope and two 5 mm suprapubic as working ports) were included. Operative time, conversion, complications, hospital stay and cosmetic results were analyzed. Results: Total number of patients was 75 which included 46 (61.33%) females and 29 (38.67%) males with Mean age (±Standard deviation {SD}) at the time of the diagnosis was 30.32 (±8.86) years. Mean operative time was 27.2 (±5.85) min. One (1.33%) patient required conversion to open appendectomy. No one patient developed wound infection or any other complication. Mean hospital stay was 22.34 (±12.18) h. Almost all patients satisfied with their cosmetic results. Conclusion: A laparoscopic approach using two supra pubic ports yields the better cosmetic results and also improves the surgeons working position during laparoscopic appendectomy. Although, this study had shown better cosmetic result and better working position of the surgeon, however it needs further comparative study and randomized controlled trial to confirm our findings.

Singh, Manish K.; Kumar, Mani K.; Mohan, Lalit

2013-01-01

401

Newer approaches to malaria control  

PubMed Central

Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality.

Damodaran, SE; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

2011-01-01

402

Approach to infected skin ulcers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and management of infected chronic skin ulcers. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Cochrane database, MEDLINE, and Google were searched for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for wound care. Most recommendations found in the CPGs had level II or III evidence. Expert and consensus opinion from the Canadian Chronic Wound Advisory Board and the International Wound Bed Preparation Advisory Board were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Bacteria in skin ulcers act along a continuum from contamination through colonization and critical colonization to infection. Critical colonization is not always associated with overt signs of infection but can result in failure to heal, poor-quality granulation tissue, increased wound friability, and increased drainage. Good-quality swab samples should be an adjunct to clinical acumen, not a primary strategy for diagnosis. Iodine and silver-based dressings, topical antibiotics, and systemic antibiotics can be helpful. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of chronic wound infection is based on clinical signs and a holistic approach to patients. More research into assessment and treatment of skin ulcer infection is needed.

Frank, Christopher; Bayoumi, Imaan; Westendorp, Claire

2005-01-01

403

Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and complete regression of tumors in several patients among 15 advanced-stage cancer patients with refractory metastatic tumors where the tumors were no longer responsive to current conventional drugs. An azurin-like protein called Laz derived from Neisseria meningitides demonstrates efficient entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Laz differs from azurin in having an additional 39-amino-acid peptide called an H.8 epitope, which allows entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Since p28 has been shown to have very little toxicity and high anti-tumor activity in advanced-stage cancer patients, it will be worthwhile to explore the use of H.8-p28, H.8-azurin, and Laz in toxicity studies and glioblastoma therapy in preclinical and human clinical trials.

Fialho, Arsenio M.; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Manna, Sunil; Mahali, Sidharth; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

2012-01-01

404

Spanish regulatory approach for biobanking.  

PubMed

The Spanish regulatory framework for storage of samples for research responds to most issues raised by both researchers and society regarding biobanking. The Spanish regulation currently foresees three possible ways in which these samples are to be handled: (a) gathering for use in a specific project, (b) storage in a collection, and (c) storage in a Biobank. Samples incorporated into a 'collection' can only be used by the investigator who requested them and cannot be transferred to third parties or used in research projects outside the particular research line foreseen in the original consent. On the other hand, the legal entity 'Biobank' refers not only to a set of physical facilities but to the management of the samples stored under that label, and particularly to the requirements for their cession. An approach based on putting most of the regulatory weight on the biobank side has been chosen in order to guaranty the rights of the donors as well as to ease the task of the researchers. A Biobank requires both to be authorized and to be registered in a public Registry. The requirements are quite stringent, allowing for the consent to be given as 'broad' in scope without implying being 'blank.' In this regard, for Biobanks to justify the taking on of some of the donors' rights, a key requirement is to have an external ethics committee supervising the adequacy of samples cession and use, notwithstanding the need for a previous bioethical supervision of the target protocol. PMID:23188043

Arias-Diaz, Javier; Martín-Arribas, María C; García del Pozo, Javier; Alonso, Carlos

2012-11-28

405

Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

Graham, M. J.

2009-09-01

406

Approaches Towards Endogenous Pancreatic Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of pancreatic regeneration in mammals has been well documented. It has been shown that pancreatic tissue is able to regenerate in several species of mammal after surgical insult. This tissue is also known to have the potential to maintain or increase its ?-cell mass in response to metabolic demands during pregnancy and obesity. Since deficiency in ?-cell mass is the hallmark of most forms of diabetes, it is worthwhile understanding pancreatic regeneration in the context of this disease. With this view in mind, this article aims to discuss the potential use in clinical strategies of knowledge that we obtained from studies carried out in animal models of diabetes. Approaches to achieve this goal involve the use of biomolecules, adult stem cells and gene therapy. Various molecules, such as glucagon-like peptide-1, ?-cellulin, nicotinamide, gastrin, epidermal growth factor-1 and thyroid hormone, play major roles in the initiation of endogenous islet regeneration in diabetes. The most accepted hypothesis is that these molecules stimulate islet precursor cells to undergo neogenesis or to induce replication of existing ?-cells, emphasizing the importance of pancreas-resident stem/progenitor cells in islet regeneration. Moreover, the potential of adult stem cell population from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, liver, spleen, or amniotic membrane, is also discussed with regard to their potential to induce pancreatic regeneration.

