Science.gov

Sample records for changing obsidian trade

  1. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    PubMed

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-01

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market. PMID:17741982

  2. Analysis of obsidian from moho cay, belize: new evidence on classic maya trade routes.

    PubMed

    Healy, P F; McKillop, H I; Walsh, B

    1984-07-27

    Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from Moho Cay, Belize, reveals that the obsidian derives primarily from the El Chayal outcrop in highland Guatemala and not from the Ixtepeque source. This is contrary to the widely accepted obsidian trade route model for Classic Maya civilization and suggests that Classic Maya obsidian trade was a more complex economic phenomenon than has been recognized. PMID:17813262

  3. Chemical fingerprinting and source tracing of obsidian: the central Mediterranean trade in black gold.

    PubMed

    Tykot, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Chemical fingerprinting using major or trace element composition is used to characterize the Mediterranean island sources of obsidian and can even differentiate as many as nine flows in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Analysis of significant numbers of obsidian artifacts from Neolithic sites in the central Mediterranean reveals specific patterns of source exploitation and suggests particular trade mechanisms and routes. The use of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, the electron microprobe, neutron activation analysis, and laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry are emphasized in order to produce quantitative results while minimizing damage to valuable artifacts. PMID:12186566

  4. Analysis of obsidian artifacts in Southern Meso-America using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of obsidian artifacts using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been an important tool for archaeologists for {approximately}25 yr. However, as methods and instrumentation have improved, more reliable information regarding exchange and routes of exchange has been obtained. In southern Meso-America, obsidian analyses have demonstrated changes in the obsidian geologic sources used by prehistoric peoples through time. These changes in sources of obsidian have been used to describe possible changes of prehistoric trade routes. The methods and results of analysis are described in this paper.

  5. Obsidian sourcing and hydration studies at MURR

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroz, J.; Glascock, M.D.; Skinner, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    In regions where obsidian was abundant, large quantities of the volcanic glass were used by prehistoric peoples to manufacture sharp-edged stone tools. By employing a variety of analytical techniques, these tools are examined by present-day archaeologists to study ancient culture and trade patterns. The geochemical properties of obsidian make it ideal for archaeologists who are interested in the sourcing and dating of obsidian artifacts. Geologic obsidian specimens from more than a dozen sources in northern California, Idaho, and Oregon were characterized by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). These data are being used to create an extensive geochemical data-base for obsidian sources located in the Northwest. Although X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data already exist for many of these sources, INAA provides a larger suite of elements that give superior resolution between individual sources and enables discovery of chemically distinct subgroups within complex source systems.

  6. The Effect of Changes in Relative Humidity on the Hydration Rate of Pachuca Obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on the hydration rate of obsidian and other glasses has been debated since the early work of (I. Friedman, R. Smith, Am. Antiquity 25 (1960) 476). While more recent work has been in general agreement that a relative humidity dependence does exist, hydration profiles as a function of relative humidity have not been obtained. In this paper we present the results of a study in which samples of Pachuca obsidian were hydrated for approximately 5 days at 150 C at relative humidities ranging from 21% to 100%, and the resultant profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results suggest that the hydration rate is, indeed, a function of relative humidity, but for the relative humidity levels commonly observed in most soils the effects on hydration dating are expected to be relatively small. In addition, analysis of the surface values as sorption isotherms and comparisons with nitrogen sorption isotherms suggests that water is relatively strongly bound to the obsidian surface. By assuming a situation in which the 'surface' refers to active centers within the glass we have shown that an adsorption model provides a useful approach to modeling the diffusive process.

  7. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research. PMID:12186565

  8. The paredon, Mexico, obsidian source and early formative exchange.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H; Grove, D C; Hopke, P K

    1978-09-01

    In 1975, archeological surface surveys of trade routes located again a pre-Hispanic obsidian source in central Mexico first reported in 1902. Initial trace element studies of the Paredón source through an analysis by neutron activation have been compared with similar studies of the obsidian found at Chalcatzingo 150 kilometers from the source. These comparisons indicate that obsidian from Paredón, rather than Otumba, was of primary importance during the Early Formative in central Mexico. PMID:17738531

  9. Tikal obsidian: sources and typology

    SciTech Connect

    Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  11. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  12. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  13. Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Fayek, Mostafa; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

  14. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  15. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  16. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. When there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  17. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  18. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name...

  19. Strategies for Obtaining Obsidian in Pre-European Contact Era New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Mark D.; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500–1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60–70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare. PMID:24416213

  20. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Mark D; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare. PMID:24416213

  1. Effects of changing H2O concentrations and viscosities on plagioclase crystallization in a rhyolite obsidian: experiments and plagioclase speedometry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.; Lange, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    H2O-saturated phase equilibrium and decompression experiments on a rhyolite obsidian (73 wt% SiO2) from Medicine Lake Volcano, CA demonstrate the effect of changing melt H2O concentrations and melt viscosity on plagioclase crystallization. The natural sample is saturated in plagioclase + orthopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite + apatite + zircon, despite low phenocryst abundances (<2.3%) and no microlite crystallization. Eruptive temperature and oxygen fugacity (×1σ), on the basis of Fe-Ti oxide thermometry, are 852 × 12°C and ΔNNO +0.3 × 0.1. Plagioclase compositions range from 33-53 mol% An. Given the low crystallinity and absence of significant cooling, the progressive loss of dissolved melt H2O during ascent best explains the broad range in phenocryst composition and the low crystallinity. Phase equilibrium experiments were conducted at temperatures and pressures ranging from 750-950°C and 50-300 MPa, respectively. Experiments were conducted in a Ni-rich pressure vessel (Waspaloy) with Ni filler rod, which produces an intrinsic fO2 of ΔNNO +1 × 0.5 (Geshwind & Rutherford, 1992) and pressurized with H2O (where Ptotal= PH2O). The results of the phase equilibrium experiments show that the most anorthitic plagioclase crystallized at ~3.95 wt% H2O and the most albitic at ~3.49 wt% H2O. Plagioclase crystallization in the natural sample ceased at relatively high melt H2O content (3.49 wt%), which corresponds to a viscosity of 4.85 log10 Pa s (Hui & Zhang, 2007). To evaluate the effect of decompression rate on plagioclase crystallization, experiments were conducted on the rhyolite at two different continuous decompression rates, 3.0 MPa/hr and 0.8 MPa/hr. Two decompression experiments were conducted for each rate over two pressure interals:150 to 89 MPa and from 150 to 58 MPa. The results from our study are combined with the results of single- and multi-step decompression experiments on rhyolites/rhyodacites from Geshwind & Rutherford (1995), Couch et al., (2003

  2. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or...

  3. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or...

  4. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or...

  5. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or...

  6. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or...

  7. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or...

  8. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or...

  9. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or...

  10. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or...

  11. Global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard (Editor); Hypes, Warren D. (Editor); Wright, Robert L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

  12. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be...

  13. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be...

  14. 27 CFR 19.129 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 19.129 Section 19.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Amending An Operating Permit § 19.129 Change in trade name. If the proprietor intends to change or add...

  15. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which...

  16. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a...

  17. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which...

  18. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of,...

  19. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which...

  20. 27 CFR 19.183 - Change of trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of trade name. 19.183 Section 19.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Qualification § 19.183 Change of trade name. If there is to be a change in, or...

  1. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which...

  2. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be...

  3. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be...

  4. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which...

  5. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of,...

  6. 27 CFR 19.129 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 19.129 Section 19.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Amending An Operating Permit § 19.129 Change in trade name. If the proprietor intends to change or add...

  7. 27 CFR 19.129 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 19.129 Section 19.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Amending An Operating Permit § 19.129 Change in trade name. If the proprietor intends to change or add...

  8. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be...

  9. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of,...

  10. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of,...

  11. 27 CFR 19.129 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in trade name. 19.129 Section 19.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Amending An Operating Permit § 19.129 Change in trade name. If the proprietor intends to change or add...

  12. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of,...

  13. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or...

  14. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or...

  15. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or...

  16. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or...

  17. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or...

  18. Using Copy Change with Trade Books to Teach Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.; Wright, Pam; Sheffer, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Developing and implementing relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory curriculum is critical at all levels of schooling. This article describes one attempt to develop and implement an instance of interdisciplinary curriculum by using copy change with trade books to teach earth science. Specifically, it introduces trade books as a way to…

  19. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  20. Obsidian dating and East african archeology.

    PubMed

    Michels, J W; Tsong, I S; Nelson, C M

    1983-01-28

    New experimental procedures have made it possible to establish specific hydration rates for the numerous compositional types of obsidian to be found at archeological sites in Kenya. Two rates are applied to artifacts from the Prospect Farm site, revealing a history of occupation extending back 120,000 years. PMID:17815303

  1. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  2. Magma fracturing and degassing associated with obsidian formation: The explosive–effusive transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrera, Agustin; Weinberg, Roberto; Wright, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role of melt fracturing in degassing rhyolitic volcanic systems. The Monte Pilato-Rocche Rosse eruptions in Italy evolved from explosive to effusive in style, and H2O content in quenched glasses changed over time from relatively H2O-rich (~ 0.90 wt.%) to H2O-poor dense obsidian (~ 0.10–0.20 wt.%). In addition, healed fractures have been recorded in all different eruptive materials, from the glass of early-erupted tube pumice and rinds of breadcrusted obsidian pyroclasts, to the glass of late-erupted dense obsidian pyroclasts, and throughout the final effusive Rocche Rosse lava flow. These rocks show multiple fault sets, some with crenulated fault planes indicating resumption of viscous flow after faulting, complex obsidian breccias with evidence for post-brecciation folding and stretching, and centimetre- to metre-thick tuffisite preserved in pyroclasts and lava, representing collapsed foam due to fracturing of vesicle walls. These microstructural observations indicate that multiple fracturing and healing events occurred during both explosive and effusive eruptions. H2O content in glass decreases by as much as 0.14 wt.% towards healed fractures/faults and decreases in stretched obsidian breccias towards regions of intense brecciation. A drop in pressure and/or increase in temperature along fractures caused diffusive H2O migration through melt towards fracture surfaces. Repetitive and pervasive fracturing and healing thereby create conditions for diffusive H2O loss into fractures and subsequent escape through permeable paths. This type of progressive magma degassing provides a potential mechanism to explain the formation of dense obsidian and the evolution from explosive to effusive eruption style.

  3. Magma fracturing and degassing associated with obsidian formation: The explosive-effusive transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Agustín; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Wright, Heather M. N.

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the role of melt fracturing in degassing rhyolitic volcanic systems. The Monte Pilato-Rocche Rosse eruptions in Italy evolved from explosive to effusive in style, and H2O content in quenched glasses changed over time from relatively H2O-rich (~ 0.90 wt.%) to H2O-poor dense obsidian (~ 0.10-0.20 wt.%). In addition, healed fractures have been recorded in all different eruptive materials, from the glass of early-erupted tube pumice and rinds of breadcrusted obsidian pyroclasts, to the glass of late-erupted dense obsidian pyroclasts, and throughout the final effusive Rocche Rosse lava flow. These rocks show multiple fault sets, some with crenulated fault planes indicating resumption of viscous flow after faulting, complex obsidian breccias with evidence for post-brecciation folding and stretching, and centimetre- to metre-thick tuffisite preserved in pyroclasts and lava, representing collapsed foam due to fracturing of vesicle walls. These microstructural observations indicate that multiple fracturing and healing events occurred during both explosive and effusive eruptions. H2O content in glass decreases by as much as 0.14 wt.% towards healed fractures/faults and decreases in stretched obsidian breccias towards regions of intense brecciation. A drop in pressure and/or increase in temperature along fractures caused diffusive H2O migration through melt towards fracture surfaces. Repetitive and pervasive fracturing and healing thereby create conditions for diffusive H2O loss into fractures and subsequent escape through permeable paths. This type of progressive magma degassing provides a potential mechanism to explain the formation of dense obsidian and the evolution from explosive to effusive eruption style.

  4. Energy's role in international trade: Structural changes and competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The role of energy in the competitive position of US goods in foreign trade is the topic of this study. It is obvious that energy is important in US trade because we import and export energy commodities. It is less obvious, but true, that energy plays an indirect role in trade because the energy embodied in traded goods is an element of their costs. The objective of this report is to identify how important energy is in the production of domestic goods, the role of energy in US trade, and how energy use and the structure of the economy have changed over time. Subsequent reports in this study will examine the role of energy in US trade with other countries. This first report was motivated by four objectives: understand the changes in the structure of the US economy that result from higher energy prices and other economic shocks, assess the effects of these structural changes on US energy use, present a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of US goods in world trade, and explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the economy, and how energy is linked to these factors. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  6. The historic fur trade and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    2006-12-01

    Why did the Dutch come to the North American shores 400 years ago? Was it wanderlust, expansionist policies, or simply money? The earliest western explorers were the Vikings who, in the 1100s, were able to sail beyond Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland, because they did so during the Medieval Warm Period. English explorer Henry Hudson, on the other hand, could not find a northern passage to China because the early 1600s were the coldest part of the Little Ice Age and the northern seas were frozen over (Figure 1).After Hudson's third voyage, Dutch merchants contracted several sailors to establish trading posts for beaver pelts in the Americas. Among them was Adriaen Block, who built the first western settlement on the island of Manhattan (New York) after a fire on his ship forced him to over-winter there in 1614 [Varekamp and Varekamp, 2006]. His 1614 'figurative map' shows Long Island Sound as an estuary, and introduced for the first time the name 'Niew Nederlandt' (New Netherlands).

  7. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  8. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  9. 7 CFR 46.13 - Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in... Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of... percent of the outstanding stock in a corporation, with the percentage of stock held by such person,...

  10. Obsidian hydration profile measurements using a nuclear reaction technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.R.; Leich, D.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Ericson, J.E.; Friedman, I.

    1974-01-01

    AMBIENT water diffuses into the exposed surfaces of obsidian, forming a hydration layer which increases in thickness with time to a maximum depth of 20-40 ??m (ref. 1), this layer being the basic foundation of obsidian dating2,3. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  12. A possible bedrock source for obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W., Jr.; Miller, T.P.

    1970-01-01

    Recently discovered deposits of obsidian in the Koyukuk valley may be the long-sought-for source of obsidian found in archeological sites in northwestern Alaska. Obsidian from these deposits compares favorably in physical characteristics and sodium-manganese ratio with the archeological obsidian, and there is evidence that the deposits have been "mined" in the past.

  13. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.; Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  14. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  15. Analysis of obsidian sources in the southern Sierra Madre occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, J.A.; Hayashida, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    From 1991 to 1993, field surveys and geologic sampling were conducted in the region of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Jalisco, Mexico, to investigate three previously unreported sources of obsidian or volcanic glass. The source areas are Huitzila-La Lobera, Llano Grande, and Nochistlan. Obsidian`s importance as a raw material in premodern societies for the production of tools and articles of adornment is well documented, particularly for Mesoamerica. Investigation of northern mesoamerican obsidian offers new data on these little known sources located to the north of the more thoroughly studied sources of the Mexican Neovolcanic chain. Neutron activation analysis was used to characterize the materials.

  16. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  17. Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.

    PubMed

    Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

    1978-07-28

    The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique. PMID:17793728

  18. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  19. Petrologic and Dynamic Importance of Flow Banding in Obsidian Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Dingwell, D. B.; Nichols, A.; Hess, K.

    2004-12-01

    One of the intriguing characteristics of effusive obsidians is the abundance of flow banding, or micrometer to centimeter-scale variations in microlite concentration. As these features arise from degassing, crystallization, and deformation processes, flow bands must contain important information regarding the chemical and physical evolution of obsidian magmas. Relatively little is known about the origin of this feature, and information on the relative rheologic properties of microlite-rich and poor bands is currently unavailable. In this paper, we present: 1) textural measurements on microlitic flow bands, 2) H2O concentrations, and 3) calorimetric measurements on flow bands of variable microlite content from several late Holocene obsidian flows. The goals are to better understand the mechanism of flow band formation and how these bands affect flow rheology and emplacement dynamics. Flow banded obsidians from Obsidian Dome (OD), Big Glass Mountain (BGM), and Big Obsidian Flow (BOF), are the focus of this study. Petrographic analysis shows that all obsidians contain microlites of pyroxene, feldspar, and oxide. However, the relative abundances of these phases vary dramatically within particular samples and between analyzed suites. Flow bands are therefore classified as 1) modal, wherein adjacent bands have the same mineral assemblage but contain different volume fractions, size distributions, and/or number densities of constituent phases, or 2) mineralogic, wherein adjacent bands differ by virtue of their constituent mineral assemblages. Banding in obsidians from both OD and BOF is dominantly modal, although rare bands display mineralogic differences defined by the presence or absence of plagioclase microlites. BGM obsidians tend to be modal in character, containing pyroxene microlites whose size and number densities vary across bands. Crystal size distributions measured on BGM obsidians reveal significant differences in the size and shape of microlite populations

  20. A new Application of Ar-40/Ar-39 Dating: A Provenance Study of Middle Stone Age Obsidian Tools from Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, S.; Vogel, N.; Renne, P. R.; Negash, A.

    2004-12-01

    The identification and geographic origin of potential sources for obsidian tools manufactured by MSA (Middle Stone Age) hominid groups is important to reconstruct source utilization and trade routes. Obsidian sourcing is done by geochemical investigation of obsidian artifacts and potential source materials and the identification of possible matches between them [e.g., 1]. Due to uncertainties arising, e.g., from intrasource inhomogeneities [2] additional methods are desirable. As a part of a pilot study, we dated by Ar-40/Ar-39 stepwise heating numerous debitage pieces of obsidian artifacts from an MSA excavation site and several potential source rock samples from a nearby obsidian outcrop in the Gademotta-Kulkuletti area near Ziway lake, Ethiopia. The ages were used, along with chemical data, to trace possible source rocks used to manufacture the artifacts. Most of the debitage samples show ages around 1.29 Ma and exhibit flat, well behaved spectra. Less well behaved spectra are obtained for two debitage samples with ages of about 1.26 Ma, and two with ages of about 0.62 Ma. We point out that despite this significant spread in the ages found, all debitage samples as well as the potential source rocks show homogeneous major and trace elemental compositions generally indicating a positive match in archeological sourcing. The ages of two potential source rocks are about 1.26 and 0.87 Ma. Thus, while there is a match with the two debitage pieces dated at 1.26 Ma, the exact outcrop of the major source for the 1.29 Ma old artifacts has not been identified yet. A second set of samples with further possible source materials for the Kulkuletti artifacts as well as another potential debitage-source material pair from a second excavation site in the Ziway lake area, Porc Epic, are currently being dated and will be presented at the conference. Already this first set of data shows not only the general applicability of Ar-40/Ar-39 dating to archeological obsidian sourcing, but

  1. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  2. Global change technology initiative architecture trade study plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the trade study is to define the architectural mix of missions, spacecraft/platforms, and sensors to meet the science requirements of the Mission to Planet Earth/Global Change Technology Initiative (MPE/GCTI) beyond the early Earth Observing System (Eos) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) spacecraft missions. Within the overall objective, the study includes the following specific objectives: (1) Substantiate the selected mix of Low Earth Orbit (LEO), GEO, or intermediate orbit spacecraft/platforms; (2) Define the required number and size of spacecraft related to objective (1); (3) Define a generic sensor complement for the spacecraft/platforms; (4) Evaluate current spacecraft capabilities to meet the mission requirements and develop conceptual designs of spacecraft/platforms as required. (5) Identify advanced or new technology needed to most efficiently accomplish the MPE/GCTI Program.

  3. 14 CFR 215.4 - Change of name or use of trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Change of name or use of trade name. 215.4... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS USE AND CHANGE OF NAMES OF AIR CARRIERS, FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIERS § 215.4 Change of name or use of trade name. (a) Registrations. Any air carrier...

  4. 14 CFR 215.4 - Change of name or use of trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Change of name or use of trade name. 215.4... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS USE AND CHANGE OF NAMES OF AIR CARRIERS, FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIERS § 215.4 Change of name or use of trade name. (a) Registrations. Any air carrier...

  5. 14 CFR 215.4 - Change of name or use of trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Change of name or use of trade name. 215.4... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS USE AND CHANGE OF NAMES OF AIR CARRIERS, FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIERS § 215.4 Change of name or use of trade name. (a) Registrations. Any air carrier...

  6. 14 CFR 215.4 - Change of name or use of trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of name or use of trade name. 215.4... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS USE AND CHANGE OF NAMES OF AIR CARRIERS, FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIERS § 215.4 Change of name or use of trade name. (a) Registrations. Any air carrier...

  7. OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. THE OBSIDIAN, A BLACK VOLCANIC GLASS, FORMED WHEN A LAVA FLOW CONTACTED GLACIAL ICE. IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROAD BY THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WORKERS CREATED THE LEDGE FOR THE ROAD BY BUILDING LARGE BONFIRES AGAINST THE CLIFF, THEN DASHING THE HEATED ROCK WITH COLD WATER, CAUSING IT TO SHATTER. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  8. Science requirements for a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, John T.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Science requirements for a global change technology initiative (GCTI) Architecture Trade Study were established by reviewing and synthesizing results from recent studies. A scientific rationale was adopted and used to identify a comprehensive set of measureables and their priorities. Spatial and temporal requirements for a number of measurement parameters were evaluated based on results from several working group studies. Science requirements were defined using these study results in conjunction with the guidelines for investigating global changes over a time scale of decades to centuries. Requirements are given separately for global studies and regional process studies. For global studies, temporal requirements are for sampling every 1 to 12 hours for atmospheric and radiation parameters and 1 day or more for most earth surface measurements. Therefore, the atmospheric measureables provide the most critical drivers for temporal sampling. Spatial sampling requirements vary from 1 km for land and ocean surface characteristics to 50 km for some atmospheric parameters. Thus, the land and ocean surface parameters have the more significant spatial variations and provide the most challenging spatial sampling requirements.

  9. Long-Term Changes in the Equatorial Pacific Trade Winds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Lebedev, Anna

    1996-05-01

    Past work has shown that surface zonal equatorial wind stress, zonally integrated from one side of the Pacific to the other, is the key variable for estimating long-term El Niño behavior in the eastern Pacific. The long-term behavior of this key variable is difficult to determine directly because of the paucity of the equatorial wind observations and because of false trends in the wind data introduced by gradual changes in the methods of wind measurement. However, surface pressure data generally does not suffer from these false trends and theory suggests that this key wind variable is linearly related to the difference (p) of surface atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific. Detrended COADS pressure in the eastern and western equatorial Pacific and post 1960 detrended equatorial wind stress zonally averaged across the Pacific were used to verify this relationship. Pressure difference and zonally averaged equatorial zonal windstress () were highly correlated (r = 0.90) and the regression also showed that advection of zonal momentum contributes substantially to the momentum balance in the equatorial atmospheric boundary layer. Further, hindcasts of eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature and sea level indicated that from p was more accurate than from winds even since 1960 when wind data were more plentiful. This suggests that the simple pressure difference p is an effective way to monitor both in the past and in the future.Using the p time series as a proxy for zonally integrated wind stress suggests that the equatorial trades strengthened during the early and mid-1930s, weakened from the late 1930s to late 1950s, strengthened during the 1960s, and weakened rapidly since. This pattern is qualitatively consistent with the long record of sea surface temperature measurements at Puerto Chicama (Peru). The more recent rapid weakening is consistent with trends in several physical variables reported previously by others. The long

  10. 27 CFR 24.122 - Change in name of proprietor or trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in name of proprietor or trade name. 24.122 Section 24.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.122 Change in name of proprietor or trade name. Where there is...

