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Sample records for channel array electrophoresis

  1. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2004-06-15

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  2. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-01-01

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  3. Microfabricated channel array electrophoresis for characterization and screening of enzymes using RGS-G protein interactions as a model system.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jian; Dishinger, John F; Roman, David L; Rungwanitcha, Chetwana; Neubig, Richard R; Kennedy, Robert T

    2008-07-01

    A microfluidic chip consisting of parallel channels designed for rapid electrophoretic enzyme assays was developed. Radial arrangement of channels and a common waste channel allowed chips with 16 and 36 electrophoresis units to be fabricated on a 7.62 x 7.62 cm(2) glass substrate. Fluorescence detection was achieved using a Xe arc lamp source and commercial charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to image migrating analyte zones in individual channels. Chip performance was evaluated by performing electrophoretic assays for G protein GTPase activity on chip using BODIPY-GTP as enzyme substrate. A 16-channel design proved to be useful in extracting kinetic information by allowing serial electrophoretic assays from 16 different enzyme reaction mixtures at 20 s intervals in parallel. This system was used to rapidly determine enzyme concentrations, optimal enzymatic reaction conditions, and Michaelis-Menten constants. A chip with 36 channels was used for screening for modulators of the G protein-RGS protein interaction by assaying the amount of product formed in enzyme reaction mixtures that contained test compounds. Thirty-six electrophoretic assays were performed in 30 s suggesting the potential throughput up to 4320 assays/h with appropriate sample handling procedures. Both designs showed excellent reproducibility of peak migration time and peak area. Relative standard deviations of normalized peak area of enzymatic product BODIPY-GDP were 5% and 11%, respectively, in the 16- and 36-channel designs. PMID:18465881

  4. Electrophoresis for genotyping: microtiter array diagonal gel electrophoresis on horizontal polyacrylamide gels, hydrolink, or agarose.

    PubMed

    Day, I N; Humphries, S E

    1994-11-01

    Electrophoresis of DNA has been performed traditionally in either an agarose or acrylamide gel matrix. Considerable effort has been directed to improved quality agaroses capable of high resolution, but for small fragments, such as those from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and post-PCR digests, acrylamide still offers the highest resolution. Although agarose gels can easily be prepared in an open-faced format to gain the conveniences of horizontal electrophoresis, acrylamide does not polymerize in the presence of air and the usual configurations for gel preparation lead to electrophoresis in the vertical dimension. We describe here a very simple device and method to prepare and manipulate horizontal polyacrylamide gels (H-PAGE). In addition, the open-faced horizontal arrangement enables loading of arrays of wells. Since many procedures are undertaken in standard 96-well microtiter plates, we have also designed a device which preserves the exact configuration of the 8 x 12 array and enables electrophoresis in tracks following a 71.6 degrees diagonal between wells (MADGE, microtiter array diagonal gel electrophoresis), using either acrylamide or agarose. This eliminates almost all of the staff time taken in setup, loading, and recordkeeping and offers high resolution for genotyping pattern recognition. The nature and size of the gels allow direct stacking of gels in one tank, so that a tank used typically to analyze 30-60 samples can readily be used to analyze 1000-2000 samples. The gels would also enable robotic loading. Electrophoresis allows analysis of size and charge, parameters inaccessible to liquid-phase methods: thus, genotyping size patterns, variable length repeats, and haplotypes is possible, as well as adaptability to typing of point variations using protocols which create a difference detectable by electrophoresis. PMID:7864363

  5. Multichannel microchip electrophoresis device fabricated in polycarbonate with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shadpour, Hamed; Hupert, Mateusz L; Patterson, Donald; Liu, Changgeng; Galloway, Michelle; Stryjewski, Wieslaw; Goettert, Jost; Soper, Steven A

    2007-02-01

    A 16-channel microfluidic chip with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array is presented. The microfluidic network consisted of 16 separation channels that were hot-embossed into polycarbonate (PC) using a high-precision micromilled metal master. All channels were 40 microm deep and 60 microm wide with an effective separation length of 40 mm. A gold (Au) sensor array was lithographically patterned onto a PC cover plate and assembled to the fluidic chip via thermal bonding in such a way that a pair of Au microelectrodes (60 microm wide with a 5 microm spacing) was incorporated into each of the 16 channels and served as independent contact conductivity detectors. The spacing between the corresponding fluidic reservoirs for each separation channel was set to 9 mm, which allowed for loading samples and buffers to all 40 reservoirs situated on the microchip in only five pipetting steps using an 8-channel pipettor. A printed circuit board (PCB) with platinum (Pt) wires was used to distribute the electrophoresis high-voltage to all reservoirs situated on the fluidic chip. Another PCB was used for collecting the conductivity signals from the patterned Au microelectrodes. The device performance was evaluated using microchip capillary zone electrophoresis (mu-CZE) of amino acid, peptide, and protein mixtures as well as oligonucleotides that were separated via microchip capillary electrochromatography (mu-CEC). The separations were performed with an electric field (E) of 90 V/cm and were completed in less than 4 min in all cases. The conductivity detection was carried out using a bipolar pulse voltage waveform with a pulse amplitude of +/-0.6 V and a frequency of 6.0 kHz. The conductivity sensor array concentration limit of detection (SNR = 3) was determined to be 7.1 microM for alanine. The separation efficiency was found to be 6.4 x 10(4), 2.0 x 10(3), 4.8 x 10(3), and 3.4 x 10(2) plates for the mu-CEC of the oligonucleotides and mu-CZE of the amino acids, peptides

  6. Cleaning of contaminated channel electron multiplier arrays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, F. E.; Hunter, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Polymerized organic materials found in vacuum systems frequently contaminate the individual channels (which can be as small as 15 microns) of an oil-pumped channel electron multiplier array used as a vacuum UV- to visible-radiation conversion device. It is shown that exposure to an oxygen plasma is an effective means of decontaminating the channels, thereby restoring the sensitivity of the device.

  7. Development of micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection for parallel electrophoresis on array microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Bowei; Jiang, Lei; Xie, Hua; Gao, Yan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-09-01

    A micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection method is developed for parallel electrophoresis on a multi-channel LIF detection system. The system has a home-made device that could individually control 16-port solenoid valves and a high-voltage power supply. The laser beam is excitated and distributes to the array separation channels for detection. The hybrid Glass-PDMS microfluidic chip comprises two common reservoirs, four separation channels coupled to their respective pneumatic micropumps and two reference channels. Due to use of pressure as a driving force, the proposed method has no sample bias effect for separation. There is only one high-voltage supply needed for separation without relying on the number of channels, which is significant for high-throughput analysis, and the time for sample loading is shortened to 1 s. In addition, the integrated micropumps can provide the versatile interface for coupling with other function units to satisfy the complicated demands. The performance is verified by separation of DNA marker and Hepatitis B virus DNA samples. And this method is also expected to show the potential throughput for the DNA analysis in the field of disease diagnosis. PMID:19681052

  8. Signal Detection of Multi-Channel Capillary Electrophoresis Chip Based on CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hongfeng; Yan, Weiping; Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Jiechao; Zhu, Jieying

    2012-12-01

    A kind of multi-channel capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip signal detection system based on CCD was developed. The output signal of the CCD sensor was processed by a series of pre-processing circuits and ADC, and then it was collected by the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip which communicated with a host computer. The core in FPGA was designed to control the signal flow of the CCD and transfer the data to PC based on a Nios II embedded soft-processor. The application of PC was used to store the data and demonstrate the curve. The measurement of the fluorescent signals for different concentration Rhodamine B dyes is presented and the comparison with other detection systems is also discussed.

  9. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingnan; Long, Jiang; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved. PMID:26821023

  10. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingnan; Long, Jiang; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved. PMID:26821023

  11. Miniaturized high throughput detection system for capillary array electrophoresis on chip with integrated light emitting diode array as addressed ring-shaped light source.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangning; Liang, Qionglin; Mu, Xuan; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming

    2009-03-01

    A novel miniaturized, portable fluorescence detection system for capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) on a microfluidic chip was developed, consisting of a scanning light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a single point photoelectric sensor. Without charge coupled detector (CCD), lens, fibers and moving parts, the system was extremely simplified. Pulsed driving of the LED significantly increased the sensitivity, and greatly reduced the power consumption and photobleaching effect. The highly integrated system was robust and easy to use. All the advantages realized the concept of a portable micro-total analysis system (micro-TAS), which could work on a single universal serial bus (USB) port. Compared with traditional CAE detecting systems, the current system could scan the radial capillary array with high scanning rate. An 8-channel CAE of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled arginine (Arg) on chip was demonstrated with this system, resulting in a limit of detection (LOD) of 640 amol. PMID:19224025

  12. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Scherer, James R; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ~20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex(®) 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification. PMID:21133459

  13. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, James R.; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ˜20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex® 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification.

  14. Channel capacity of an array system for Gaussian channels with applications to combining and noise cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    1996-01-01

    A closed-form expression for the capacity of an array of correlated Gaussian channels is derived. It is shown that when signal and noise are independent, the array of observables can be replaced with a single observable without diminishing the capacity of the array channel. Examples are provided to illustrate the dependence of channel capacity on noise correlation for two- and three-channel arrays.

  15. Channel Capacity of an Array System for Gaussian Channels With Applications to Combining and Noise Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    1996-01-01

    A closed-form expression for the capacity of an array of correlated Gaussian channels is derived. It is shown that when signal and noise are independent, the array of observables can be replaced with a single observable without diminishing the capacity of the array channel. Examples are provided to illustrate the dependence of channel capacity on noise correlation for two- and three-channel arrays.

  16. In-channel amperometric detection for microchip electrophoresis using a wireless isolated potentiostat

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekara, Dulan B.; Hulvey, Matthew K.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of microchip electrophoresis (ME) with amperometric detection leads to a number of analytical challenges that are associated with isolating the detector from the high voltages used for the separation. While methods such as end-channel alignment and the use of decouplers have been employed, they have limitations. A less common method has been to utilize an electrically isolated potentiostat. This approach allows placement of the working electrode directly in the separation channel without using a decoupler. This paper explores the use of microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (ME-EC) with an electrically isolated potentiostat for the separation and in-channel detection of several biologically important anions. The separation employed negative polarity voltages and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB, as a buffer modifier) for the separation of nitrite (NO2-), glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and tyrosine (Tyr). A half-wave potential (E½) shift of approximately negative 500 mV was observed for NO2- and H2O2 standards in the in-channel configuration compared to end channel. Higher separation efficiencies were observed for both NO2- and H2O2 with the in-channel detection configuration. The limits of detection were approximately two-fold lower and the sensitivity was approximately two-fold higher for in-channel detection of nitrite when compared to end-channel. The application of this microfluidic device for the separation and detection of biomarkers related to oxidative stress is described. PMID:21437918

  17. Large Array Channel Capacity in the Presence of Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model for a large array ground receiver system for use in deep-space communications, and analyze the resulting array channel capacity. The model includes effects of array geometry, time-dependent spacecraft orbital trajectory, point and extended interference sources, and elevation-dependent noise and tropospheric channel variations. Channel capacity is expressed as the ratio of determinants of covariance matrices characterizing source, interference, and additive noise, and then reduced to a simpler quadratic form more amenable to analysis and numerical computation. This formulation facilitates inclusion of array and channel characteristics into the model, as well as comparison of optimal, suboptimal, and equivalent single antenna configurations on achievable throughput. Realistic examples of ground array channel capacity calculations are presented, demonstrating the impact of array geometry, planetary interference sources, and array combining algorithm design upon the achievable data throughput.

  18. Fast screening of rice knockout mutants by multi-channel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nan, He; Lee, Sang-Won; Kang, Seong Ho

    2012-08-15

    A multi-channel microchip electrophoresis (MC-ME) system with a laser-induced fluorescence detector was developed for the fast simultaneous detection of rice knockout mutants in genetically modified (GM) rice. In addition, three parallel separation channels were fabricated on a glass microchip to investigate the possibility of high-throughput screening of amplified-polymerase chain reaction products representing wild-type rice and mutants. The MC-ME system was developed to simultaneously record data on all channels using specifically designed electrodes for an even distribution of electric fields, an expanded laser beam for excitation, a 10× objective lens to capture emissions, and a charge coupled device camera for detection. Under a programmed electric field strength and a sieving gel matrix of 0.7% poly(ethylene oxide) (M(r)=8,000,000), T-DNA-inserted rice mutants, two standard wild-type rice lines, and six rice knockout mutants were analyzed within 4 min using three parallel channels on the microchip. Compared to conventional microchip electrophoresis, the MC-ME method is a valid and practical way to effectively analyze multiple samples in parallel for the identification of GM rice without any loss of resolving power or reproducibility. The MC-ME method was more than 15 times faster than traditional slab gel electrophoresis and proved to be a powerful tool for high-throughput screening of GM rice with high sensitivity, efficiency, and reproducibility. PMID:22841075

  19. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  20. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  1. Automatic Combination of Microfluidic Nanoliter-Scale Droplet Array with High-Speed Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhu, Y; Zhang, N-Q; Fang, Q

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a novel approach for interfacing a microfluidic two-dimensional droplet array to a high-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) system. Picoliter-scale sample injection (ca. 200 pL) from a nanoliter-scale droplet array covered by nonvolatile oil was automatically achieved using the spontaneous injection mode, without the interference from the cover oil and the need of special droplet extraction interface as in previously reported systems. The system was applied in consecutive separations of 25 different samples of amino acids with a whole separation time less than 15 min, as well as on-line monitoring of in-droplet derivatizing reaction of amino acids by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) over 3 hours. High separation speed (up to 100 samples per hour) and high separation efficiency (up to 9.22 × 10(5) N/m) were achieved. PMID:27230468

  2. Automatic Combination of Microfluidic Nanoliter-Scale Droplet Array with High-Speed Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, N.-Q.; Fang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a novel approach for interfacing a microfluidic two-dimensional droplet array to a high-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) system. Picoliter-scale sample injection (ca. 200 pL) from a nanoliter-scale droplet array covered by nonvolatile oil was automatically achieved using the spontaneous injection mode, without the interference from the cover oil and the need of special droplet extraction interface as in previously reported systems. The system was applied in consecutive separations of 25 different samples of amino acids with a whole separation time less than 15 min, as well as on-line monitoring of in-droplet derivatizing reaction of amino acids by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) over 3 hours. High separation speed (up to 100 samples per hour) and high separation efficiency (up to 9.22 × 105 N/m) were achieved. PMID:27230468

  3. Automatic Combination of Microfluidic Nanoliter-Scale Droplet Array with High-Speed Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, N.-Q.; Fang, Q.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we developed a novel approach for interfacing a microfluidic two-dimensional droplet array to a high-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) system. Picoliter-scale sample injection (ca. 200 pL) from a nanoliter-scale droplet array covered by nonvolatile oil was automatically achieved using the spontaneous injection mode, without the interference from the cover oil and the need of special droplet extraction interface as in previously reported systems. The system was applied in consecutive separations of 25 different samples of amino acids with a whole separation time less than 15 min, as well as on-line monitoring of in-droplet derivatizing reaction of amino acids by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) over 3 hours. High separation speed (up to 100 samples per hour) and high separation efficiency (up to 9.22 × 105 N/m) were achieved.