Banerjee, Meenal; Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

2005-01-01

407

Fundamental approach to dipmeter analysis  

SciTech Connect

Historically, in dipmeter analysis, depositional patterns are delineated for environmental, structural, and stratigraphic interpretations. The proposed method is a fundamental approach using raw data measurements from the dipmeter sonde to help the geologist describe subsurface structures on a stratigraphic scale. Raw data are available at the well site, require no post-processing, are cost effective, easy to use, require only a basic understanding of sedimentary features and can be combined with computed results. A case study illustrates the reconstruction of sedimentary features from a raw data log recorded by a six-arm dipmeter. The dipmeter is a wireline tool with a series of evenly spaced, focused electrodes applied to the circumference of the borehole wall. The raw data are presented as curves representing the electrode response and tool orientation. In outcrop, the geologist usually can see an entire sedimentary feature in a large perspective, that is, with the surrounding landscape. Therefore, a large range of features can be resolved. However, in the borehole environment the perspective is reduced to the borehole diameter, thus reducing the range of recognizable features. In this study, a table was assembled that identifies the features distinguished by the proposed method as a function of borehole diameter.

Enderlin, M.B.; Hansen, D.K.T.

1988-01-01

408

Endometriosis: a life cycle approach?  

PubMed

To improve the still fragmented understanding of endometriosis, a life cycle approach was adopted that revealed unexpected aspects of the natural history of the disease throughout a woman's life. Three age-related stages of endometriosis are distinguished. In premenarcheal and adolescent endometriosis, 2 types can be distinguished: a classic form that can occur before menarche, and a congenital obstructive form that is caused by uterine anomaly and outflow obstruction. The lesions include superficial peritoneal implants, but adhesions and endometrioma can also occur. It is suggested that premenarcheal and possibly adolescent endometriosis develop by activation of resting stem cells shed at the time of neonatal retrograde uterine bleeding. In the adult, endometriosis can be related to uterine preconditioning by cyclic menstruations acting as a priming mechanism for deep placentation. In adult life, the typical lesions are peritoneal, ovarian, and deep or adenomyotic endometriosis. More recently, endometriosis has been associated with endometrial dysfunction and myometrial junctional zone hyperplasia. These uterine changes can be linked with some major obstetrical syndromes. In postmenopause, endometriosis can develop or be reactivated both in the presence or absence of exogenous estrogens and can spread to a variety of organs and structures causing constrictive lesions. PMID:23500453

Brosens, Ivo; Puttemans, Patrick; Benagiano, Giuseppe

2013-03-15

409

An optogenetic approach in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Optogenetic tools comprise a variety of different light-sensitive proteins from single-cell organisms that can be expressed in mammalian neurons and effectively control their excitability. Two main classes of optogenetic tools allow to either depolarize or hyperpolarize, and respectively generate or inhibit action potentials in selective populations of neurons. This opens unprecedented possibilities for delineating the role of certain neuronal populations in brain processing and diseases. Moreover, optogenetics may be considered for developing potential treatment strategies for brain diseases, particularly for excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Expression of the inhibitory halorhodopsin NpHR in hippocampal principal cells has been recently used as a tool to effectively control chemically and electrically induced epileptiform activity in slice preparations, and to reduce in vivo spiking induced by tetanus toxin injection in the motor cortex. In this review we give a comprehensive summary of what has been achieved so far in the field of epilepsy using optogenetics, and discuss some of the possible strategies that could be envisaged in the future. We also point out some of the challenges and pitfalls in relation to possible outcomes of using optogenetics for controlling network excitability, and associated brain diseases. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Targets and Approaches to the Treatment of Epilepsy'. PMID:22698957

Kokaia, Merab; Andersson, My; Ledri, Marco

2012-06-12

410

Teaching Programming to Novices: A Review of Approaches and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different approaches to teaching introductory programming are reviewed: the incremental approach, the sub-language approach, and the mini-language approach. The paper analyzes all three approaches, providing a brief history of each and describing an example of a programming environment supporting this approach. In the incremental approach,…

Brusilovsky, P.; And Others

411

Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.  

PubMed

The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media. PMID:3602645

Haffner, D; Casey, S

1986-09-01

412

Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach.  

PubMed

Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a "signal" leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca(++) (via IP? release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand--GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, 'pharmacogenetics') permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES). PMID:23063887

Farrell, Martilias S; Roth, Bryan L

2012-10-09

413

New approaches to molecular diagnosis.  

PubMed

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of rare and common disorders, as well as in the technology of DNA analysis, are rapidly changing the landscape of molecular genetic and genomic testing. High-resolution molecular cytogenetic analysis can now detect deletions or duplications of DNA of a few hundred thousand nucleotides, well below the resolution of the light microscope. Diagnostic testing for "single-gene" disorders can be done by targeted analysis for specific mutations, by sequencing a specific gene to scan for mutations, or by analyzing multiple genes in which mutation may lead to a similar phenotype. The advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing facilitates the analysis of multiple genes and now is being used to sequence the coding regions of the genome (the exome) for clinical testing. Exome sequencing requires bioinformatic analysis of the thousands of variants that are identified to find one that is contributing to the pathology; there is also a possibility of incidental identification of other medically significant variants, which may complicate genetic counseling. DNA testing can also be used to identify variants that influence drug metabolism or interaction of a drug with its cellular target, allowing customization of choice of drug and dosage. Exome and genome sequencing are being applied to identify specific gene changes in cancer cells to guide therapy, to identify inherited cancer risk, and to estimate prognosis. Genomic testing may be used to identify risk factors for common disorders, although the clinical utility of such testing is unclear. Genetic and genomic tests may raise new ethical, legal, and social issues, some of which may be addressed by existing genetic nondiscrimination legislation, but which also must be addressed in the course of genetic counseling. The purpose of this article is to assist physicians in recognizing where new approaches to genetic and genomic testing may be applied clinically and in being aware of the principles of interpretation of test results. PMID:23571590