  11. 27 CFR 24.122 - Change in name of proprietor or trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in name of proprietor or trade name. 24.122 Section 24.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.122 Change in name of proprietor or trade name. Where there is...

  12. 27 CFR 24.122 - Change in name of proprietor or trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in name of proprietor or trade name. 24.122 Section 24.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.122 Change in name of proprietor or trade name. Where there is...

  13. 27 CFR 24.122 - Change in name of proprietor or trade name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in name of proprietor or trade name. 24.122 Section 24.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.122 Change in name of proprietor or trade name. Where there is...

  14. Hysteresis, thermomagnetic, and low-temperature magnetic properties of Southwestern U.S. obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Jackson, M. J.; Shackley, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical signatures of Southwestern U.S. obsidians have been intensively studied, in part to use as a provenance method for archaeological obsidians (Shackley, 2005). We reported (Sternberg et al. 2010) examined magnetic properties of 50 unoriented samples from 10 geologic obsidian sources in Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico; here we provide additional results measured at the Institute for Rock magnetism. Room-temperature hysteresis curves were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer on 58 specimens from all 50 samples. The Quantum Designs Magnetic Properties Measurement System was used to measure low temperature cycling of the natural remanence and/or of a room-temperature saturation isothermal remanence for 10 specimens, and frequency dependence of susceptibility for 7 specimens. A Princeton VSM was used to measure hysteresis curves and thermomagnetic curves for 19 specimens from 17 samples. Eleven of the thermomagnetic curves show Curie temperatures close to that for magnetite, and most of them are almost perfectly reversible. Many of the specimens also show a less well-defined Curie point around 150-200°C; for a few specimens the thermomagnetic behavior is dominated by paramagnetic iron and no ferromagnetic phases can be identified. The low-temperature remanence and susceptibility measurements show the magnetite Verwey transition in almost all specimens, and a significant superparamagnetic presence in only a few cases. Hysteresis parameters plot mainly in the lower half of the PSD domain on a Day plot, and saturation magnetization values indicate magnetite concentrations of about 0.2% to 0.5% for most specimens. The coercivity of remanence decreased considerably for one specimen after surface cleaning, although for 5 other comparisons there was no change.

  15. The explosive origin of obsidian lava (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Tuffen, H.; Schipper, C.

    2013-12-01

    A long-standing challenge in volcanology has been to explain why explosive eruptions of rhyolite magma transition into outpourings of lava. Many studies suggest that lava is the product of non-explosive processes that allow magmatic vapour to escape in an open-system manner without wholesale fragmentation. Recent eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle volcanoes have shown that effusive rhyolites are anything but 'non-explosive' and may erupt simultaneously with vigourous pyroclastic fountains for months from a common vent. This behaviour implies that pyroclastic processes play a critical if not dominant role in degassing magma sufficiently such that it erupts effusively. Here we use H-isotope and bulk H2O measurements paired with textural evidence from the 2008 Chaitén and 2011 Cordón Caulle eruptions to demonstrate that effusion requires explosion(s)--lavas are the direct product of brittle deformation that fosters batched degassing into transient pyroclastic channels that repetitively and explosively vent from effusing lava. Evidence for cyclical brecciation and collapse of porous and permeable magmatic foams is abundant in the textures and structures of tuffisites--ash and lapilli-filled pyroclastic channels--found in volcanic bombs at both Chaitén and Cordón Caulle. We have used FTIR and a TCEA-MAT 253 system to precisely measure total water and D/H in erupted glass. Bulk H2O measurements on tuffisite and adjacent bomb obsidian indicate significantly lower H2O (~0.2-1.0 wt.%) in the tuffisite veins. These depletions imply effective local degassing and rapid advective transport of exsolved vapour through the veins. The H-isotopic signatures of tuffisites are also different from the hosting material insofar as being enriched in deuterium (up to -20‰). Such deuterium enrichments are inconsistent with isotope fractionation during both closed- and open-system degassing, but can be explained if an abundant and more primitive volatile phase from less degassed

  16. Paleointensity study on obsidians of Pleistocene Age from Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Sandra; Ferk, Annika; Kirscher, Uwe; Leonhardt, Roman; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic glass is often considered an ideal recording material for paleointensities. Experiments to determine the ancient field intensity are time consuming and mostly have low success rates. Studies have shown that the usage of glassy samples can increase success rates very much as the remanence carriers are in or close to the single domain range. However, it was found that hydration and/or devitrification may falsify the results and maybe hard to identify. Here we investigate up to ~6 myr old subaerial obsidians of rhyolitic composition from Armenia to examine time dependencies in such processes and to obtain high quality field records. We present data from 60 subaerial obsidian samples from nine volcanic structures of Armenia. Almost all samples show a linear directional component which trends towards the origin of projection in both thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments. The 1.75 and ~6myr old glasses are inversely magnetized while all other samples show normal polarity. Titanomagnetites with varying titanium content and Curie temperatures at 190 to 270°C and 530° to 570°C, respectively, were revealed to be the remanence carriers. Almost all thermomagnetic curves are reversible underlining the thermal stability of the material. Thellier-type experiments with alteration and tail checks were used to determine paleointensities. Virtual axial dipole moments of 4.6*1022 Am2 (0.5Ma), 8.6*1022 Am2 (0.65Ma), 9.4*1022 Am2 (1.5Ma), 6.9*1022 Am2 and 7.3*1022 Am2 (~6 Ma) were found which agrees well with published reference data (Channell et al., 2009). The thermal stability, low alteration and good accordance with other data support the suitability of glassy materials for geomagnetic field studies and also shows the potential of subaerial obsidian to identify the source areas of prehistoric obsidian artefacts.

  17. Characterization by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J.; Delgado, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M.; Poupeau, G.

    2003-06-01

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  18. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  19. Trading Places: Autism Inclusion Disorder and School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Rozanna

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the experiences of students diagnosed with autism who change schools during the early primary years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Using the narratives of eight mothers, the article documents the circumstances leading to school change, usually towards more segregated provision. Mothers highlighted the difficulty of…

  20. The role of shear heating in obsidian formation within volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    While most volcanic rocks contain a significant amount of crystals (15-35 vol%), obsidian is unusual because it contains < 2 vol% phenocrysts. The few phenocrysts in obsidian are evidence for some crystallization, but the relative paucity reflects conditions in which crystallization is inhibited. The causes of these conditions in obsidian magmas are poorly understood. One way to inhibit crystallization and resorb crystals is to increase temperature. Shear heating is a potentially important source of heat in high-silica rhyolites due to their high viscosity, yet it is seldom accounted for in the thermal budgets of ascending magmas. This study combines mineralogical analysis of obsidian with numerical models of ascending, high-silica magma in order to examine an alternate hypothesis for obsidian formation in which shear heating inhibits crystallization and resorbs crystals. Using the finite-element solver COMSOL Multiphysics, this study models a planar dike 5 m wide and 1 km long. Temperatures increase up to 300 K above initial magma temperatures at conduit edges, which enable velocities and fluxes above Poiseuille solutions. These temperature increases are 150-200 K higher than those found by existing numerical models that account for shear heating in volcanic conduits. Based on velocities in the outer edge of the conduit, residence times of crystals in hotter magma range from 6 minutes to 58 days in a 1 km conduit; longer conduits increase residence time. Furthermore, complex conduit geometry can cause separation of laminar flow lines which would distribute hotter magma to other parts of the conduit. Longer residence times and higher temperatures favor crystal resorption. Modal analyses of obsidian in this study reflect a regional lack of quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in eastern California obsidian. This regional lack is unpredicted by the dominant hypotheses of obsidian formation and unexpected based on the mineralogy of other high-silica rhyolites. Phenocryst

  1. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  2. Textural analysis of obsidian lava flow in Shirataki, Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Toramaru, A.; Wada, K.

    2013-12-01

    Formation process of obsidian is poorly understood and it is thought that gas loss (outgassing) plays an important role. Glass formation needs the high-effective undercooling resulted from a high ascent and decompression rates, which process increases magma viscosity. The vesiculation, crystallization, and outgassing processes of such a highly viscous magma is also unclear. In this study, we conducted textural and chemical analyses for Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava one of Shirataki rhyolite lava, Hokkaido, northern part of Japan, in order to elucidate the magma ascent process. At TI lava, the interior structure of the lava can be observed, right from the outer obsidian layer to the inner rhyolite layer. That is, TI lava is an appropriate subject for textural analysis focused on the interior of obsidian lavas In Shirataki rhyolite lava area there are monogenetic volcanoes composed of 10 obsidian lava flow units, which were erupted at 2.2Ma. The TI lava is about 50 m in height and stratigraphic sequence from the bottom is a brecciated perlite layer, obsidian layer (7m), banded obsidian layer, and rhyolite layer. In this study, we define the obsidian and rhyolite based on the difference in appearance of specimen and rock texture, especially crystallinity. Rhyolite has perlitic cracks on glass, and contains the crystalline materials (i.e. spherulite and lithophysae). Banded obsidian layer, which is located between the obsidian and rhyolite layer, is composed of obsidian and rhyolite. In this study, we focused on the texture of flow bands and plagioclase microlites in glassy part of obsidian and rhyolite layers. The flow bands can be identified based on the color of glass (dark and clear), and have a contrast in abundance of oxide and transparent tiny crystals, which are plagioclase nanolites (<15μm) and micro-spherulites (<20μm). We newly defined micro-spherulite, which shows radial growth of crystals like a spherulite. The plagioclase nanolites were identified

  3. The role of plant functional trade-offs for biodiversity changes and biome shifts under scenarios of global climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reu, B.; Zaehle, S.; Proulx, R.; Bohn, K.; Kleidon, A.; Pavlick, R.; Schmidtlein, S.

    2010-10-01

    The global geographic distribution of biodiversity and biomes is determined by species-specific physiological tolerances to climatic constraints. Current models implement empirical bioclimatic relationships to predict present-day vegetation patterns and to forecast biodiversity changes and biome shifts under climatic change. In this paper, we consider plant functional trade-offs and their interactions with climatic changes to forecast and explain biodiversity changes and biome shifts. The Jena Diversity model (JeDi) simulates plant survival according to essential plant functional trade-offs, including eco-physiological processes such as water uptake, photosynthesis, allocation, reproduction and phenology. We apply JeDi to quantify biodiversity changes and biome shifts between present-day and a range of possible future climates from two scenarios (A2 and B1) and seven global climate models using metrics of plant functional richness and functional identity. Our results show (i) a significant biodiversity loss in the tropics, (ii) an increase in biodiversity at mid and high latitudes, and (iii) a poleward shift of biomes. While these results are consistent with the findings of empirical approaches, we are able to explain them in terms of the plant functional trade-offs involved in the allocation, metabolic and reproduction strategies of plants. We conclude that general aspects of plant physiological tolerances can be derived from plant functional trade-offs, which may provide a useful process- and trait-based alternative to bioclimatic relationships in order to address questions about the causes of biodiversity changes and biome shifts.

  4. Microscopic and macroscopic assessment of the emplacement of obsidian lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. S.; Williams, M.; Gardner, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Rhyolitic obsidian lavas are common in silicic volcanic systems, but quantitative data related to the emplacement of such lavas is rare. To assess the emplacement dynamics of rhyolitic obsidian lavas we measured the 3D orientation of microlites in samples collected systematically across five of the Central Plateau Member lavas of Yellowstone. Eruption volumes and maximum flow distances of targeted lava flows range from 0.01-70 km3 and 0.13-22 km, respectively. The dataset allows us to examine how deformation during emplacement varies with eruption size. Oriented thin sections were prepared from samples thought to be in place (i.e., not rotated by autobrecciation or erosion). In each sample, we petrographically measured the trend and plunge of >130 acicular Fe-Ti oxide microlites. The 3D microlite orientation can be used in two ways to understand the kinematics of emplacement. First, microlite orientations can be used to infer the dominant directions of fluid stretching because microlite long axes align in the direction of local extension. Second, the degree of alignment of a microlite population (i.e., standard deviation of trend and plunge), irrespective of preferred orientation, is dependent on the strain microlites experience during emplacement. We found that microlites are strongly aligned in all samples from all flows. Microlites are aligned roughly parallel to the direction of flow in samples collected near the flow front. Conversely, microlites are generally aligned orthogonal to the flow direction in samples collected from interior portions of the flows. In individual flows, the degree of alignment shows no correlation with distance travelled, instead it has slight random variations. Large- and small-volume flows display indistinguishable degrees of microlite alignment. Microlites provide a indicator of flow direction near flow fronts where strain is imparted by simple shear. In the interior portions of flows, strain is induced by pure shear via flattening

  5. Climate change and world food supply, demand, and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.; Frohberg, K.; Parry, M.L.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter summarizes the findings of a major interdisciplinary research effort by scientists in 25 countries. The study examined the potential biophysical responses of major food crops to changing atmospheric composition and climate, and projected potential socio-economic consequences. In a first step, crop models were used to estimate how changing climatic conditions may alter yields of major crops at a number of sites representing both major production areas and vulnerable regions at low, mid, and high latitudes. Then socio-economic impacts were assessed for the period 1990 up to the Year 2060 with a dynamic recursive model of the world food system. The results of the assessment suggest that a doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration will have little effect on global food production levels. Globally, impacts on crop production will be small compared to the required production increases between now and the middle of the next century. But, under all simulated scenarios possible negative impacts were mostly observed in low latitudes thus tending to increase the disparity between developed and developing countries.

  6. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  7. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Obsidians from the Southwestern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Gilder, S.; Renne, P. R.; Shackley, S.

    2010-12-01

    Geochemical signatures of Southwestern U.S. obsidians have been intensively studied, in part to use as a provenance method for archaeological obsidians (Shackley, 2005). We have examined magnetic properties of unoriented samples from 10 geologic obsidian sources in Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico. Five samples from each source were used, and each sample was cut into two specimens. Magnetic susceptibilities of all 100 specimens were measured on a susceptometer at F&M; alternating field demagnetizations of all 100 specimens were done on a cryogenic magnetometer at the BGC; and hysteresis curves, back-field IRMs, and thermomagnetic curves were done for nine specimens on a VFTB at LMU. The overall mean and interquartile range for susceptibilities of all 100 specimens are 56 and 9-85 x10-8 m3/kg. The overall mean and interquartile range for the NRM of all 100 specimens are 3.4 and 0.40-8.5 x10-4 A m2/kg. Variability within source groups is considerably smaller, so that a scatter plot of NRM against susceptibility (Figure 1) shows that several of the sites can be discriminated based on these two properties. AF demagnetization shows that in the large majority of cases a characteristic magnetic direction is isolated by 150 mT peak field. The overall mean and interquartile range for the median destructive fields for all 100 specimens are 96 and 52-117 mT. For the nine specimens used to measure hysteresis curves, seven of these plot in the middle of the pseudosingle domain field on a Day plot, while the other two plot on the boundary between the pseudosingle and the multidomain fields. All of these samples have a Curie temperature component just below 580°C. Eight of these nine samples have a low-temperature Curie temperature component lower than 200°C. We plan to further examine this component using low temperatures, and to consider statistical discrimination of these different sources using multivariate statistics applied to these various properties.

  9. Some geochemical characteristics of the Pachuca Obsidian Region: a strategy for interpreting artifact groups

    SciTech Connect

    Neivens, M.; Harbottle, G.; Kimberlin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian research has revealed geochemical anomalies. Neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the samples. Correlations were made between element pairs (Sc and Fe, Ba and Co). Tests were made for homogeneity. 5 figures. (DLC)

  10. PIXE reveals that two Murillo’s masterpieces were painted on Mexican obsidian slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Dubernet, S.; Poupeau, G.; Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E.; Meslay, O.; Tenorio, D.

    2005-10-01

    Two paintings by Murillo from the Louvre Museum entitled Agony in the garden and Penitent St. Peter kneeling before Christ and the column were analysed by PIXE to identify the nature of their unusual dark mineral backing. Considered until now as black marble, this support turns out to be obsidian, with an almost identical elemental composition for the two works. This composition was compared to that of six Mesoamerican unpainted obsidians labelled "smoking mirrors" with comparable size and shape from the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle and Musée de l'Homme and to that of geological samples from five Mexican sources. The trace element contents of Murillo's obsidians, in particular those of Mn, Zr, Sr, Y, Rb, Zr, Nb and Zn appeared to be very similar to that of four smoking mirrors and to that of obsidians from the Ucareo-Zinapécuaro source in central Mexico, an important complex of obsidian quarries exploited since pre-Hispanic times. A literature survey showed no such similarity with obsidians from other Mesoamerican sources or even from Mediterranean and surroundings source-areas. This study points out that Murillo, although living in Sevilla, had occasionally employed for his paintings materials shipped from the New World to Spain.

  11. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (<8%) and highly-evolved (high SiO2, low MgO, Sr, Ba) and, therefore, their formation required extremely efficient crystal-liquid separation. Petrologic and experimental investigation of the mineral phases in Glass Mountain lavas may reveal differentiation processes that generated the obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (obsidians, requires that the mechanism that produced these obsidians have an associated kinetic effect that strongly hinders nucleation. Decompression and cooling experiments, conducted in this study and from the literature, demonstrate that the simplest way to hinder nucleation is to initiate degassing or cooling from super-liquidus conditions. Therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  12. The role of plant functional trade-offs for biodiversity changes and biome shifts under scenarios of global climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reu, B.; Zaehle, S.; Proulx, R.; Bohn, K.; Kleidon, A.; Pavlick, R.; Schmidtlein, S.

    2011-05-01

    The global geographic distribution of biodiversity and biomes is determined by species-specific physiological tolerances to climatic constraints. Current vegetation models employ empirical bioclimatic relationships to predict present-day vegetation patterns and to forecast biodiversity changes and biome shifts under climatic change. In this paper, we consider trade-offs in plant functioning and their responses under climatic changes to forecast and explain changes in plant functional richness and shifts in biome geographic distributions. The Jena Diversity model (JeDi) simulates plant survival according to essential plant functional trade-offs, including ecophysiological processes such as water uptake, photosynthesis, allocation, reproduction and phenology. We use JeDi to quantify changes in plant functional richness and biome shifts between present-day and a range of possible future climates from two SRES emission scenarios (A2 and B1) and seven global climate models using metrics of plant functional richness and functional identity. Our results show (i) a significant loss of plant functional richness in the tropics, (ii) an increase in plant functional richness at mid and high latitudes, and (iii) a pole-ward shift of biomes. While these results are consistent with the findings of empirical approaches, we are able to explain them in terms of the plant functional trade-offs involved in the allocation, metabolic and reproduction strategies of plants. We conclude that general aspects of plant physiological tolerances can be derived from functional trade-offs, which may provide a useful process- and trait-based alternative to bioclimatic relationships. Such a mechanistic approach may be particularly relevant when addressing vegetation responses to climatic changes that encounter novel combinations of climate parameters that do not exist under contemporary climate.

  13. Water-saturated phase-equilibrium experiments on rhyolite and dacite obsidians: the effect of variable melt water concentration on the composition of phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.; Andrews, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Results of water-saturated phase equilibrium experiments on three obsidians ranging in composition from dacite to rhyolite (67-74 wt% SiO2) are presented and demonstrate the effect of changing melt water concentrations on the composition of plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts. Experiments were conducted in a cold-seal Ni-rich pressure vessel (Waspaloy) with Ni filler rod, so that experiments were buffered at ΔNNO +1 (± 0.5) (Gershwind & Rutherford, 1992) and pressurized with H2O (where Ptotal= PH2O). Temperatures ranged from 750-900°C and pressures ranged from 100-300 MPa. Prior to the experiments, detailed petrologic studies were first conducted on the three obsidian samples, which are from Cascade and Mexican arcs. Overall phenocryst abundances in all three samples are low (<2.3%), with little to no microlite crystallization. Despite low phenocryst abundances, the obsidians are saturated in five to seven mineral phases: plagioclase + orthopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite + apatite ± clinopyroxene ± biotite. Eruptive temperatures (±1σ), on the basis of Fe-Ti two oxide thermometry (Ghiorso & Evans, 2008), range from 760 ± 18°C to 943 ± 20°C; corresponding ΔNNO values (±1σ) range from -0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.1. Plagioclase compositions span a wide range in each sample (e.g., 9-40 and 30-54 mol% An), despite low phenocryst abundances. Orthopyroxene compositions also span a wide range (≤ 15 mol% En), which correspond to Fe-MgKD(opx-liq) values that range from 0.18-0.46. Given the low crystallinity, absence of evidence for mixing of magmas, and no apparent change in oxygen fugacity recorded by iron oxides, the progressive loss of water from a melt, through degassing during rapid magma ascent, is a plausible hypothesis to explain the observed variation in phenocryst compositions. This hypothesis is evaluated with the run products from the water-saturated phase equilibrium experiments on the three obsidian samples. The experimental results indicate

  14. The Political Trade-offs of Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, William

    1996-01-01

    Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

  15. Selection of representative instruments for a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Keafer, Lloyd; Ross, Rogard T.; Knight, Heather R.; Jalink, Anthony; Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of Task 2 of the Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) Architectural Trade Study were to select representative sets of instruments for making the science measurements specified in Task 1 and to identify instruments that, when flown together, form special complementary packages for measurement purposes. The list of representative instruments and their complementary relationships provide a payload manifest defined in terms of mass, power, size, viewing angles, data rates, etc. which can be used to focus spacecraft trade studies and the definition of a candidate GCTI fleet. Science requirements from Task 1 are given in tabular form. Numerous instruments are described, including visible-infrared radiometers, visible-infrared spectrometers, gas correction radiometers, active systems for Earth observation, Limb viewing instruments, visible-infrared and grating spectrometers, and microwave radiometers.

  16. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  17. Unravelling textural heterogeneity in obsidian: Shear-induced outgassing in the Rocche Rosse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, J. K.; Mader, H. M.; Caricchi, L.; Tuffen, H.; Mueller, S.; Pistone, M.; Baumgartner, L.