  4. Rapid sizing of short tandem repeat alleles using capillary array electrophoresis and energy-transfer fluorescent primers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Ju, J.; Carpenter, B.A.; Atherton, J.M.; Sensabaugh, G.F.; Mathies, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    Genetic typing of the short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism HUMTHO1 has been performed using capillary array electroporesis and energy-transfer fluorescent dye-labeled polymerase chain reaction primers. Target alleles were amplified by use of primers labeled with one fluorescein at the 5` end and another fluorescein at the position of the 15th (modified) base to produce fragments that fluoresce in the green ({lambda}{sub max} = 525 nm). Unknown alleles were electrophoretically separated together with a standard ladder made up of alleles having 6, 7, 8, and 9 four-base pair repeats, each of which was amplified with an energy-transfer primer having a donor fluorescein at the 5` end and a rhodamine acceptor at the position of the 7th (modified) base to produce standard fragments fluorescing in the red (>590 nm). Separations are complete in less than 20 min and allow sizing with an absolute error or accuracy of less than 0.4 base pair and an average standard deviation of nearly 0.5 base pair with no correction for mobility shift and cross-talk between the fluorescence channels. This work establishes feasibility of high-speed, high-throughput STR typing of double-stranded DNA fragments using capillary array electrophoresis. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Microfluidic-based metal enhanced fluorescence for capillary electrophoresis by Ag nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chenyu; Cao, Zhen; Deng, Junhong; Huang, Zhifeng; Xu, Zheng; Fu, Junxue; Yobas, Levent

    2014-06-01

    As metal nanorods show much higher metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) than metal nanospheres, microfluidic-based MEF is first explored with Ag nanorod (ND) arrays made by oblique angle deposition. By measuring the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) solution sandwiched between the Ag NDs and a piece of cover slip, the enhancement factors (EFs) are found as 3.7 ± 0.64 and 6.74 ± 2.04, for a solution thickness at 20.8 μm and 10 μm, respectively. Because of the strong plasmonic coupling between the adjacent Ag NDs, only the emission of the fluorophores present in the three-dimensional NDs array gets enhanced. Thus, the corresponding effective enhancement factors (EEFs) are revealed to be relatively close, 259 ± 92 and 340 ± 102, respectively. To demonstrate the application of MEF in microfluidic systems, a multilayer of SiO2 NDs/Ag NDs is integrated with a capillary electrophoresis device. At a microchannel depth of 10 μm, an enhancement of 6.5 fold is obtained for amino acids separation detection. These results are very encouraging and open the possibility of MEF applications for the Ag ND arrays decorated microchannels. With the miniaturization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic-based MEF by Ag ND arrays will likely find more applications with further enhancement.

  6. High-throughput genotyping using horizontal polyacrylamide gels with wells arranged for microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE).

    PubMed

    Day, I N; Humphries, S E; Richards, S; Norton, D; Reid, M

    1995-11-01

    Genotyping (typing of genetic variation) typically involves PCR followed by an allele-specific oligonucleotide-binding assay, restriction enzyme digest or direct check of the outcome of a PCR designed to distinguish genotype. Electrophoresis can resolve "bound" from "free" oligonucleotide, as well as resolve PCR fragments and digests, but it is traditionally regarded as cumbersome and laborious in comparison with solution assays. Here we describe simple horizontal polyacrylamide gels which can receive a 96-well array of samples directly, which can be stacked in tanks and which are bound to a robust support of glass. The line of electrophoresis is on a 71.6 degree diagonal relative to the columns of the array (microplate array diagonal gel electrophoresis [MADGE]). Several thousand reactions can conveniently be analyzed in a shoebox-sized apparatus in a couple of hours. High resolution is achieved in the range of 20-1000 bp, information processing is simplified and automation is possible. PMID:8588924

  7. Nineteen-Channel Receive Array and Four-Channel Transmit Array Coil for Cervical Spinal Cord Imaging at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Keil, Boris; Guerin, Bastien; Setsompop, Kawin; Serano, Peter; Mareyam, Azma; Hoecht, Philipp; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To design and validate a radiofrequency (RF) array coil for cervical spinal cord imaging at 7T. Methods A 19-channel receive array with a four-channel transmit array was developed on a close-fitting coil former at 7T. Transmit efficiency and specific absorption rate were evaluated in a B1+ mapping study and an electromagnetic model. Receive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were evaluated and compared with a commercial 3T 19-channel head–neck array and a 7T four-channel spine array. The performance of the array was qualitatively demonstrated in human volunteers using high-resolution imaging (down to 300 μm in-plane). Results The transmit and receive arrays showed good bench performance. The SNR was approximately 4.2-fold higher in the 7T receive array at the location of the cord with respect to the 3T coil. The g-factor results showed an additional acceleration was possible with the 7T array. In vivo imaging was feasible and showed high SNR and tissue contrast. Conclusion The highly parallel transmit and receive arrays were demonstrated to be fit for spinal cord imaging at 7T. The high sensitivity of the receive coil combined with ultra-high field will likely improve investigations of microstructure and tissue segmentation in the healthy and pathological spinal cord. PMID:23963998

  8. Determination of dissociation constants of pharmacologically active xanthones by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomu; Gong, Suxuan; Bo, Tao; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2004-12-24

    In this article, the dissociation constants (pKa) of 10 pharmacologically active xanthones isolated from herbal medicine Securidaca inappendiculata were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection. The pKa values determined by the method based on the electrophoretic mobilities (calculated from migration times) have been proved by the method based on UV absorbance calculated from the online spectra corresponding peaks. No conspicuous difference was observed between the two methods with acceptable reproducibility. Two pKa values (pKa1 and pKa2) were found for four xanthones while generally the 10 compounds possess the pKa values ranging from 6.4 to 9.2. PMID:15641365

  9. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  10. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of candidate genes for reliable identification of alleles by capillary array electrophoresis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the reliability of capillary array electrophoresis-SSCP to determine if it can be used to identify novel alleles of candidate genes in a germplasm collection. Both strands of three different size fragments (160 bp, 245 pb and 437 bp) that differed by one or more nucleotides in sequen...

  11. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the development of simple, robust, MSHA-acceptable clamping unit. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  12. Lipid bilayer array for simultaneous recording of ion channel activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Nasu, Tomohiro; Oshima, Azusa; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an array of stable and reduced-solvent bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) formed in microfabricated silicon chips. BLMs were first vertically formed simultaneously and then turned 90° in order to realize a horizontal BLM array. Since the present BLMs are mechanically stable and robust, the BLMs survive this relatively tough process. Typically, a ˜60% yield in simultaneous BLM formation over 9 sites was obtained. Parallel recordings of gramicidin channel activities from different BLMs were demonstrated. The present system has great potential as a platform of BLM-based high throughput drug screening for ion channel proteins.

  13. Two-color excitation system for fluorescence detection in DNA sequencing by capillary array electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Yeung, Edward S

    2002-05-01

    Two computer-controlled galvanometer scanners are adapted for two-dimensional step scanning across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. 488 nm and 514 nm laser lines from the same Ar(+) laser were alternately coupled for two-color excitation in each capillary. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries and the excitation wavelengths. Based on the differences in absorption spectra for the dyes, the peak-height ratios in the 488 nm and 514 nm excitation electropherograms were used for peak identification for multiplexed capillary electrophoresis. Successful base calling for 24-capillary DNA sequencing was achieved to 450 bp with 99% accuracy. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission. PMID:12116160

  14. Simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in milk by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-10-14

    This article describes the development of a simple analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection (DAD) for the first time. Ultraviolet absorption at wavelengths of 214 and 280 nm was applied for the detection of melamine and HMF, respectively. Milk samples were extracted with 1% trichloroacetic acid using a high-speed blender and ultrasonication. After centrifugation and filtration, the extract was analyzed by CE-DAD directly. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was employed as the separation mode by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the electrolyte. Under optimal separation conditions, melamine, HMF, and interferents were well resolved. The linear dynamic ranges were 0.05-100 microg/mL for melamine (R(2) = 0.9996) and 0.1-100 microg/mL for HMF (R(2) = 0.9997). The assay detection limits were 0.047 microg/mL and 0.067 microg/mL for melamine and HMF, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for the assay recovery rate and repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of melamine and HMF in real milk samples, and the results of melamine were comparable to those obtained using HPLC-UV reference method. PMID:19761188

  15. Integrated platform for detection of DNA sequence variants using capillary array electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Qingbro, Li; Liu, Zhaowei; Monroe, Heidi M; Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2002-08-01

    We have developed a highly versatile platform that performs temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) for mutation/single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, sequencing and mutation/SNP genotyping for identification of sequence variants on an automated 24-, 96- or 192-capillary array instrument. In the first mode, multiple DNA samples consisting of homoduplexes and heteroduplexes are separated by CE, during which a temperature gradient is applied that covers all possible temperatures of 50% melting equilibrium (Tms) for the samples. The differences in Tms result in separation of homoduplexes from heteroduplexes, thereby identifying the presence of DNA variants. The sequencing mode is then used to determine the exact location of the mutation/SNPs in the DNA variants. The first two modes allow the rapid identification of variants from the screening of a large number of samples. Only the variants need to be sequenced. The third mode utilizes multiplexed single-base extensions (SBEs) to survey mutations and SNPs at the known sites of DNA sequence. The TGCE approach combined with sequencing and SBE is fast and cost-effective for high-throughput mutation/SNP detection.

  16. Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiyong

    This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the

  17. Curved-channel microchannel array plates. [photoelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The microchannel array plate (MCP) is a photoelectric detector with an imaging capability comparable to that of a photographic plate. Recently MCPs in which the channels are curved to inhibit ion feedback have become available. These devices represent a major advance in MCP technology, since a single curved-channel MCP can be operated stably at high gain in the pulse-counting mode without any of the problems of stability of response or short lifetime reported for 'chevron' MCP detectors. Attention is given to the mode of operation of channel electron multipliers (CEM) and MCP, curved-channel MCP, test procedures, and performance characteristics. The accumulated test data show that the fundamental operating characteristics of the curved-channel MCP are directly related to those for the CEM.

  18. 64-Channel, 5 GSPS ADC Module with Switched Capacitor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, M.; Huan, H.; Wakely, S.

    2013-08-01

    We present a 5 GSPS ADC/Data processing module with up to 64 channels and 2048 cells per channel, designed for fast-sampling, front-end applications. This is a 6U VME board that incorporates 16 pieces DRS4 (http://drs.web.psi.ch, [1]) Switched Capacitor Array chips developed at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. The 16 DRS4 chips are grouped in four independent input blocks. A block, with a geometric size of 43×120 mm, has four pieces DRS4 chips, four pieces AD9222 converters, and one Altera Stratix III FPGA. Each DRS4 chip has eight channels and each channel has 1024 sampling cells, which can be daisy-chained for larger sampling depth. This feature allows for a great level of flexibility in choosing the number of channels relative to capacitor array size, for a particular application. The first prototype Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was designed for a sampling depth of 2048 cells and 16 channels in a 42 mm wide block, i.e. 64 channels for the 6U VME board. This compact form factor allows for these input blocks to be used as front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) cameras. In this VME board, the four blocks are fully independent and can run each in different modes without any conflict. A global FPGA, also a Stratix III device, provides control and interfacing. The module can run with a local oscillator or with input system clocks in the range of 20-550 MHz. The front panel is fitted with a 2.5 Gbps serial link transceiver.

  19. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  20. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  1. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  2. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  3. Biased reptation model with electroosmosis for DNA electrophoresis in microchannels with a sub-micron pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Chuen Chan, Yick; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2011-08-01

    A novel biased reptation model with electroosmosis (BRE) is proposed for a long-chain DNA electrophoresis separation mechanism in microchannels with a sub-micron pillar array. The BRE model incorporates effective electroosmosis into the classical biased reptation model (BRM). Initial investigation of the BRM with additional electroosmosis flow was conducted. In order to validate the proposed BRE model, the apparent electrophoretic mobilities of different sizes of long-chain DNA, T4 DNA and lambda DNA at different electric fields were measured in a microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an embedded sub-micron pillar array. The current-monitoring method was used to measure the electroosmotic mobility in the microfabricated electrophoresis chip. The proposed BRE model shows much better agreement with the experimental results compared to the classical BRM and the semi-empirical results based on the biased reptation with fluctuation (BRF). The average standard error between our proposed BRE model and experimental data is 8.13% without any fitting parameters, while the errors are 343.01% for the BRM and 17.54% for the BRF with one fitting parameter, respectively.

  4. Dual-channel capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous determination of cations and anions.

    PubMed

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2016-05-13

    An original electrophoresis apparatus for simultaneous rapid determination of cations and anions has been designed and tested. The separation part of the apparatus consists of two identical fused-silica capillaries, each with a length of 10.5cm and inner diameter of 25μm. The injection space is formed by the crossing of four channels in a plexiglass cross-piece. The capillaries pass through two opposing channels and their injection ends are located opposite one another at a distance of approx. 0.5mm in the centre of the crossing point. The exit ends of the capillaries are placed in vessels containing the background electrolyte in which are immersed the electrodes of a high-voltage source. Contactless conductivity detectors with semi-cylindrical electrodes are located 2cm from the exit ends of the capillaries. The injection part of the apparatus consists of two piezoelectric micro-pumps bringing the solution through another channel in the cross-piece to the injection ends of the capillary. During the injection, the sample is brought through one of them and is injected electrokinetically for a defined time. Then the sample zone is forced out of the injection space by a stream of background electrolyte from the second micro-pump. The timing of the injection process is computer-controlled. Thus the equipment can be considered to constitute electrophoresis in one capillary with injection into its centre. The use of short capillaries and miniature micro-pumps without other mechanical components enabled the construction of the apparatus on a board with dimensions of 20×25cm. The proposed equipment was used to test simultaneous separation of a mixture of cations and anions, NH4(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), ClO3(-) and F(-), in BGE with composition 500mM HAc+20mM Tris+2mM 18-crown-6 (pH 3.3). Baseline separation of all the components was achieved in time less than 1min. Quantification of the content of nitrate nitrogen (determined as

  5. A multi-channel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high throughput protein separation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D.; Jin, Jian

    2009-10-02

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A Counter Free-Flow elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50percent or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 L/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 g per channel and reduced resolution.

  6. Triple-channel portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with individual background electrolytes for the concurrent separations of anionic and cationic species.