Korf, Bruce R; Rehm, Heidi L

2013-04-10

414

Flocking based approach for data clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data clustering is a process of extracting similar groups of the underlying data whose labels are hidden. This paper describes\\u000a different approaches for solving data clustering problem. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been recently used to address\\u000a clustering task. An overview of PSO-based clustering approaches is presented in this paper. These approaches mimic the behavior\\u000a of biological swarms seeking food

Abbas Ahmadi; Fakhri Karray; Mohamed S. Kamel

2010-01-01

415

Exercising Self-Control Increases Approach Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior—betting on low-stakes gambles—that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study

Brandon J. Schmeichel; Cindy Harmon-Jones; Eddie Harmon-Jones

2010-01-01

416

A regularization approach to hydrofacies delineation  

SciTech Connect

We consider an inverse problem of identifying complex internal structures of composite (geological) materials from sparse measurements of system parameters and system states. Two conceptual frameworks for identifying internal boundaries between constitutive materials in a composite are considered. A sequential approach relies on support vector machines, nearest neighbor classifiers, or geostatistics to reconstruct boundaries from measurements of system parameters and then uses system states data to refine the reconstruction. A joint approach inverts the two data sets simultaneously by employing a regularization approach.

Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA

2009-01-01

417

Complementary integrative approach for treating pruritus.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat pruritus for both patients and medical providers. CAM includes natural products, mind-body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. In this overview, we summarize current evidence, possible mechanisms and clinical approaches for treating pruritus with CAM techniques. We focus on pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis, herpes zoster, chronic urticaria, burns, and postoperative contexts where the evidence for CAM approaches is promising. PMID:23551371

Pfab, F; Schalock, P C; Napadow, V; Athanasiadis, G I; Yosipovitch, G; Ring, J

418

A Metamodeling Approach for Reasoning about Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In requirements engineering, there are several approaches for requirements modeling such as goal-oriented, aspect-driven,\\u000a and system requirements modeling. In practice, companies often customize a given approach to their specific needs. Thus, we\\u000a seek a solution that allows customization in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a metamodel for requirements models\\u000a (called core\\u000a metamodel) and an approach for customizing

Arda Goknil; Ivan Kurtev; Klaas Van Den Berg; I. Schieferdecker; A. Hartman

2008-01-01

419

An Approach for Probabilistic Hydrological Drought Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to monitor and forecast hydrological drought in a probabilistic manner. The proposed approach\\u000a deals with the supply and demand variables and the role of carryover in a system to estimate the probability of drought severity\\u000a at different hydroclimatlogical conditions as well as different storage volume levels. This approach might be of significance\\u000a when the supply

Shahab Araghinejad

2011-01-01

420

Preventing childhood sexual abuse: an ecological approach.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse is a significant public health problem that negatively affects victims, families, organizations, and society. This special issue presents innovative approaches designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of youth. Using both an ecological approach and the Spectrum of Prevention ( Parks, Davis & Cohen, 2010 ), the articles collected for this special issue highlight cutting-edge prevention approaches educating children, parents, professionals, organizations, and the general public. PMID:22809043

Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

2012-01-01

421

Audio Content Discovery: An Unsupervised Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatically extracting semantic content from audio streams can be helpful in many multimedia applications. Motivated by\\u000a the known limitations of traditional supervised approaches to content extraction, which are hard to generalize and require\\u000a suitable training data, we propose in this chapter a completely unsupervised approach to content discovery in composite audio\\u000a signals. The approach adopts the ideas from text analysis

Lie Lu; Alan Hanjalic

422

A Unified Approach to Attractor Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis of complex, nonlinear time series, scientists in a variety of disciplines have relied on a time delayed embedding\\u000a of their data, i.e. attractor reconstruction. This approach has left several long-standing, but common problems unresolved\\u000a in which the standard approaches produce inferior results or give no guidance at all. We propose an alternative approach that\\u000a views the problem

Louis M. Pecora; Linda Moniz; Jonathan Nichols; Thomas L. Carroll

2005-01-01

423

Supporting Cooperation through Customisation: The Tviews Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

User interfaces for groupware systems rarely reflectthe different requirements for support of theirend-users. Here we present an approach to designingmulti-user interfaces for cooperative systems whichbuilds on previous work from the HCI community in thearea of end-user customisation. Using this approach wehave developed an approach and a system prototype basedon tailorable views, or Tviews, which allows end-usersengaged in group working to

Markus Wasserschaff; Richard Bentley

1997-01-01

424

Endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach for parasphenoidal myxoma.  

PubMed

The parasphenoidal region is a difficult location to gain access to and contains a lot of vital neurovascular structures that have risk of injury during surgery. The transnasal endoscopic approach for this region has been described in several cadaveric studies in recent years. Herein we present a case of parasphenoidal myxoma, extending to the anteroinferior border of the cavernous sinus in a 48-year-old woman. The tumor was completely removed by the endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach. No postoperative complication was seen. The endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be a good alternative to external approaches in selective skull base tumors. PMID:20190945

Tosun, Fuat; Durmaz, Abdullah; Deveci, M Salih; Hidir, Yusuf

2009-09-01

425

Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

2000-01-01

426

Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming  

SciTech Connect

The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

Kale, L.V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chrisochoides, N. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Kohl, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

427

Ocular preparations: the formulation approach.  