    2016-01-01

    Obsidian flow emplacement is a complex and understudied aspect of silicic volcanism. Of particular importance is the question of how highly viscous magma can lose sufficient gas in order to erupt effusively as a lava flow. Using an array of methods we study the extreme textural heterogeneity of the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow in Lipari, a 2 km long, 100 m thick, ~ 800 year old lava flow, with respect to outgassing and emplacement mechanisms. 2D and 3D vesicle analyses and density measurements are used to classify the lava into four textural types: 'glassy' obsidian (< 15% vesicles), 'pumiceous' lava (> 40% vesicles), high aspect ratio, 'shear banded' lava (20-40% vesicles) and low aspect ratio, 'frothy' obsidian with 30-60% vesicles. Textural heterogeneity is observed on all scales (m to μm) and occurs as the result of strongly localised strain. Magnetic fabric, described by oblate and prolate susceptibility ellipsoids, records high and variable degrees of shearing throughout the flow. Total water contents are derived using both thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy to quantify primary (magmatic) and secondary (meteoric) water. Glass water contents are between 0.08-0.25 wt.%. Water analysis also reveals an increase in water content from glassy obsidian bands towards 'frothy' bands of 0.06-0.08 wt.%, reflecting preferential vesiculation of higher water bands and an extreme sensitivity of obsidian degassing to water content. We present an outgassing model that reconciles textural, volatile and magnetic data to indicate that obsidian is generated from multiple shear-induced outgassing cycles, whereby vesicular magma outgasses and densifies through bubble collapse and fracture healing to form obsidian, which then re-vesiculates to produce 'dry' vesicular magma. Repetition of this cycle throughout magma ascent results in the low water contents of the Rocche Rosse lavas and the final stage in the degassing cycle determines final lava porosity. Heterogeneities in

  18. A comparison of obsidian and surgical steel scalpel wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Disa, J J; Vossoughi, J; Goldberg, N H

    1993-10-01

    There are several anecdotal clinical articles claiming wound healing and scar superiority using obsidian (volcanic glass) scalpels. In order to determine if skin incisions made with obsidian were superior to those made with standard surgical steel, wound tensile strength, scar width, and histology were assessed in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two parallel 8-cm dorsal skin incisions, one with an obsidian scalpel and the other with a surgical steel scalpel (no. 15 blade). Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Tensile strength of the two wound types was not different at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Scar width, however, was significantly less in the obsidian wounds at 7, 10, and 14 days (p < 0.005). At 21 days, scar width was not different in the two groups. At 42 days, all wounds were barely detectable, thus precluding scar width analysis. A blinded histologic review suggested that obsidian wounds contained fewer inflammatory cells and less granulation tissue at 7 days. PMID:8415970

  19. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change.

    PubMed

    Seebens, Hanno; Essl, Franz; Dawson, Wayne; Fuentes, Nicol; Moser, Dietmar; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Winter, Marten; Blasius, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Trade plays a key role in the spread of alien species and has arguably contributed to the recent enormous acceleration of biological invasions, thus homogenizing biotas worldwide. Combining data on 60-year trends of bilateral trade, as well as on biodiversity and climate, we modeled the global spread of plant species among 147 countries. The model results were compared with a recently compiled unique global data set on numbers of naturalized alien vascular plant species representing the most comprehensive collection of naturalized plant distributions currently available. The model identifies major source regions, introduction routes, and hot spots of plant invasions that agree well with observed naturalized plant numbers. In contrast to common knowledge, we show that the 'imperialist dogma,' stating that Europe has been a net exporter of naturalized plants since colonial times, does not hold for the past 60 years, when more naturalized plants were being imported to than exported from Europe. Our results highlight that the current distribution of naturalized plants is best predicted by socioeconomic activities 20 years ago. We took advantage of the observed time lag and used trade developments until recent times to predict naturalized plant trajectories for the next two decades. This shows that particularly strong increases in naturalized plant numbers are expected in the next 20 years for emerging economies in megadiverse regions. The interaction with predicted future climate change will increase invasions in northern temperate countries and reduce them in tropical and (sub)tropical regions, yet not by enough to cancel out the trade-related increase. PMID:26152518

  20. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  1. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further significant mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by managing the location of the liquid and the solid in the heat sink to eliminate the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively, while also accommodating the high structural loads expected on future manned launch vehicles.

  2. Beyond Magnetism: a Short History of Obsidian Provenance Studies and Magnetic Personalities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, S.

    2010-12-01

    For many decades now, geologists and archaeologists have been analyzing archaeological obsidian using a spate of techniques. No single technology, however, can solve all of the chemical, petrological, or archaeological problems that arise from this disordered substance. The future is indistinct for obsidian studies with the rising use and misuse of portable XRF (PXRF) and ICP-MS, the apparent decline of the use of neutron activation (NAA), continual misuse of megascopic source assignment, and the maturation of laboratory x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Magnetic property analysis of obsidian is yet another tool for the understanding of source provenance and may very well become a tool that fills a gap in our analytical repertoire. This discussion is designed to provide historical context for this resurrected technique and serve as a reminder that we don’t always know what we know in geoarchaeological science.

  3. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital structure of a business entity, and certain other... Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital... recognized in the transaction: (1) An acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business (whether...

  4. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital structure of a business entity, and certain other... Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital... recognized in the transaction: (1) An acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business (whether...

  5. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital structure of a business entity, and certain other... Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital... recognized in the transaction: (1) An acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business (whether...

  6. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital structure of a business entity, and certain other... Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the capital... recognized in the transaction: (1) An acquisition of assets that constitute a trade or business (whether...

  7. Ferro and paramagnetic resonance studies of natural volcanic glasses - Teotihuacan obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Rivas, F.; Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Galland, D.; Regnard, J. R.; Chappert, J.

    1991-11-01

    Teotihuacan black obsidians have been experimentally studied and found to be very heterogeneous magnetically. Isolated high-spin Fe(III) and Mn(II) free ions are readily identified. The well-defined first-derivative Q-band singlet at g = 2.00 is assigned to superparamagnetic centers. A strong grain-size dependence of the overall line shape is observed at X-band. Other properties of the spectral lines indicate the presence of superparamagnetic clusters of magnetite and a range order in these obsidians larger than the common short-range order of the glassy state.

  8. Technological Change, Trade, and the Need for Educated Employees: Implications for Economic Policy. NCEE Brief Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Ann P.; And Others

    Work force issues regarding technological change, international trade, and changes in job skills were the subject of a series of studies of work force changes in U.S. industries. The studies examined the characteristics of employees in 61 manufacturing industries in 1960, 1970, and 1980 through data obtained from the Labor Demographics Matrices…

  9. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    PubMed

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. PMID:21674537

  10. Breakthrough in precision (0.3 percent) of neutron activation analyses applied to provenience studies of obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Stross, Fred H.; Burger, Richard L.

    2002-10-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer at LBNL (the Luis W. Alvarez Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer), that was specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of iridium abundances, has been significantly modified in order to provide precisions of measurement in neutron activation analysis of obsidian significantly better than previously obtained (about 1%). Repeated measurements on a single sample of obsidian from a deposit near Chivay, Arequipa, Peru, showed a precision (average coefficient of variation) of 0.19% for the 6 best-measured elements, the value anticipated from the known random errors of measurement. In measurement of samples made from 7 different obsidian nodules from two locations near Chivay, a group of 5 had a spread of 0.30% for the 6 elements measured with counting statistics of better than 0.3% (and 1.8% for the remaining 6 elements). The data suggest there are source inhomogeneity and/or sample preparation contamination errors totaling 0.24 {+-} .05% for the 6 best measured elements. A sixth obsidian sample could be distinguished from the main group because it differed by +0.8% for most elements, and the last sample could be easily distinguished because several elements differed by more than 1%. The precision of measurements now being developed may provide a significantly more precise determination of the provenience of obsidian artifacts than has been heretofore possible. Also the techniques of measurement developed for obsidian will provide even better precisions with pottery, as many elements are more abundant in pottery than in obsidian.

  11. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20 % of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2 %) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity. PMID:23322507

  12. Physical Volcanology of Obsidian Dome, California: A Complex Record of Emplacement of a Youthful Lava Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Cole G.

    Obsidian Dome is a 550-650 year old, 1.5 by 1.8 km extrusion of high silica rhyolite situated along the Inyo Craters in eastern California. Field, and observations of drill core, reveals discrete metre-scale thick zones of rhyolitic glass exposed along the margin of Obsidian Dome as well as within its interior. Millimetre-scale flow-banded obsidian, pumice and rhyolite range from planar to chaotically folded, the latter a product of ductile, compressive deformation. Fractures, some of which display en-echelon splitting patterns are a result of brittle failure. Taken together, these features along with others, result from flow during lava dome growth and suggest complex emplacement patterns signified by vesiculation, crystallization and repeated brittle-ductile deformation, owing to episodic crossing of the glass transition. Evidence further shows that gas loss from the system occurred due to explosions, pumice formation and also brecciation of the melt as it episodically crossed the glass transition. Loss of gas by these mechanisms along with the inherent high viscosity of rhyolite melt explains the large amount of glass found on and within Obsidian Dome and other similar rhyolite extrusions in comparison to less silica-rich systems.

  13. Radiative heat transfer in molten and glassy obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, C.W.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-08-10

    We have measured optical transmittance spectra in rhyolitic obsidian samples in the wavelength range lambda = 380-5500 nm and at temperatures T from 19/sup 0/-1145/sup 0/C, above and below the softening point. From the transmittance, we calculated the absorption coefficient ..cap alpha..(lambda,T) and the radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/(T). K/sub R/ ranges from 3 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/ (1.2Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 700/sup 0/C to 12 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(5Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. The 700/sup 0/C value is comparable with lattice thermal conductivity K/sub L/ of about 4 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/K/sup -1/(1.7 Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/). Removing scattering effects due to bubbles from the transmittance spectra by lowering the absorption baseline increased K/sub R/ to 20 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ K/sup -1/(8.4Wm/sup -1/K/sup -1/) at 1145/sup 0/C. Because scattering bubbles is likely to be small in confined magmas, these numbers are probably minimum values for K/sub R/ and indicate that in active plutons radiative heat transport could be greater than lattice conductivity by more than a factor of 2 at 1000/sup 0/C. Thus melting markedly strengthens K/sub R/, and radiative heat transport is probably the dominant component of the total conductivity K = K/sub L/+K/sub R/ in silicic magmas. These relatively large values of K can be applied to models of the thermal evolution of magma bodies and to cooling of intrusives.

  14. Radiative thermal conductivity in obsidian and estimates of heat transfer in magma bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.; Shankland, T.J.; Nitsan, U.

    1981-05-10

    The optical transmission spectra of four ryholitic obsidian samples were measured in order to determine the importance of radiative heat transfer in granite magmas. The spectra, obtained in the temperature range 20-800/sup 0/C, show that the radiative spectral window in these samples is limited by a charge transfer band in the UV (400 nm) and Si-O stretching overtone in the IR (4500 nm). Within this window the main obstacles to radiative transfer, in order of decreasing importance, are background scattering, a water band centered at 2800 nm, and an Fe/sup 2 +/ crystal field band at 1100 nm. Unlike crystalline silicates the absorption bands in obsidian do not broaden significantly as temperature increases. As a result, the temperature dependence of the calculated radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/ is dominated by the T/sup ..beta../ term. Actual values of K/sub R/ increase from 9 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 1/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ between 300/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C, the high-temperature value being comparable to the lattice thermal conductivity in obsidian and a lower limit for K/sub R/ in granitic melts. As the scattering coefficient in melts is probably significantly lower than in obsidian, the radiative conductivity in active plutons is likely to be much higher. As an example, if scattering and the water band are removed from the observed spectra of the obsidian samples, calculated values of K/sub R/ could increase by a factor of 5, to about 5 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ at 1000/sup 0/C.

  15. Foreign trade, the multinational enterprise, and regional economic change in the United States: Issues for locational analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies the scope for locational analysis - regional and spatial economics, or in general, economic geography - to contribute to the assessment of the role of international trade and the multinational enterprise activity in changing the regional pattern of economic activity in the United States. Recent trends in actual trade patterns and in the theory of trade and the multinational enterprise are reviewed. The increasing prominence of intraindustry trade has prompted further development in trade theory, while changes in the theory of the multinational enterprise (MNE) have been hard pressed to keep up with changes in MNE activity. Empirical research suggests tentatively that the full employment impacts of the recent American trade deficit have been distributed more evenly across census regions than is commonly believed. There has been little empirical research on the regional impacts of MNEs in the United States, although considerably more has been done in the British Isles;much of this has been little guided by economic theory of the MNE or by location theory. Opportunities for regional/spatial analysis of foreign trade lie in spatial assessment of comparative advantage. The spatial version of industrial organization theory, spatial pricing/spatial competition theory (SP/SC), has been used in limited analysis of issues in MNE activity, and there appear to be opportunities for extension of SP/SC modeling into issues of informational asymmetry that could bear on MNE choices. Additionally, locational modeling of integrated, multi-plant firms could offer insights into certain aspects of MNE operational behavior. Studies of the regional impacts of MNE activity in the United States, or in other countries, needs to take better account of the branch plant as a member of a multi-plant firm in a noncompetitive industry than has been done to date.

  16. 7 CFR 46.13 - Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... change of address; (2) Any change in officers, directors, members, managers, holders of more than 10...; (4) Any change in the number and address of any branches or additional business facilities, and; (5... bankruptcy laws. A new license is required in case of a change in the ownership of a firm, the addition...

  17. Science requirements for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, John T.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Science requirements for a Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) Architecture Trade Study were established by reviewing and synthesizing results from recent studies. A scientific rationale was adopted and used to identify a comprehensive set of measurables and their priorities. Spatial and temporal requirements for a number of measurement parameters were evaluated based on results from several working group studies. Science requirements were defined using these study results in conjunction with guidelines for investigating global changes over a time scale of decades to centuries. Requirements are given separately for global studies and regional process studies. For global studies, temporal requirements are for sampling every 1 to 12 hours for atmospheric and radiation parameters and 1 day or more for most Earth surface measurements. Therefore, the atmospheric measurables provide the most critical drivers for temporal sampling. Spatial sampling requirements vary from 1 km for land and ocean surface characteristics to 50 km for some atmospheric parameters. Thus, the land and ocean surface parameters have the more significant spatial variations and provide the most challenging spatial sampling requirements.

  18. Advanced signal processing analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the discrimination of obsidian sources.

    PubMed

    Remus, Jeremiah J; Harmon, Russell S; Hark, Richard R; Haverstock, Gregory; Baron, Dirk; Potter, Ian K; Bristol, Samantha K; East, Lucille J

    2012-03-01

    Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin and a primary resource used by indigenous peoples across North America for making tools. Geochemical studies of obsidian enhance understanding of artifact production and procurement and remain a priority activity within the archaeological community. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique being examined as a means for identifying obsidian from different sources on the basis of its 'geochemical fingerprint'. This study tested whether two major California obsidian centers could be distinguished from other obsidian localities and the extent to which subsources could be recognized within each of these centers. LIBS data sets were collected in two different spectral bands (350±130 nm and 690±115 nm) using a Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser operated at ~23 mJ, a Czerny-Turner spectrograph with 0.2-0.3 nm spectral resolution and a high performance imaging charge couple device (ICCD) detector. Classification of the samples was performed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), a common chemometric technique for performing statistical regression on high-dimensional data. Discrimination of samples from the Coso Volcanic Field, Bodie Hills, and other major obsidian areas in north-central California was possible with an accuracy of greater than 90% using either spectral band. PMID:22410927

  19. Understanding the role of international trade in changing patterns of energy use in the United States manufacturing sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrence, Tamara R.

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation gives an empirical analysis of the linkage between international trade and changes in the energy inputs used by the U.S. manufacturing sector. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to assess over time whether there is any indication that the United States offsets energy consumption by importing goods that take large amounts of energy to produce, and whether energy-intensive imports are increasingly being produced by developing countries. This research is divided into three main parts. First, an input-output approach is used to analyze changes in the value of energy inputs effectively embodied in U.S. trade components over time. Changes in the origin of embodied energy imports are also analyzed. Second, changes in the embodied energy intensity of U.S. trade components are decomposed to estimate the role of changes in the composition of U.S. imports and exports, changes in intermediate goods used to produce final goods and changes in energy-efficiency. Third, the significance of offshore production of energy-intensive intermediate goods is estimated. The results of this dissertation surprisingly indicate when accounting for the trade balance that the United States is offsetting less rather than more of its industrial energy use over time. The structural decomposition of the embodied energy intensity of imports confirms that the composition of U.S. imports has steadily decreased in energy-intensity. Furthermore the geographical analysis of the production origin of U.S. imports shows that the most energy-intensive imports come from developed rather than developing regions of the world. There is no indication that the origin of energy-intensive goods is changing over time. Moreover, there is no indication that energy-intensive, yet low value-added intermediate goods are increasingly being produced in developing regions of the world.

  20. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  1. Timescales of spherulite crystallization in obsidian inferred from water concentration profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Jonathan M.; Beck, Pierre; Tuffen, Hugh; Nichols, Alexander R.L.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Martin, Michael C

    2008-06-25

    We determined the kinetics of spherulite growth in obsidians from Krafla volcano, Iceland. We measured water concentration profiles around spherulites in obsidian by synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The distribution of OH? groups surrounding spherulites decreases exponentially away from the spherulite-glass border, reflecting expulsion of water during crystallization of an anhydrous paragenesis (plagioclase + SiO2 + clinopyroxene + magnetite). This pattern is controlled by a balance between the growth rate of the spherulites and the diffusivity of hydrous solute in the rhyolitic melt. We modeled advective and diffusive transport of the water away from the growing spherulites by numerically solving the diffusion equation with a moving boundary. Numerical models fit the natural data best when a small amount of post-growth diffusion is incorporated in the model. Comparisons between models and data constrain the average spherulite growth rates for different temperatures and highlight size-dependent growth among a small population of spherulites.

  2. Provenance study of obsidians from the archaeological site of La Maná (Ecuador) by electron spin resonance (ESR), SQUID magnetometry and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttine, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Poupeau, G.; Bustamante, A.; Bellido, A. V.; Lattini, R. M.; Guillaume-Gentil, N.

    2007-02-01

    Obsidians from major Ecuadorian sources (outcrops) were analyzed by electron spin resonance, SQUID magnetometry and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. If the last technique allows to discriminate obsidians from the Quiscatola source, an association of ESR with SQUID magnetometry permits to differentiate obsidians from the sources of Cotopaxi volcano, from the Quiscatola and Mullumica-Callejones sources of the Chacana caldera and to infer that the 12 analyzed obsidians from the pre-Hispanic site of La Maná come from the Mullumica-Callejones source.

  3. Melt fracturing and healing: A mechanism for degassing and origin of silicic obsidian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrera, A.; Weinberg, R.F.; Wright, H.M.N.; Zlotnik, S.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present water content transects across a healed fault in pyroclastic obsidian from Lami pumice cone, Lipari, Italy, using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that rhyolite melt degassed through the fault surface. Transects define a trough of low water content coincident with the fault trace, surrounded on either side by high-water-content plateaus. Plateaus indicate that obsidian on either side of the fault equilibrated at different pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions before being juxtaposed. The curves into the troughs indicate disequilibrium and water loss through diffusion. If we assume constant T, melt equilibrated at pressures differing by 0.74 MPa before juxtaposition, and the fault acted as a low-P permeable path for H2O that diffused from the glass within time scales of 10 and 30 min. Assuming constant P instead, melt on either side could have equilibrated at temperatures differing by as much as 100 ??C, before being brought together. Water content on the fault trace is particularly sensitive to post-healing diffusion. Its preserved value indicates either higher temperature or lower pressure than the surroundings, indicative of shear heating and dynamic decompression. Our results reveal that water contents of obsidian on either side of the faults equilibrated under different P-T conditions and were out of equilibrium with each other when they were juxtaposed due to faulting immediately before the system was quenched. Degassing due to faulting could be linked to cyclical seismic activity and general degassing during silicic volcanic activity, and could be an efficient mechanism of producing low-water-content obsidian. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  4. Precise characterization of Guatemalan obsidian sources, and source determination of artifacts from Quirigua

    SciTech Connect

    Stross, F.H.; Sheets, P.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    For the determination of provenience of obsidian artifacts, precise and accurate measurements of composition patterns of the geologic sources are necessary for definitive and cost-effective assignments. Inter-comparison of data from different laboratories is often difficult. Suggestions for maximizing the usefulness of data already in the literature are made, contributions to a useful data bank of source composition patterns are recorded, and provenience determinations of 30 artifacts excavated in Quirigua, Guatemala are presented to exemplify the technique.

  5. Using land to mitigate climate change: hitting the target, recognizing the trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John; Melillo, Jerry; Cai, Yongxia; Kicklighter, David; Gurgel, Angelo; Paltsev, Sergey; Cronin, Timothy; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature within 2 °C of the preindustrial level and their impacts on agriculture. We show that an ambitious global Energy-Only climate policy that includes biofuels would likely not achieve the 2 °C target. A thought-experiment where the world ideally prices land carbon fluxes combined with biofuels (Energy+Land policy) gets the world much closer. Land could become a large net carbon sink of about 178 Pg C over the 21st century with price incentives in the Energy+Land scenario. With land carbon pricing but without biofuels (a No-Biofuel scenario) the carbon sink is nearly identical to the case with biofuels, but emissions from energy are somewhat higher, thereby results in more warming. Absent such incentives, land is either a much smaller net carbon sink (+37 Pg C - Energy-Only policy) or a net source (-21 Pg C - No-Policy). The significant trade-off with this integrated land-use approach is that prices for agricultural products rise substantially because of mitigation costs borne by the sector and higher land prices. Share of income spent on food for wealthier regions continues to fall, but for the poorest regions, higher food prices lead to a rising share of income spent on food. PMID:22533690

  6. Magnetic properties of a new obsidian source, west Antelope Creek, Grant County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, R. S.; Samuels, R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Shackley, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    This work is part of a Keck Geology Consortium project on characterizing obsidian sources in New Mexico using magnetic and geochemical properties. We collected over 3,000 samples, many of which were georeferenced, from 10 obsidian sources at three locales - Mule creek, Mt. Taylor, and Valles Caldera. One of the Mule Creek sources, herein called the west Antelope Creek (wAC) source, was previously unknown. The 143 samples collected at this source covered about 1 km2, but were not individually georeferenced. We plan to characterize the magnetic and chemical properties of this source to see if it is distinguishable from other nearby sources and useful for provenancing archaeological obsidians. Initial measurements on 34 specimens from 20 samples show NRM values range from 1-80 Am2/kg, and low-field susceptibilities range from 1.2-96 x 10-8 mass specific SI units. When there were two specimens from the same sample, results were in good agreement. The measurements define a rather broad field in NRM-susceptibility space compared to other Southwestern sources examined to date, and a considerably larger field than from the nearby Antelope Creek (AC) source. The previously measured NRM and susceptibility values from AC are all in the high end on both dimensions of the wAC field, so that these fields overlap but in many cases could be distinguished.

  7. Water Providers and Trade Groups Wake Up to Climate Change: Implications for the Research Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In just the last two years, U.S. water providers and water trade groups have begun to take notice of the impacts of climate change on their water systems and many now realize that they can no longer rely on climate stationarity for operations or for planning. In addition, many of these providers are facing additional stress from rapid population growth, aging infrastructure, emerging pollutants, required environmental flow releases, already allocated water supplies, and the need to mitigate their own, frequently significant, greenhouse gases. They are asking difficult questions of the scientific community about the quality and suitability of current climate theory, data and projections, especially in their region, for the purpose of decision making. Given the potentially very expensive adaptations such as constructing sea walls, building new reservoirs, or acquiring new water, they need answers sooner rather than later and are not about to wait while the normal pace of scientific discourse occurs. Some have already taken matters into their own hands: the American Water Works Research Foundation (soon to become the Water Research Foundation) has established a multi-year strategic initiative at $1m year to identify and fund research projects and is seeking at Congressional authorization for more funding. These entities have significant political resources and clout - the Water Utility Climate Alliance represents over 30m consumers in 5 key states and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies serves more than 130m customers. These entities are very likely to demand more and higher quality results from the research and consulting communities in the very near future. How can and how should the scientific community engage with this critical set of stakeholders? How will research be impacted by these new players and demands? And what might the nation do to meet this critical need?