    PubMed

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Le, Minh Duc; Sáiz, Jorge; Duong, Hong Anh; Koenka, Israel Joel; Pham, Hung Viet; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-03-10

    The portable capillary electrophoresis instrument is automated and features three independent channels with different background electrolytes to allow the concurrent optimized determination of three different categories of charged analytes. The fluidic system is based on a miniature manifold which is based on mechanically milled channels for injection of samples and buffers. The planar manifold pattern was designed to minimize the number of electronic valves required for each channel. The system utilizes pneumatic pressurization to transport solutions at the grounded as well as the high voltage side of the separation capillaries. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 (w) × 35 (d) × 15 cm (h) and a weight of about 15 kg. It can operate continuously for 8 h in the battery-powered mode if only one electrophoresis channel is in use, or for about 2.5 h in the case of simultaneous employment of all three channels. The different operations, i.e. capillary flushing, rinsing of the interfaces at both capillary ends, sample injection and electrophoretic separation, are activated automatically with a control program featuring a graphical user interface. For demonstration, the system was employed successfully for the concurrent separation of different inorganic cations and anions, organic preservatives, additives and artificial sweeteners in various beverage and food matrices. PMID:26893094

  7. Evaluation of in-channel amperometric detection using a dual-channel microchip electrophoresis device and a two-electrode potentiostat for reverse polarity separations

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Diogenes; Gunasekara, Dulan B.; Pichetsurnthorn, Pann; da Silva, José A. F.; de Abreu, Fabiane C.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In-channel amperometric detection combined with dual-channel microchip electrophoresis is evaluated using a two-electrode isolated potentiostat for reverse polarity separations. The device consists of two separate channels with the working and reference electrodes placed at identical positions relative to the end of the channel, enabling noise subtraction. In previous reports of this configuration, normal polarity and a three-electrode detection system were used. In the two-electrode detection system described here, the electrode in the reference channel acts as both the counter and reference. The effect of electrode placement in the channels on noise and detector response was investigated using nitrite, tyrosine, and hydrogen peroxide as model compounds. The effects of electrode material and size and type of reference electrode on noise and the potential shift of hydrodynamic voltammograms for the model compounds were determined. In addition, the performance of two- and three-electrode configurations using Pt and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes was compared. Although the signal was attenuated with the Pt reference, the noise was also significantly reduced. It was found that lower LOD were obtained for all three compounds with the dual-channel configuration compared to single-channel, in-channel detection. The dual-channel method was then used for the detection of nitrite in a dermal microdialysis sample obtained from a sheep following nitroglycerin administration. PMID:25256669

  8. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  9. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  10. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  11. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  12. Stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, L. P.; Dutra, E. C.; Compton, S. M.; Jacoby, B. A.; Raphaelian, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    There are many types of X-ray diodes that are used for X-ray flux or spectroscopic measurements and for estimating the spectral shape of the VUV to soft X-ray spectrum. However, a need arose for a low cost, robust X-ray diode to use for experiments in hostile environments on multiple platforms, and for experiments that utilize forces that may destroy the diode(s). Since the typical proposed use required a small size with a minimal single line-of-sight, a parallel array could not be used. So, a stacked, filtered multi-channel X-ray diode array was developed, called the MiniXRD. To achieve significant cost savings while maintaining robustness and ease of field setup, repair, and replacement, we designed the system to be modular. The filters were manufactured in-house and cover the range from 450 eV to 5000 eV. To achieve the line-of-sight accuracy needed, we developed mounts and laser alignment techniques. We modeled and tested elements of the diode design at NSTec Livermore Operations (NSTec / LO) to determine temporal response and dynamic range, leading to diode shape and circuitry changes to optimize impedance and charge storage. We fielded individual and stacked systems at several national facilities as ancillary `ride-along' diagnostics to test and improve the design usability. We present the MiniXRD system performance which supports consideration as a viable low-cost alternative for multiple-channel low-energy X-ray measurements. This diode array is currently at Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6.

  13. A 64-channel 3T array coil for accelerated brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Blau, James N.; Biber, Stephan; Hoecht, Philipp; Tountcheva, Veneta; Setsompop, Kawin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    A 64-channel brain array coil was developed and compared to a 32-channel array constructed with the same coil former geometry in order to precisely isolate the benefit of the two-fold increase in array coil elements. The constructed coils were developed for a standard clinical 3T MRI scanner and used a contoured head-shape curved former around the occipital pole and tapered in at the neck to both improve sensitivity and patient comfort. Additionally, the design is a compact, split-former design intended for robust daily use. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification (G-factor) for parallel imaging were quantitatively evaluated in human imaging and compared to a size and shape-matched 32-channel array coil. For unaccelerated imaging, the 64-channel array provided similar SNR in the brain center to the 32-channel array and 1.3-fold more SNR in the brain cortex. Reduced noise amplification during highly parallel imaging of the 64-channel array provided the ability to accelerate at approximately one unit higher at a given noise amplification compared to the sized-matched 32-channel array. For example, with a 4-fold acceleration rate, the central brain and cortical SNR of the 64-channel array was 1.2 and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, compared to the 32-channel array. The characteristics of the coil are demonstrated in accelerated brain imaging. PMID:22851312

  14. Plasmonic channel waveguides in random arrays of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Eduardo; Coello, Victor; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E; Chen, Yiting; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-07-25

    We report detailed characterization of surface plasmon-polariton guiding along 1-, 1.5- and 2-μm-wide channels in high-density (~75 μm-2) random arrays of gold 70-nm-high and 50-nm-wide nanoparticles fabricated on a 70-nm-thin gold film supported by a 170-μm-thick silica substrate. The mode propagation losses, effective index dispersion, and scattering parameters are characterized using leakage-radiation microscopy, in direct and Fourier planes, in the wavelength range of 740-840 nm. It is found that the mode supported by 2-μm-wide channels propagates over > 10 μm in straight waveguides, with the corresponding S-bends and Y-splitters functioning reasonably well. The results show that the SPP waves can efficiently be guided by narrow scattering-free channels cut through randomly corrugated surface regions. The potential of this waveguiding mechanism is yet to be fully explored by tuning the scattering mean-free path and localization length via the density and size of random nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the results obtained are encouraging and promising diverse applications of these waveguide components in plasmonic circuitry. PMID:27464159

  15. Multiple-point electrochemical detection for a dual-channel hybrid PDMS-glass microchip electrophoresis device.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Alvarez, Mario; Fernández-la-Villa, Ana; Pozo-Ayuso, Diego F; Fernández-Abedul, María Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín

    2009-10-01

    A new PDMS-based dual-channel MCE with multiple-point amperometric detection has been evaluated. Electrophoresis has been optimised in a single-channel device. Pretreatment with 0.1 M NaOH is very important for increasing and stabilising the EOF. The precision is adequate for a day's work in terms of both peak current and migration time. The RSD of the peak current for five successive signals was 1.9, 2.4 and 3.1% for dopamine, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. RSD for the migration time was always less than 1.3%, which demonstrates the stability of the EOF and the possibility of running multiple experiments in the same microchip. The adequate inter-microchip precision as well as the rapid and simple manufacturing procedure indicates the disposable nature of the PDMS microchips. A dual-channel device with very simple multiple-point amperometric detection is proposed here. Elasticity of the PDMS allows removing the polymer slightly and aligning gold wires working electrodes. Injection can be performed from each of the sample reservoirs or from both simultaneously. The distance between the separation channels is critical for obtaining adequate signals as well as the introduction of a high-voltage electrode in the buffer reservoir. Simultaneous measurement of the same analytes in both channels is possible by applying the same potential. Moreover, since no cross-separation is produced, different analytes or samples can be simultaneously measured. PMID:19802849

  16. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  17. Screening determination of pharmaceutical pollutants in different water matrices using dual-channel capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Le, Minh Duc; Duong, Hong Anh; Nguyen, Manh Huy; Sáiz, Jorge; Pham, Hung Viet; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the employment of purpose-made dual-channel compact capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) as a simple and inexpensive solution for screening determination of various pharmaceutical pollutants frequently occurring in surface water and hospital wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam is reported. Five negatively charged pharmaceutically active compounds, namely ibuprofen, diclofenac, bezafibrate, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid were determined using the first channel whereas three positively charged ones, namely diphenhydramine, metoprolol and atenolol were determined with the second channel of the CE-C(4)D instrument. Two different background electrolytes (BGEs) were used in these two CE channels independently. The best detection limits achieved were in the range of 0.2-0.8mg/L without sample pre-concentration. Enrichment factors up to 200 were obtainable with the inclusion of a solid phase extraction step. Good agreement between results obtained from CE-C(4)D and those with the standard confirmation method (HPLC-DAD) was achieved, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. PMID:27591645

  18. DNA electrophoresis in a nanofence array†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Gyu; Olson, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of an oxidized silicon “nanofence array” for long DNA electrophoresis. The device consists of a periodic array of post-filled regions (the nanofences) alternating with empty channel regions. Even in this prototype version, the nanofence array provides the resolving power of a hexagonal nanopost array without requiring any direct-write nanopatterning steps such as electron-beam lithography. Through detailed single molecule investigations, we demonstrate that the origin of the resolving power of the nanofence array is not a reduction in band broadening, which might be expected from the theories for DNA electrophoresis in post arrays. Rather, the enhanced stretching of the hooked DNA by the uniform electric field between nanofences increases the efficiency of the collisions. PMID:22388662

  19. High channel count and high precision channel spacing multi-wavelength laser array for future PICs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuechun; Li, Simin; Chen, Xiangfei; Li, Lianyan; Li, Jingsi; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Jilin; Zhang, Yunshan; Tang, Song; Hou, Lianping; Marsh, John H; Qiu, Bocang

    2014-01-01

    Multi-wavelength semiconductor laser arrays (MLAs) have wide applications in wavelength multiplexing division (WDM) networks. In spite of their tremendous potential, adoption of the MLA has been hampered by a number of issues, particularly wavelength precision and fabrication cost. In this paper, we report high channel count MLAs in which the wavelengths of each channel can be determined precisely through low-cost standard μm-level photolithography/holographic lithography and the reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technique. 60-wavelength MLAs with good wavelength spacing uniformity have been demonstrated experimentally, in which nearly 83% lasers are within a wavelength deviation of ±0.20 nm, corresponding to a tolerance of ±0.032 nm in the period pitch. As a result of employing the equivalent phase shift technique, the single longitudinal mode (SLM) yield is nearly 100%, while the theoretical yield of standard DFB lasers is only around 33.3%. PMID:25488111

  20. High channel count and high precision channel spacing multi-wavelength laser array for future PICs

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuechun; Li, Simin; Chen, Xiangfei; Li, Lianyan; Li, Jingsi; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Jilin; Zhang, Yunshan; Tang, Song; Hou, Lianping; Marsh, John H.; Qiu, Bocang

    2014-01-01

    Multi-wavelength semiconductor laser arrays (MLAs) have wide applications in wavelength multiplexing division (WDM) networks. In spite of their tremendous potential, adoption of the MLA has been hampered by a number of issues, particularly wavelength precision and fabrication cost. In this paper, we report high channel count MLAs in which the wavelengths of each channel can be determined precisely through low-cost standard μm-level photolithography/holographic lithography and the reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technique. 60-wavelength MLAs with good wavelength spacing uniformity have been demonstrated experimentally, in which nearly 83% lasers are within a wavelength deviation of ±0.20 nm, corresponding to a tolerance of ±0.032 nm in the period pitch. As a result of employing the equivalent phase shift technique, the single longitudinal mode (SLM) yield is nearly 100%, while the theoretical yield of standard DFB lasers is only around 33.3%. PMID:25488111

  1. DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis: use of a two-laser-two-window intensified diode array detection system.

    PubMed

    Carson, S; Cohen, A S; Belenkii, A; Ruiz-Martinez, M C; Berka, J; Karger, B L

    1993-11-15

    This paper presents the principles of an instrument designed for DNA sequencing using the standard four-dye-labeled primer approach. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and an intensified diode array detector. An important goal of the instrument design has been a detection system that possesses high sensitivity and high spectral resolution. Based on an analysis of the spectral characteristics of the four standard dye-labeled primers, FAM, JOE, ROX, and TAMRA, the strategy has been to use a two-laser-two-window approach, in which a 488-nm argon ion laser illuminates one window, followed by a 543-nm helium-neon laser illuminating the second window. The two-window approach has no moving parts and permits continuous illumination. Spectral resolution is provided by a grating spectrograph and a cooled intensified diode array. The estimated limit of detection for the standard four dye-labeled primers was found to be in the sample concentration range of 1 x 10(-12) M. To achieve these low levels, complete free-radical polymerization of polyacrylamide has been found to be necessary in order to reduce background noise. In addition, reduction in background noise was accomplished by continual purging of the anodic reservoir in order to prevent electrolysis products from entering the capillary. Separation of DNA sequencing reaction products is demonstrated on a 9% T linear polyacrylamide column. PMID:8291673

  2. DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. Use of a two-laser-two-window intensified diode array detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.; Cohen, A.S.; Belenkii, A.; Ruiz-Martinez, M.C.; Berka, J.; Karger, B.L. )

    1993-11-15

    This paper presents the principles of an instrument designed for DNA sequencing using the standard four-dye-labeled primer approach. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and an intensified diode array detector. An important goal of the instrument design has been a detection system that possesses high sensitivity and high spectral resolution. Based on an analysis of the spectral characteristics of the four standard dye-labeled primers, FAM, JOE, ROX, and TAMRA, the strategy has been to use a two-laser-two-window approach, in which a 488-nm argon ion laser illuminates one window, followed by a 543-nm helium-neon laser illuminating the second window. The two-window approach has no moving parts and permits continuous illumination. Spectral resolution is provided by a grating spectrograph and a cooled intensified diode array. The estimated limit of detection for the standard four dye-labeled primers was found to be in the sample concentration range of 1 X 10[sup [minus]12] M. To achieve these low levels, complete free-radical polymerization of polyacrylamide has been found to be necessary in order to reduce background noise. In addition, reduction in background noise was accomplished by continual purging of the anodic reservoir in order to prevent electrolysis products from entering the capillary. Separation of DNA sequencing reaction products is demonstrated on a 9% T linear polyacrylamide column. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Design and experimental verification of low-voltage two-dimensional CMOS electrophoresis platform with 32 × 32 sample/hold cell array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Yuuki; Niitsu, Kiichi; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Electrophoresis is widely used in biomedical applications. However, conventional (centimeter-order) electrophoresis requires a high-voltage power supply, which is not suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT). Electrophoresis is driven by electric fields, and miniaturization (from the centimeter order to the micrometer order) is effective for low-voltage operation. A CMOS platform is a cost-competitive and promising candidate for miniaturization and enables the integration of biomolecule manipulation by electrophoresis and its electrochemical sensing. These features will contribute to the development of a biochemical analyzer called the micro-total analysis system (µ-TAS). To realize a truly portable electrophoresis system, we present the design and experimental verification of a low-voltage (<1 V), two-dimensional CMOS electrophoresis platform with 32 × 32 sample/hold cell array. Experimental results showed successful constant voltage outputs to each electrode. By miniaturizing the electrode structure to a 60 µm pitch, we achieved sufficient electric field strength even at low voltages.