PubMed

The main aim of pharmacotherapeutics is the attainment of an effective drug concentration at the intended site of action for a sufficient period of time to elicit the response. A major problem being faced in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal concentration at the site of action. Poor bioavailability of drugs from ocular dosage forms is mainly due to the tear production, non-productive absorption, transient residence time, and impermeability of corneal epithelium. This article reviews: (1) the barriers that decrease the bioavailability of an ophthalmic drug; (2) the objectives to be considered in producing optimal formulations; and (3) the approaches being used to improve the corneal penetration of a drug molecule and delay its elimination from the eye. The focus of this review is on the recent developments in topical ocular drug delivery systems, the rationale for their use, their drug release mechanism, and the characteristic advantages and limitations of each system. In addition, the review attempts to give various analytical procedures including the animal models and other models required for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies. The latter can aid in the design and predictive evaluation of newer delivery systems. The dosage forms are divided into the ones which affect the precorneal parameters, and those that provide a controlled and continuous delivery to the pre- and intraocular tissues. The systems discussed include: (a) the commonly used dosage forms such as gels, viscosity imparting agents, ointments, and aqueous suspensions; (b) the newer concept of penetration enhancers, phase transition systems, use of cyclodextrins to increase solubility of various drugs, vesicular systems, and chemical delivery systems such as the prodrugs; (c) the developed and under-development controlled/continuous drug delivery systems including ocular inserts, collagen shields, ocular films, disposable contact lenses, and other new ophthalmic drug delivery systems; and (d) the newer trends directed towards a combination of drug delivery technologies for improving the therapeutic response of a non-efficacious drug. The fruitful resolution of the above-mentioned technological suggestions can result in a superior dosage form for both topical and intraocular ophthalmic application. PMID:12098838

Kaur, Indu Pal; Kanwar, Meenakshi

2002-05-01

428

Threat displays for final approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During periods of good visibility, airports can conduct Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (CSPA) and simultaneously operate parallel runways separated by more than 750 feet. When visibility degrades to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and pilots must fly exclusively by the instruments, the runway separation required to operate parallel runways increases to 3400 feet or more. For many airports around the country and the world this means the second runway must be closed and the airport operates at half capacity. To alleviate the delays caused by this capacity reduction many airports worldwide are planning to expand and build new runways. The projected cost of the ten largest airport projects in the United States is $8-16 Billion. Perhaps a less expensive solution can be found with innovative technology rather than real estate? This research presents the first ever design, implementation, and characterization of a synthetic vision display and the supporting flight system to attempt to achieve this solution. The display uses 3D graphics and an air to air datalink called Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast to present the pilot with the information necessary to aviate, navigate and monitor traffic. This thesis also documents the first series of flight experiments to test the applicability of synthetic vision displays to both runway incursion avoidance and CSPA. Finally, utilizing the results from the flight testing in a Monte Carlo analysis, the effect of deploying this display on minimum safe runway separation is calculated. It has been found that the minimum safe runway separation for IMC operation can safely be reduced to 1900 feet. If, in addition, significant changes are made in Air Traffic Control procedures for longitudinal aircraft spacing, the analysis shows that the display system presented herein will allow for runway separation of 1400 feet with no new restrictions on aircraft size or crosswind. Furthermore, with certain restrictions on aircraft size and crosswind the runway spacing can be reduced to 750 feet. These results have tremendous implications for pilots, controllers and the public. They will also have large impacts on the financial and environmental costs of airport expansion projects.

Jennings, Chad Warren

429

A change management approach to evaluating ICT investment initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite the availability of methods and techniques designed to assist with predictive and retrospective evaluation of ICT initiatives, management continues to struggle to perform meaningful evaluations, and the measurement of ICT investment payoff remains a challenge. A recurring problem associated with failed ICT-based investment is poor change management. This paper aims to focus on the value of understanding

Michael D. Williams; Janet Williams

2007-01-01

430

Evaluation and Opportunities in Overtraining Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overtraining (OT) as a sports phenomenon can be caused by stressors on various levels (physical, emotional, psychological, and social) and evokes responses on these levels. This study evaluated research and new opportunities in the field of OT by introducing an integrated multidisciplinary approach, based on the single and multistressors approach.…

Roose, Jolanda; de Vries, Wouter R.; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Backx, Frank J. G.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.

2009-01-01

431

An Ethological Approach to Personality Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a historical account of the partnership in which Bowlby and Ainsworth participated to develop attachment theory and research. Beginning with their separate approaches to understanding personality development before Ainsworth joined Bowlby's research team at the Tavistock Clinic in London for 4 years, it describes the origins of the ethological approach that they adopted. After Ainsworth left London, her

Mary D. Salter Ainsworth; John Bowlby

1991-01-01

432

A Multivariate Partition Approach to Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a general optimization approach called the Multivariate Partition Approach (MPA) is proposed for dealing with the problem of minimization of multivariate functions. The basic idea of the MPA is to partition all the variables appearing in an optimization problem into several groups, each of which consists of some variables, and to regard each group as a set

H. X. Huang; P. M. Pardalos

2002-01-01

433

A Novel Approach to Teaching Teamwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are "practically" based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the…

Drake, Robert; Goldsmith, Geraldine; Strachan, Rebecca

2006-01-01

434

A new approach to artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to artificial neural networks is presented. The philosophy of this approach is based on two aspects: the design of task-specific networks, and a new neuron model with multiple synapses. The synapses' connective strengths are modified through selective and cumulative processes conducted by axo-axonic connections from a feedforward circuit. This new concept was applied to the position control

Benedito Dias Baptista F. Filho; Eduardo Lobo Lustosa Cabral; Adalberto Jose Soares

1998-01-01

435

Smart: Student Modeling Approach for Responsive Tutoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new student modeling paradigm called SMART. The premise is that a single, principled approach to student modeling, involving both theoretical and empirical methods, can render automated instruction more efficacious across a broad array of instructional domains. After defining key terms and discussing limitations to previous student modeling paradigms, I describe the SMART approach, as embedded within