  8. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to

  9. Petrology and emplacement dynamics of the intrusive and extrusive rhyolites of Obsidian Dome Inyo Craters volcanic chain, eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Schuraytz, B.C.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Stockman, H.W.; Westrich, H.R.; Younker, L.W.; Horkowitz, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Drilling at Obsidian Dome has provided continuous core samples of the distal and proximal portions of Obsidian Dome, its conduit, and an associated feeder dike. Both the dome and conduit are chemically and mineralogically zoned and consist of a finely porphyritic, high-Ba, low-silica rhyolite occurring in the basal portion of the dome and margins of the conduit and a finely porphyritic, low-Ba, higher silica rhyolite in the upper portion of the dome and center of the conduit. The high-Ba rhyolite contains two distinct phenocrysts assemblages with two distinct compositions, and represents mingled magmas. The low-Ba rhyolite in the dome and conduit contains significantly fewer disequilibrium phenocrysts and is only slightly mingled. The dike, sampled at 600 m depth, as well as a related tephra fall from Obsidian Dome vent, are entirely low-Ba rhyolite that contain no evidence of magma mingling. End members of the mingled magma, calculated using two different methods, are a 63 percent silica end member, and a silicic end member identical in composition to the dike and tephra fall from Obsidian Dome vent. This silicic end member was the first magma emplaced in the dike, and comprised much or all of the first magma vented to the surface during formation of the Obsidian Dome vent when eruption rates were high. Magma mingling of mafic and rhyolite magmas occurred during formation of the conduit. 59 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. The Arteries of Global Trade: Industrial Restructuring and Technological Change in the Transatlantic Air Cargo Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Air cargo enjoys a special importance: together with maritime transport it is the backbone of global trade and is indispensable for contemporary globalization. Air transport is the only mode that combines worldwide reach with high speed. Nonetheless there is a dearth of geographic research that analyzes the current restructuring affecting the air…

  11. Global change, global trade, and the next wave of plant invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many non-native, invasive plants in the United States have become problematic for native and managed ecosystems, but a new generation of invaders may be at our doorstep. We review trends in the horticultural trade and invasion patterns of previously introduced species and show that novel species int...

  12. Long-term spatio-temporal changes in a West African bushmeat trade system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J; Kusimi, J M; Rowcliffe, J M; Cowlishaw, G; Brenyah, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-10-01

    Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest levels may

  13. Long‐term spatio‐temporal changes in a West African bushmeat trade system

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, J.; Kusimi, J. M.; Rowcliffe, J. M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Brenyah, A.; Milner‐Gulland, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio‐temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest

  14. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  15. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  16. Through the volcanic-looking glass: using pyroclastic obsidian to image magma degassing and flow in shallow silicic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Tuffen, H.; Schipper, C.

    2012-12-01

    Obsidian pyroclasts have been widely used to understand magma degassing processes and conduit flow during Plinian eruptions of silicic magma. Recent observations of active rhyolite volcanoes show that obsidian pyroclasts may also erupt during dominantly effusive activity and this raises the question of how might the crystallization, degassing, and cooling histories differ between parcels of magma that become pyroclastic versus effusive obsidian? As the two disparate, yet coeval eruptive styles require different magma ascent conditions, it follows that glassy pyroclasts should record these differences. Here we report on chemical and textural evidence of degassing and crystallization in glassy bombs, pyroclastic lapilli and obsidian lava collected from the recently active Cordón Caulle and Chaitén volcanoes in southern Chile. Coarse obsidian bombs are abundant at both volcanoes and were erupted during large blasts that accompanied lava effusion. Obsidian lapilli are equally ubiquitous in fall deposits and near-vent tuff cones formed during the initial Plinian phases of activity. Total H2O contents and hydrous speciation was measured on these glassy materials by FTIR. The data show two distinct trends, one corresponding to bombs and glassy lavas and characterized by a relative abundance of molecular water and the other associated with the lapilli glasses having relatively elevated OH-. These speciation patterns can be explained by different cooling histories in parcels of magma that had different ascent speeds and residence times in the conduit. The bomb and lava obsidians appear to form of a single Pressure-Temperature-time (P-T-t) path, one that is offset from the Plinian lapilli to lower ascent and cooling rates. These relations suggest that flow in the volcanic conduit is bifurcated and this allows parcels of magma to rise up quickly and fuel sustained pyroclastic columns while other magma can follow more relaxed ascent trajectories allowing it to become proto

  17. The solidification of obsidian glass during drilling of the IDDP-1 drill hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; von Aulock, Felix; Lavalee', Yan

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the thermal fate of magmatic rocks during scientific high temperature drilling represents a contribution to their interpretation in terms of magmatic state and their mechanical response to the drilling process. Chips of black crystal-poor unfoamed calc-alkaline rhyolitic obsidian have been obtained from a depth of 2100m in the IDDP-1 borehole. Five samples (20-40 mg) have been subjected to scanning calorimetry in order to evaluate the glass transition temperature, viscosity and cooling history of these obsidians that are believed to have been quenched by the drilling process. In addition to scanning runs on the raw glasses, their controlled cooling/heating cycle behavior has been determined at 5, 10 and 25K/min. The glass transition temperatures of the raw samples lie in the range of 500-525°C. The glass transition temperature shifts with controlled cooling/heating rates yields an activation energy of 335 kJ/mol. The absolute value of the glass transition temperature has been compared with the Hess and Dingwell (1996) viscosity model for calc-alkaline rhyolite. The comparison allows the inference that the obsidian contains water contents consistent with those reported by Elders et al. (2011) Furthermore, the activation energies obtained from the Tg peak shift with cooling/heating rate are entirely consistent with those water contents. The cooling rate estimated for the raw samples are higher than 25K/min. A relatively high cooling rate for a "natural" obsidian. These glasses have been interpreted to have been quenched from temperatures of 940-760°C (based on water content). From the present glass transition analysis it would appear that the first 200-400K of cooling of these magmas occurred above the glass transition in a plastic state, followed by ca. 500K of solid-state (glassy) cooling. These results demonstrate that it is possible to use glassy materials derived from the drilling-induced quenching of magma to evaluate the physical state and

  18. Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from a classic Maya residential group at Nohmul, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, N.; Neivens, M.D.; Harbottle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine obsidian artifacts from a classic period residential group at Nohmul, northern Belize, have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The majority of the samples originated from Ixtepeque, and the remainder from El Chayal. Increasing prominence of the Ixtepeque source from the late Classic into the Terminal Classic (i.e., before and after ca. A.D. 800) suggests greater use of a coastal distribution route known to have originated in the formative and to have remained in use through the colonial period.

  19. Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: international trade and climate change drive ragweed invasion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel S; Makra, László; Albertini, Roberto; Bonini, Maira; Páldy, Anna; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šikoparija, Branko; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Bullock, James M

    2016-09-01

    Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in 1950 accurately reproduced ragweed's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes (transport and release) with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion

  20. The Response of Trade-wind Clouds to a Changing Environment: Why Climate Model Cloud Feedbacks Might Differ from Nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuijens, L.; Medeiros, B.; Sandu, I.; Ahlgrimm, M.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distribution of clouds in the trades, and how this distribution is linked to the thermodynamic structure of the lower troposphere, is emerging as a key factor in the assessment of modeled cloud feedbacks. The spread in cloud feedbacks and climate sensitivity may be attributed to how efficiently models dry the lower troposphere as climate warms. This relates to how models mix moisture vertically, and thus to how their clouds are distributed. A three year record of cloudiness and boundary layer structure from a ground-based remote sensing station at Barbados, situated in a typical trade-wind region, is used to gain insight into the major components of the cloud distribution, and how these vary with changes in atmospheric structure. These insights are then used to evaluate modeled cloud behavior in single time step (half-hourly) output of the ECMWF IFS and CMIP5 models, at a grid point nearby Barbados. Cloudiness is found to be regulated by two components with a different sensitivity to the large-scale flow. Cloud near cloud base is on average the largest contributor to cloudiness, but is relatively constant on time scales much longer than a day. This is because turbulence and cumulus convection adjust fast to perturbations, and self-regulate the cumulus mass flux and cloudiness near cloud base. A secondary component consists mainly of stratiform outflow layers near the detrainment level of cumulus tops, which carry most of the variability on longer time scales. The organization of convection into larger and deeper clusters, which can vertically transport large amounts of moisture, appear key in regulating such outflow layers. Several models fail at reproducing these smaller scale processes that control trade-wind cloudiness in the current climate. The stratiform component in modeled distributions of trade-wind cloudiness is seldom pronounced, and their distributions tend to be bottom-heavy. Whereas observations suggest that changes in clouds are more

  1. Trading-off tolerable risk with climate change adaptation costs in water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Watson, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Choosing secure water resource management plans inevitably requires trade-offs between risks (for a variety of stakeholders), costs, and other impacts. We have previously argued that water resources planning should focus upon metrics of risk of water restrictions, accompanied by extensive simulation and scenario-based exploration of uncertainty. However, the results of optimization subject to risk constraints can be sensitive to the specification of tolerable risk, which may not be precisely or consistently defined by different stakeholders. In this paper, we recast the water resources planning problem as a multiobjective optimization problem to identify least cost schemes that satisfy a set of criteria for tolerable risk, where tolerable risk is defined in terms of the frequency of water use restrictions of different levels of severity. Our proposed method links a very large ensemble of climate model projections to a water resource system model and a multiobjective optimization algorithm to identify a Pareto optimal set of water resource management plans across a 25 years planning period. In a case study application to the London water supply system, we identify water resources management plans that, for a given financial cost, maximize performance with respect to one or more probabilistic criteria. This illustrates trade-offs between financial costs of plans and risk, and between risk criteria for four different severities of water use restrictions. Graphical representation of alternative sequences of investments in the Pareto set helps to identify water management options for which there is a robust case for including them in the plan.

  2. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. PMID:25948614

  3. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. PMID:25948614

  4. Dynamics of obsidian flows inferred from microstructures: insights from microlite preferred orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Jonathan; Manga, Michael; Cashman, Katharine

    2002-05-01

    The flow of obsidian lava leads to crystal alignments that reflect both the accumulated strain and the type of flow across the surface. Microlite preferred orientations are used to investigate the emplacement dynamics, strain history, and structural evolution of Obsidian Dome, eastern California. Measurements of three-dimensional microlite trend and plunge in samples from the near-vent region, distal flow, and flow front show: (1) the flow directions along the dome margins, (2) the deformation style (e.g., pure versus simple shear) at the dome margins, and (3) the variation in strain as a function of position within the flow. Microlites form well-developed lineations in the plane of flow banding in all samples. Stereographic projections indicate that lineations trend normal to the western flow front and plunge shallowly away from the margin. The radial flow pattern indicated by measurements made along the western margin suggests that extrusion was from a roughly elliptical vent. These results highlight a strong correlation between microlite trend and the bulk flow direction inferred from the geometry of the flow. Along most of the eastern periphery, lineations trend parallel to the margin and likely reflect the local flow direction as influenced by compression against the thickening flow crust, marginal talus piles, and topography. Orientation distributions imply that radial spreading accompanied by flattening was the dominant mechanism for flow emplacement. Comparisons of measured orientation distributions with theoretical predictions suggest that microlite fabrics in flow front and near-vent samples developed in a pure shear flow. Microstructures in a sample from near the distal flow base records a component of simple shear. Variance in microlite trend provides a measure of the amount of strain acquired during flow. Standard deviation in trend decreases from the near-vent region to the flow margins, reflecting progressive alignment of microlites during transport

  5. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade (76 FR 44606). Public Hearing: In order to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  6. Chemical analysis of obsidian by a SIMS/EDX combined system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Gallardo, Salvador; Avendaño, Miguel; Ramírez, Georgina; Asomoza, René; Manzanilla, Linda; Beramendi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A recently built combined EDX-SIMS system was used for a quantitative standardless analysis of obsidians. By using the novel scheme of analysis described in the paper, concentrations of 47 elements were measured. The range of concentrations analyzed varied by up to 8 orders of magnitude, from 1015 atoms/cm3 to 1023 atoms/cm3, which cannot be attained by any other analytical method based on electron or X-ray irradiations. The experimentally measured concentrations were compared with the data of XRF analysis: the data proved to differ in less than a factor of two for the majority of elements. The technique we suggest can be used to analyze almost any solid material.

  7. Diffusion-controlled spherulite growth in obsidian inferred from H2O concentration profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jim; Watkins, Jim; Manga, Michael; Huber, Christian; Martin, Michael C.

    2007-11-02

    Spherulites are spherical clusters of radiating crystals that occur naturally in rhyolitic obsidian. The growth of spherulites requires diffusion and uptake of crystal forming components from the host rhyolite melt or glass, and rejection of non-crystal forming components from the crystallizing region. Water concentration profiles measured by synchrotron-source Fourier transform spectroscopy reveal that water is expelled into the surrounding matrix during spherulite growth, and that it diffuses outward ahead of the advancing crystalline front. We compare these profiles to models of water diffusion in rhyolite to estimate timescales for spherulite growth. Using a diffusion-controlled growth law, we find that spherulites can grow on the order of days to months at temperatures above the glass transition. The diffusion-controlled growth law also accounts for spherulite size distribution, spherulite growth below the glass transition, and why spherulitic glasses are not completely devitrified.

  8. Efficacy Trade-Offs in Individuals' Support for Climate Change Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Lynn D.; Saelensminde, Ingrid; Ekström, Frida; Böhm, Gisela; Bostrom, Ann; Hanss, Daniel; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data, the authors developed an architecture of climate change beliefs in Norway and their correlation with support for policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A strong majority of respondents believe that anthropogenic climate change is occurring and identify carbon dioxide emissions as a cause. Regression analysis shows…

  9. Climate change, dermatology and ecosystem services; trends and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Muller, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Climate change is one of the defining issues for human well-being in the 21st century. As several dermatological diseases have a high sensitivity to climate and ecologic change, dermatologists will have an increasingly important role in public health affairs. The International Society of Dermatology's (ISD) establishment of a task force to track the impact of climate change on the incidence of dermatologic conditions is an example of scientific monitoring critical to future interdisciplinary adaptation and decision making to improve human well-being. PMID:21506962

  10. Satellite orbit considerations for a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Suttles, John T.; Buglia, James J.; Taback, Israel

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine satellite orbits for Earth observation missions aimed at obtaining data for assessing global climate change. A multisatellite system is required to meet the scientific requirements for temporal coverage over the globe. The best system consists of four Sun-synchronous satellites equally spaced in local time of equatorial crossing. This system can obtain data every three hours for all regions. Several other satellite systems consisting of combinations of Sun-synchronous orbits and either the Space Station Freedom or a mid-latitude equatorial satellite can provide three to six hour temporal coverage, which is sufficient for measuring many of the parameters required for the global change monitoring mission. Geosynchronous satellites are required to study atmospheric and surface processes involving variations on the order of a few minutes to an hour. Two or more geosynchronous satellites can be relocated in longitude to study processes over selected regions of Earth.

  11. Satellite orbit considerations for a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Suttles, John T.; Buglia, James J.; Taback, Israel

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine satellite orbits for earth observation missions aimed at obtaining data for assessing data global climate change. A multisatellite system is required to meet the scientific requirements for temporal coverage over the globe. The best system consists of four sun-synchronous satellites equally spaced in local time of equatorial crossing. This system can obtain data every three hours for all regions. Several other satellite systems consisting of combinations of sun-synchronous orbits and either the Space Station Freedom or a mid-altitude equatorial satellite can provide three to six hour temporal coverage, which is sufficient for measuring many of the parameters required for the global change monitoring mission. Geosynchronous satellites are required to study atmospheric and surface processes involving variations on the order of a few minutes to an hour. One or two geosynchronous satellites can be relocated in longitude to study processes over selected regions of earth.

  12. Use of Geologic Mapping of the Medicine Lake Volcano in NE California to Constrain Interpretation of Cultural Uses of Rhyolite Obsidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente, J. A.; Johnson, L.; Cassidy, J.; Stevens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recently published geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano in N. California (Donnelly-Nolan, 2010) provides a context for evaluating cultural use of Pleistocene rhyolitic obsidian at the volcano. The mapping identified an area of gravel that forms a small alluvial fan. The alluvial deposit includes abundant obsidian, some as water-worn cobbles, and some as flakes of obsidian. The alluvial fan is located about 3 km south of the nearest outcrop of obsidian, which is mapped as "rhyolite of Grasshopper Flat." This rhyolite unit has been identified over a distance of 30 km on the west side of Medicine Lake volcano as distributed chemically identical outcrops along a north-northeast trend. The aphyric obsidian provided excellent raw material for cultural use by Native Americans, and projectile point styles at nearby sites suggest up to 10,000 years of utilization. Obsidian in the fan deposit includes cobbles and flakes, some of which show definite signs of water transport, to a depth of >0.6 m. In addition to the definite anthropogenic flakes in the deposit, there are also unmodified obsidian pieces. The range of variation in the amount of water wear and other weathering on the obsidian makes it difficult to tell whether some of the flakes are anthropogenic or if they were broken by natural processes. It is also difficult to determine whether some of the definite anthropogenic flakes were created on site, or if all flakes in the deposit were created at a quarry upstream and transported with the other stream material. Lastly, some of the flakes display secondary flaking, perhaps related to recent logging activities or natural processes. The presence of anthropogenic flakes in the alluvium would indicate water transport during Holocene time, since there is little evidence of human occupation prior to the Holocene. Local scatters of clearly anthropogenic flakes are also present outside the stream deposit, indicating that at least some tool-making activity occurred in the

  13. Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

    2009-01-01

    We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

  14. Oceanography. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Curtis; Berelson, William; Thunell, Robert; Weber, Thomas; Tems, Caitlin; McManus, James; Crusius, John; Ito, Taka; Baumgartner, Timothy; Ferreira, Vicente; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ(15)N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ(15)N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ(15)N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean's largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline. PMID:25104384

  15. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Curtis; Berelson, William; Thunell, Robert; Weber, Thomas; Tems, Caitlin; McManus, James; Crusius, John; Ito, Taka; Baumgartner, Timothy; Ferreira, Vicente; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ15N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ15N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ15N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean’s largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline.

  16. Microwave sensing technology issues related to a global change technology architecture trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Thomas G.; Shiue, Jim; Connolly, Denis; Woo, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to enable the development of lighter and less power consuming, high resolution microwave sensors which will operate at frequencies from 1 to 200 GHz. These systems will use large aperture antenna systems (both reflector and phased arrays) capable of wide scan angle, high polarization purity, and utilize sidelobe suppression techniques as required. Essentially, the success of this technology program will enable high resolution microwave radiometers from geostationary orbit, lightweight and more efficient radar systems from low Earth orbit, and eliminate mechanical scanning methods to the fullest extent possible; a main source of platform instability in large space systems. The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) will develop technology which will enable the use of satellite systems for Earth observations on a global scale.

  17. Which came first: the pumice or the obsidian? Complex degassing transitions during the 114ka trachytic Pu'u Wa'aWa'a eruption (Hawaii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J. E.; Shea, T.; Hellebrand, E.

    2012-12-01

    Fragmental obsidian clasts are highly correlated with coeval pumice in eruptions that produce obsidian (e.g., Lipari, Aeolian Islands; Little Glass Mountain, California; Mono-Inyo chain, California; Taupo, New Zealand), implying that at least some magma is able to degas quiescently prior to or during the explosive stage of an eruption. However, gross stratigraphic relationships reveal a consistent pattern of explosive activity transitioning to effusive activity (e.g., obsidian flows), suggesting subsurface stratification of magmatic volatiles. A prevailing conceptual model of obsidian formation reconciles these observations through (1) formation of dense glassy material by collapse of vesicles in bubbly magma, occuring in the shallow conduit or at the surface, (2) subsequent ascent of gas-rich magma and fragmentation/assimilation of the previously-emplaced obsidian clasts, followed by (3) transition to dominantly effusive eruptive activity. The Pu'u Wa'aWa'a trachytic pumice cone is unique feature in the Hawaii island volcanic landscape, otherwise dominated by basaltic lava. Around 114 ka, a pulsating explosive eruption at Hualalai Volcano expelled trachytic pumice, forming a ~150-200 m high cone. This phase was immediately followed by the outpouring of a large trachyte flow (the most voluminous silicic lava flow identified in Hawaii ~5 km3), identical in bulk composition to the pumice. The tephra deposits of the cone contain abundant obsidian clasts, as well as pyroclasts bearing striking gradual textural transitions and discretely banded pumiceous, scoriaceous and aphanitic material. The intricate variations in glass H2O contents (measured by microRaman), microlite and vesicle abundances (textural analysis), along with the chemical traits (EMPA) displayed by glasses from the diverse textural end-members suggest a complex ascent and eruption history. We test three hypotheses: (a) the obsidian clasts formed during ascent, stalling and outgassing of the magma (i

  18. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  19. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Igneous Rocks: Lessons From Obsidians and Pyroclastic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon-Tapia, E.

    2013-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of igneous rocks differs from that of other lithologies in several aspects that are related to their characteristics of emplacement history. Nevertheless, within the group of igneous rocks there are also differences on emplacement mechanisms that can lead to specific and distinctive AMS signatures. In this work, a review of the most important emplacement regimes is made, paying special attention to the extreme conditions represented by obsidians and pyroclastic deposits. These two extreme emplacement regimes are controlled mainly by the viscosity of the fluid phase, but the differences in AMS signatures also includes other differences in the nature of the ferromagnetic grains that are present in the rocks during emplacement. For example, the results of this work indicate that the AMS can be associated to a population of ferromagnetic minerals of a submicroscopic size, despite of which it can be very well defined and yield large degrees of anisotropy. It is suggested that the AMS associated to such population of small grains might indeed be the origin of the AMS of other igneous rocks that have an optically observable fraction of mineral grains, although until present it had been overlooked in most instances. As it had been suggested before, use of tests designed to identify the contribution of a superparamagnetic fraction (SP) in the magnetic properties of a rock can help us to identify the presence of such a SP-related AMS in other cases.

  20. Obsidians and tektites: Natural analogues for water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Stevenson, C.M.