  4. In-channel indirect amperometric detection of heavy metal ions for electrophoresis on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Ai; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-02-28

    In-channel indirect amperometric detection mode for microchip capillary electrophoresis with positive separation electric field is successfully applied to some heavy metal ions. The influences of separation voltage, detection potential, the concentration and pH value of running buffer on the response of the detector have been investigated. An optimized condition of 1200V separation voltage, -0.1V detection potential, 20mM (pH 4.46) running buffer of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES)+l-histidine (l-His) was selected. The results clearly showed that Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were efficiently separated within 80s in a 3.7cm long native separation PDMS/PDMS channel and successfully detected at a single carbon fibre electrode. The theoretical plate numbers of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 1.2x10(5), 2.5x10(5), and 1.9x10(5)m(-1), respectively. The detection limits for Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 1.3, 3.3 and 7.4muM (S/N=3). PMID:19071423

  5. Multi-Channel Detector Arrays for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey; Castracane, James; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Demers, Diane; Schatz, John

    1997-11-01

    InterScience, Inc. has developed a multiple slit detector array for use with heavy ion beam probes. The first array was a twenty element array installed on the TEXT tokamak. An initial set of data was obtained with this array prior to the shutdown on the TEXT tokamak in December of 1995. More recently, a smaller detector array has been developed for use in the CHS torsatron in Nagoya. This array is smaller than the TEXT array, with ten elements, but contains two prototype sets of detector plates to determine the beam position. The operating conditions in CHS are expected to be much harsher than in TEXT, with ECH and NBI plasmas. Trajectory simulations allowed for the design of a tilted detector array in the CHS vacuum vessel. First tests of the CHS array will begin in the late summer of 1997. Other candidate machines for detector arrays are the MST reversed field pinch, in which a beam probe is expected to be installed in late 1997 or early 1998 and the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is expected to be operational in 1998. Design issues, trajectory simulations and array test results will be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant #DE-FG02-94ER81788

  6. Monolithically integrated 20-channel optical add/drop multiplexer subsystem with hybrid-integrated 40-channel photodetector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Andreas B.; Krabe, Detlef; Dieckroeger, Jens; Spott, Thorsten; Kraeker, Tobias; Martins, Evely; Zavrsnik, Miha; Schneider, Hartmut W.; Baumann, Ingo

    2003-03-01

    We built a 20 channel, 200 GHz, fully reconfigurable optical add-/drop multiplexer with integrated variable optical attenuators and power monitor diodes. A single planar lightwave circuit chip contains demultiplexer, switch array, attenuators and multiplexers. It also serves as an "optical motherboard" for a hybrid, flip-chip assembly containing four 10-channel photo detector arrays. A thermal management concept which considers both microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the device was developed. The final device exhibits an insertion loss of 9 dB from "in"- to "through"-port, a 1 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and switch extinction ratios in excess of 40 dB.

  7. Design and fabrication of multi-channel photodetector array monolithic with arrayed waveguide grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian-Qian, Lv; Pan, Pan; Han, Ye; Dong-Dong, Yin; Yu-Bing, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Yang; Qin, Han

    2016-03-01

    We have provided optical simulations of the evanescently coupled waveguide photodiodes integrated with a 13-channels AWGs. The photodiode could exhibit high internal efficiency by appropriate choice of layers geometry and refractive index. Aseamless joint structure has been designed and fabricated for integrating the output waveguides of AWGs with the evanescently coupled waveguide photodiode array. The highest simulation quantum efficiency could achieve 92% when the matching layer thickness of the PD is 120 nm and the insertion length is 2 μm. The fabricated PD with 320-nm-thick matching layer and 2-μm-length insertion matching layer present a responsivity of 0.87 A/W. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013AA031401, 2015AA016902, and 2015AA016904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176053, 61274069, and 61435002), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB933503 and 2013CB932904).

  8. A 31-Channel MR Brain Array Coil Compatible with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christin Y.; Keil, Boris; Chonde, Daniel B.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Catana, Ciprian; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Simultaneous acquisition of MR and PET images requires the placement of the MR detection coil inside the PET detector ring where it absorbs and scatters photons. This constraint is the principal barrier to achieving optimum sensitivity on each modality. Here, we present a 31-channel PET-compatible brain array coil with reduced attenuation but improved MR sensitivity. Methods A series of component tests were performed to identify tradeoffs between PET and MR performance. Aspects studied include the remote positioning of preamplifiers, coax size, coil trace size/material, and plastic housing. We then maximized PET performance at minimal cost to MR sensitivity. The coil was evaluated for MR performance (SNR, g-factor) and PET attenuation. Results The coil design showed an improvement in attenuation by 190% (average) compared to conventional 32-channel arrays, and no loss in MR SNR. Moreover, the 31-channel coil displayed an SNR improvement of 230% (cortical ROI) compared to a PET-optimized 8-channel array with similar attenuation properties. Implementing attenuation correction of the 31-channel array successfully removed PET artifacts, which were comparable to those of the 8-channel array. Conclusion The design of the 31-channel PET-compatible coil enables higher sensitivity for PET/MR imaging, paving the way for novel applications in this hybrid-imaging domain. PMID:25046699

  9. Note: Design principles of a linear array multi-channel effusive metal-vapor atom source

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, B.; Majumder, A.; Thakur, K. B.; Das, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Atomic beams can easily be produced by allowing atoms to effuse through a channel. In an earlier investigation [A. Majumder et al., Vacuum 83, 989 (2009)], we had designed, fabricated, and characterized an effusive metal-vapor source using collinear-array of multi-channel. In this note, we describe the theoretical basis of designing the source. Atom density in atomic beam has been estimated using a set of analytical expressions for long-channel operated in transparent mode. Parametric studies on aspect ratio of channel, inter-channel separation, beam width, and vertical distance from the source are carried out. They are useful in providing physical picture and optimizing design parameters.

  10. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. No work was completed during this reporting period as project personnel are waiting for the mine to become available for final field testing of the array. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  11. Comparison Between Eight- and Sixteen-Channel TEM Transceive Arrays for Body Imaging at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, CJ; DelaBarre, L; Moeller, S; Tian, J; Akgun, C; Van De Moortele, P-F; Bolan, PJ; Ugurbil, K; Vaughan, JT; Metzger, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Eight- and sixteen-channel transceive stripline/TEM body arrays were compared at 7 tesla (297 MHz) both in simulation and experimentally. Despite previous demonstrations of similar arrays for use in body applications, a quantitative comparison of the two configurations has not been undertaken to date. Results were obtained on a male pelvis for assessing transmit, SNR and parallel imaging performance and to evaluate local power deposition versus transmit B1 (B1+). All measurements and simulations were conducted after performing local B1+ phase shimming in the region of the prostate. Despite the additional challenges of decoupling immediately adjacent coils, the sixteen-channel array demonstrated improved or nearly equivalent performance to the eight-channel array based on the evaluation criteria. Experimentally, transmit performance and SNR were 22% higher for the sixteen-channel array while significantly increased reduction factors were achievable in the left-right direction for parallel imaging. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated similar results with respect to transmit and parallel imaging performance, however a higher transmit efficiency advantage of 33% was predicted. Simulations at both 3T and 7T verified the expected parallel imaging improvements with increasing field strength and showed that, for a specific B1+ shimming strategy employed, the sixteen-channel array exhibited lower local and global SAR for a given B1+. PMID:22102483

  12. Highly permeable artificial water channels that can self-assemble into two-dimensional arrays.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue-Xiao; Si, Wen; Erbakan, Mustafa; Decker, Karl; De Zorzi, Rita; Saboe, Patrick O; Kang, You Jung; Majd, Sheereen; Butler, Peter J; Walz, Thomas; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Hou, Jun-li; Kumar, Manish

    2015-08-11

    Bioinspired artificial water channels aim to combine the high permeability and selectivity of biological aquaporin (AQP) water channels with chemical stability. Here, we carefully characterized a class of artificial water channels, peptide-appended pillar[5]arenes (PAPs). The average single-channel osmotic water permeability for PAPs is 1.0(± 0.3) × 10(-14) cm(3)/s or 3.5(± 1.0) × 10(8) water molecules per s, which is in the range of AQPs (3.4 ∼ 40.3 × 10(8) water molecules per s) and their current synthetic analogs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 9.0 × 10(8) water molecules per s). This permeability is an order of magnitude higher than first-generation artificial water channels (20 to ∼ 10(7) water molecules per s). Furthermore, within lipid bilayers, PAP channels can self-assemble into 2D arrays. Relevant to permeable membrane design, the pore density of PAP channel arrays (∼ 2.6 × 10(5) pores per μm(2)) is two orders of magnitude higher than that of CNT membranes (0.1 ∼ 2.5 × 10(3) pores per μm(2)). PAP channels thus combine the advantages of biological channels and CNTs and improve upon them through their relatively simple synthesis, chemical stability, and propensity to form arrays. PMID:26216964

  13. Highly permeable artificial water channels that can self-assemble into two-dimensional arrays

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yue-xiao; Si, Wen; Erbakan, Mustafa; Decker, Karl; De Zorzi, Rita; Saboe, Patrick O.; Kang, You Jung; Majd, Sheereen; Butler, Peter J.; Walz, Thomas; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Hou, Jun-li; Kumar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Bioinspired artificial water channels aim to combine the high permeability and selectivity of biological aquaporin (AQP) water channels with chemical stability. Here, we carefully characterized a class of artificial water channels, peptide-appended pillar[5]arenes (PAPs). The average single-channel osmotic water permeability for PAPs is 1.0(±0.3) × 10−14 cm3/s or 3.5(±1.0) × 108 water molecules per s, which is in the range of AQPs (3.4∼40.3 × 108 water molecules per s) and their current synthetic analogs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 9.0 × 108 water molecules per s). This permeability is an order of magnitude higher than first-generation artificial water channels (20 to ∼107 water molecules per s). Furthermore, within lipid bilayers, PAP channels can self-assemble into 2D arrays. Relevant to permeable membrane design, the pore density of PAP channel arrays (∼2.6 × 105 pores per μm2) is two orders of magnitude higher than that of CNT membranes (0.1∼2.5 × 103 pores per μm2). PAP channels thus combine the advantages of biological channels and CNTs and improve upon them through their relatively simple synthesis, chemical stability, and propensity to form arrays. PMID:26216964

  14. General and simple route to micro/nanostructured hollow-sphere arrays based on electrophoresis of colloids induced by laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shikuan; Cai, Weiping; Yang, Jinling; Zeng, Haibo

    2009-07-21

    A general and simple route was presented to fabricate hollow sphere arrays (HSAs) with hierarchical micro/nanostructure based on electrophoresis on a polystyrene colloidal monolayer in a corresponding colloidal solution prepared by laser ablation in liquid. Si was chosen as a model material to demonstrate the validity of the route. The size and structure of such-prepared hollow spheres can be easily controlled by the size of the polystyrene spheres, the electrophoresis parameters, and the morphology of the colloidal nanoparticles. Further experiments have revealed that this strategy can be extended to produce other semiconductors' and metals' compact or noncompact HSAs, and even multicomponent HSAs with controllable spacings between adjacent spheres and tunable size of nanoparticles in the shell layers. This study could be important to synthesize some key materials in the fields of ion batteries, surface enhanced Raman scattering, new micro/nanostructured devices, and so on. PMID:19425560

  15. Spatiospectral and picosecond spatiotemporal properties of a broad area operating channeled-substrate-planar laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, NU; Defreez, Richard K.; Bossert, David J.; Wilson, Geoffrey A.; Elliott, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Spatiospectral and spatiotemporal properties of an eight-element channeled-substrate-planar laser array are investigated in both CW and pulsed operating conditions. The closely spaced CSP array with strong optical coupling between array elements is characterized by a broad area laserlike operation determined by its spatial mode spectra. The spatiotemporal evolution of the near and far field exhibits complex dynamic behavior in the picosecond to nanosecond domain. Operating parameters for the laser device have been experimentally determined. These results provide important information for the evaluation of the dynamic behavior of coherent semiconductor laser arrays.

  16. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  17. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  18. A 32-Channel Combined RF and B0 Shim Array for 3T Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stockmann, Jason P.; Witzel, Thomas; Keil, Boris; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Mareyam, Azma; LaPierre, Cristen; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We add user-controllable direct currents (DC) to the individual elements of a 32-channel radio-frequency (RF) receive array to provide B0 shimming ability while preserving the array’s reception sensitivity and parallel imaging performance. Methods Shim performance using constrained DC current (±2.5A) is simulated for brain arrays ranging from 8 to 128 elements. A 32-channel 3-tesla brain array is realized using inductive chokes to bridge the tuning capacitors on each RF loop. The RF and B0 shimming performance is assessed in bench and imaging measurements. Results The addition of DC currents to the 32-channel RF array is achieved with minimal disruption of the RF performance and/or negative side effects such as conductor heating or mechanical torques. The shimming results agree well with simulations and show performance superior to third-order spherical harmonic (SH) shimming. Imaging tests show the ability to reduce the standard frontal lobe susceptibility-induced fields and improve echo planar imaging geometric distortion. The simulation of 64- and 128-channel brain arrays suggest that even further shimming improvement is possible (equivalent to up to 6th-order SH shim coils). Conclusion Including user-controlled shim currents on the loops of a conventional highly parallel brain array coil is feasible with modest current levels and produces improved B0 shimming performance over standard second-order SH shimming. PMID:25689977

  19. Integrating nanopore sensors within microfluidic channel arrays using controlled breakdown.

    PubMed

    Tahvildari, Radin; Beamish, Eric; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Godin, Michel

    2015-03-21

    Nanopore arrays are fabricated by controlled dielectric breakdown (CBD) in solid-state membranes integrated within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. This technique enables the scalable production of independently addressable nanopores. By confining the electric field within the microfluidic architecture, nanopore fabrication is precisely localized and electrical noise is significantly reduced. Both DNA and protein molecules are detected to validate the performance of this sensing platform. PMID:25631885

  20. Over 1000 channel nitride-based micro-light-emitting diode arrays with tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Nakajima, Keisuke; Kaga, Mitsuru; Kuwano, Yuka; Minamikawa, Daichi; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Kouji; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated nitride-based micro-LED arrays with a small number of fabrication process steps by using a combination of tunnel junctions and patterned n-GaN cathode lines. A use of the combination enables us to skip a couple of process steps required in standard LED array fabrication. A 10 × 10 channel matrix-addressable LED array with a 10 × 16 µm2 emission regions and a 25 µm pitch lengths showed uniform operating voltages and light output intensities, indicating good yield due to the small number of process steps used. In addition, microdisplay of over 1000 (14 × 72) channels was successfully demonstrated. The new array structure with the tunnel junction and n-GaN cathode line provides a high density and a high yield simultaneously.