Valerie J. Shute

1995-01-01

436

Counter-demand approaches to narcotics trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The illegal narcotics demand in the US is discussed in relation to the products supplied by the Mexican cartels. This is then contrasted with major legal commodities with addictive properties consumed in the US. Overlaps of use are also noted. Traditional, right of center, and left of center counter-demand approaches to narcotics trafficking are also surveyed. All of these approaches

Robert J. Bunker; Matt Begert

2010-01-01

437

EMMANUEL LE ROY LADURIE'S APPROACH TO HISTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bases of Research: Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's historical studies that the author has written in different periods in a different manner. Purpose of Research: The purpose of our study is to understand historical approach of Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie and to investigate different approaches to history by using different sources as in the example of Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's Works-

Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie; Miyase Koyuncu KAYA

438

The social shaping approach to technology foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions are manifold, societal interests conflicting, and applications and markets are non-existing or still under construction. The emerging high

Michael Søgaard Jørgensen; Ulrik Jørgensen; Christian Clausen

2009-01-01

439

Rational approaches to human cancer immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over most of the 20th century, immu- notherapy for cancer was based on empiricism. Interesting phenomena were observed in the areas of cancer, infectious diseases, or transplantation. Inferences were made and extrapolated into new approaches for the treatment of cancer. If tumors regressed, the treatment approaches could be re- fined further. However, until the appropriate tools and reagents were available,

Ian D. Davis; Michael Jefford; Phillip Parente; Jonathan Cebon

2003-01-01

440

A systemic approach to fire safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systemic approach has been adopted to construct a fire-safety management system (FSMS). It has been applied to the case of an oil and gas organisation, although the approach is general. Significant changes have taken place in fire safety management in the oil and gas industry over the last few years. However, fire safety still tends to be analysed in

Jaime Santos-Reyes; Alan N. Beard

2001-01-01

441

The IMF Approach to Economic Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the IMF approach to economic stabilization. It argues that a Fund-supported program is a process, comprising six broadly defined phases, that evolves along a multiplicity of potential pathways. The paper discusses the three-pronged approach to stabilization at the core of all IMF-supported programs, stresses the iterative character of \\

Michael Mussa; Miguel A. Savastano

1999-01-01

442

A Marxist Approach to Business Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a philosophical explication of some of the essentials of a Marxist approach to business ethics. A Marxist approach is construed as a moral critique of capitalism. This paper hopes to lay the groundwork for a more detailed analysis of Karl Marx's critique of capitalist economies.

J. Angelo Corlett

1998-01-01

443

A digital approach to an FM exciter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital approach to an FM exciter is presented that provides several advantages over previous analog techniques. This approach, called direct digital frequency modulation (DDFM), is centered around a direct digital synthesis (DDS) chip which allows true digital generation of the FM signal. The DDS chip is a perfectly linear modulator with superior phase-noise characteristics over the current analog voltage-controlled

Edwin R. Twitchell

1992-01-01

444

An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

MacNab, Brent R.

2012-01-01

445

Some Approaches for Russian Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an overview of the state-of-the-art approaches for speech recognition of the Russian language. Since Russian is a highly inflective language with a complex mechanism of word formation, the main approaches for English speech recognition are not optimally applicable for Russian speech, at least directly and without appropriate adaptation. We make here an overview of some

Sergey Zablotskiy; Kseniya Zablotskaya; Wolfgang Minker

2010-01-01

446

An Ecological Approach to Learning Dynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New approaches to emergent learner-directed learning design can be strengthened with a theoretical framework that considers learning as a dynamic process. We propose an approach that models a learning process using a set of spatial concepts: learning space, position of a learner, niche, perspective, step, path, direction of a step and step…

Normak, Peeter; Pata, Kai; Kaipainen, Mauri

2012-01-01

447

Constructions: a new theoretical approach to language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical approach to language has emerged in the past 10–15 years that allows linguistic observations about form–meaning pairings, known as ‘constructions’, to be stated directly. Constructionist approaches aim to account for the full range of facts about language, without assuming that a particular subset of the data is part of a privileged ‘core’. Researchers in this field argue

Adele E. Goldberg

2003-01-01

448

AIBS Report Representing Biology: Two Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One approach, the Special Science Programs Department, manages the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) advisory functions and conducts symposia, seminars and other meetings. The second, a full time Public Responsibilities Department, provides a continuous flow of research data and information into the public. Each approach is…

BioScience, 1975

1975-01-01

449

An unsupervised approach for sentiment classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new unsupervised and domain independent approach for sentiment classification. It takes a few documents as the training set to build a sentiment vocabulary list which will be used to classify the documents according to their sentiment orientation. The system is self-supervised and domain independent. Experimental results show that the classification accuracy of the approach

Tonghui Li; Xixi Xiao; Qunwei Xue

2012-01-01

450

Teaching Science through a Systems Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the recommendation of the AAAS and the NRC, middle level science is the rightful introduction for a systems approach, including the study of its parts, subsystems, interconnections, and interrelationships. Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" provides an excellent opportunity to combine ecological consequences within a systems approach (Sweeney 2001).…

Llewellyn, Douglas; Johnson, Scott

2008-01-01

451

Approach and Avoidance Social Motives and Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was predicted that approach social motives and goals would be linked to outcomes characterized by the presence of positive social features, and avoidance social motives and goals would be linked to outcomes characterized by the presence of negative social features and that the link between approach motives and outcomes would be mediated by different processes than the link between

Shelly L. Gable

2006-01-01

452

Open source communities: an integrally informed approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To reframe analysis of the open source software (OSS) phenomenon from an AQAL perspective Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is a review of current research thinking and application of the AQAL framework to suggest resolution of polarizations. Findings – The authors find that AQAL is valuable as an integrating framework allowing a more holistic understanding of the complex economic,