    1991-11-01

    Projected scenarios for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository include significant periods of time when high relative humidity atmospheres will be present, thus the reaction processes of interest will include those known to occur under these conditions. The ideal natural analog for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would consist of natural borosilicate glasses exposed to expected repository conditions for thousands of years; however, the prospects for identifying such an analog are remote, but an important caveat for using natural analog studies is to relate the reaction processes in the analog to those in the system of interest, rather than a strict comparison of the glass compositions. In lieu of this, identifying natural glasses that have reacted via reaction processes expected in the repository is the most attractive option. The goal of this study is to quantify molecular water diffusion in the natural analogs obsidian and tektites. Results from this study can be used in assessing the importance of factors affecting molecular water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses, relative to other identified reaction processes. In this way, a better understanding of the long-term reaction mechanism can be developed and incorporated into performance assessment models. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Low-temperature isotopic exchange in obsidian: Implications for diffusive mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Cole, David R; Riciputi, Lee R

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the interaction between water and rhyolitic glasses and melts at temperatures above the glass transition, the nature of this interaction at lower temperatures is much more poorly understood. This paper presents the results of a series of isotopic exchange experiments aimed at further elucidating this process and determining the extent to which a point-by-point analysis of the D/H or 18O/18O isotopic composition across the hydrated rim on a geological or archaeological obsidian sample can be used as a paleoclimatic monitor. Experiments were performed by first hydrating the glass for 5 days in water of one isotopic composition, followed by 5 days in water of a second composition. Because waters of near end-member compositions were used (nearly pure 1H2 16O, 1H2 18O, and D2 16O), the relative migration of each species could be ascertained easily by depth-profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Results suggest that, during hydration, both the isotopic composition of the waters of hydration, as well as that of intrinsic water remaining from the initial formation of the glass vary dramatically, and a point-by-point analysis leading to paleoclimatic reconstruction is not feasible.

  2. Magnetic petrofabric of igneous rocks: Lessons from pyroclastic density current deposits and obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, E.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of igneous rocks can provide clues concerning their mechanism of formation and in particular are very helpful as flow direction indicators. Unlike other igneous rocks, however, pyroclastic density current deposits (PDCDs) present a challenge in the interpretation of AMS measurements due to the complexity of their mechanism of emplacement. In this paper we review the most common assumptions made in the interpretation of the AMS of PDCD, taking advantage of key lessons obtained from obsidians. Despite the complexities on the mechanism of formation of PDCDs, it is shown that a key element for the fruitful interpretation of AMS is to give proper attention to the various components likely to be involved in controlling their general petrofabric. The anisotropies of ferromagnetic crystals (whether as free phases or embedded within clasts or shards), and those of paramagnetic minerals (mainly ferrosilicates) need to be taken into consideration when interpreting the AMS measurements of PDCDs. Variations of the deposition regime both as a function of position and of time also need to be considered on the interpretations. Nevertheless, if a suitable sampling strategy is adopted, the potential of the AMS method as a petrofabric indicator is maximized.

  3. Low-Temperature Isotopic Exchange in Obsidian: Implications for Diffusive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Cole, David R; Riciputi, Lee R

    2009-01-01

    While a great deal is known about the interaction between water and rhyolitic glasses and melts at temperatures above the glass transition, the nature of this interaction at lower temperatures is much more poorly understood. This paper presents the results of a series of isotopic exchange experiments aimed at further elucidating this process and determining the extent to which a point-by-point analysis of the D/H or 18O/18O isotopic composition across the hydrated rim on a geological or archaeological obsidian sample can be used as a paleoclimatic monitor. Experiments were performed by first hydrating the glass for five days in water of one isotopic composition, followed by five days in water of a second composition. Because waters of near end-member compositions were used (nearly pure 1H2 16O, 1H2 18O, and D2 16O), the relative migration of each species could be ascertained easily by depth-profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Results suggest that, during hydration, both the isotopic composition of the waters of hydration, as well as that of intrinsic water remaining from the initial formation of the glass vary dramatically, and a point-by-point analysis leading to paleoclimatic reconstruction is not feasible.

  4. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  5. History of Virtual Water , International Trade and Economic Metabolism at the Time Colonialism and a First Attempt to Assess Their Impact on Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, F.

    2008-12-01

    This research considers the historical impact of virtual water into the geophysical arena by considering it as a human-led phenomenon that impacts the hydrologic system and, consequently, the environment as a whole. This paper is in line with the idea of including the humans into the water-balance model, and it is deepening the idea that this has to be done not only at the light of each watershed, but globally, looking at the role of water-trade embedded in food and tradable goods. Starting from a definition of what virtual water is, this research explores the role of crops export in the early U.S. Colonial time. As early as 1630 a huge biomass from here was already exported to the UK (the fur trade). In 1700 the tobacco export started, along with cereals exports and timber. An entire ecosystem has been "exported" in terms of water-embedded-in-goods. This was the beginning of a massive depletion of bio-mass stocks and flows, a raise in nitrogen discharge into the environment and its impact on the hydrological systems ( CUAHSI Summer Institute findings). Immigration and its effects on the water balance is also considered in this work. The experiment of interdisciplinary work of CUAHSI Summer Institute 2008 has proven that there is space for a historical reconstruction of evidence of human-led changes to the hydrological systems. This has been possible through the analysis of material stocks and flows, water-balance analysis of these stocks and flows, including human-led changes like international trade and population growth. This proposal will argue that these changes can also be identified by the term of 'socio- economic metabolism', in which societies are trading their goods internationally but taking the primary resources, including water, locally. This work will put the basis for the history of virtual water and its implications on both socio-economic metabolism and local geophysical changes.

  6. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jambon, A.; Zhang, Y.; Stolper, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures.

  7. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2014-10-16

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this paper, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55–85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Finally, independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures.

  8. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2014-10-16

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this paper, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversitymore » in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55–85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Finally, independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures.« less

  9. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents.

    PubMed

    Jambon, A; Zhang, Y; Stolper, E M

    1992-01-01

    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures. PMID:11537205

  10. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (<65 °C) temperatures while highly active cellulolytic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor were dominant at high (>65 °C) temperatures. PMID:25319238

  11. Safeguarding and Creating Jobs Is a Sign of Social Responsibility. Changing Trade Unions and Management in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horstkotte, Hermann

    1998-01-01

    As in many other industrialized countries, advances in computer technology are transforming Germany's industrial society into an information and services society. Increasingly fewer jobs are available in traditional industries and in the public sector. In the 1990s, Germany's trade unions and employers' associations have experienced steady…

  12. Provenance analysis of obsidian artifacts from the northern ridge of Lake Atitlan in the Guatemalan southern highlands

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Woodward, M.R.; Bruchez, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The use of chemical composition of archaeological obsidian artifacts to study ancient cultures has become widespread over the last two decades. The focus of this paper is the correlation of artifacts collected from surface surveys of a region just to the north of Lake Atitlan in the southern Guatemalan highlands to known source outcroppings. The obsidian experiments are one facet of a larger project that seeks to develop evidence of ritual behavior among the inhabitants of the original Cakchiquel kingdom on the lake shores. These rituals are said to have provided the order of their social organization. Specific goals of the study include the development of a chronological sequence from Preclassic Maya (2000 B.C. to A.D. 200) to the Spanish colonial period. Supporting goals involve developing a preliminary view of site organization based on the distribution of features and cultural items, definition of particular activities from functional assessment of the site organization, and determination of occupational information. The results of these studies are expected to be a starting point for understanding the process of sociocultural evolution in the area.

  13. The effect of glass composition on the experimental hydration of obsidian between 110 and 230{degree}C

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Stevenson, C.M.; Bradley, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    Chemically characterized high-silica natural glasses were reacted in water vapor atmospheres at 100% relative humidity at temperatures between 110 and 230{degrees}C for up to 400 days. Birefringent hydration layers formed on the glass surfaces and increased in thickness as a function of the square root of time for all glasses, under all experimental conditions, a dependence consistent with a molecular water diffusion reaction mechanism. AEM, SIMS, FTIR and optical microscopy analyses of the birefringent hydration layers further support a molecular water diffusion reaction mechanism. The rate of hydration and its temperature dependence can be quantitatively related to the logarithm of the intrinsic water content of the unreacted glass. This quantification of the process permits estimates of water diffusion coefficients in rhyolitic glasses as a function of temperature and is statistically more precise than previously proposed indices for predicting water diffusion in obsidian. These results may allow obsidian hydration dating to gain more widespread acceptance as an absolute dating technique.

  14. Crystal-poor, multiply saturated rhyolites (obsidians) from the Cascade and Mexican arcs: evidence of degassing-induced crystallization of phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Laura E.; Lange, Rebecca A.

    2013-09-01

    A detailed petrological study is presented for six phenocryst-poor obsidian samples (73-75 wt% SiO2) erupted as small volume, monogenetic domes in the Mexican and Cascade arcs. Despite low phenocryst (+microphenocryst) abundances (2-6 %), these rhyolites are each multiply saturated with five to eight mineral phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + apatite ± zircon ± hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± sanidine ± pyrrhotite). Plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (identified using phase-equilibrium constraints) span ≤30 mol % An and ≤15 % Mg#, respectively. Eruptive temperatures (±1 σ), on the basis of Fe-Ti two oxide thermometry, range from 779 (±25) to 940 (±18) °C. Oxygen fugacities (±1 σ) range from -0.4 to 1.4 (±0.1) log units relative to those along the Ni-NiO buffer. With temperature known, the plagioclase-liquid hygrometer was applied; maximum water concentrations calculated for the most calcic plagioclase phenocryst in each sample range from 2.6 to 6.5 wt%. This requires that the rhyolites were fluid-saturated at depths ≥2-7 km. It is proposed that the wide compositional range in plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, despite their low abundance, can be attributed to changing melt water concentrations owing to degassing during magma ascent. Phase-equilibrium experiments from the literature show that higher dissolved water concentrations lead to more Fe-rich orthopyroxene, as well as more calcic plagioclase. Loss of dissolved water leads to a progressive increase in melt viscosity, and phenocrysts often display diffusion-limited growth textures (e.g., dendritic and vermiform), consistent with large undercoolings caused by degassing. A kinetic barrier to microlite crystallization occurred at viscosities from 4.5 to 5.0 log10 Pa s for these rhyolites, presumably because the rate at which melt viscosity changed was high owing to rapid loss of dissolved water during magma ascent.

  15. From pumice to obsidian: eruptive behaviors that produce tephra-flow dyads. I- The AD1100 Big Glass Mountain eruption at Medicine Lake Volcano (California).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetti, T.; Shea, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Associations of tephra and lava flow/domes produced by eruptions involving evolved magmas are a common occurrence in various types of volcanic settings (e.g. Pu'u Wa'awa'a ~114ka, Hawaii; South Mono ~AD625, California; Newberry Big Obsidian flow ~AD700, Oregon; Big Glass Mountain ~AD1100, California; Inyo ~AD1350, California, Chaitén AD2008-2009, Chile; Cordón Caulle AD2011-2012, Chile), ejecting up to a few cubic km of material (tephra+flow/dome). Most, if not all, of these eruptions have in common the paradoxical coexistence of (1) eruptive styles which are inferred to be sustained in nature (subplinian and plinian), with (2) a pulsatory behavior displayed by the resulting fall deposits, and (3) the coeval ejection of vesicular tephra and pyroclastic obsidian. Through two case studies, we explore this apparent set of paradoxes, and their significance in understanding transitions from explosive to effusive behavior. In this first case study (also cf. Leonhardi et al., same session), we present a new detailed stratigraphy of the AD1100 Big Glass Mountain eruption (Medicine Lake Volcano), along with a series of density measurements of tephra collected from several key units identified in the proximal fall deposits. The geochemical character of pumice and obsidian clasts from both the tephra and the obsidian flow is used to trace the origins of the different lithologies involved. We find that tens of waxing and waning cycles occurred during this eruption with at least two protracted phases, and that perhaps the term (sub)plinian may not be completely adequate to describe this particular eruption style. We also review models for the formation of juvenile pyroclastic obsidian in the context of rhyolitic eruptions.

  16. Life cycle assessment of integrated municipal solid waste management systems, taking account of climate change and landfill shortage trade-off problems.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Hishinuma, Tatsuo; Ihara, Tomohiko; Genchi, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    Steps taken to counter the climate change problem have a significant impact on the municipal solid waste management (MSW) sector, which must tackle regional environmental problems such as the shortage of sanitary landfills, especially in Japan. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions and final disposal have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, alleviation of both these environmental problems is difficult, and Japanese local municipalities are anxious for action to solve these problems and reduce treatment costs. Although ambitious waste management measures have been enacted in many countries, they appear to lack a holistic view and do not adopt a life cycle approach. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct the MSW management system, taking into account environmental and economic aspects. In the present study, life cycle assessment and mathematical modelling were used to seek ways of redesigning the MSW management system in order to minimize environmental impacts and/or reduce treatment costs. One economic block was selected as the study area (Iwate Prefecture in Japan). The life cycle inventory and costs data for every MSW transportation and treatment process in this region were collected and processed. Then, taking account of geographic information, an optimal solution for the minimization of environmental impact or treatment costs was derived. To solve the trade-off problem, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to find optimal reduction targets for climate change and final disposal. PMID:20699290

  17. Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard Victor

    Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

  18. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  19. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  20. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss an economic model for comprehensive carbon management that focuses on changes in carbon flux in the biosphere due to anthropogenic activity. The two unique features of the model include: 1. A shift in emphasis from primarily carbon emissions, toward changes in carbon flux, mainly carbon extraction, and 2. A carbon price vector (CPV) to express the value of changes in carbon flux, measured in changes in carbon sequestration, or carbon residence time. The key focus with the economic model is the degree to which carbon flux changes due to anthropogenic activity. The economic model has three steps: 1. The CPV metric is used to value all forms of carbon associated with any anthropogenic activity. In this paper, the CPV used is a logarithmic chronological scale to gauge expected carbon residence (or sequestration) time. In future economic models, the CPV may be expanded to include other factors to value carbon. 2. Whenever carbon changes form (and CPV) due to anthropogenic activity, a carbon toll is assessed as determined by the change in the CPV. The standard monetary unit for carbon tolls are carbon toll units, or CTUs. The CTUs multiplied by the quantity of carbon converted (QCC) provides the total carbon toll, or CT. For example, CT = (CTU /mole carbon) x (QCC moles carbon). 3. Whenever embodied carbon (EC) attributable to a good or service moves via trade to a jurisdiction with a different CPV metric, a carbon toll (CT) is assessed representing the CPV difference between the two jurisdictions. This economic model has three clear advantages. First, the carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum

  1. Trading places: Real Choice Systems Change grants and the movement to community-based long-term care supports.

    PubMed

    Shirk, Cynthia

    2007-05-30

    The Real Choice Systems Change grant program was created to help states transform their long-term care service systems from ones that rely on institutions to ones that are more community-based. The grants are intended to help states develop the infrastructure needed for seniors and individuals with disabilities to live in integrated community settings. This issue brief provides information about Systems Change grants and the kinds of activities state Medicaid agencies have undertaken to transform their institutionally based systems. In addition, this paper reports on some of the qualitative and quantitative responses to the changes. This brief also raises critical policy questions related to public spending for long-term care in different settings that might be considered in tandem with future grant funding decisions. PMID:17542106

  2. Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Gibson, Robert A; Green, Stefan J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Shields, John P; Damsté, Jaap S S; Elkins, James G

    2013-03-01

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15(T) was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70-90 °C and an optimum of 83 °C. Optimal pH was around 6.5-7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15(T) was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15(T) representing the type strain. PMID:23345010

  3. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Elkins, James G; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Keller, Martin; Carroll, Sue L; Allman, Steve L; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  4. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2010-02-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47(T), was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 microm long by 0.2 microm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85 degrees C, with the optimum at 78 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h(-1). The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47(T) was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47(T) within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073). PMID:20023107

  5. Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Gibson, Robert A.; Green, Stefan J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Shields, John P.; Damsté, Jaap S. S.; Elkins, James G.

    2013-01-24

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15T was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70 90 C and an optimum of 83 C. Optimal pH was around 6.5 7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15T was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15T representing the type strain.

  6. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an Anaerobic, Extremely Thermophilic, Cellulolytic Bacterium Isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park▿

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 μm long by 0.2 μm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85°C, with the optimum at 78°C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h−1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073). PMID:20023107

  7. Valuing the recreational benefits of wetland adaptation to climate change: a trade-off between species' abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Faccioli, Michela; Riera Font, Antoni; Torres Figuerola, Catalina M

    2015-03-01

    Climate change will further exacerbate wetland deterioration, especially in the Mediterranean region. On the one side, it will accelerate the decline in the populations and species of plants and animals, this resulting in an impoverishment of biological abundance. On the other one, it will also promote biotic homogenization, resulting in a loss of species' diversity. In this context, different climate change adaptation policies can be designed: those oriented to recovering species' abundance and those aimed at restoring species' diversity. Based on the awareness that knowledge about visitors' preferences is crucial to better inform policy makers and secure wetlands' public use and conservation, this paper assesses the recreational benefits of different adaptation options through a choice experiment study carried out in S'Albufera wetland (Mallorca). Results show that visitors display positive preferences for an increase in both species' abundance and diversity, although they assign a higher value to the latter, thus suggesting a higher social acceptability of policies pursuing wetlands' differentiation. This finding acquires special relevance not only for adaptation management in wetlands but also for tourism planning, as most visitors to S'Albufera are tourists. Thus, given the growing competition to attract visitors and the increasing demand for high environmental quality and unique experiences, promoting wetlands' differentiation could be a good strategy to gain competitive advantage over other wetland areas and tourism destinations. PMID:25472830

  8. Valuing the Recreational Benefits of Wetland Adaptation to Climate Change: A Trade-off Between Species' Abundance and Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccioli, Michela; Riera Font, Antoni; Torres Figuerola, Catalina M.

    2015-03-01

    Climate change will further exacerbate wetland deterioration, especially in the Mediterranean region. On the one side, it will accelerate the decline in the populations and species of plants and animals, this resulting in an impoverishment of biological abundance. On the other one, it will also promote biotic homogenization, resulting in a loss of species' diversity. In this context, different climate change adaptation policies can be designed: those oriented to recovering species' abundance and those aimed at restoring species' diversity. Based on the awareness that knowledge about visitors' preferences is crucial to better inform policy makers and secure wetlands' public use and conservation, this paper assesses the recreational benefits of different adaptation options through a choice experiment study carried out in S'Albufera wetland (Mallorca). Results show that visitors display positive preferences for an increase in both species' abundance and diversity, although they assign a higher value to the latter, thus suggesting a higher social acceptability of policies pursuing wetlands' differentiation. This finding acquires special relevance not only for adaptation management in wetlands but also for tourism planning, as most visitors to S'Albufera are tourists. Thus, given the growing competition to attract visitors and the increasing demand for high environmental quality and unique experiences, promoting wetlands' differentiation could be a good strategy to gain competitive advantage over other wetland areas and tourism destinations.

  9. Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

    2010-01-01

    Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

  10. Substituting HCFC-22 for HFC-410A: an environmental impact trade-off between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Fang, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    After the phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as ozone-depleting substances pursuant to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are worldwide used as substitutes although the bulk of them are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, the alternation may bring side effect on global climate change. The trade-off of its environmental impacts between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes necessitates a quantification of the past and future consumption and emissions of both the original HCFCs and their alternative HFCs. Now a dilemma arise in China's RAC industry that HCFC-22, which has an ozone-depleting potential (ODP) of 0.055, has been replaced by HFC-410A, which is a blended potent GHG from respective 50% HFC-32 and HFC-125 with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1923.5. Here, we present our results of estimates of consumption and emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from 1994 to 2050. Historic emissions of HCFC-22 contributed to global total HCFCs by 4.0% (3.0%-5.6%) ODP-weighted. Projection under a baseline scenario shows future accumulative emissions of HFC-410A make up 5.9%-11.0% of global GWP-weighted HFCs emissions, and its annual contribution to national overall CO2 emissions can be 5.5% in 2050. This makes HCFC-22 and HFC-410A emissions of significant importance in ozone depletion and climate change regimes. Two mitigation scenarios were set to assess the mitigation performance under the North America Proposal and an accelerated schedule. In practice of international environmental agreement, "alternative to alternative" should be developed to avoid regrettable alternations.

  11. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  12. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Operational Aspects: Nancy Mondich, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6524. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202..., (77 FR 29519), modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') as set...

  13. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Sprungle, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6517. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, ] Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6532. Legal... Proclamation 8783, CBP published on March 19, 2012, CBP Dec. 12-03 in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  14. The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gallotti, Rosalia; Mussi, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    The Oldowan Industrial Complex has long been thought to have been static, with limited internal variability, embracing techno-complexes essentially focused on small-to-medium flake production. The flakes were rarely modified by retouch to produce small tools, which do not show any standardized pattern. Usually, the manufacture of small standardized tools has been interpreted as a more complex behavior emerging with the Acheulean technology. Here we report on the ~1.7 Ma Oldowan assemblages from Garba IVE-F at Melka Kunture in the Ethiopian highland. This industry is structured by technical criteria shared by the other East African Oldowan assemblages. However, there is also evidence of a specific technical process never recorded before, i.e. the systematic production of standardized small pointed tools strictly linked to the obsidian exploitation. Standardization and raw material selection in the manufacture of small tools disappear at Melka Kunture during the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean. This proves that 1) the emergence of a certain degree of standardization in tool-kits does not reflect in itself a major step in cultural evolution; and that 2) the Oldowan knappers, when driven by functional needs and supported by a highly suitable raw material, were occasionally able to develop specific technical solutions. The small tool production at ~1.7 Ma, at a time when the Acheulean was already emerging elsewhere in East Africa, adds to the growing amount of evidence of Oldowan techno-economic variability and flexibility, further challenging the view that early stone knapping was static over hundreds of thousands of years. PMID:26690569

  15. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community. PMID:24004454

  16. The Unknown Oldowan: ~1.7-Million-Year-Old Standardized Obsidian Small Tools from Garba IV, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Oldowan Industrial Complex has long been thought to have been static, with limited internal variability, embracing techno-complexes essentially focused on small-to-medium flake production. The flakes were rarely modified by retouch to produce small tools, which do not show any standardized pattern. Usually, the manufacture of small standardized tools has been interpreted as a more complex behavior emerging with the Acheulean technology. Here we report on the ~1.7 Ma Oldowan assemblages from Garba IVE-F at Melka Kunture in the Ethiopian highland. This industry is structured by technical criteria shared by the other East African Oldowan assemblages. However, there is also evidence of a specific technical process never recorded before, i.e. the systematic production of standardized small pointed tools strictly linked to the obsidian exploitation. Standardization and raw material selection in the manufacture of small tools disappear at Melka Kunture during the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean. This proves that 1) the emergence of a certain degree of standardization in tool-kits does not reflect in itself a major step in cultural evolution; and that 2) the Oldowan knappers, when driven by functional needs and supported by a highly suitable raw material, were occasionally able to develop specific technical solutions. The small tool production at ~1.7 Ma, at a time when the Acheulean was already emerging elsewhere in East Africa, adds to the growing amount of evidence of Oldowan techno-economic variability and flexibility, further challenging the view that early stone knapping was static over hundreds of thousands of years. PMID:26690569

  17. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  18. Trading Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Golden Apple Teacher Education (GATE), which began as a partnership between the nonprofit Golden Apple Foundation and Northwestern University and later expanded to other Chicago-area university sites, provides an accelerated path for career-changing professionals to become teachers in Chicago schools. Such programs, which have multiplied…

  19. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  20. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid. PMID:23004827

  1. Analysis of Heterogeneity in CO2, H2O and OH in Centimeter-Sized Obsidian Pyroclasts from Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, G. D.; Watkins, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. The concentrations of CO2, H2O and OH in obsidian pyroclasts provide information on magma storage depths while gradients in these volatile species provide information on rates and mechanisms of gas loss (or gain) in magma during ascent. We are measuring CO2, H2O and OH profiles and area maps in six randomly selected pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California using conventional Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Previous studies of these pyroclasts have focused on spot analyses of volatile concentrations within clast interiors, but our study targets clast rims, bubbles, flow bands, and texturally homogeneous regions of the clasts. The objective is to use the magnitude and spatial distribution of heterogeneities to assess the role of vapor fluxing and to determine timescales of magmatic processes such as bubble growth/resorption and mixing of magma from variable depths. The first clast that we have analyzed is relatively homogeneous in dissolved H2O and OH but exhibits millimeter-scale heterogeneities in dissolved CO2. The concentration of dissolved CO2 varies by a factor of two, ranging from 15 to 30 ppm with a patchy distribution throughout the clast. The patches of high CO2 concentration do not correspond to visible textures within the clast. Total water (H2Ot) varies from 1.5 to 1.7 wt% with higher water concentrations corresponding to darker regions of glass. The distribution of CO2 requires a mechanism for introducing millimeter-scale heterogeneity within minutes to hours prior to the eruption. Our interpretation is that obsidian pyroclasts are assembled during chaotic vertical mixing and thus sample a range of depths within the feeder system. This interpretation is consistent with previous inferences that resorption of bubbles within pyroclasts is caused by repeated

  2. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: geochemical and mineralogical data from drill-core samples at Obsidian dome, Inyo chain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.; Schuraytz, B.C.