  1. A 32-Channel Head Coil Array with Circularly Symmetric Geometry for Accelerated Human Brain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ying-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Keil, Boris; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to optimize a 32-channel head coil array for accelerated 3T human brain proton MRI using either a Cartesian or a radial k-space trajectory. Coils had curved trapezoidal shapes and were arranged in a circular symmetry (CS) geometry. Coils were optimally overlapped to reduce mutual inductance. Low-noise pre-amplifiers were used to further decouple between coils. The SNR and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were compared to results from a head coil array with a soccer-ball (SB) geometry. The maximal SNR in the CS array was about 120% (1070 vs. 892) and 62% (303 vs. 488) of the SB array at the periphery and the center of the FOV on a transverse plane, respectively. In one-dimensional 4-fold acceleration, the CS array has higher averaged SNR than the SB array across the whole FOV. Compared to the SB array, the CS array has a smaller g-factor at head periphery in all accelerated acquisitions. Reconstructed images using a radial k-space trajectory show that the CS array has a smaller error than the SB array in 2- to 5-fold accelerations. PMID:26909652

  2. A 32-Channel Head Coil Array with Circularly Symmetric Geometry for Accelerated Human Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ying-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Keil, Boris; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to optimize a 32-channel head coil array for accelerated 3T human brain proton MRI using either a Cartesian or a radial k-space trajectory. Coils had curved trapezoidal shapes and were arranged in a circular symmetry (CS) geometry. Coils were optimally overlapped to reduce mutual inductance. Low-noise pre-amplifiers were used to further decouple between coils. The SNR and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were compared to results from a head coil array with a soccer-ball (SB) geometry. The maximal SNR in the CS array was about 120% (1070 vs. 892) and 62% (303 vs. 488) of the SB array at the periphery and the center of the FOV on a transverse plane, respectively. In one-dimensional 4-fold acceleration, the CS array has higher averaged SNR than the SB array across the whole FOV. Compared to the SB array, the CS array has a smaller g-factor at head periphery in all accelerated acquisitions. Reconstructed images using a radial k-space trajectory show that the CS array has a smaller error than the SB array in 2- to 5-fold accelerations. PMID:26909652

  3. Intermediate color interpolation for color filter array containing the white channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Moon Gi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a color filter array sensor with the white channel has been developed. This color filter array differs from the Bayer CFA, which is composed of red, green and blue channels. Since the white channel shows high sensitivity through broad spectral bands and a high light sensitivity, it presents many advantages. However, various color interpolation method for the Bayer CFA cannot be utilized for CFA pattern that contains the white channel directly. In this paper, a method for generating a quincuncial pattern is proposed for the CFA pattern. By generating an intermediate quincuncial pattern, various color interpolation algorithms can be applied to it. Experimental results are shown in comparison with the conventional method in terms of PSNR measurements.

  4. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  5. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  6. Multi-channel transimpedance measurement of a planar electromagnetic sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dixiang; Xie, Ruifang; Zhou, Weihong; Hu, Hengjiang; Pan, Mengchun

    2015-02-01

    Planar electromagnetic sensor arrays have advantages such as nice coherence, fast response speed and high sensitivity, which can be used for micro damage inspection of crucial parts in equipment, and the key point in improving the inspection performance is to achieve a precise measurement of multi-channel transimpedances (the inductive voltages divided by the exciting current of the sensor). The principle and characteristics of planar electromagnetic sensor arrays are introduced in this paper, and a digital lock-in impedance measurement algorithm was investigated, with which the interference and noise in inductive voltage signals can be restrained effectively and the amplitude and phase of the transimpedance can be obtained with good repeatability. An eight channel impedance measurement system was established based on a field programmable gate array and utilized to inspect the micro damage in metal materials, and the experimental data were analyzed. The experimental results show that the impedance measurement has excellent repeatability when the sensor array is placed in air, and the maximum measurement error of the complete transimpedance measurement system is lower than 10%. A micro crack with a size of 1 mm (length) × 0.1 mm (width) × 1 mm (depth) can be detected through the measurement of multi-channel transimpedance in the planar electromagnetic sensor array.

  7. A battery-free 64-channel neural spike wireless sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Alberto; Ruiz-Amaya, Jesús; Masuch, Jens; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a 64-channel inductively powered neural recording sensor array. Neural signals are acquired, filtered, digitized and compressed in the channels. Additionally, each channel implements a local auto-calibration mechanism which configures the transfer characteristics of the recording site. The system has two operation modes; in one case the information captured by the channels is sent as uncompressed raw data; in the other, feature vectors extracted from the detected neural spikes are transmitted. Data streams coming from the channels are serialized by an embedded digital processor and transferred to the outside by means of the same inductive link used for powering the system. Simulation results show that the power consumption of the complete system is 377uW.

  8. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gang Xue

    2001-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10{sup -11} M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  9. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  10. The Electrophysiological MEMS Device with Micro Channel Array for Cellular Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonomura, Wataru; Kurashima, Toshiaki; Takayama, Yuzo; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Satoshi

    This paper describes a new type of MCA (Micro Channel Array) for simultaneous multipoint measurement of cellular network. Presented MCA employing the measurement principles of the patch-clamp technique is designed for advanced neural network analysis which has been studied by co-authors using 64ch MEA (Micro Electrode Arrays) system. First of all, sucking and clamping of cells through channels of developed MCA is expected to improve electrophysiological signal detections. Electrophysiological sensing electrodes integrated around individual channels of MCA by using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) technologies are electrically isolated for simultaneous multipoint measurement. In this study, we tested the developed MCA using the non-cultured rat's cerebral cortical slice and the hippocampal neurons. We could measure the spontaneous action potential of the slice simultaneously at multiple points and culture the neurons on developed MCA. Herein, we describe the experimental results together with the design and fabrication of the electrophysiological MEMS device with MCA for cellular network analysis.

  11. An implanted 8-channel array coil for high-resolution macaque MRI at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, T.; Keil, B.; Farivar, R.; McNab, J.A.; Polimeni, J. R.; Gerits, A.; Arsenault, J.T.; Wald, L. L.; Vanduffel, W.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-channel receive coil array was constructed and implanted adjacent to the skull in a male rhesus monkey in order to improve the sensitivity of (functional) brain imaging. The permanent implant was part of an acrylic headpost assembly and only the coil element loop wires were implanted. The tuning, matching, and preamplifier circuitry was connected via a removable external assembly. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared to a single-, 4-, and 8-channel external receive-only coil routinely used for macaque fMRI. In vivo measurements showed significantly improved SNR within the brain for the implanted versus the external coils. Within a region-of-interest covering the cerebral cortex, we observed a 5.4-, 3.6-fold, and 3.4-fold increase in SNR compared to the external single-, 4-, and 8-channel coil, respectively. In the center of the brain, the implanted array maintained a 2.4×, 2.5×, and 2.1× higher SNR, respectively compared to the external coils. The array performance was evaluated for anatomical, diffusion tensor and functional brain imaging. This study suggests that a stable implanted phased-array coil can be used in macaque MRI to substantially increase the spatial resolution for anatomical, diffusion tensor, and functional imaging. PMID:22609793

  12. Capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.

    1988-10-15

    Rapid instrumental methods for performing electrophoretic separations in capillary tubes have recently been developed, making capillary electrophoresis one of the most exciting new techniques available to analytical chemists. This article discusses detection methods, applications, and the future of capillary electrophoresis.

  13. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microlens array integrated with microfluidic channel for fluorescence spectroscopy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujihan, Suparat; Damrongsak, Badin; Kittidachachan, Pattareeya

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy detection has been commonly used in chemical and biochemical applications as it provides a good reliability and high sensitivity. Commercially available fluorescence spectroscopy system is typically bulky and expensive, hence making it inconvenience for on-site measurement which requires portable systems. However, the drawback of small devices is that it has a low detection volume, resulting in low fluorescence signal. In this paper, we report a microfluidic channel implemented with a microlens array for enhancing the performance of fluorescence spectroscopy detection. The microlens array was used to focus an excitation light onto the microchannel, thus expecting the increase in fluorescence detection signal. Both microchannels and microlens arrays were individually fabricated from poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using low-cost printed-circuit-board master molds. The fabrication and characterization of PDMS-based microlens arrays are discussed. In short, the microlens in plano-convex shape was designed with diameters of 700, 800 and 900 microns. The fabricated microlens arrays were characterized for radius of curvatures, SAGs and focal lengths. The plano-convex microlens array was then integrated into a microfluidic system in order to investigate the overall performance of fluorescence spectroscopy detection. Experiments were conducted with two fluorescence dyes, i.e. Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin 153. The preliminary results revealed that the PDMS microlens array implemented on the designed system shows potential for improving excitation and emission light intensity and, as a consequence, signal to background ratio of the fluorescence spectroscopy detection.

  14. Flexible All-organic, All-solution Processed Thin Film Transistor Array with Ultrashort Channel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Hu, Zhanhao; Liu, Huimin; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the device dimension has long been the pursuit of the semiconductor industry to increase the device density and operation speed. In the application of thin film transistors (TFTs), all-organic TFT arrays made by all-solution process are desired for low cost and flexible electronics. One of the greatest challenges is how to achieve ultrashort channel through a cost-effective method. In our study, ultrashort-channel devices are demonstrated by direct inkjet printing conducting polymer as source/drain and gate electrodes without any complicated substrate's pre-patterning process. By modifying the substrate's wettability, the conducting polymer's contact line is pinned during drying process which makes the channel length well-controlled. An organic TFT array of 200 devices with 2 μm channel length is fabricated on flexible substrate through all-solution process. The simple and scalable process to fabricate high resolution organic transistor array offers a low cost approach in the development of flexible and wearable electronics. PMID:27378163

  15. Flexible All-organic, All-solution Processed Thin Film Transistor Array with Ultrashort Channel

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Hu, Zhanhao; Liu, Huimin; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the device dimension has long been the pursuit of the semiconductor industry to increase the device density and operation speed. In the application of thin film transistors (TFTs), all-organic TFT arrays made by all-solution process are desired for low cost and flexible electronics. One of the greatest challenges is how to achieve ultrashort channel through a cost-effective method. In our study, ultrashort-channel devices are demonstrated by direct inkjet printing conducting polymer as source/drain and gate electrodes without any complicated substrate’s pre-patterning process. By modifying the substrate’s wettability, the conducting polymer’s contact line is pinned during drying process which makes the channel length well-controlled. An organic TFT array of 200 devices with 2 μm channel length is fabricated on flexible substrate through all-solution process. The simple and scalable process to fabricate high resolution organic transistor array offers a low cost approach in the development of flexible and wearable electronics. PMID:27378163

  16. Flexible All-organic, All-solution Processed Thin Film Transistor Array with Ultrashort Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Hu, Zhanhao; Liu, Huimin; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Shrinking the device dimension has long been the pursuit of the semiconductor industry to increase the device density and operation speed. In the application of thin film transistors (TFTs), all-organic TFT arrays made by all-solution process are desired for low cost and flexible electronics. One of the greatest challenges is how to achieve ultrashort channel through a cost-effective method. In our study, ultrashort-channel devices are demonstrated by direct inkjet printing conducting polymer as source/drain and gate electrodes without any complicated substrate’s pre-patterning process. By modifying the substrate’s wettability, the conducting polymer’s contact line is pinned during drying process which makes the channel length well-controlled. An organic TFT array of 200 devices with 2 μm channel length is fabricated on flexible substrate through all-solution process. The simple and scalable process to fabricate high resolution organic transistor array offers a low cost approach in the development of flexible and wearable electronics.

  17. Fractal-Based Lightning Channel Length Estimation from Convex-Hull Flash Areas for DC3 Lightning Mapping Array Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruning, Eric C.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Carey, Larry D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We will use VHF Lightning Mapping Array data to estimate NOx per flash and per unit channel length, including the vertical distribution of channel length. What s the best way to find channel length from VHF sources? This paper presents the rationale for the fractal method, which is closely related to the box-covering method.

  18. Note: An underwater multi-channel plasma array for water sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Kim, H.; Starikovskiy, A.; Cho, Y. I.; Fridman, A.

    2011-09-01

    A simple yet effective method to generate multi-channel plasma array in water is presented in this paper. Thin circular metal disks sandwiched between dielectric layers were used, allowing the production of large-volume underwater plasma array with higher stability. The system can be further scaled up by stacking multiple metal disks, making it suitable for large-scale industrial water treatment. Generation of UV and reactive species was identified by optical emission spectroscopy. Sterilization experiments were performed. Results show that the device was effective in deactivating E. coli in water over a wide range of initial concentrations ranging from 104 to 108 CFU/ml.

  19. Development of a 64 channel ultrasonic high frequency linear array imaging system.

    PubMed

    Hu, ChangHong; Zhang, Lequan; Cannata, Jonathan M; Yen, Jesse; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution and extend the field of view of a previously reported 48 element 30 MHz ultrasound linear array and 16-channel digital imaging system, the development of a 256 element 30 MHz linear array and an ultrasound imaging system with increased channel count has been undertaken. This paper reports the design and testing of a 64 channel digital imaging system which consists of an analog front-end pulser/receiver, 64 channels of Time-Gain Compensation (TGC), 64 channels of high-speed digitizer as well as a beamformer. A Personal Computer (PC) is used as the user interface to display real-time images. This system is designed as a platform for the purpose of testing the performance of high frequency linear arrays that have been developed in house. Therefore conventional approaches were taken it its implementation. Flexibility and ease of use are of primary concern whereas consideration of cost-effectiveness and novelty in design are only secondary. Even so, there are many issues at higher frequencies but do not exist at lower frequencies need to be solved. The system provides 64 channels of excitation pulsers while receiving simultaneously at a 20-120 MHz sampling rate to 12-bits. The digitized data from all channels are first fed through Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and then stored in memories. These raw data are accessed by the beamforming processor to re-build the image or to be downloaded to the PC for further processing. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes of each channel is implemented with the strategy that combines coarse (8.3 ns) and fine delays (2 ns). The coarse delays are integer multiples of the sampling clock rate and are achieved by controlling the write enable pin of the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory to obtain valid beamforming data. The fine delays are accomplished with interpolation filters. This system is capable of achieving a maximum frame rate of 50 frames per second. Wire phantom images

  20. Multilayer polymer microchip capillary array electrophoresis devices with integrated on-chip labeling for high-throughput protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Wang, Qingsong; Patterson, James E.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2011-01-01

    It is desirable to have inexpensive, high-throughput systems that integrate multiple sample analysis processes and procedures, for applications in biology, chemical analysis, drug discovery, and disease screening. In this paper, we demonstrate multilayer polymer microfluidic devices with integrated on-chip labeling and parallel electrophoretic separation of up to 8 samples. Microchannels were distributed in two different layers and connected through interlayer through-holes in the middle layer. A single set of electrophoresis reservoirs and one fluorescent label reservoir address parallel analysis units for up to 8 samples. Individual proteins and a mixture of cancer biomarkers have been successfully labeled on-chip and separated in parallel with this system. A detection limit of 600 ng/mL was obtained for heat shock protein 90. Our integrated on-chip labeling microdevices show great potential for low-cost, simplified, rapid and high-throughput analysis. PMID:21449615