Carla C. J. M. Millar; Chong Ju Choi; Edward T. Russell; Jai-Boem Kim

2005-01-01

453

Approaches to Evaluation of Training: Theory & Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an on-going debate in the field of evaluation about which approach is best to facilitate the processes involved. This article reviews current approaches to evaluation of training both in theory and in practice. Particular attention is paid to the complexities associated with evaluation practice and whether these are addressed in the theory. Furthermore, possible means of expediting the

Deniz Eseryel

2002-01-01

454

Constructivist Approaches for Career Counselors. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A constructivist framework can often appear vague and abstract to the novice counselor. The abstract and nebulous realm of meaning-making, which is central to constructivist approaches, can be frustrating for a linear, task-oriented counselor. This digest explains the approaches used in constructivist counseling. The need to use constructivist…

Hoskins, Marie

455

Towards an Automated Approach to Offender Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offender profiling seeks to infer characteristics of an offender from the observed features of crimes he or she has committed. Traditionally such an approach has been subjective and required expert opinion. Here we propose an approach based on Language Modelling which automates offender profiling allowing inferences to be drawn from large volumes of data held in police archives. An empirical

Richard Bache; Fabio Crestani

2008-01-01

456

RE Approach for e-Business Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of contributing to the achievement of business advantage for companies engaging in e-business, we propose a requirements engineering approach that incorporates a business strategy dimension. We employ both goal modeling and Jackson's Problem Frames approach to achieve this. Jackson's context diagrams, used to represent the business model context, are integrated with goal-models to describe the complete business

Steven J. Bleistein; Karl Cox; June Verner

2004-01-01

457

Combined approach to impacted parotid stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article describes the use of combined endoscopic and ultrasound approach to locate and to extract impacted parotid stones, which cannot be retrieved by intraoral approach alone. Patients and Methods: A total of 12 parotid glands from 7 women and 5 men (age range, 35 to 62 years) with parotid sialoliths were treated with the combined method. Eleven of

Oded Nahlieli; Daniel London; Ami Zagury; Eli Eliav

2002-01-01

458

Exceptionally Able Children: A Whole School Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests three broad categories of exceptionally able children, discusses the needs of exceptional students for recognition and understanding, and outlines several approaches to identification and provision. A whole-school approach is advocated for provision of education to gifted students, and a "mind-map" of such provision is…

Whybra, Julian

1992-01-01

459

Bisimulation on Speed: A Unified Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two process-algebraic approaches have been developed for comparing two bisimulation-equivalent processes with respect to speed: the one of Moller\\/Tofts equips actions with lower time bounds, while the one by Luttgen\\/Vogler considers upper time bounds instead. This paper sheds new light on both approaches by testifying to their close relationship. We introduce a general, intuitive concept of \\

Gerald Lüttgen; Walter Vogler

2005-01-01

460

Shell Model in a First Principles Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We develop and apply an ab-initio approach to nuclear structure. Starting with the NN interaction, that fits two-body scattering and bound state data, and adding a theoretical NNN potential, we evaluate nuclear properties in a no-core approach. For presen...

P. Navratil

2004-01-01

461

Economic Education: A Learning Center Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and evaluates a learning center approach to economic education which involved secondary social studies students at the University of Texas, Austin. The subject of the learning center project was how to purchase and maintain an automobile. Findings indicated that the approach was successful and interesting to students. (Author/DB)|

Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Wiener, Diane

1979-01-01

462

An approach to conceptual difficulties in physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have given an account of the `skeleton' of an approach which our students have found useful in preparation for the conceptual hurdles which must be negotiated during a physics course. The desirable features of this approach are (a) it provides for the `normalisation' of an otherwise heterogeneous group of students, (b) it gives a visual perception of the wide

Hugh G. Jones; Robert J. Mooney

1981-01-01

463

Global approaches to geriatrics in medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the impacts of population ageing will be an increasing need for a suitably trained medical workforce. This review of literature published in English and Spanish between January 2004 and September 2009 explores different approaches to geriatric training around the world. Eight options are considered: core competencies, establishing a geriatrics department, incentives through grants, curricular approaches, traditional and innovative

J. Mateos-Nozal; J. R. Beard

2011-01-01

464

Trends and approaches in lean healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the existing literature on lean healthcare. It seeks to describe how this concept has being applied and to assess how trends and methods of approach in lean healthcare have evolved over the years. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper surveys the applications of lean healthcare in the current literature

Luciano Brandao de Souza

2009-01-01

465

New approach to optical proximity correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical rule based optical proximity effect correction approach is presented. The approach has been driven by maskmaking and production requirements to make OPC a practical problem solution. The model based rule generation is presented, as well as benchmark tests on different state-of- the-art test chips.

Anja Rosenbusch; Andrew C. Hourd; Casper A. Juffermans; Hartmut Kirsch; Frederic P. Lalanne; Wilhelm Maurer; Carmelo Romeo; Kurt Ronse; Patrick Schiavone; Michal Simecek; Olivier Toublan; John G. Watson; Wolfram Ziegler; Rainer Zimmermann

1998-01-01

466

New approach to optical proximity correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hierarchical rule based optical proximity effect correction approach is presented. The approach has been driven by maskmaking and production requirements to make OPC a practical problem solution. The model based rule generation is presented, as well as benchmark tests on different state-of- the-art test chips.