    1987-05-01

    Systematic chemical and mineralogical variability occurs in samples from drill holes through Obsidian dome, the conduit to the dome, and a nearby associated feeder dike. The drill-hole samples from the margins of the conduit and most of the lower part of the dome are high-Ba, low-silica rhyolites; they contain two populations of phenocrysts and represent commingled magmas, whereas samples from the dike and upper parts of the dome are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that do not reflect commingled magmas. Samples from the center of the conduit are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that are only slightly mixed. A major part of the variability within the drill-core samples of the dome and conduit reflects the juxtaposition and commingling of two distinct magmas during their passage through the conduit.

  3. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Outterson, M Kevin

    2004-09-01

    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices. PMID:15347274

  4. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

  5. The Obsidian Creep Project: Seismic Imaging in the Brawley Seismic Zone and Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Lohman, R. B.; McGuire, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    the south, which broke the surface during a local swarm of earthquakes in 2005 and which also slipped at the surface in association with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Baja California. The faults imaged in our profiles will be compared to high-precision earthquake relocations for the 2005 earthquake swarm and more recent events recorded by the Cal Energy borehole seismic network, and will be used as input into a reanalysis of geodetic observations spanning the 2005 earthquake swarm. The combined Obsidian Creep data set provides the most detailed, publicly available subsurface images of fault structures in the BSZ and SSGF.

  6. Rates of water exsolution and magma ascent inferred from microstructures and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa obsidian lava, Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyohei; Wada, Keiji; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-02-01

    Very few quantitative textural data exist for viscous obsidian lava eruptions, and it is still unclear from the mechanical behavior of ascending magmas if outgassing is controlled dominantly by brittle or ductile deformation. In order to obtain insights into how degassing and ascent proceed in such highly viscous magmas, we conducted textural and chemical analyses of the Tokachi-Ishizawa (TI) obsidian lava, in the Shirataki rhyolite volcanic area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, and estimated the water exsolution rate and ascent rate. The storage conditions of the TI lava are estimated from the Rhyolite-MELTS program as T = 840-860 °C and P = 50 MPa using the mineral assemblages and the chemical compositions of plagioclase phenocrysts and glass. To estimate the magma ascent rate, we measured the length, width, and number of oxide microlites using three-dimensional techniques. Textural analysis indicates that the microlite number densities (Nv [number/m3]) of oxide microlites in TI lava samples are 2.1 × 1013 to 1.4 × 1014, which correspond to water exsolution rates of 3.5 × 10- 9 to 1.7 × 10- 8 wt.%/s and ascent rates of 1.7 × 10- 6 to 1.1 × 10- 5 m/s. Together with an estimate of viscosity, the inferred ascent velocities allow us to examine the mechanical behavior of the magma in the conduit. We conclude that the development of permeability leading to outgassing is controlled by ductile deformation rather than brittle fracturing.

  7. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Textile Operational Aspects: Nancy Mondich, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6524. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, Office..., CBP published CBP Dec. 11-22 in the Federal Register (76 FR 68067) setting forth interim amendments...

  8. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Textile Operational Aspects: Nancy Mondich, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6524. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4105), modified the...

  9. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Textile Operational Aspects: Jacqueline Sprungle, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202) 863-6517. Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, Office... Register (77 FR 59064) setting forth interim amendments to implement the preferential tariff treatment...

  10. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    De Gasperin, Ornela; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality) versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites), and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents. PMID:26985819

  11. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  12. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management. PMID:16922242

  13. Trade-off between number of conductance states and variability of conductance change in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3-based synapse device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daeseok; Moon, Kibong; Park, Jaesung; Park, Sangsu; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2015-03-01

    The characteristics of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)-based resistive change memory were evaluated as a synapse device for a emerging computing system inspired by a biological brain. The evaluated samples structured with various reactive top electrodes exhibited a dependence on the metal-oxide free energy. More conductance states which can improve the performance of the brain-inspired computing system were achieved in a sample having a low metal-oxide free energy. During the increase and decrease in the conductance, the low metal-oxide free energy also resulted in an asymmetric conductance change leading to degradation in the computational accuracy of the brain-inspired computing system. The results demonstrated a trade-off between the number of conductance states and the variation in the conductance change in the PCMO-based synapse device.

  14. Virtual water flows and trade liberalization.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Vallejo, J; Rogers, P

    2004-01-01

    The linkages between agricultural trade and water resources need to be identified and analyzed to better understand the potential impacts that a full liberalization, or lack thereof, will have on water resources. This paper examines trade of virtual water embodied in agricultural products for most countries of the world. The main purpose of the paper, however, is to examine the impact of trade liberalization on virtual-water trade in the future. Based on a simulation of global agricultural trade, a scenario of full liberalization of agriculture was used to assess the net effect of virtual water flows from the relocation of meat and cereals' trade. The paper also identifies the main reasons behind the changes in the magnitude and direction of the net virtual water trade over time, and shows that virtual water trade flows are independent of water resource endowments, contrary to what the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem states. Finally, based on a formal model, some input demand functions at the country level are estimated. The estimates of the income and agricultural support elasticities of demand for import of virtual water have the expected sign, and are statistically significant. Variables found to have some explanatory power of the variance of virtual water imports are average income; population; agriculture as value added; irrigated area, and exports of goods and services. PMID:15195413

  15. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  16. The International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

  17. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations. PMID:24475533

  18. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  19. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  20. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  1. Textural characterization, major and volatile element quantification and Ar-Ar systematics of spherulites in the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow, Lipari, Aeolian Islands: a temperature continuum growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, P. L.; O'Driscoll, B.; Gertisser, R.; Busemann, H.; Sherlock, S. C.; Kelley, S. P.

    2013-02-01

    Spherulitic textures in the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow (Lipari, Aeolian Islands, Italy) have been characterized through petrographic, crystal size distribution (CSD) and in situ major and volatile elemental analyses to assess the mode, temperature and timescales of spherulite formation. Bulk glass chemistry and spherulite chemistry analyzed along transects across the spherulite growth front/glass boundary reveal major-oxide and volatile (H2O, CO2, F, Cl and S) chemical variations and heterogeneities at a ≤5 μm scale. Numerous bulk volatile data in non-vesicular glass (spatially removed from spherulitic textures) reveal homogenous distributions of volatile concentrations: H2O (0.089 ± 0.012 wt%), F (950 ± 40 ppm) and Cl (4,100 ± 330 ppm), with CO2 and S consistently below detection limits suggesting either complete degassing of these volatiles or an originally volatile-poor melt. Volatile concentrations across the spherulite boundary and within the spherulitic textures are highly variable. These observations are consistent with diffusive expulsion of volatiles into melt, leaving a volatile-poor rim advancing ahead of anhydrous crystallite growth, which is envisaged to have had a pronounced effect on spherulite crystallization dynamics. Argon concentrations dissolved in the glass and spherulites differ by a factor of ~20, with Ar sequestered preferentially in the glass phase. Petrographic observation, CSD analysis, volatile and Ar data as well as diffusion modeling support continuous spherulite nucleation and growth starting at magmatic (emplacement) temperatures of ~790-825 °C and progressing through the glass transition temperature range ( T g ~ 750-620 °C), being further modified in the solid state. We propose that nucleation and growth rate are isothermally constant, but vary between differing stages of spherulite growth with continued cooling from magmatic temperatures, such that there is an evolution from a high to a low rate of crystallization and low

  2. A Simple Model for the Viscosity of Rhyolites as a Function of Temperature, Pressure and Water Content: Implications for Obsidian Flow Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, A. G.; Romine, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of rhyolitic conduits and lava flows, requires precise knowledge of how viscosity (η) varies with temperature (T), pressure (P) and volatile content (X). In order to address the paucity of viscosity data for high-silica rhyolite at low water contents, which represent water saturation at near-surface conditions, we made 245 viscosity measurements on Mono Craters (California) rhyolites containing between 0.01 and 1.1 wt.% H2O, at temperatures between 796 and 1774 K using parallel plate and concentric cylinder methods at atmospheric pressure. We then developed and calibrated a new empirical model for the log of the viscosity of rhyolitic melts, where non-linear variations due to temperature and water content are nested within a linear dependence of log η on P. The model was fitted to a total of 563 data points: our 245 new data, 255 published data from rhyolites across a wide P-T-X space, and 63 data on haplogranitic and granitic melts under high P-T conditions. Statistically insignificant parameters were eliminated from the model in an effort to increase parsimony and the final model is simple enough for use in numerical models of conduit or lava flow dynamics: log η = -5.142+(13080-2982log⁡(w+0.229))/(T-(98.9-175.9 log⁡(w+0.229)))- P(0.0007-0.76/T ) where η is in Pa s, w is water content in wt.%, P is in MPa and T is in K. The root mean square deviation (rmsd) between the model predictions and the 563 data points used in calibration is 0.39 log units. Experimental constraints have led previously to spurious correlations between P, T, X and η in viscosity data sets, so that predictive models may struggle to correctly resolve the individual effects of P, T and X, and especially their cross-correlations. The increasing water solubility with depth inside a simple isothermal sheet of obsidian suggests that viscosity should decrease by ~1 order of magnitude at ~20m depth and by ~2 orders of magnitude at ~100m depth. If equilibrium water

  3. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  5. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups. PMID:11193639

  6. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  7. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  8. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  9. History and geography of virtual water trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2012-12-01

    The global trade of goods is associated with a virtual transfer of the water required for their production. The way changes in trade affect the virtual redistribution of freshwater resources has been recently documented through the analysis of the virtual water network. It is, however, unclear how these changes are contributed by different types of products and regions of the world. Here we show how the global patterns of virtual water transport are contributed by the trade of different commodity types, including plant, animal, luxury (e.g., coffee, tea, and alcohol), and other products (non-edible plant and animal products typically used for manufacturing). Major contributors to the virtual water network exhibit different trade patterns with regard to these commodity types with the net importers of virtual water relying on the supply of virtual water from a small percentage of the global population. Discrepancies exist among the different commodity networks. Surprisingly, while the total virtual water flux through the network has increased between 1986 and 2008, the global proportions associated with the four commodity groups have remained relatively stable. Here we discuss some major changes in the global patterns of virtual water trade with a focus on the increase in regional dependencies on foreign virtual water. The increase in virtual water trade and the percentage of the total virtual water flux in the network corresponding to plant, animals, luxury, and other commodities.

  10. Water for food: The global virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dalin, C.; Suweis, S. S.; Hanasaki, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    We present a novel conceptual framework and methodology for studying virtual water trade. We utilize complex network theory to analyze the structure of the global virtual water trade associated with the international food trade. In the global virtual water trade network, the nations that participate in the international food trade correspond to the nodes, and the links represent the flows of virtual water associated with the trade of food from the country of export to the country of import. We find that the number of trade connections follows an exponential distribution, except for the case of import trade relationships, while the volume of water that each nation trades compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. There is a power law relationship between the volume of virtual water traded and the number of trade connections of each nation. Highly connected nations are preferentially linked to poorly connected nations and exhibit low levels of clustering. However, when the volume of virtual water traded is taken into account, this structure breaks down. This indicates a global hierarchy, in which nations that trade large volumes of water are more likely to link to and cluster with other nations that trade large volumes of water, particularly when the direction of trade is considered. Nations that play a critical role in maintaining the global network architecture are highlighted. Our analysis provides the necessary framework for the development of a model of global virtual water trade aimed at applications ranging from network optimization to climate change impact evaluations.

  11. Water for food: The global virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dalin, C.; Suweis, S.; Hanasaki, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel conceptual framework and methodology for studying virtual water trade. We utilize complex network theory to analyze the structure of the global virtual water trade associated with the international food trade. In the global virtual water trade network, the nations that participate in the international food trade correspond to the nodes, and the links represent the flows of virtual water associated with the trade of food from the country of export to the country of import. We find that the number of trade connections follows an exponential distribution, except for the case of import trade relationships, while the volume of water that each nation trades compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. There is a power law relationship between the volume of virtual water traded and the number of trade connections of each nation. Highly connected nations are preferentially linked to poorly connected nations and exhibit low levels of clustering. However, when the volume of virtual water traded is taken into account, this structure breaks down. This indicates a global hierarchy, in which nations that trade large volumes of water are more likely to link to and cluster with other nations that trade large volumes of water, particularly when the direction of trade is considered. Nations that play a critical role in maintaining the global network architecture are highlighted. Our analysis provides the necessary framework for the development of a model of global virtual water trade aimed at applications ranging from network optimization to climate change impact evaluations.

  12. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-17

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use. PMID:22474363

  13. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use. PMID:22474363

  14. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Phillip J; Land, Miriam L; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. One plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins. PMID:26442136

  15. Degassing of argon from microclines within the thermal aureole of the Obsidian Dome conduit, Long Valley caldera, California: Constraints on emplacement history

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1990-03-10

    Age spectra for microlines separated from samples obtained within the thermal aureole of the conduit to Obsidian Dome are compared with those from a reference sample collected in an area removed from the thermal effects of intrusion. The age spectra are characterized by a zero-age plateau at low fractional release and by an {approximately}80 Ma plateau at higher fractional releases. These plateaus correspond to subparallel arrays in the Arrhenius data. These arrays are attributed to two discrete diffusion domain size fractions characterized by identical activation energies but by discrete and different frequency grain size fractions. The relative losses of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar do not show a systematic pattern when compared on the basis of total radiogenic {sup 40}Ar loss. The losses first increase and then fall with distance from the contact. However, when the data composing the high-temperature array of the Arrhenius data are considered (the large diffusion domain size fraction), the pattern is consistent with that predicted by conductive heating of the aureole. This agreement requires the aureole to have been uniformly preheated to a temperature of {approximately} 250 C prior to intrusion of the rhyolite dike and surrounding breccia funnel that make up the vent structure. Further, the data require that the material forming the breccia funnel must have been heated to a temperature approaching that of the magma prior to emplacement.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Brumm, Phillip J.; Land, Miriam L.; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-05

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. Ultimately, one plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, a novel biomass degrader isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brumm, Phillip J.; Land, Miriam L.; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-05

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 was one of several thermophilic organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences confirmed the classification of the strain as a G. thermoglucosidasius species. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). The genome of G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,893,306 bp and two circular plasmids of 80,849 and 19,638 bp and an average G + C content of 43.93 %. G. thermoglucosidasiusmore » C56-YS93 possesses a xylan degradation cluster not found in the other G. thermoglucosidasius sequenced strains. This cluster appears to be related to the xylan degradation cluster found in G. stearothermophilus. G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 possesses two plasmids not found in the other two strains. Ultimately, one plasmid contains a novel gene cluster coding for proteins involved in proline degradation and metabolism, the other contains a collection of mostly hypothetical proteins.« less

  18. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-19

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G+C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp andmore » an average G+C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Lastly, transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.« less

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Mead, David A; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-07-30

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10. PMID:23408395

  20. Uranium mobility during interaction of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite with alkaline carbonate solution: T = 120° C, P = 210 kg/cm2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Well-characterized samples of rhyolitic obsidian, perlite and felsite from a single lava flow are leached of U by alkaline oxidizing solutions under open-system conditions. Pressure, temperature, flow rate and solution composition are held constant in order to evaluate the relative importance of differences in surface area and crystallinity. Under the experimental conditions U removal from crushed glassy samples proceeds by a mechanism of glass dissolution in which U and silica are dissolved in approximately equal weight fractions. The rate of U removal from crushed glassy samples increases with decreasing average grain size (surface area). Initial rapid loss of a small component (≈ 2.5%) of the total U from crushed felsite. followed by much slower U loss, reflects variable rates of attack of numerous uranium sites. The fractions of U removed during the experiment ranged from 3.2% (felsite) to 27% (perlite). An empirical method for evaluating the relative rate of U loss from contemporaneous volcanic rocks is presented which incorporates leaching results and rock permeability data.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, David; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus speciesY412MC10 was one of a number of organisms initially isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA. The isolate Y412MC10 was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species and not Geobacillus; the 16S rRNA analysis indicated the organism was a strain of Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome of Paenibacillus lautus strain Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. The Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC{_}013406). Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other Paenibacilli. Over 25% of the proteins predicted by the Y412MC10 genome share no identity with the closest sequenced Paenibacillus species; most of these are predicted hypothetical proteins and their specific function in the environment is unknown.

  2. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A.

    2015-10-19

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G+C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G+C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Lastly, transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides.

  3. Complete genome sequences of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52, a xylan-degrading strain isolated from obsidian hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Phillip; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren J; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 was isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute and deposited at the NCBI in December 2011 (CP002835). Based on 16S rRNA genes and average nucleotide identity, Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 and the related Geobacillus sp. Y412MC61 appear to be members of a new species of Geobacillus. The genome of Geobacillus sp. Y412MC52 consists of one circular chromosome of 3,628,883 bp, an average G + C content of 52 % and one circular plasmid of 45,057 bp and an average G + C content of 45 %. Y412MC52 possesses arabinan, arabinoglucuronoxylan, and aromatic acid degradation clusters for degradation of hemicellulose from biomass. Transport and utilization clusters are also present for other carbohydrates including starch, cellobiose, and α- and β-galactooligosaccharides. PMID:26500717

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus strain Y4.12MC10, a Novel Paenibacillus lautus strain Isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David A.; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Feng; Bruce, David C.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Zhang, Xiaojing; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J.; Chang, Yun-juan; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Woyke, Tanja; Brumm, Catherine; Hochstein, Rebecca; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Brumm, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp.Y412MC10 was one of a number of organisms isolated from Obsidian Hot Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA under permit from the National Park Service. The isolate was initially classified as a Geobacillus sp. Y412MC10 based on its isolation conditions and similarity to other organisms isolated from hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Comparison of 16 S rRNA sequences within the Bacillales indicated that Geobacillus sp.Y412MC10 clustered with Paenibacillus species, and the organism was most closely related to Paenibacillus lautus. Lucigen Corp. prepared genomic DNA and the genome was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. The genome sequence was deposited at the NCBI in October 2009 (NC_013406). The genome of Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 consists of one circular chromosome of 7,121,665 bp with an average G+C content of 51.2%. Comparison to other Paenibacillus species shows the organism lacks nitrogen fixation, antibiotic production and social interaction genes reported in other paenibacilli. The Y412MC10 genome shows a high level of synteny and homology to the draft sequence of Paenibacillus sp. HGF5, an organism from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Reference Genomes. This, combined with genomic CAZyme analysis, suggests an intestinal, rather than environmental origin for Y412MC10. PMID:23408395

  5. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

    2014-12-01

    This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface and subsurface soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed, natural broadleaved forest; (ii) a 25-year-old, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to mainly reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broadleaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 mm year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  6. Negative trade-off between changes in vegetation water use and infiltration recovery after reforesting degraded pasture land in the Nepalese Lesser Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, C. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Lubczynski, M. W.; Bonell, M.

    2014-03-01

    This work investigates the trade-off between increases in vegetation water use and rain water infiltration afforded by soil improvement after reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal. The hillslope hydrological functioning (surface- and sub-soil hydraulic conductivities and overland flow generation) and the evapotranspiration (rainfall interception and transpiration) of the following contrasting vegetation types were quantified and examined in detail: (i) a nearly undisturbed natural broad-leaved forest; (ii) a mature, intensively-used pine plantation; and (iii) a highly degraded pasture. Planting pines increased vegetation water use relative to the pasture and natural forest situation by 355 and 55 mm year-1, respectively. On balance, the limited amount of extra infiltration afforded by the pine plantation relative to the pasture (only 90 mm year-1 due to continued soil degradation associated with regular harvesting of litter and understory vegetation in the plantation) proved insufficient to compensate the higher water use of the pines. As such, observed declines in dry season flows in the study area are thought to reflect the higher water use of the pines although the effect could be moderated by better forest and soil management promoting infiltration. In contrast, a comparison of the water use of the natural forest and degraded pasture suggests that replacing the latter by (mature) broad-leaved forest would (ultimately) have a near-neutral effect on dry season flows as the approximate gains in infiltration and evaporative losses were very similar (ca. 300 m year-1 each). The results of the present study underscore the need for proper forest management for optimum hydrological functioning as well as the importance of protecting the remaining natural forests in the region.

  7. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. PMID:26249172

  8. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  9. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  10. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  11. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  12. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information. PMID:26457747

  13. The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiqiong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2014-11-01

    International oil trade is a subset of global trade and there exist oil trade communities. These communities evolve over time and provide clues of international oil trade patterns. A better understanding of the international oil trade patterns is necessary for governments in policy making. To study the evolution of trade communities in the international oil trade network, we set up unweighted and weighted oil trade network models based on complex network theory using data from 2002 to 2011. We detected the communities in the oil trade networks and analyzed their evolutionary properties and stabilities over time. We found that the unweighted and weighted international oil trade networks show many different features in terms of community number, community scale, distribution of countries, quality of partitions, and stability of communities. Two turning points occurred in the evolution of community stability in the international oil trade network. One is the year 2004-2005 which correlates with changes in demand and supply in the world oil market after the Iraq War, and the other is the year 2008-2009 which is connected to the 2008 financial crisis. Different causations of instability show different features and this should be considered by policy makers.

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for the metal trades was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all metal trades programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for Metal Trades I and II courses. Units in Metal Trades I cover the…

  15. Trade-offs in land-use decisions: Towards a framework for assessing multiple ecosystem responses to land-use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard

    People alter the landscape primarily to appropriate ecosystem goods such as food, fiber, and timber for human consumption. Unintended consequences for ecosystems vary according to the type of land-use change, e.g., forest clearing for agriculture, grassland conversion for grazing, or urban expansion, as well as the underlying ecological characteristics, e.g., humid vs. dry, phosphorus vs. nitrogen-limited, or tropical vs. temperate. The ecosystem responses potentially alter future abilities to provide ecosystem goods and influence future land-use decisions. This volume addresses five major ecosystem responses to land-use change: hydrological, climatic, biogeochemical, human health, and biological diversity. The chapters summarize current knowledge from the perspectives of different disciplines and present analyses from many parts of the world in different ecological and socioeconomic settings. This introductory chapter develops a framework for understanding and communicating the multiple ecosystem responses as an essential input to societal decisions about land use.