  1. Multi-Channel Microstrip Transceiver Arrays Using Harmonics for High Field MR Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Wang, Chunsheng; Lu, Jonathan; Pang, Yong; Nelson, Sarah J; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2012-01-01

    RF transceiver array design using primary and higher order harmonics for in-vivo parallel MR imaging and spectroscopic imaging is proposed. The improved electromagnetic decoupling performance, unique magnetic field distributions and high-frequency operation capabilities of higher-order harmonics of resonators would benefit transceiver arrays for parallel MRI, especially for ultrahigh field parallel MRI. To demonstrate this technique, microstrip transceiver arrays using first and second harmonic resonators were developed for human head parallel imaging at 7T. Phantom and human head images were acquired and evaluated using the GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm. The higher-order harmonic transceiver array design technique was also assessed numerically using FDTD simulation. Compared with regular primary-resonance transceiver designs, the proposed higher-order harmonic technique provided an improved g-factor and increased decoupling among resonant elements without using dedicated decoupling circuits, which would potentially lead to a better parallel imaging performance and ultimately faster and higher quality imaging. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for densely spaced transceiver array design where the increased mutual inductance among the elements becomes problematic. In addition, it also provides a simple approach to readily upgrade the channels of a conventional primary resonator microstrip array to a larger number for faster imaging. PMID:21878410

  2. Size-optimized 32-Channel Brain Arrays for 3 T Pediatric Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Alagappan, Vijay; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A.; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Tountcheva, Veneta; Triantafyllou, Christina; Dilks, Daniel D.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Lin, Weili; Grant, P. Ellen; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Size-optimized 32-channel receive array coils were developed for five age groups, neonates, 6 months old, 1 year old, 4 years old, and 7 years old, and evaluated for pediatric brain imaging. The array consisted of overlapping circular surface coils laid out on a close-fitting coil-former. The two-section coil former design was obtained from surface contours of aligned three-dimensional MRI scans of each age group. Signal-to-noise ratio and noise amplification for parallel imaging were evaluated and compared to two coils routinely used for pediatric brain imaging; a commercially available 32-channel adult head coil and a pediatric-sized birdcage coil. Phantom measurements using the neonate, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, 4-year-old, and 7-year-old coils showed signal-to-noise ratio increases at all locations within the brain over the comparison coils. Within the brain cortex the five dedicated pediatric arrays increased signal-to-noise ratio by up to 3.6-, 3.0-, 2.6-, 2.3-, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared to the 32-channel adult coil, as well as improved G-factor maps for accelerated imaging. This study suggests that a size-tailored approach can provide significant sensitivity gains for accelerated and unaccelerated pediatric brain imaging. PMID:21656548

  3. Applying Convolution-Based Processing Methods To A Dual-Channel, Large Array Artificial Olfactory Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. E.; Che Harun, F. K.; Covington, J. A.; Gardner, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of the human olfactory system, particularly with respect to the phenomenon of nasal chromatography, has led us to develop a new generation of novel odour-sensitive instruments (or electronic noses). This novel instrument is in need of new approaches to data processing so that the information rich signals can be fully exploited; here, we apply a novel time-series based technique for processing such data. The dual-channel, large array artificial olfactory mucosa consists of 3 arrays of 300 sensors each. The sensors are divided into 24 groups, with each group made from a particular type of polymer. The first array is connected to the other two arrays by a pair of retentive columns. One channel is coated with Carbowax 20 M, and the other with OV-1. This configuration partly mimics the nasal chromatography effect, and partly augments it by utilizing not only polar (mucus layer) but also non-polar (artificial) coatings. Such a device presents several challenges to multi-variate data processing: a large, redundant dataset, spatio-temporal output, and small sample space. By applying a novel convolution approach to this problem, it has been demonstrated that these problems can be overcome. The artificial mucosa signals have been classified using a probabilistic neural network and gave an accuracy of 85%. Even better results should be possible through the selection of other sensors with lower correlation.

  4. A 20-Channel Receive-Only Mouse Array Coil for a 3T Clinical MRI System

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.; Meise, Florian M.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Klose, Klaus J.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-channel phased-array coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of mice has been designed, constructed and validated with bench measurements and high resolution accelerated imaging. The technical challenges of designing a small, high density array have been overcome using individual small-diameter coil elements arranged on a cylinder in a hexagonal overlapping design with adjacent low impedance preamplifiers to further decouple the array elements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were simulated and quantitatively evaluated in phantoms and in vivo mouse images. Comparison between the 20-channel mouse array and a length-matched quadrature driven small animal birdcage coil showed an SNR increase at the periphery and in the center of the phantom of 3-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Comparison to a shorter but SNR-optimized birdcage coil (aspect ratio 1:1 and only half mouse coverage) showed an SNR gain of 2-fold at the edge of the phantom and similar SNR in the center. G-factor measurements indicate that the coil is well suited to acquire highly accelerated images. PMID:21433066

  5. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples. PMID:27028847

  6. Fluidic communication between multiple vertically segregated microfluidic channels connected by nanocapillary array membranes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Maojun; Flachsbart, Bruce R; Shannon, Mark A; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2008-03-01

    Hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic devices offer unique capabilities for manipulating and analyzing minute volumes of expensive or hard-to-obtain samples. Here, multilayer poly-(methyl methacrylate) microchips, with multiple spatially isolated microfluidic channels interconnected by nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs), are fabricated using an adhesive contact printing process. The NCAMs, positioned between the microfluidic channel layers, add functionality to the inter-microchannel fluid transfer unit operation. They do so because the transport of specific analytes through the NCAM can be controlled by adjusting the ionic strength, the polarity of the applied bias, the surface charge density, and the pore size. A simplified, floating injection technique for NCAM-coupled nanofluidic devices is described and compared with conventional biased injection. In the floating injection approach, a voltage is applied across the injection channel and the slight electric field extension at the cross-section is used to transfer analytes through the nanopores to the separation channel. Floating injection excels in plug reproducibility, separation resolution, and operation simplicity, although it decreases assay throughput relative to biased injection. Floating injection can avoid the uneven distribution of analytes in the microfluidic channel that sometimes results from biased injection because of the volume mismatch between NCAM nanopore transport capacity and the supply of fluid. Moreover, the pressure-driven flow caused by the mismatch of the EOFs in the microfluidic channels connected by an NCAM must be considered when using NCAMs with pore diameters below 50 nm. PMID:18288777

  7. 3D probe array integrated with a front-end 100-channel neural recording ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Yao, Lei; Tan, Kwan Ling; Lim, Ruiqi; Li, Peng; Chen, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Brain-machine interface technology can improve the lives of spinal cord injury victims and amputees. A neural interface system, consisting of a 3D probe array and a custom low-power (1 mW) 100-channel (100-ch) neural recording application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was designed and implemented to monitor neural activity. In this study, a microassembly 3D probe array method using a novel lead transfer technique was proposed to overcome the bonding plane mismatch encountered during orthogonal assembly. The proposed lead transfer technique can be completed using standard micromachining and packaging processes. The ASIC can be stacking-integrated with the probe array, minimizing the form factor of the assembled module. To minimize trauma to brain cells, the profile of the integrated probe array was controlled within 730 μm. The average impedance of the assembled probe was approximately 0.55 MΩ at 1 kHz. To verify the functionality of the integrated neural probe array, bench-top signal acquisitions were performed and discussed.

  8. A Multi-Channel, Flex-Rigid ECoG Microelectrode Array for Visual Cortical Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Tolstosheeva, Elena; Gordillo-González, Víctor; Biefeld, Volker; Kempen, Ludger; Mandon, Sunita; Kreiter, Andreas K.; Lang, Walter

    2015-01-01

    High-density electrocortical (ECoG) microelectrode arrays are promising signal-acquisition platforms for brain-computer interfaces envisioned, e.g., as high-performance communication solutions for paralyzed persons. We propose a multi-channel microelectrode array capable of recording ECoG field potentials with high spatial resolution. The proposed array is of a 150 mm2 total recording area; it has 124 circular electrodes (100, 300 and 500 μm in diameter) situated on the edges of concentric hexagons (min. 0.8 mm interdistance) and a skull-facing reference electrode (2.5 mm2 surface area). The array is processed as a free-standing device to enable monolithic integration of a rigid interposer, designed for soldering of fine-pitch SMD-connectors on a minimal assembly area. Electrochemical characterization revealed distinct impedance spectral bands for the 100, 300 and 500 μm-type electrodes, and for the array's own reference. Epidural recordings from the primary visual cortex (V1) of an awake Rhesus macaque showed natural electrophysiological signals and clear responses to standard visual stimulation. The ECoG electrodes of larger surface area recorded signals with greater spectral power in the gamma band, while the skull-facing reference electrode provided higher average gamma power spectral density (γPSD) than the common average referencing technique. PMID:25569757

  9. Fully integrated hybrid silicon free-space beam steering source with 32-channel phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, J. C.; Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Bovington, J. T.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phased arrays is a promising method for implementing free-space communication links and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) without the sensitivity to inertial forces and long latencies which characterize moving parts. Implementing this approach on a silicon-based photonic integrated circuit adds the additional advantage of working with highly developed CMOS processing techniques. In this work we discuss our progress in the development of a fully integrated 32 channel PIC with a widely tunable diode laser, a waveguide phased array, an array of fast phase modulators, an array of hybrid III-V/silicon amplifiers, surface gratings, and a graded index lens (GRIN) feeding an array of photodiodes for feedback control. The PIC has been designed to provide beam steering across a 15°x5° field of view with 0.6°x0.6° beam width and background peaks suppressed 15 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions. Fabrication follows the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB with modifications to incorporate silicon diodes and a GRIN lens.

  10. Simple charge division readouts for imaging scintillator arrays using a multi-channel PMT

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Silverman, R.W.; Shao, Y.; Cherry, S.R.

    1996-06-01

    Three simple charge division circuits were assembled and tested as 2-D position encoding readouts for multi-channel photomultiplier tubes (MC-PMT). They were evaluated with an 8 x 8 array of individual scintillators (2 x 2 x 10 mm BGO) coupled to a 64 channel MC-PMT (Philips XP1722) via 25 cm long, 2 mm diameter, double clad, optical fibers (Kuraray). This type of gamma-ray imaging detector has many potential applications in medical and industrial imaging. Though independent channel readout would allow for the discrimination of scatter within the array, and higher count rates, it would also require an excessive amount of supporting electronics. This is especially true for systems comprised of many MC-PMTs. In this study, the number of channels being read out was reduced from 64 to 4 using three different simple resistor networks. These circuits take advantage of the discretized nature of the scintillator array, the low interchannel crosstalk of the MC-PMT and low input impedance current-sensitive preamplifiers. For each circuit, the scintillator identification accuracy was compared. The identification accuracy as a function of deposited energy was also determined by exposure to various gamma-ray emitters. It was found that the preamplifier circuit noise contributed the most to the degradation of the detector`s spatial response so several low noise op amps were evaluated. It was also determined that keeping the preamplifier input impedance small was necessary for accurate positioning. The coincidence timing resolution of the detector (15 ns) is only slightly degraded by the readout circuit.

  11. Application of multi-channel photoelastic imaging technology in array type ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Chao

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of modern nondestructive testing technologies, ultrasonic phased array and Ultrasonic array testing technology has been used widely, at the same time the propagation process of ultrasonic in the material becomes more and more complex. In order to make the ultrasonic propagation path become visible and researchers can observe the acoustic field directly, considering the properties of the ultrasonic as a stress wave, according to the theory of polarized light interference, a multi-channel dynamic photoelastic imaging system is developed successfully. The system can generate many kinds of focusing ultrasonic fields in optical specimen by controlling the ultrasonic transmission delay time of each equipment channel, and the system has the ability to simulate the acoustic field's focusing process of the ultrasonic phased array. The image shot by CCD camera reflects the propagation process of the acoustic field in the specimen, and the dynamic video is formed under control of the timing circuit, and the system has the ability to save the captured image in the computer.

  12. Prediction of channel flow characteristics through square arrays of emergent cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Meftah, M.; Mossa, M.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a theoretical approach of turbulent flow in an infinite square array of emergent cylinders distributed uniformly along a channel bottom. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the flow velocity characteristics in order to confirm this theoretical approach. A model array of vertical, rigid, circular, and threaded steel cylinders, of regular distribution, was mounted on the bed of a recirculating hydraulic channel. Measurements of the three-dimensional flow velocity components were carried out using a 3D acoustic Doppler velocimeter. At a certain distance downstream of a lateral row of cylinders, the transversal profiles of velocities and turbulence parameters are expected to be periodic functions in the lateral position whose period is the centre-to-centre spacing of two side-by-side cylinders. Some empirical expressions for predicting the turbulent flow features have been established. The formulation proposed is consistent with the experimental data over a certain range of the Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter. In addition, a new formula to estimate the bulk drag coefficient overline {C_D } of the array of cylinders is proposed and validated.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh; Keynton, Robert S.; Roussel, Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Naber, John F.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Franco, Danielle B.

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  14. Photoacoustic projection imaging using a 64-channel fiber optic detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Felbermayer, Karoline; Bouchal, Klaus-Dieter; Veres, Istvan A.; Grün, Hubert; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present photoacoustic projection imaging with a 64-channel integrating line detector array, which average the pressure over cylindrical surfaces. For imaging, the line detectors are arranged parallel to each other on a cylindrical surface surrounding a specimen. Thereby, the three-dimensional imaging problem is reduced to a twodimensional problem, facilitating projection imaging. After acquisition of a dataset of pressure signals, a twodimensional photoacoustic projection image is reconstructed. The 64 channel line detector array is realized using optical fibers being part of interferometers. The parts of the interferometers used to detect the ultrasonic pressure waves consist of graded-index polymer-optical fibers (POFs), which exhibit better sensitivity than standard glass-optical fibers. Ultrasonic waves impinging on the POFs change the phase of light in the fiber-core due to the strain-optic effect. This phase shifts, representing the pressure signals, are demodulated using high-bandwidth balanced photo-detectors. The 64 detectors are optically multiplexed to 16 detection channels, thereby allowing fast imaging. Results are shown on a Rhodamine B dyed microsphere.

  15. Lithographically-fabricated channel arrays for confocal x-ray fluorescence microscopy and XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woll, Arthur R.; Agyeman-Budu, David; Choudhury, Sanjukta; Coulthard, Ian; Finnefrock, Adam C.; Gordon, Robert; Hallin, Emil; Mass, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (CXRF) employs overlapping focal regions of two x-ray optics—a condenser and collector—to directly probe a 3D volume. The minimum-achievable size of this probe volume is limited by the collector, for which polycapillaries are generally the optic of choice. Recently, we demonstrated an alternative collection optic for CXRF, consisting of an array of micron-scale collimating channels, etched in silicon, and arranged like spokes of a wheel directed towards a single source position. The optic, while successful, had a working distance of only 0.2 mm and exhibited relatively low total collection efficiency, limiting its practical application. Here, we describe a new design in which the collimating channels are formed by a staggered array of pillars whose side-walls taper away from the channel axis. This approach improves both collection efficiency and working distance, while maintaining excellent spatial resolution. We illustrate these improvements with confocal XRF data obtained at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 20-ID-B.