Rosenbusch, Anja; Hourd, Andrew C.; Juffermans, Casper A.; Kirsch, Hartmut; Lalanne, Frederic P.; Maurer, Wilhelm; Romeo, Carmelo; Ronse, Kurt; Schiavone, Patrick; Simecek, Michal; Toublan, Olivier; Watson, John G.; Ziegler, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Rainer

1998-12-01

467

The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This approach, designed for mobile robots equipped with synchro-drives, is derived directly from the motion dynamics of the robot. In experiments, the dynamic window approach safely controlled the mobile robot RHINO at speeds of up to 95 cm\\/sec, in populated and dynamic environments

D. Fox; W. Burgard; S. Thrun

1997-01-01

468

An Ecological Approach to Learning Dynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New approaches to emergent learner-directed learning design can be strengthened with a theoretical framework that considers learning as a dynamic process. We propose an approach that models a learning process using a set of spatial concepts: learning space, position of a learner, niche, perspective, step, path, direction of a step and step…

Normak, Peeter; Pata, Kai; Kaipainen, Mauri

2012-01-01

469

Five Approaches to Professional Development Compared.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to federal law requiring teachers to undergo professional development, this article presents and compares five approaches to training school staff. Approaches include training throughout the year; annual one- to three-day training sessions; sending staff to conferences; employing a staff trainer; and monthly video training. (JMV)|

Lauro, Dennis R., Jr.

1995-01-01

470

Online advertising by the comparison challenge approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the effectiveness of online comparisons from a manufacturer's point of view, we develop a framework for the comparison challenge approach. To develop the comparison challenge framework, we analyze 12 factors that determine the characteristics of com- parison and propose models of valuable comparison challenges using the CompareMe and CompareThem strategies. We demonstrate the approaches with the example of

Jae Won Lee; Jae Kyu Lee

2006-01-01

471

Approach to skin ulcers in older patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to managing skin ulcers in older patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Clinical practice guidelines and best practice guidelines were summarized to describe an evidence-based approach. MAIN MESSAGE Preventing ulcers is important in frail older patients. Using guidelines can help prevent ulcers in institutions. Clarifying the cause and contributing factors is the fi rst

Christopher Frank

2004-01-01

472

Educating for urban sustainability: a transdisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) have been developed and are i ncreasingly being adopted in order to quantify the human footprint on the planet in terms of urban development. Very often these techniques are intended for different constituencies and are therefore less than ideal when approached by others not familiar with their focus. Furthermore the most mature LCA

Thayaparan Gajendran; Chris Landorf; Anthony Williams

2008-01-01

473

A novel approach to teaching teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teamwork is widely recognised as an important skill both generally and in the context of the computing industry. The majority of approaches to teaching teamwork are ‘practically’ based and in higher education are often designed to run over a number of weeks. We required an approach that would work over a concentrated period of five days during the early stages

Robert Drake; Geraldine Goldsmith; Rebecca Strachan

2006-01-01

474

Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2008-01-01

475

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the design options and procedures that accompany this methodological choice. Discussions

Vicki L. Plano Clark; Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas; Susan L. Churchill; Denise ONeil Green; Amanda L. Garrett

2008-01-01

476

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

477

Teaching Approaches and Occupational Therapy Psychoeducation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient education has become an important feature of any treatment program. Psychoeducational procedures dominate the treatment used by occupational therapy practitioners in psychiatric rehabilitation. Occupational therapy literature frequently describes the content of psychoeducational programs but rarely examines the teaching approach therapists use in them. It is necessary, therefore, to begin carefully questioning how we are approaching psychoeducation and justifying it

Rene Padilla

2002-01-01

478

Percutaneous Transradial Approach for Coronary Angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A percutaneous radial artery approach for coronary angiography was performed in 40 patients using a 5-F catheter. The patients, in whom the femoral artery approach was difficult or contraindicated because of advanced arteriosclerosis, were selected on the basis of easily palpable radial and ulnar arteries and a normal Allen test. In 1 patient the catheter could not be advanced to

Masaki Otaki

1992-01-01

479

Transradial approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transradial approach has currently been advocated as an alternative catheferization method for coronary angiography and angioplasty, due to the recent miniaturization of angioplasty equipment. The purpose of this study was to assess the practical clinical applicability of this method. From June to November 1994, 100 patients underwent coronary angiography and angioplasty with the transradial approach. Their mean age was

Chaim Lotan; Yonathan Hasin; Morris Mosseri; Yoseph Rozenman; Dan Admon; Hisham Nassar; Mervyn S. Gotsman

1995-01-01

480

Towards a new conceptual approach to ‘parasitoproteomics’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parasitologists are betting heavily on proteomic studies to explain biochemical host-parasite interactions and, thus, to contribute to disease control. However, many 'parasitoproteomic' studies are performed with powerful techniques but without a conceptual approach todeterminewhetherthehostgenomicresponsesduring a parasite infection represent a nonspecific response that might be induced by any parasite or any other stress. In this article, a new conceptual approach,

David G. Biron; Hercules Moura; Laurent Marche ´; Austin L. Hughes; Frédéric Thomas

2005-01-01

481

The RESPECT Approach to Tailored Telephone Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of the RESPECT approach to tailored telephone education (TTE) is described. This approach was shown to be highly effective through a randomized intervention trial for increasing the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: At the conclusion of the trial, the investigators identified the main principles that…

Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.

2008-01-01

482

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

483

A Discriminative Approach for Wavelet Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a discriminative approach for wavelet denoising where a set of mapping functions (MF) are applied to the transform coefficients in an attempt to produce a noise free image. As opposed to the descriptive approaches, modeling image or noise priors is not required here and the MFs are learned directly from an ensemble of example images using least-squares

Yacov Hel-Or; Doron Shaked

2008-01-01

484

Generalised Approach to Software Structure Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to generalize the Fenton-Whitty approach to structure software metrics by considering arbitrary sets of decomposition operations for flowgraphs. In the Fenton-Whitty approach decomposition of flowgraphs is unique, but the number o...