  16. From pumice to obsidian: eruptive behaviors that produce tephra-flow dyads. II- The 114ka trachyte eruption at Pu'u Wa'awa'a (Hawai'i).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T.; Leonhardi, T. C.; Giachetti, T.; Larsen, J. F.; Lindoo, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Associations of tephra and lava flow/domes produced by eruptions involving evolved magmas are a common occurrence in various types of volcanic settings (e.g. Pu'u Wa'awa'a ~114ka, Hawaii; South Mono ~AD625, California; Newberry Big Obsidian flow ~AD700, Oregon; Big Glass Mountain ~AD1100, California; Inyo ~AD1350, California, Chaitén AD2008-2009, Chile; Cordón Caulle AD2011-2012, Chile), ejecting up to a few cubic km of material (tephra+flow/dome). Most, if not all, of these eruptions have in common the paradoxical coexistence of (1) eruptive styles which are inferred to be sustained in nature (subplinian and plinian), with (2) a pulsatory behavior displayed by the resulting fall deposits, and (3) the coeval ejection of vesicular tephra and pyroclastic obsidian. Through two case studies, we explore this apparent set of paradoxes, and their significance in understanding transitions from explosive to effusive behavior. In this second case study (also cf. Shea et al., same session), we present new field, textural and geochemical data pertaining to the 114ka Pu'u Wa'awa'a trachyte eruption in Hawai'i. This large volume (>5 km3) event produced both a tephra cone (~1.6 km in diameter) and a thick (>250 m) lava flow, which have been largely covered by the more recent basaltic Mauna Loa and Hualalai lava flows. The trachyte tephra contains juvenile material displaying a large textural variety (pumice, scoria, obsidian, microcrystalline trachyte and banded-clasts), which can be linked with the extent of degassing and the formation of feldspar microlites. Notably, the abundance of microlites can be used to reconstruct an ascent and devolatilization history that accounts for all the seemingly contradictory observations.

  17. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  18. Insights into archaeal evolution and symbiosis from the genomes of a nanoarchaeon and its inferred crenarchaeal host from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A single cultured marine organism, Nanoarchaeum equitans, represents the Nanoarchaeota branch of symbiotic Archaea, with a highly reduced genome and unusual features such as multiple split genes. Results The first terrestrial hyperthermophilic member of the Nanoarchaeota was collected from Obsidian Pool, a thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park, separated by single cell isolation, and sequenced together with its putative host, a Sulfolobales archaeon. Both the new Nanoarchaeota (Nst1) and N. equitans lack most biosynthetic capabilities, and phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA and protein sequences indicates that the two form a deep-branching archaeal lineage. However, the Nst1 genome is more than 20% larger, and encodes a complete gluconeogenesis pathway as well as the full complement of archaeal flagellum proteins. With a larger genome, a smaller repertoire of split protein encoding genes and no split non-contiguous tRNAs, Nst1 appears to have experienced less severe genome reduction than N. equitans. These findings imply that, rather than representing ancestral characters, the extremely compact genomes and multiple split genes of Nanoarchaeota are derived characters associated with their symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle. The inferred host of Nst1 is potentially autotrophic, with a streamlined genome and simplified central and energetic metabolism as compared to other Sulfolobales. Conclusions Comparison of the N. equitans and Nst1 genomes suggests that the marine and terrestrial lineages of Nanoarchaeota share a common ancestor that was already a symbiont of another archaeon. The two distinct Nanoarchaeota-host genomic data sets offer novel insights into the evolution of archaeal symbiosis and parasitism, enabling further studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these relationships. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Patrick Forterre, Bettina Siebers (nominated by Michael Galperin) and Purification Lopez-Garcia PMID:23607440

  19. 77 FR 17086 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Transforming Trade for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 16048) on March 19, 2012, about the West Coast trade symposium which will be held... Symposium: ``Transforming Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... ``Transforming Trade for a Stronger Economy''; and to inform the public that the fees have changed for...

  20. Trading away what kind of jobs? Globalization, trade and tasks in the US economy

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Thomas; Rigby, David

    2015-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists are calling for a reassessment of the impact of international trade on labor markets in developed and developing countries. Classical models of globalization and trade, based upon the international exchange of finished goods, fail to capture the fragmentation of much commodity production and the geographical separation of individual production tasks. This fragmentation, captured in the growing volume of intra-industry trade, prompts investigation of the effects of trade within, rather than between, sectors of the economy. In this paper we examine the relationship between international trade and the task structure of US employment. We link disaggregate US trade data from 1972 to 2006, the NBER manufacturing database, the Decennial Census, and occupational and task data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Within-industry shifts in task characteristics are linked to import competition and technological change. Our results suggest that trade has played a major role in the growth in relative demand for nonroutine tasks, particularly those requiring high levels of interpersonal interaction. PMID:26722134

  1. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  2. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  3. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 357 - TRADES Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations in 31 CFR 306.118(b), which are being supplanted by TRADES, state that “applicable law” covers how... Direct. Subpart A of part 357 of 31 CFR contains general information about TRADES and Legacy Treasury... securities formerly governed by 31 CFR part 306, subpart O. Conforming changes to parts 306, 356, and 358...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 357 - TRADES Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations in 31 CFR 306.118(b), which are being supplanted by TRADES, state that “applicable law” covers how... Direct. Subpart A of part 357 of 31 CFR contains general information about TRADES and Legacy Treasury... securities formerly governed by 31 CFR part 306, subpart O. Conforming changes to parts 306, 356, and 358...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 357 - TRADES Commentary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations in 31 CFR 306.118(b), which are being supplanted by TRADES, state that “applicable law” covers how... Direct. Subpart A of part 357 of 31 CFR contains general information about TRADES and Legacy Treasury... securities formerly governed by 31 CFR part 306, subpart O. Conforming changes to parts 306, 356, and 358...

  6. Trade Unions and Political Parties in France: Some Recent Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynaud, Jean-Daniel

    1975-01-01

    France's three major trade union federations, which do not encompass all organized French workers, espouse quite different styles of relations with political parties. The author relates these to the three main traditions of French trade-unionism: the communist-leninist, the social democratic, and the syndicalist models, but finds them changing.…

  7. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    .... Other Operational Aspects: Katrina Chang, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of International Trade, (202... FR 66507), modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'') as set forth in... a regulation or rule subject to the provisions of Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58...

  8. Canadian Universities: The Impact of Free Trade and Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Howard; Rajagopal, Pinayur

    1996-01-01

    A trend toward global free trade, as represented by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), has changed the basic assumptions behind Canadian university autonomy and governance. Since higher education is part of social programs and social programs are not exempt from NAFTA provisions, higher education must adjust to serving not only…

  9. A primer on world and US foreign trade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1991-06-01

    The ultimate purpose of this report is to provide a background on foreign trade for researchers and administrators interested in the role of research and development in international competitiveness and foreign trade. The descriptions and explanations are designed for the technical reader without a background, or a particularly lasting interest, in economics. I have tried to give sufficient explanations to help the reader evaluate various claims and to exercise some informed judgment, but in doing this I have appealed to intuition as much as possible. The first section describes trends in world and US foreign trade and reviews proposed explanations for some of those trends. Following the empirical review, Section 2 presents several propositions about motivations for foreign trade and about consequences of various policies and market changes on trade. This section is designed to provide background for Section 3, which focuses on R D issues in foreign trade. 55 refs., 19 figs., l7 tabs.

  10. Source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    We analyse the physics and geometry of trade-offs between Earth structure and noise sources in interstation noise correlations. Our approach is based on the computation of off-diagonal Hessian elements that describe the extent to which variations in noise sources can compensate for variations in Earth structure without changing the misfit beyond the measurement uncertainty. Despite the fact that all ambient noise inverse problems are special in terms of their receiver configuration and data, some general statements concerning source-structure trade-offs can be made: (i) While source-structure trade-offs may be reduced to some extent by clever measurement design, there are inherent trade-offs that can generally not be avoided. These inherent trade-offs may lead to a mispositioning of structural heterogeneities when the noise source distribution is unknown. (ii) When attenuation is weak, source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations are a global phenomenon, meaning that there is no noise source perturbation that does not trade-off with some Earth structure, and vice versa. (iii) The most significant source-structure trade-offs occur within two elliptically shaped regions connecting a potential noise source perturbation to each one of the receivers. (iv) Far from these elliptical regions, only small-scale structure can trade off against changes in the noise source. (v) While source-structure trade-offs mostly decay with increasing attenuation, they are nearly unaffected by attenuation when the noise source perturbation is located near the receiver-receiver line. This work is intended to contribute to the development of joint source-structure inversions of ambient noise correlations, and in particular to an understanding of the extent to which source-structure trade-offs may be reduced. It furthermore establishes the foundation of future resolution analyses that properly quantify trade-offs between noise sources and Earth structure.

  11. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.…

  12. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  13. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  14. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

  15. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  16. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  17. Construction Trades Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

  18. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

  19. The carriage trade trend.

    PubMed

    Westley, Christopher; Bennett, Doris

    2007-01-01

    The remarkable growth of the carriage trade movement in health care provision reflects the hyper-regulated health care environment that exists in health care today. This growth, which is only recently becoming noticed within the academic literature, is consistent with economic theory and is expected to continue. PMID:19175233

  20. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  1. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  2. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  3. Energy balance of trade in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.; Saha, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper described an analysis made to determine the energy content of New Zealand's imported and exported goods for the year 1976 and the underlying energy imbalance of trade. It is shown that the energy content of imports is considerably higher than that of exports. The difference, expressed as a fraction of net energy consumption, is 16%. The significance of this energy imbalance for the nation's future energy policy and program is discussed. Finally, a normalized GNP/energy use per capita plot, taking into account indirect energy, is presented. Accounting for the energy content of nonenergy trade significantly changes New Zealand's position on the plot. 12 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  4. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  5. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  6. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  7. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development. PMID:17208715

  8. Cycle 0(CY1991) NLS trade studies and analyses report. Book 1: Structures and core vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report (SR-1: Structures, Trades, and Analysis), documents the Core Tankage Trades and analyses performed in support of the National Launch System (NLS) Cycle 0 preliminary design activities. The report covers trades that were conducted on the Vehicle Assembly, Fwd Skirt, LO2 Tank, Intertank, LH2 Tank, and Aft Skirt of the NLS Core Tankage. For each trade study, a two page executive summary and the detail trade study are provided. The trade studies contain study results, recommended changes to the Cycle 0 Baselines, and suggested follow on tasks to be performed during Cycle 1.

  9. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  10. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... change in office location. SUMMARY: Regulations and Rulings, in the Office of International Trade, of the... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... International Trade, (202) 325-0118. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  11. Internet Training in Trade Unions: A Comparison of Four European Confederations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Examines Internet use in trade union education in Europe as seen through the participation of trade union confederations and worker education organizations in the ETUE-net II (European Trade Union Education Network). Discusses the Internet as a topic of training, for delivering training, and in the mediation of changing relationships between union…

  12. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...DoD, GSA, and NASA have adopted as final, without change, an interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of eligible products and services from...

  13. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  14. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  15. Emergency China Trade Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sherman, Brad [D-CA-27

    2011-09-13

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Trade, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  17. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  18. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  19. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  20. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations...

  1. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation of Zones...

  2. 15 CFR 400.47 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.47 Section 400.47 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation of Zones...

  3. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations...

  4. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations...

  5. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  6. On distribution of number of trades in different time windows in the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.; Leonidov, A. V.

    2005-08-01

    Properties of distributions of the number of trades in different intraday time intervals for five stocks traded in MICEX are studied. The dependence of the mean number of trades on the capital turnover is analyzed. Correlation analysis using factorial and Hq moments demonstrates the multifractal nature of these distributions as well as some peculiar changes in the correlation pattern. Guided by the analogy with the analysis of particle multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production at high energies, an evolution equation relating changes in capital turnover and a number of trades is proposed. We argue that such equation can describe the observed features of the distribution of the number of trades in the stock market.

  7. Trading water to improve environmental flow outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Franklin, Brad; Loch, Adam; Kirby, Mac; Wheeler, Sarah Ann

    2013-07-01

    As consumptive extractions and water scarcity pressures brought about by climate change increase in many world river basins, so do the risks to water-dependent ecological assets. In response, public or not for profit environmental water holders (EWHs) have been established in many areas and bestowed with endowments of water and mandates to manage water for ecological outcomes. Water scarcity has also increasingly spawned water trade arrangements in many river basins, and in many instances, EWHs are now operating in water markets. A number of EWHs, especially in Australia, begin with an endowment of permanent water entitlements purchased from irrigators. Such water entitlements typically have relatively constant interannual supply profiles that often do not match ecological water demand involving flood pulses and periods of drying. This article develops a hydrologic-economic simulation model of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray-Darling Basin to assess the scope of possibilities to improve environmental outcomes through EWH trading on an annual water lease market. We find that there are some modest opportunities for EWHs to improve environmental outcomes through water trade. The best opportunities occur in periods of drought and for ecological outcomes that benefit from moderately large floods. We also assess the extent to which EWH trading in annual water leases may create pecuniary externalities via bidding up or down the water lease prices faced by irrigators. Environmental water trading is found to have relatively small impacts on water market price outcomes. Overall our results suggest that the benefits of developing EWH trading may well justify the costs.

  8. 75 FR 66358 - Trade Mission to Mexico in Conjunction With Trade Winds Forum-The Americas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Mexico in Conjunction With Trade Winds Forum-- The Americas... conjunction with the Trade Winds Forum--The Americas business forum in Mexico City, Mexico. U.S. trade mission... the Trade Winds Forum--The Americas. On April 11-12, 2011, trade mission participants will take...

  9. Determinants of immediate price impacts at the trade level in an emerging order-driven market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2012-02-01

    Common wisdom argues that, in general, large trades cause large price changes, whereas small trades cause small price changes. However, for extremely large price changes, the trade size and news play a minor role, while liquidity (especially price gaps on the limit order book) is a more influential factor. Hence, there might be other factors influencing the immediate price impacts of trades. In this paper, through mechanical analysis of price variations before and after a trade of arbitrary size, we identify that the trade size, the bid-ask spread, the price gaps and the outstanding volumes at the bid and ask sides of the limit order book have an impact on the changes in prices. We propose two regression models to investigate the influence of these microscopic factors on the price impact of buyer-initiated partially filled trades, seller-initiated partially filled trades, buyer-initiated filled trades and seller-initiated filled trades. We find that they have quantitatively similar explanatory powers and these factors can account for up to 44% of the price impacts. Large trade sizes, wide bid-ask spreads, high liquidity at the same side and low liquidity at the opposite side will cause a large price impact. We also find that the liquidity at the opposite side has a more influential impact than the liquidity at the same side. Our results shed new light on the determinants of immediate price impacts.

  10. Complex Networks and Minimal Spanning Trees in International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Choi, Hyung Wooc; Lee, Jae Woo

    The wealth of a nation is changed by the internal economic growth of a nation and by the international trade among countries. Trade between countries are one of their most important interactions and thus expects to affect crucially the wealth distribution over countries. We reviewed the network properties of the international trade networks (ITN). We analyzed data sets of world trade. The data set include a total number of 190 countries from 1950 to 2000. We observed that the world trade network showed the uneven trading relationships which are measured by the disparity. The effective disparity followed a power law, < D(k) > tδ, for the import and export network. We also construct the minimal spanning tree(MST) of international trade network, where each node is a country and directed links connecting them represent money flow from a source node to a target one. The topology of the MST shows the flow patterns of the international trades. From the MST we can identify the sub-economic zone if we delete the hub node. We observed that the cumulative degree distribution functions follow the power law, P>(k) k-α, with the average exponent α = 1.1(1)). We also calculated the betweenness centrality(BC) of the MST. The cumulative probability distribution of the betweenness centrality follows the power law, P>(BC) BC-β, with the average exponent β = 1.09(7).

  11. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  12. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  13. The impact of trade costs on rare earth exports : a stochastic frontier estimation approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, Prabuddha; Brady, Patrick Vane; Vugrin, Eric D.

    2013-09-01

    The study develops a novel stochastic frontier modeling approach to the gravity equation for rare earth element (REE) trade between China and its trading partners between 2001 and 2009. The novelty lies in differentiating betweenbehind the border' trade costs by China and theimplicit beyond the border costs' of China's trading partners. Results indicate that the significance level of the independent variables change dramatically over the time period. While geographical distance matters for trade flows in both periods, the effect of income on trade flows is significantly attenuated, possibly capturing the negative effects of financial crises in the developed world. Second, the total export losses due tobehind the border' trade costs almost tripled over the time period. Finally, looking atimplicit beyond the border' trade costs, results show China gaining in some markets, although it is likely that some countries are substituting away from Chinese REE exports.

  14. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers. PMID:19508290

  15. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  16. Ecological analysis of world trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

  17. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets. PMID:25494520

  18. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion. PMID:17738704

  19. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  20. 75 FR 360 - Solios Power Trading LLC; Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Trading LLC; Solios Power Midwest Trading LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Solios Power Trading LLC; Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Trading LLC; Solios Power Midwest Trading LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Solios Power Trading LLC, Solios Power Mid-Atlantic Trading LLC, and Solios...

  1. Masonry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in masonry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  2. Carpentry Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in carpentry. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  3. Plumbing Curriculum Guide. Construction Trades. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in plumbing. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  4. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  5. 17 CFR 37.406 - Trade reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 37.406 Section 37.406 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.406 Trade reconstruction. The swap...

  6. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  7. Standardized Curriculum for Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: building trades I and II. The eight units in building trades I are as follows: safety; measurement; tools, equipment, and hardware; building plans and blueprints; introduction to carpentry; introduction to plumbing; introduction to…

  8. Trowel Trades: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all trowel trade instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the trowel trades (masonry) program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the…

  9. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  10. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  11. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  12. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  13. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  14. Building Trades 1. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clair S.

    Intended to assist building trades instructors, this course outline to a prevocational building trades program for junior and senior high school students covers four occupational areas: carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electricity. Specific notes to the administrator and teacher and the course goals precede the four occupational units. Each unit…

  15. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  16. Virtual water trade in the Roman Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermody, Brian; van Beek, Rens; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Scheidel, Walter; van der Velde, Ype; Bierkens, Marc; Wassen, Martin; Dekker, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Romans were perhaps the most impressive exponents of water resource management in pre-industrial times with irrigation and virtual water trade facilitating unprecedented urbanisation and socio-economic stability for hundreds of years in a region of highly variable climate. To understand Roman water resource management in response to urbanisation and climate variability, a Virtual Water Network of the Roman World was developed. Using this network we found that irrigation and virtual water trade increased Roman resilience to inter-annual climate variability. However, urbanisation and population growth arising from virtual water trade likely pushed the Empire closer to the boundary of its water resources, led to an increase in import costs, and eroded its resilience to climate variability in the long term. Our newest findings also assess the impact that persistent climate change associated with Holocene climate anomalies had on Roman water resource management. Specifically we assess the impact of the change in climate from the Roman Warm Period to the Dark Ages Cold Period on the Roman food supply and whether it could have contributed to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

  17. The Contribution of Agricultural Trade for Saving Blue Water in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, S.; Biewald, A.; Hoff, H.; Lotze-Campen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Trade can mitigate local water scarcity in water scarce regions, but does not always do so because of economic or other pressures to export water intensive products. To assess impacts of trade on blue and green water use in agriculture, we apply two dynamic, global and spatially explicit models. The vegetation and crop model LPJmL calculates water use and crop productivity. Based on the potential agricultural yield of LPJmL, the economic model MAgPIE_trade produces landuse pattern for the most important agricultural production in 10 economic world regions; bilateral trade is controlled by transport costs and trade barriers. We quantify the trade effect by comparing scenarios with and without trade for current and predicted future climatic conditions. The resulting differences in the spatial patterns (0.5° resolution) of agricultural production from MAgPIE_trade enables the quantification of the amount of goods produced for export. Using the consumptive green and blue water fluxes from LPJmL for each agricultural product, the export of virtual water uses are calculated so that water saving or consumption due to trade can be quantified. Although an interesting result in itself, an estimate for relaxation or intensification of water scarcity by trade is still missing. Here, the water shadow price from MAgPIE_trade as an indicator for water scarcity is related to the actual change in blue water usage. This relation is then taken as an indicator for the efficiency of trade on the local savings of blue water.

  18. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  19. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy. The Committee will be chartered pursuant to section 135(c... Representative). Purpose: The Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy consults with...

  20. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  1. Dynamics of the global virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few

  2. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... International Trade Administration AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement Medical..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Medical Trade Mission to... from international accreditation organizations such as the Joint Commission International...

  3. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  4. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  5. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  6. Imports, Exports, and Jobs: What Does Trade Mean for Employment and Job Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletzer, Lori G.

    The impact of international trade on employment and job loss in the Unites States was analyzed. Evidence from earlier studies was reviewed, and the following topics were examined: changes in the U.S. manufacturing industry in 1975-1995; labor market responses to changes in trade and import competition; methods of measuring the link between changes…

  7. Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1999-01-01

    The author, founding editor of the American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHC) Journal, now the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, examines some of the changes that have taken place in the profession over the past 20 years. Special emphasis is given to the visionary excellence that set the "AMHCA Agenda" over 20 years ago. (Author)

  8. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an alphabetical directory of "Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada"; followed by a directory of "International and Foreign Book Trade Associations" listed alphabetically by country. (AEF)

  9. The economics of parallel trade.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1998-03-01

    The potential for parallel trade in the European Union (EU) has grown with the accession of low price countries and the harmonisation of registration requirements. Parallel trade implies a conflict between the principle of autonomy of member states to set their own pharmaceutical prices, the principle of free trade and the industrial policy goal of promoting innovative research and development (R&D). Parallel trade in pharmaceuticals does not yield the normal efficiency gains from trade because countries achieve low pharmaceutical prices by aggressive regulation, not through superior efficiency. In fact, parallel trade reduces economic welfare by undermining price differentials between markets. Pharmaceutical R&D is a global joint cost of serving all consumers worldwide; it accounts for roughly 30% of total costs. Optimal (welfare maximising) pricing to cover joint costs (Ramsey pricing) requires setting different prices in different markets, based on inverse demand elasticities. By contrast, parallel trade and regulation based on international price comparisons tend to force price convergence across markets. In response, manufacturers attempt to set a uniform 'euro' price. The primary losers from 'euro' pricing will be consumers in low income countries who will face higher prices or loss of access to new drugs. In the long run, even higher income countries are likely to be worse off with uniform prices, because fewer drugs will be developed. One policy option to preserve price differentials is to exempt on-patent products from parallel trade. An alternative is confidential contracting between individual manufacturers and governments to provide country-specific ex post discounts from the single 'euro' wholesale price, similar to rebates used by managed care in the US. This would preserve differentials in transactions prices even if parallel trade forces convergence of wholesale prices. PMID:10178655

  10. Agricultural greenhouse gas trading markets in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have assembled evidence of climate change and emphasized its anthropogenic causes. Carbon (C) management and an emissions trading system may be a way to address concerns about climate change and associated environmental impacts. Limited experience has shown a practical policy approach t...