  16. Bargain Electrophoresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderia, Vitor M. C.; Pires, Euclides M. V.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of electrophoresis in the fields of protein chemistry and biochemistry. Describes how to build an inexpensive electrophoresis setup for use in either research or teaching activities. Details the construction of both the separating device and the power supply. (TW)

  17. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE) via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl), saltiness (NaCl), sweetness (glucose) and bitterness (quinine-HCl), were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to

  18. Design and Application of Combined 8-Channel Transmit and 10-Channel Receive Arrays and Radiofrequency Shimming for 7-T Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan; Deniz, Cem Murat; Zhang, Bei; Chang, Gregory; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of 7-T shoulder magnetic resonance imaging by developing transmit and receive radiofrequency (RF) coil arrays and exploring RF shim methods. Materials and Methods A mechanically flexible 8-channel transmit array and an anatomically conformable 10-channel receive array were designed and implemented. The transmit performance of various RF shim methods was assessed through local flip angle measurements in the right and left shoulders of 6 subjects. The receive performance was assessed through signal-to-noise ratio measurements using the developed 7-T coil and a baseline commercial 3-T coil. Results The 7-T transmit array driven with phase-coherent RF shim weights provided adequate B1+ efficiency and uniformity for turbo spin echo shoulder imaging. B1+ twisting that is characteristic of high-field loop coils necessitates distinct RF shim weights in the right and left shoulders. The 7-T receive array provided a 2-fold signal-to-noise ratio improvement over the 3-T array in the deep articular shoulder cartilage. Conclusions Shoulder imaging at 7-T is feasible with a custom transmit/receive array either in a single-channel transmit mode with a fixed RF shim or in a parallel transmit mode with a subject-specific RF shim. PMID:24056112

  19. 10-channel fiber array fabrication technique for parallel optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauz, Lina J.; Luo, Yuan; Castillo, Jose E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Barton, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) shows great promise for low intrusive biomedical imaging applications. A parallel OCT system is a novel technique that replaces mechanical transverse scanning with electronic scanning. This will reduce the time required to acquire image data. In this system an array of small diameter fibers is required to obtain an image in the transverse direction. Each fiber in the array is configured in an interferometer and is used to image one pixel in the transverse direction. In this paper we describe a technique to package 15μm diameter fibers on a siliconsilica substrate to be used in a 2mm endoscopic probe tip. Single mode fibers are etched to reduce the cladding diameter from 125μm to 15μm. Etched fibers are placed into a 4mm by 150μm trench in a silicon-silica substrate and secured with UV glue. Active alignment was used to simplify the lay out of the fibers and minimize unwanted horizontal displacement of the fibers. A 10-channel fiber array was built, tested and later incorporated into a parallel optical coherence system. This paper describes the packaging, testing, and operation of the array in a parallel OCT system.

  20. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W.; Na, J.; Kim, G. T.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H.; Lee, I.; Kim, K. S.

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  1. Development of a method for the analysis of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Luiz; Morrone, Andre Ribeiro; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Chasin, Alice Aparecida da Matta; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2014-01-15

    This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r(2)>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. PMID:24325829

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of aminopropyl silanes in microfluidic channels for highly efficient microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Batz, Nicholas G; Mellors, J Scott; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Ramsey, J Michael

    2014-04-01

    We describe a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the surface modification of glass microfluidic devices designed to perform electrophoretic separations of cationic species. The microfluidic channel surfaces were modified using aminopropyl silane reagents. Coating homogeneity was inferred by precise measurement of the separation efficiency and electroosmotic mobility for multiple microfluidic devices. Devices coated with (3-aminopropyl)di-isopropylethoxysilane (APDIPES) yielded near diffusion-limited separations and exhibited little change in electroosmotic mobility between pH 2.8 and pH 7.5. We further evaluated the temporal stability of both APDIPES and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) coatings when stored for a total of 1 week under vacuum at 4 °C or filled with pH 2.8 background electrolyte at room temperature. Measurements of electroosmotic flow (EOF) and separation efficiency during this time confirmed that both coatings were stable under both conditions. Microfluidic devices with a 23 cm long, serpentine electrophoretic separation channel and integrated nanoelectrospray ionization emitter were CVD coated with APDIPES and used for capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) of peptides and proteins. Peptide separations were fast and highly efficient, yielding theoretical plate counts over 600,000 and a peak capacity of 64 in less than 90 s. Intact protein separations using these devices yielded Gaussian peak profiles with separation efficiencies between 100,000 and 400,000 theoretical plates. PMID:24655020

  3. Calcium isotope enrichment by means of multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis for the study of particle and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Fukumoto, T.; Umehara, S.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new method for enrichment of large amounts of calcium isotopes for the future study of ^{48}Ca double beta decay. The method is called multi-channel counter-current electrophoresis (MCCCE). We present the concept of MCCCE, in which the power density in the migration path is the key to efficient enrichment of a large amount of materials. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate, allowing a substantial increase in the power density to be achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument and obtained an enrichment factor of 3 for the ratio of the abundance of ^{48}Ca to ^{43}Ca over that of natural abundance. This corresponds to an enrichment factor of 6 for ^{48}Ca to ^{40}Ca. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amounts of ions. It can be applied to many other elements and compounds.

  4. Dynamics of an Array of Hydraulic Jumps in an Active Submarine Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Peakall, J.; Sumner, E. J.; Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Wynn, R. B.; Ozsoy, E.; Tezcan, D.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic jumps, or bores, are formed when a flow rapidly thickens and slows down, passing from a Froude number defined super to subcritical state. Such transitional behaviour occurs as a flow responds to changes in bed slope or channel geometry. Hydraulic jumps are thought to be ubiquitous features formed in submarine channelized flows, as well as in river channels. Here, for the first time, we present integrated velocity and density measurements across an array of hydraulic jumps. The velocity data were collected using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)), and the density data were collected using a Conductivity, Temperature Depth (CTD) probe. The hydraulic jumps were generated by scour features, in a channelized, density stratified flow exiting the Bosphorus Strait onto the continental shelf region in South West Black Sea. It is observed that with stratification of the flow the dilute upper layer completely bypasses any forcing arising from the changing bed slope, whilst the denser lower layer responds by generating an internal hydraulic jump. Such flow behaviour is distinct to that observed in open-channel systems, where flows are rarely sufficiently stratified to generate internal hydraulic jumps. This direct field evidence supports previous experimental and theoretical analysis of hydraulic jumps in stratified shear flow. However, the field data raise several fundamental physical questions relating to the mechanics of internal hydraulic jumps. Firstly, it is observed that surface rollers, resulting in upstream flow velocity, are consistently found hundreds of metres before the slope break initiating the hydraulic jump. Secondly it is observed that the Froude criticality of the upper dilute layer is inversely related to that of the lower layer. Thirdly, it is noted that with a bypassing upper flow layer, sediment transport dynamics of coarse versus fine grained sediment past the slope break will be

  5. A microfluidic pipette array for mechanophenotyping of cancer cells and mechanical gating of mechanosensitive channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.

    2014-01-01

    Micropipette aspiration measures the mechanical properties of single cells. A traditional micropipette aspiration system requires a bulky infrastructure, and has a low throughput and limited potential for automation. We have developed a simple micro fluidic device, which is able to trap and apply pressure to single cells in designated aspiration arrays. By changing the volume flow rate using a syringe pump, we can accurately exert pressure difference across the trapped cells for pipette aspiration. By examining cell deformation and protrusion length into the pipette under an optical microscope, several important cell mechanical properties such as the cortical tension and the Young’s modulus, can be measured quantitatively using automated image analysis. Using the micro fluidic pipette array, the stiffness of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells were measured and compared. Finally, we applied our device to examine the gating threshold of the mechanosensitive channel MscL expressed in mammalian cells. Together, the development of a micro fluidic pipette array could enable rapid mechanophenotyping of individual cells and for mechanotransduction studies. PMID:25361042

  6. Investigation of Depth of Interaction Encoding for a Pixelated LSO Array with a Single Multi-Channel PMT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Cherry, Simon R

    2009-10-01

    A new approach to depth of interaction (DOI) encoding for a pixelated LSO array using a single multi-channel PMT was investigated. In this method the DOI information was estimated by taking advantage of optical crosstalk between LSO elements and examining the standard deviation (spread) of signals on all channels of the PMT. Unpolished and polished 6×6 LSO arrays with a crystal size of 1.3×1.3×20 mm(3) were evaluated on a Hamamatsu H7546 64-channel PMT. The arrays were placed on the center of the PMT and the central 16 channels of the PMT were individually read out and digitized. For the unpolished array, all crystals were resolved in the flood histogram. An average DOI resolution of 8 mm was obtained. The energy resolution was ∼25% after the signal amplitude was corrected using the measured DOI information. For the polished array, the flood histogram was superior to the unpolished array, however no DOI information could be measured. Using unpolished crystals, this method could be a practical way to achieve limited DOI information in PET detectors. The standard deviation of all PMT channels can be readily obtained using a resistor network. Only five signals (four signals to determine the x-y position and one signal measuring the standard deviation) need to be digitized, and this method only requires a single photon detector to read out the array. Unlike phoswich detectors, the method does not require segmenting the scintillator array into layers. The measured DOI resolution was much worse than that obtained with the dual-ended readout method, however, it was similar to that obtained with a two-layer phoswich detector. PMID:20046796

  7. Barbed channels enhance unidirectional connectivity between neuronal networks cultured on multi electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    le Feber, Joost; Postma, Wybren; de Weerd, Eddy; Weusthof, Marcel; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cultured neurons on multi electrode arrays (MEAs) have been widely used to study various aspects of neuronal (network) functioning. A possible drawback of this approach is the lack of structure in these networks. At the single cell level, several solutions have been proposed to enable directed connectivity, and promising results were obtained. At the level of connected sub-populations, a few attempts have been made with promising results. First assessment of the designs' functionality, however, suggested room for further improvement. We designed a two chamber MEA aiming to create a unidirectional connection between the networks in both chambers (“emitting” and “receiving”). To achieve this unidirectionality, all interconnecting channels contained barbs that hindered axon growth in the opposite direction (from receiving to emitting chamber). Visual inspection showed that axons predominantly grew through the channels in the promoted direction. This observation was confirmed by spontaneous activity recordings. Cross-correlation between the signals from two electrodes inside the channels suggested signal propagation at ≈2 m/s from emitting to receiving chamber. Cross-correlation between the firing patterns in both chambers indicated that most correlated activity was initiated in the emitting chamber, which was also reflected by a significantly lower fraction of partial bursts (i.e., a one-chamber-only burst) in the emitting chamber. Finally, electrical stimulation in the emitting chamber induced a fast response in that chamber, and a slower response in the receiving chamber. Stimulation in the receiving chamber evoked a fast response in that chamber, but no response in the emitting chamber. These results confirm the predominantly unidirectional nature of the connecting channels from emitting to receiving chamber. PMID:26578869

  8. Parallel imaging performance investigation of an 8-channel common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) planar array for 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    An 8-channel planar phased array was proposed based on the common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) structure for ultrahigh field MRI. The parallel imaging performance of the 8-channel CMDM planar array was numerically investigated based on electromagnetic simulations and Cartesian sensitivity encoding (SENSE) reconstruction. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of multichannel images combined using root-sum-of-squares (rSoS) and covariance weighted root-sum-of-squares (Cov-rSoS) at various reduction factors were compared between 8-channel CMDM array and 4-channel CM and DM array. The results of the study indicated the 8-channel CMDM array excelled the 4-channel CM and DM in SNR. The g-factor maps and artifact power were calculated to evaluate parallel imaging performance of the proposed 8-channel CMDM array. The artifact power of 8-channel CMDM array was reduced dramatically compared with the 4-channel CM and DM arrays demonstrating the parallel imaging feasibility of the CMDM array. PMID:24649433

  9. Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new high resolution apparatus designed for space was built as a laboratory prototype. Using a moving wall with a low zeta potential coating, the major sources of flow distortion for an electrophoretic sample stream are removed. Highly resolved fractions, however, will only be produced in space because of the sensitivity of this chamber to buoyancy-induced convection in the laboratory. The second and third flights of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corporation continuous flow electrophoresis system carried samples developed at MSFC intended to evaluate the broad capabilities of free flow electrophoresis in a reduced gravity environment. Biological model materials, hemoglobin and polystyrene latex microspheres, were selected because of their past use as electrophoresis standards and as visible markers for fluid flow due to electroosmosis, spacecraft acceleration or other factors. The dependence of the separation resolution on the properties of the sample and its suspension solution was assessed.

  10. Multi-channel optical sensor-array for measuring ballistocardiograms and respiratory activity in bed.

    PubMed

    Brüser, Christoph; Kerekes, Anna; Winter, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Our work covers improvements in sensors and signal processing for unobtrusive, long-term monitoring of cardiac (and respiratory) rhythms using only non-invasive vibration sensors. We describe a system for the unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs by means of an array of novel optical ballistocardiography (BCG) sensors placed underneath a regular bed mattress. Furthermore, we analyze the systems spatial sensitivity and present proof-of-concept results comparing our system to a more conventional BCG system based on a single electromechanical-film (EMFi) sensor. Our preliminary results suggest that the proposed optical multi-channel system could have the potential to reduce beat-to-beat heart rate estimation errors, as well as enable the analysis of more complex breathing patterns. PMID:23367061

  11. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica with interfacial co-assembly-based multi-channel electrochemical immunosensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wangping; Xu, Bin; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Wei; Song, Shiping; Feng, Zheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-05-01

    Schistosomiasis control remains to be an important and challenging task in the world. However, lack of quick, simple, sensitive and specific sero-diagnostic test is still a hurdle in the control practice. The commonly employed enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the native soluble egg antigen (SEA) that is limited in supply. Here we developed an electrochemical immunosensor array (ECISA) assay with an interfacial co-assembly strategy. A recombinant Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) calcium-binding protein (SjE16) was used as a principal antigen, while the SEA as a minor, co-assembling agent, with a ratio of 8:1 (SjE16: SEA, Sj16EA), which was co-immobilized on a disposable 16-channel screen-printed carbon electrode array. A portable electrochemical detector was employed to detect antibodies in serum samples. The sensitivity of ECISA reached 100% with minimal cross-reactions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that this rapid, sensitive and specific ECISA technique has the potential to perform large-scale on-site screening of Sj infection.