P. M. van den Broel K. G. van den Berg

1994-01-01

485

The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

486

"The Dollmaker": A Cross-Media Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes using the novel and television adaptation of Harriet Arnow's "The Dollmaker" in a cross-media approach to teach a unit on the problems of translating literature into film. Includes approaches for generating discussion of rural and urban values and weekly discussion and reading assignments. (HTH)|

Helbling, Sue

1985-01-01

487

A Probabilistic Model Approach for Fault Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel approach for fault diag- nosis based on probabilistic models. This approach is suitable for applications where reliable measurements are unlikely to occur or where a deterministic analyt- ical model is difficult to obtain. In particular, a com- bination of two Bayesian networks is used to detect and isolate faulty components. One Bayesian network, representing a

Pablo H. Ibarguengoytia; L. Enrique Sucar; Eduardo Morales

2000-01-01

488

Stochastic approaches for modelling in vivo reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stochastic modelling has emerged as a physically more realistic al- ternative for modelling in vivo reactions. There are numerous stochastic approaches available in the literature; most of these assume that observed random uctuations are a consequence of the small number of reacting molecules. We review some im- portant developments of the stochastic approach and consider its suitability

Thomas E. Turner; Santiago Schnell; Kevin Burrage

2004-01-01

489

Contrasting Theoretical Approaches to Intergroup Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current forum is designed to assess the strengths and weaknesses of social identity, social dominance, and system justification as theoretical approaches to the study of inter- group relations. Each of these approaches tries to account for variation in the develop- ment of ingroup cohesion and outgroup antipathy among individual group members, across groups, and in different societies—three levels at

Leonie Huddy

2004-01-01

490

Television, Technology, and Culture: A Contextualist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author offers a contextualist approach to contemporary debates about new (and old) media in different historical times and geographical places. This approach, rather than starting with the internal essence of a technology and then attempting to deduce its effects from its technical specifications, begins with an analysis of the interactional and cultural systems in play in

David Morley

2012-01-01

491

Plural analysis: Multiple approaches to quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant approach to decision analysis in particular, and quantitative research in general, issingular, i.e., all conclusions are based on a single preferred model or approach. Inplural analysis, several singular analyses are pursued in parallel, the typically conflicting results are merged. Although it is a central feature of intelligent everyday thinking, plural analysis has largely been ignored by the research

Rex V. Brown; Dennis V. Lindley

1986-01-01

492

Why do I favour the endonasal approach?  

PubMed

The endonasal approach to rhinoplasty can deal adequately with the vast majority of nasal problems that present to the facial plastic surgeon. Adequate training of surgeons can overcome the rigid dichotomy of "endonasal" versus "external" approaches and pave the way for a combination of the best of both worlds towards the concept of hybrid rhinoplasty. PMID:21305921

Palma, P; Khodaei, I

2010-01-01

493

Systems-based approaches to cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure, are exceptionally complex, involving a multitude of environmental and genetic factors that often show nonlinear interactions as well as being highly dependent on sex, age, and even the maternal environment. Although focused, reductionistic approaches have led to progress in elucidating the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such approaches are poorly powered

W. Robb MacLellan; Yibin Wang; Aldons J. Lusis

2012-01-01

494

An institutional approach to quality audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the consequences, intended and unintended, of the present arrangements for the assurance of quality of teaching and research in British higher education. It proposes an alternative approach, based on the concept of clinical audit as applied to the National Health Service. The advantages of such an approach are claimed to lie in (i) recognising the interconnectedness of

John Brennan; Ruth Williams; Robert Harris; David McNamara

1997-01-01

495

A Network Approach to Curriculum Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper argues for an alternative approach to quality assurance in New Zealand universities that locates evaluation not with external auditors but with members of the teaching team. In the process, aspects of network theories are introduced as the basis for an approach to quality assurance. From this, the concept of networks is extended to…

Jordens, J. Zoe; Zepke, Nick

2009-01-01

496

Strategic approaches to property crime control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growth of interest in situational crime prevention, most approaches to property crime control, particularly in Australia, still place a heavy emphasis on the need for tougher sanctions and additional police. This article maintains that such approaches are neither effective nor efficient. It advocates a greater commitment by police to the strategic analysis of property crime, and the mobilisation

Don Weatherburn; Peter Grabosky

1999-01-01

497

Approaches to managing global sourcing risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Global sourcing can bring many benefits to organisations, but it can also expose them to a number of risks. The purpose of this study is to understand how managers assess global sourcing risks across the entire supply chain and what actions they take to mitigate those risks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multiple case study approach was used, involving 15

Martin Christopher; Carlos Mena; Omera Khan; Oznur Yurt

2011-01-01

498

Psychotherapy With Elderly Clients: A Behavioral Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behavior modification and behavior therapy techniques with institutionalized and community elderly are powerful approaches which effect changes in behavior quickly and dramatically, and are particularly useful because they involve total staff or family members in their implementation. Unlike psychotropic medications, behavioral approaches do not…

Whelihan, William M.

499

APPROACHES FOR TEACHING PROLOG TO BEGINNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolog is a very different language compared with procedural or object-oriented languages, and developing a Prolog programming mindset is a challenge for many novices. In this paper, we consider a number of teaching approaches which instructors use to deliver basic ideas about Prolog to novices. We classify these approaches into three categories - \\

Shanshan Yang; Mike Joy

2006-01-01

500

Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

Le Deist, Francoise

2009-01-01