  11. Trade and the environment: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, E.

    1992-12-01

    The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

  12. Free Trade is Big Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In an examination of the system of free trade between neighboring education authorities, it is suggested that a considerable amount of money paid out in recoupment fees in adult education could be saved. (AG)

  13. A Trade Secret Model for Genomic Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Conley, John M.; Kenan, William Rand; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R. Jean; Davis, Arlene M.; Dobson, Allison W.; Gladden, Ryan Q.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. PMID:23061589

  14. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits...

  15. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits...

  16. Trade Is Everybody's Business [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Susan A.

    Trade has been an important factor in United States from the 17th century to the present day. The United States was born out of a trade dispute with Great Britain. From the moment the founders first set pen to paper, trade has helped spur U.S. economic growth. This booklet covers trade topics such as policy, perspectives, difference in nations…

  17. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission to Hanoi, Vietnam & Beijing and... organizing an executive-led Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission to Hanoi, Vietnam and to Beijing and Sanmen... Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission offers a timely and cost- effective means for U.S. firms to...

  18. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  19. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  20. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  1. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the...

  2. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  3. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  4. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  5. Environmental effects of SO{sub 2} trading and banking

    SciTech Connect

    Burtraw, D.; Mansur, E.

    1999-10-15

    The widely acknowledged innovation of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is sulfur dioxide allowance trading, which is designed to encourage the electricity industry to minimize the cost of reducing emissions. Few studies have examined the environmental effects of trading, and none have explored the effects of banking. The authors used an integrated assessment computer model, the Tracking and Analysis Framework, to evaluate changes in emissions of SO{sub 2}, atmospheric concentrations of sulfates and deposition of sulfur, and public health benefits from reduced exposure to SO{sub 2} and particulate matter. They assessed geographic and temporal changes at the state level that result from trading and banking and compared them with estimated cost savings. The findings are not consistent with the feats of the program's critics. In the East and Northeast including New York State, an area of particular concern, the authors found that health benefits increase and sulfur deposition decrease slightly as a result of trading. Nationally, trading results in health-related benefits in addition to significant cost savings. Banking changes the timing of emissions, but the geographic consequence of banking is varied.

  6. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  7. 78 FR 72929 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Bureau of... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place... issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining...

  8. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (c) For acquisitions of supplies covered by the World Trade...

  9. Understanding water quality trading: the basics.

    PubMed

    Kibler, Virginia M; Kasturi, Kavya P

    2007-12-01

    The United States has entered a new era in water quality protection: the era of market-based incentives. In January 2003, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its National Water Quality Trading Policy (Trading Policy) (USEPA, 2003). This action has generated greater interest in water quality trading and has prompted EPA to develop tools and training to assist interested parties in understanding what water quality trading is and what constitutes a successful trading program. PMID:18049767

  10. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  11. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.P.; Beard, T.D., Jr.; Bennett, E.M.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Cork, S.J.; Agard, J.; Dobson, A.P.; Peterson, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal scale, and reversibility. Spatial scale refers to whether the effects of the trade-off are felt locally or at a distant location. Temporal scale refers to whether the effects take place relatively rapidly or slowly. Reversibility expresses the likelihood that the perturbed ES may return to its original state if the perturbation ceases. Across all four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios and selected case study examples, trade-off decisions show a preference for provisioning, regulating, or cultural services (in that order). Supporting services are more likely to be "taken for granted." Cultural ES are almost entirely unquantified in scenario modeling; therefore, the calculated model results do not fully capture losses of these services that occur in the scenarios. The quantitative scenario models primarily capture the services that are perceived by society as more important - provisioning and regulating ecosystem services - and thus do not fully capture trade-offs of cultural and supporting services. Successful management policies will be those that incorporate lessons learned from prior decisions into future management actions. Managers should complement their actions with monitoring programs that, in addition to monitoring the short-term provisions of services, also monitor the long-term evolution of slowly changing variables. Policies can then be developed to take into account ES trade-offs at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Successful strategies will

  12. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  13. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  14. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES... partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  15. International nuclear trade and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this book, the culmination of one phase of an ongoing international research project on nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation, is to explore the international political and economic dimensions of nuclear trade, especially as they pertain to the behavior of eleven emerging nuclear-supplier states. More specifically, the book sets forth a conceptual framework for analyzing international nuclear trade; details the domestic and external factors that shape the nuclear export policies of Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, South Korea, South Africa, Spain and Taiwan; and identifies and assesses alternative strategies for containing the new proliferation risks posed by these emerging suppliers. The book also describes an innovative effort to utilize a computer-based system for tracking international nuclear trade.

  16. 78 FR 3029 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Trade Activity Participant Report (TAPR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Participant Report (TAPR); Extension Without Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA... collection of data about The Trade Activity Participant Report (OMB No. 1205-0392), which provides... changes. Title: Trade Activity Participant Report. OMB Number: 1205-0392. Affected Public: State, Local...

  17. Children's Trade Books: Do They Affect the Development of Science Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Snipes, Christy

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the effects of children's trade books on the development of science concepts. The two objectives of this exploratory study were to determine whether children's ideas about specific science concepts change when trade books containing information about those concepts are read to them, and…

  18. Masonry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the masonry trade as recommended by the successful mason. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to adequately…

  19. Electricity (Construction). Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the electricity trade as recommended by the successful electrician. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  20. Roofing. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the roofing trade as recommended by successful roofers. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare students to adequately…

  1. Auto Mechanics. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the auto mechanics trade as recommended by successful auto mechanics. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  2. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  3. Machine Shop. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metal occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the machinist trade as recommended by the successful machinist. An instructional program based upon the implementation of this guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  4. Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  5. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  6. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  7. Carpentry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the carpentry trade as recommended by the successful carpenter. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  8. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade Policy Committee was created by section 3...

  9. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  10. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  11. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  12. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade...

  13. Issues in water quality trading: Introduction to featured collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality trading is a type of market mechanism for water pollution control. Policy makers have discovered that market mechanisms can play important roles in protecting and improving environmental quality by changing the economic signals an individual or firm faces. Potenti...

  14. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... the Federal Register at 75 FR 38689 on July 2, 2010, to incorporate increased thresholds for... Federal Register at 75 FR 38689 on July 2, 2010, is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING CODE... Regulation (FAR) to incorporate increased thresholds for application of the World Trade...

  15. The employed professional and trade unionism.

    PubMed

    Stanford, J D

    1975-09-01

    Trade unions are often in the news and their activities subject to much critical comment. Many professional people may feel that trade union activities and professional standards are in conflict. This paper argues that professional workers in employment can engage in trade union activity in a way which is compatible with professional standards of behaviour. Furthermore, it is suggested, greater involvement of professional workers in trade unions can be a creative and constructive force for better trade unions and better trade unionism. PMID:25025541

  16. Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

  17. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. A Trade Union Sponsored Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Max; Corcoran, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Professor Max Eddy, Head of Purdue University's Department of Industrial Education, with the assistance of J.P. Corcoran, Director of a trade union training department, describe the development of a programme of training for apprentice instructors run jointly by the union and the university. (Editor)

  20. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  1. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  2. FOIA: What's a Trade Secret?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawker, Curtis

    The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was amended in 1974 in order to restrict government control and to facilitate the public's access to information. However, part of the FOIA bans federal officials from disclosing "trade secrets" and commercial or financial information obtained in confidential circumstances. This exemption has resulted in a…

  3. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85). PMID:12321914

  4. Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2011-11-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  5. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl‐Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass‐based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land‐use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor‐based and environmentally extended input‐output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass‐based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints. PMID:27547028

  6. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This section lists book trade associations in the United States and Canada, as well as international and foreign book trade associations. Addresses, telephone numbers, fax numbers, and some staff are included. (LRW)

  7. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  8. 77 FR 52766 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... day roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss... focus on error prevention--where technology experts will discuss current best practices and...

  9. 77 FR 56697 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss ways to promote stability in markets that rely on highly automated systems. The market technology...

  10. Preferential attachment in multiple trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foschi, Rachele; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we develop a model for the evolution of multiple networks which is able to replicate the concentrated and sparse nature of world trade data. Our model is an extension of the preferential attachment growth model to the case of multiple networks. Countries trade a variety of goods of different complexity. Every country progressively evolves from trading less sophisticated to high-tech goods. The probabilities of capturing more trade opportunities at a given level of complexity and of starting to trade more complex goods are both proportional to the number of existing trade links. We provide a set of theoretical predictions and simulative results. A calibration exercise shows that our model replicates the same concentration level of world trade as well as the sparsity pattern of the trade matrix. We also discuss a set of numerical solutions to deal with large multiple networks.

  11. Structure and Controls of the Global Virtual Water Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages are a crucial global challenge, in particular because of their impacts on food production. The global character of this challenge is reflected in the trade among nations of virtual water, i.e. the amount of water used to produce a given commodity. We build, analyze and model the network describing the transfer of virtual water between world nations for staple food products. We find that all the key features of the network are well described by a model, the fitness model, that reproduces both the topological and weighted properties of the global virtual water trade network, by assuming as sole controls each country's gross domestic product and yearly rainfall on agricultural areas. We capture and quantitatively describe the high degree of globalization of water trade and show that a small group of nations play a key role in the connectivity of the network and in the global redistribution of virtual water. Finally, we illustrate examples of prediction of the structure of the network under future political, economic and climatic scenarios, suggesting that the crucial importance of the countries that trade large volumes of water will be strengthened. Our results show the importance of incorporating a network framework in the study of virtual water trades and provide a model to study the structure and resilience of the GVWTN under future scenarios for social, economic and climate change.

  12. Constraints, Trade-offs and the Currency of Fitness.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding evolutionary trajectories remains a difficult task. This is because natural evolutionary processes are simultaneously affected by various types of constraints acting at the different levels of biological organization. Of particular importance are constraints where correlated changes occur in opposite directions, called trade-offs. Here we review and classify the main evolutionary constraints and trade-offs, operating at all levels of trait hierarchy. Special attention is given to life history trade-offs and the conflict between the survival and reproduction components of fitness. Cellular mechanisms underlying fitness trade-offs are described. At the metabolic level, a linear trade-off between growth and flux variability was found, employing bacterial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Its analysis indicates that flux variability can be considered as the currency of fitness. This currency is used for fitness transfer between fitness components during adaptations. Finally, a discussion is made regarding the constraints which limit the increase in the amount of fitness currency during evolution, suggesting that occupancy constraints are probably the main restrictions. PMID:26920684

  13. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  14. Multi-Megawatt Power System Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2001-11-01

    As part of a larger task, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform a trade study comparing liquid-metal cooled reactors having Rankine power conversion systems with gas-cooled reactors having Brayton power conversion systems. This report summarizes the approach, the methodology, and the results of that trade study. Findings suggest that either approach has the possibility to approach the target specific mass of 3-5 kg/kWe for the power system, though it appears either will require improvements to achieve that. Higher reactor temperatures have the most potential for reducing the specific mass of gas-cooled reactors but do not necessarily have a similar effect for liquid-cooled Rankine systems. Fuels development will be the key to higher reactor operating temperatures. Higher temperature turbines will be important for Brayton systems. Both replacing lithium coolant in the primary circuit with gallium and replacing potassium with sodium in the power loop for liquid systems increase system specific mass. Changing the feed pump turbine to an electric motor in Rankine systems has little effect. Key technologies in reducing specific mass are high reactor and radiator operating temperatures, low radiator areal density, and low turbine/generator system masses. Turbine/generator mass tends to dominate overall power system mass for Rankine systems. Radiator mass was dominant for Brayton systems.

  15. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  16. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A...

  17. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  18. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  19. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  20. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  1. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  2. Capacity Reviews for Trades Training in BC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned in December 2006 to assess the capacity for trades training in the public post-secondary system with the key objectives to identify current levels of utilization for each of the top trades; identify methods of increasing capacity for top trades; and determine future levels of capacity that can be achieved without…

  3. Magnet Trade Books: Attracting and Repelling Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of magnet trade books were analyzed against a validated list of magnet concepts (Barrow, 1990a) and their Flesch (1974) Readability was determined. These trade books were used to supplement a second grade unit on magnetism locally constructed from AIM's "Mostly Magnets" (1991). All trade books accurately described how like and unlike…

  4. Careers in the Trades: A Presenter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This guide provides all the ingredients a speaker needs to give an interactive, informative presentation about careers in the trades and the apprenticeship system of training in Alberta. It is designed specifically for those who work or have worked in a trade, who have been asked to present information about careers in the trades, and who need…

  5. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower salaries…

  6. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  7. Learning for Literacy in the Vocational Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penisten, John

    Many of the students enrolled in Hawai'i Community College's (HCC's) Trade and Industry Division have poor reading skills, with Nelson-Denny comprehension scores averaging a 9th grade equivalent. Despite a lack of motivation and interest in reading, trades students must be able to understand trade-technical handbooks, manuals, references,…

  8. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  9. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for trade and industrial education teachers are administered semiannually by the Office of Vocational Education. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational administrators, State Department of Education personnel, and other interested parties with…

  10. 75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8521 of May 12, 2010 World Trade Week, 2010 By the President of the United.... World Trade Week is an opportunity for us to reaffirm the importance of trade to our Nation's...

  11. 27 CFR 19.94 - Trade names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade names. 19.94 Section 19.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc § 19.94 Trade names. (a)...

  12. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  13. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  14. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade options. 32.3 Section 32... OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Trade options. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section... period preceding the date on which the trade option is entered into, (iv) In connection with any...

  15. 17 CFR 38.256 - Trade reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 38.256 Section 38.256 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Prevention of Market Disruption § 38.256 Trade reconstruction. The designated contract market...

  16. 17 CFR 38.256 - Trade reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 38.256 Section 38.256 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Prevention of Market Disruption § 38.256 Trade reconstruction. The designated contract market...

  17. 27 CFR 19.94 - Trade names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade names. 19.94 Section 19.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc § 19.94 Trade names. (a)...

  18. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  19. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  20. 27 CFR 19.94 - Trade names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade names. 19.94 Section 19.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc § 19.94 Trade names. (a)...

  1. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade options. 32.3 Section 32... OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Trade options. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section... period preceding the date on which the trade option is entered into, (iv) In connection with any...

  2. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  3. 27 CFR 19.94 - Trade names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trade names. 19.94 Section 19.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc § 19.94 Trade names. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  5. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.8 Trade associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging...

  6. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  7. 76 FR 71378 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting... Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 30, 2011; 2-4:30 p.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's... discussion of current issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives...

  8. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  9. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  10. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p.... trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and...

  11. 77 FR 65581 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting... Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 13, 2012; 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.; U.S. Department of Labor... review and discussion of current issues which influence U.S. trade policy. Potential U.S....

  12. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement...

  13. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement...

  14. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement...

  15. A theoretical model of virtual water trade under increasing water scarcity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Lotte; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a virtual water trade model to obtain a better understanding of how hydro-climatic change affects societies through changes in virtual water trade. In previous studies it has been shown that global trade patterns can be influenced by water scarcity and vice-versa. The extent to which this relationship holds is still a topic under discussion. With the model introduced in this paper, the dynamics behind these trade patterns are further explored. First, a model is constructed of a society suffering from an increase in water scarcity. This model is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. In order to incorporate the effects of globalization and trade, the model has been extended to a toy model of virtual water trade between two societies. The two societies are represented by overlapping generations models. The individuals of each generation provide the labour needed for the production of the composite goods. In addition to this labour, water and technology are also incorporated as factors of production. There are two goods being produced; one is labour intensive and the other water intensive. Trade emerges from the principle of comparative advantage, with differences in labour-abundance and water resources availability between the two societies. Using this model of two societies interconnected by trade, it is examined how trade of water-intensive commodities alters under changing scarcity conditions. In particular we explore the conditions under which trade emerges, and to what extent. Furthermore, we present the conditions for the sustainable development within these two societies.

  16. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application... Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of... of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone at (202)...

  17. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This... (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  18. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade... technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee administrative...

  19. 77 FR 7131 - Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will be changed to include additional topics. DATES... any time before or after the meeting. Minutes will be available within 30 days of this meeting....

  20. Some Recent Developments in Trade Union Education in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the trade union education system in the United Kingdom include a hardening of the attitudes of employers and the state, a reemergence of political education, and increased demand for paid educational leave. (SK)

  1. The IC-OV Diagram: A Supplement to Isoquants for Teaching Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Alan Day

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, despite changes resulting from new theories on international trade, simple graphs in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson tradition remain a significant part of most courses in international economics. Provides four figures illustrating these economic concepts. (CFR)

  2. Approaches to resolving trade disputes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

  3. Organ trading, tourism, and trafficking within Europe.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2008-03-01

    This article argues for a regulatory and institutional response towards organ trading, tourism and trafficking that differs from extant approaches. European countries have hitherto adopted blanket prohibitions on organ trading (i.e. the buying or selling of human organs). This article advances the view that policy makers have thereby overreacted to legitimate public health concerns and the evils of organ trafficking (i.e. organ trading and tourism involving coercion or deception). It argues for a trial of a very tightly regulated system of organ trading that could eventually lead to a limited system of organ tourism (i.e. organ trading involving more than one jurisdiction). PMID:18592891

  4. Lean spacecraft avionics trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft design is generally an exercise in design trade-offs: fuel vs. weight, power vs. solar cell area, radiation exposure vs. shield weight, etc. Proper analysis of these trades is critical in the development of lightweight, efficient, 'lean' satellites. The modification of the launch plans for the Magnetosphere Imager (MI) to a Taurus launcher from the much more powerful Delta has forced a reduction in spacecraft weight availability into the mission orbit from 1300 kg to less than 500 kg. With weight now a driving factor it is imperative that the satellite design be extremely efficient and lean. The accuracy of engineering trades now takes on an added importance. An understanding of spacecraft subsystem interactions is critical in the development of a good spacecraft design, yet it is a challenge to define these interactions while the design is immature. This is currently an issue in the development of the preliminary design of the MI. The interaction and interfaces between this spacecraft and the instruments it carries are currently unclear since the mission instruments are still under development. It is imperative, however, to define these interfaces so that avionics requirements ideally suited to the mission's needs can be determined.

  5. Hydrologic control on water trade in dry land areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water resource (and agriculture) in arid/semi arid areas, especially in developing countries, is increasingly under pressure in the face of global change. While expansion of physical infrastructure such as expansion of irrigation or dam structures can help, many (such as International Monetary Fund) have emphasized introduction of other adaptive mechanisms, such as the use of financial instruments, to smooth out fluctuations in water availability (or agricultural income) caused by (even increasing) erraticity in rainfall patterns. One such mechanism is water trade, where a downstream agent makes a payment to an upstream agent for additional natural flow and if the upstream agent agrees she releases additional flow by changing her landuse pattern. However, such a mechanism is fraught with questions ranging from region to region physical and financial viability of trade in water, role of hydrology in its viability, to the challenges of implementing it in developing countries. Answers to such questions are of utmost importance if water trade is to be considered as a serious coping mechanism. This paper delves on the role that hydrology, specifically hydrologic properties, plays in viability of water trade in a region. We consider water management at basin level, each of the agents (here a ‘representative’ water use, for eg. a farmer) occupies a sub-catchment within a basin and hydrology underlying each such agent is represented by a lumped single linear reservoir model. This allows us to consider non-steady state conditions at monthly scale while calculating prices of water trade securities between contiguous agents based on partial equilibrium modeling. A novel result from this innovative approach is that equilibrium pricing of water trade depends on “effective” hydraulic conductivity of the basin as well as erraticity in rainfall. We implement and present the results for basins in Gujarat and Rajasthan, two semi-arid states in western India that are most

  6. Expanding population edges: theories, traits, and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Angela; Peterson, Christopher R

    2016-02-01

    Recent patterns of global change have highlighted the importance of understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of species range shifts and expansions. Unique demographic features, spatial processes, and selective pressures can result in the accumulation and evolution of distinctive phenotypic traits at the leading edges of expansions. We review the characteristics of expanding range margins and highlight possible mechanisms for the appearance of phenotypic differences between individuals at the leading edge and core of the range. The development of life history traits that increase dispersal or reproductive ability is predicted by theory and supported with extensive empirical evidence. Many examples of rapid phenotypic change are associated with trade-offs that may influence the persistence of the trait once expansion ends. Accounting for the effects of edge phenotypes and related trade-offs could be critical for predicting the spread of invasive species and population responses to climate change. PMID:26426311

  7. Managing dynamic epidemiological risks through trade

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Finnoff, David; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that trade, by connecting geographically isolated regions, unintentionally facilitates the spread of invasive pathogens and pests – forms of biological pollution that pose significant risks to ecosystem and human health. We use a bioeconomic framework to examine whether trade always increases private risks, focusing specifically on pathogen risks from live animal trade. When the pathogens have already established and traders bear some private risk, we find two results that run counter to the conventional wisdom on trade. First, uncertainty about the disease status of individual animals held in inventory may increase the incentives to trade relative to the disease-free case. Second, trade may facilitate reduced long-run disease prevalence among buyers. These results arise because disease risks are endogenous due to dynamic feedback processes involving valuable inventories, and markets facilitate the management of private risks that producers face with or without trade. PMID:25914431

  8. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluent trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.

  9. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  10. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  11. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1042.720..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of... further trading transactions. (b) You may trade actual emission credits as described in this subpart....

  13. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 10-00002) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export (``EFS''). SUMMARY: Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA''), International Trade...

  14. 15 CFR 30.52 - Foreign Trade Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign Trade Zones. 30.52 Section 30.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Import Requirements § 30.52 Foreign Trade Zones....

  15. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  16. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  17. 15 CFR 752.10 - Changes to the SCL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes to the SCL. 752.10 Section 752.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.10 Changes to the SCL....

  18. 78 FR 50481 - Request for Public Comments Regarding the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE). With this notice, the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) is requesting... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Public Comments Regarding the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice....

  19. 15 CFR 715.4 - Deadlines for submitting UDOC declarations, No Changes Authorization Forms, Change in Inspection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deadlines for submitting UDOC declarations, No Changes Authorization Forms, Change in Inspection Status Forms, and amendments. 715.4 Section 715.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Challenges in evaluating the impact of the trade in amphibians and reptiles on wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Hoover, Craig; Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are taken from the wild and sold commercially as food, pets, and traditional medicines. The overcollecting of some species highlights the need to assess the trade and ensure that it is not contributing to declines in wild populations. Unlike most countries, the United States tracks the imports and exports of all amphibians and reptiles. Records from 1998 to 2002 reveal a US trade of several million wild-caught amphibians and reptiles each year, although many shipments are not recorded at the species level. The magnitude and content of the global commercial trade carries even greater unknowns. The absence of accurate trade and biological information for most species makes it difficult to establish whether current take levels are sustainable. The void of information also implies that population declines due to overcollecting could be going undetected. Policy changes to acquire baseline biological information and ensure a sustainable trade are urgently needed.