  12. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica with interfacial co-assembly-based multi-channel electrochemical immunosensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wangping; Xu, Bin; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Wei; Song, Shiping; Feng, Zheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis control remains to be an important and challenging task in the world. However, lack of quick, simple, sensitive and specific sero-diagnostic test is still a hurdle in the control practice. The commonly employed enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the native soluble egg antigen (SEA) that is limited in supply. Here we developed an electrochemical immunosensor array (ECISA) assay with an interfacial co-assembly strategy. A recombinant Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) calcium-binding protein (SjE16) was used as a principal antigen, while the SEA as a minor, co-assembling agent, with a ratio of 8:1 (SjE16: SEA, Sj16EA), which was co-immobilized on a disposable 16-channel screen-printed carbon electrode array. A portable electrochemical detector was employed to detect antibodies in serum samples. The sensitivity of ECISA reached 100% with minimal cross-reactions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that this rapid, sensitive and specific ECISA technique has the potential to perform large-scale on-site screening of Sj infection. PMID:23648995

  13. Software-centered implementation of 128 channel huge speaker array with stock PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yuki; Nagashima, Koichi; Kagami, Satoshi; Takano, Tachio; Nagashima, Koichi

    2003-10-01

    A huge speaker array system of 128 loudspeakers was constructed and experimented. It was implemented as ``software-centered'' style utilizing stock loudspeakers and a PC. No dedicated hardware nor DSP was utilized. Spot forming, instead of beam forming, could be realized by 32 by 4 square layout of the array. Spot means small area of higher sound pressure level. Number of the spot was not limited to one. In the experiment, within 3 m by 3 m area, four spots of different sounds could be simultaneously formed. This spot forming was confirmed by actually measured spatial distribution of sound pressure level. The effect of the spot was also confirmed auditorily. Since the system was software-centered, it was dynamic. By simply changing software parameters, location of the spot can be easily moved even while the system was running. This movability of the spot was intended to be basis for visual steering. To realize the system, a simultaneous 128 channel 14-bit DA converter PCI board was developed. 44.1 kHz sampling rate was achieved by 2.4-GHz Intel Xeon-based PC utilizing the DA board and a real-time OS, named ART-Linux. Approximately 23-μs loop could be realized by software. It was the world's fastest software loop.

  14. Synchronization and array-enhanced resonances in delayed coupled neuronal network with channel noise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianchun; Ding, Shaojie; Li, Hui; He, Guolong; Zhang, Xuejuan

    2014-09-01

    This paper studies the combined effect of transmission delay and channel fluctuations on population behaviors of an excitatory Erdös-Rényi neuronal network. First, it is found that the network reaches a perfect spatial temporal coherence at a suitable membrane size. Such a coherence resonance is stimulus-free and is array-enhanced. Second, the presence of transmission delay can induce intermittent changes of the population dynamics. Besides, two resonant peaks of the population firing rate are observed as delay changes: one is at τd≈7ms for all membrane areas, which reflects the resonance between the delayed interaction and the intrinsic period of channel kinetics; the other occurs when the transmission delay equals to the mean inter-spike intervals of the population firings in the absence of delay, which reflects the resonance between the delayed interaction and the firing period of the non-delayed system. Third, concerning the impact of network topology and population size, it is found that decreasing the connection probability does not change the range of transmission delay but broadens the range of synaptic coupling that supports population neurons to generate action potentials synchronously and temporally coherently. Furthermore, there exists a critical connection probability that distinguishes the population dynamics into an asynchronous and synchronous state. All the results we obtained are based on networks of size N = 500, which are shown to be robust to further increasing the population size. PMID:25273211

  15. Wideband aperture array using RF channelizers and massively parallel digital 2D IIR filterbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arindam; Madanayake, Arjuna; Gómez-García, Roberto; Engeberg, Erik D.

    2014-05-01

    Wideband receive-mode beamforming applications in wireless location, electronically-scanned antennas for radar, RF sensing, microwave imaging and wireless communications require digital aperture arrays that offer a relatively constant far-field beam over several octaves of bandwidth. Several beamforming schemes including the well-known true time-delay and the phased array beamformers have been realized using either finite impulse response (FIR) or fast Fourier transform (FFT) digital filter-sum based techniques. These beamforming algorithms offer the desired selectivity at the cost of a high computational complexity and frequency-dependant far-field array patterns. A novel approach to receiver beamforming is the use of massively parallel 2-D infinite impulse response (IIR) fan filterbanks for the synthesis of relatively frequency independent RF beams at an order of magnitude lower multiplier complexity compared to FFT or FIR filter based conventional algorithms. The 2-D IIR filterbanks demand fast digital processing that can support several octaves of RF bandwidth, fast analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for RF-to-bits type direct conversion of wideband antenna element signals. Fast digital implementation platforms that can realize high-precision recursive filter structures necessary for real-time beamforming, at RF radio bandwidths, are also desired. We propose a novel technique that combines a passive RF channelizer, multichannel ADC technology, and single-phase massively parallel 2-D IIR digital fan filterbanks, realized at low complexity using FPGA and/or ASIC technology. There exists native support for a larger bandwidth than the maximum clock frequency of the digital implementation technology. We also strive to achieve More-than-Moore throughput by processing a wideband RF signal having content with N-fold (B = N Fclk/2) bandwidth compared to the maximum clock frequency Fclk Hz of the digital VLSI platform under consideration. Such increase in bandwidth is

  16. Simulating Electrophoresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moertel, Cheryl; Frutiger, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes a DNA fingerprinting simulation that uses vegetable food coloring and plastic food containers instead of DNA and expensive gel electrophoresis chambers. Allows students to decipher unknown combinations of dyes in a method similar to that used to decipher samples of DNA in DNA fingerprint techniques. (JRH)

  17. Tailor-made rylene arrays for high performance n-channel semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-10-21

    Rylene dyes, made up of naphthalene units linked in peri-positions, are emerging as promising key building blocks to create π-functional materials. Chemists have found uses for these ribbonlike structures in a wide range of applications of optoelectronic devices. Because their structure combines two sets of six-membered electron-withdrawing dicarboxylic imide rings, rylene diimides exhibit enhanced solubility, excellent chemical and thermal stabilities, high electron affinities, and remarkable electron-transporting properties. Among them, perylene diimide (PDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives are important representatives improving the performance of electron-transporting technologies, relative to their p-channel counterparts. Pioneering works by Müllen and Langhals have inspired chemists to extend the π-conjugation along the peri-positions of rylene diimides, which generally results in impressive bathochromic shifts and a nearly linear increase in the extinction coefficient. In addition, in the past years, researchers have focused on π-expansion of NDI or PDI systems through bay-functionalization with carbocyclic and heterocyclic rings annulated onto the skeleton. However, chemists have rarely investigated lateral expansion via both bay- and nonbay-functionalization to construct homologous series of rylene arrays with different electronic delocalization and fine-tuned flexible linkage. This is probably due to the lack of effective procedures for the (multi) carbon-carbon formation and annulation of electron-deficient rylene imide units. In this Account, we discuss our recent progress in the design and synthesis of laterally expanded rylene dyes based on homocoupling and cross-coupling reactions of core-functionalized PDIs and NDIs to achieve novel high performance n-channel organic semiconducting materials. These new achievements offer us opportunities to learn fundamental issues about how chemical and physical properties alter with incremental

  18. A 16-Channel Distributed-Feedback Laser Array with a Monolithic Integrated Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer for a Wavelength Division Multiplex-Passive Optical Network System Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Ming-De; Liu, Wen

    2014-07-01

    A 16-channel distributed-feedback (DFB) laser array with a monolithic integrated arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer for a wavelength division multiplex-passive optical network system is fabricated by using the butt-joint metal organic chemical vapor deposition technology and nanoimpirnt technology. The results show that the threshold current is about 20-30 mA at 25°C. The DFB laser side output power is about 16 mW with a 150 mA injection current. The lasing wavelength is from 1550 nm to 1575 nm covering a more than 25 nm range with 200 GHz channel space. A more than 55 dB sidemode suppression ratio is obtained.

  19. The use of a linear Halbach array combined with a step-SPLITT channel for continuous sorting of magnetic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Moore, Lee; Williams, P. Stephen; Zborowski, Maciej

    2011-05-01

    The Quadrupole Magnetic Sorter (QMS), employing an annular flow channel concentric with the aperture of a quadrupole magnet, is well established for cell and particle separations. Here we propose a magnetic particle separator comprising a linear array of cylindrical magnets, analogous to the array proposed by Klaus Halbach, mated to a substantially improved form of a parallel plate SPLITT channel, known as the step-SPLITT channel. While the magnetic force and throughput are generally lower than for the QMS, the new separator has advantages in ease of fabrication and the ability to vary the magnetic force to suit the separands. Preliminary experiments yield results consistent with prediction and show promise regarding future separations of cells of biomedical interest.

  20. Constraining lightning channel growth dynamics by comparison of time domain electromagnetic simulations to Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Bitzer, P. M.; Burchfield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Major unknowns in lightning research include the mechanism and dynamics of lightning channel extension. Such processes are most simple during the initial growth of the channel, when the channel is relatively short and has not yet branched extensively throughout the cloud. During this initial growth phase, impulsive electromagnetic emissions (preliminary breakdown pulses) can be well-described as produced by current pulses generated as the channel extends, but the overall growth rate, channel geometry, and degree of branching are not known. We approach such issues by examining electric field change measurements made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) during the first few milliseconds of growth of a lightning discharge. We compare HAMMA observations of electromagnetic emissions and overall field change to models of lightning channel growth and development and attempt to constrain channel growth rate, degree of branching, channel physical properties, and uniformity of thunderstorm electric field. Preliminary comparisons suggest that the lightning channel branches relatively early in the discharge, though more complete and detailed analysis will be presented.

  1. Dispersion of solute by electrokinetic flow through post arrays and wavy-walled channels.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, J J; Hasselbrink, E F

    2005-02-15

    In this work, we simulate electrokinetically driven transport of unretained solute bands in a variety of two-dimensional spatially periodic geometries (post arrays as well as sinuous/varicose channels), in the thin Debye layer limit. Potential flow fields are calculated using either an inverse method or a Schwarz-Christoffel transform, and transport is modeled using a Monte Carlo method in the transformed plane. In this way, spurious "numerical diffusion" transverse to streamlines is completely eliminated, and streamwise numerical diffusion is reduced to arbitrary precision. Late-time longitudinal dispersion coefficients are calculated for Peclet numbers from 0.1 to 3162. In most geometries, a Taylor-Aris-like scaling law for the dispersion coefficient D(L)/D(L0) = 1 + Pe2/alpha underpredicts dispersion when Pe approximately O(alpha1/2) (here D(L0) is the effective axial diffusion coefficient in the periodic geometry). A two-parameter correlation widely used in the porous media literature, D(L)/D(L0) = 1 + Pe(n)/alpha, agrees slightly better, but much better agreement can be obtained using a new quadratic form: D(L)/D(L0) = 1 + Pe/alpha1 + Pe2/alpha2. A quasi-universal relationship for stream-wise dispersion is offered that predicts 96% of the simulation data to within a factor of 2 in all geometries studied. Comparison with previous work shows that in circular post arrays, the dispersion coefficient for electrokinetic flow is a factor of 3-10 less (depending on Pe and relative post size) than for pressure-driven flow. PMID:15858997

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds using a channel-domain ultrasound array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tyler; Zemp, Roger J.

    2011-03-01

    Brachytherapy is a technique commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer that relies on the precise placement of small radioactive seeds near the tumor location. The advantage of this technique over traditional radiation therapies is that treatment can be continuous and uniform, resulting in fewer clinic visits and a shorter treatment duration. Two important phases of this treatment are needle guidance for implantation, and post-placement verification for dosimetry. Ultrasound is a common imaging modality used for these purposes, but it can be difficult to distinguish the seeds from surrounding tissues, often requiring other imaging techniques such as MRI or CT. Photoacoustic imaging may offer a viable alternative. Using a photoacoustic system based on an L7- 4 array transducer and a realtime ultrasound array system capable of parallel channel data acquisition streamed to a multi-core computer via PCI-express, we have demonstrated imaging of these seeds at an ultrasound depth of 16 mm and laser penetration depths ranging up to 50 mm in chicken tissue with multiple optical wavelengths. Ultrasound and photoacoustic images are coregistered via an interlaced pulse sequence. Two laser pulses are used to form a photoacoustic image, and at these depths, the brachytherapy seeds are detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of over 26dB. To obtain this result, 1064nm light was used with a fluence of 100mJ/cm2, the ANSI limit for human skin exposure at this wavelength. This study demonstrates the potential for photoacoustic imaging as a candidate technology for brachytherapy seed placement guidance and verification.

  3. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  4. Selective recognition and discrimination of water-soluble azo dyes by a seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array.

    PubMed

    Long, Zerong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Mingliang; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-01

    A seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and nitrogen physisorption studies. The results revealed that the imprinted polymers have distinct-binding affinities from those of structurally similar azo dyes. Analysis of the UV-Vis spectral response patterns of the seven dye analytes against the imprinted polymer array suggested that the different selectivity patterns of the array were closely connected to the imprinting process. To evaluate the effectiveness of the array format, the binding of a series of analytes was individually measured for each of the seven polymers, made with different templates (including one control polymer synthesized without the use of a template). The response patterns of the array to the selected azo dyes were processed by canonical discriminant analysis. The results showed that the molecularly imprinted array was able to discriminate each analyte with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the azo dyes in two real samples, spiked chrysoidin in smoked bean curd extract and Fanta lime soda (containing tartrazine), were successfully classified by the array. PMID:25099151

  5. Hyperbolic Positioning with Antenna Arrays and Multi-Channel Pseudolite for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kenjirou; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Wang, Wei; Arie, Hiroaki; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A hyperbolic positioning method with antenna arrays consisting of proximately-located antennas and a multi-channel pseudolite is proposed in order to overcome the problems of indoor positioning with conventional pseudolites (ground-based GPS transmitters). A two-dimensional positioning experiment using actual devices is conducted. The experimental result shows that the positioning accuracy varies centimeter- to meter-level according to the geometric relation between the pseudolite antennas and the receiver. It also shows that the bias error of the carrier-phase difference observables is more serious than their random error. Based on the size of the bias error of carrier-phase difference that is inverse-calculated from the experimental result, three-dimensional positioning performance is evaluated by computer simulation. In addition, in the three-dimensional positioning scenario, an initial value convergence analysis of the non-linear least squares is conducted. Its result shows that initial values that can converge to a right position exist at least under the proposed antenna setup. The simulated values and evaluation methods introduced in this work can be applied to various antenna setups; therefore, by using them, positioning performance can be predicted in advance of installing an actual system. PMID:26437405

  6. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  7. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  8. Portable e-Tongue based on Multi-channel LAPS Array with PVC Membrane for Rapid Environment Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, D.; Yu, H.; Hu, N.; Wu, C. X.; Zhou, J.; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Legin, Andrey; Wang, P.

    2011-09-01

    A new kind of portable e-Tongue based on multi-channel LAPS array with PVC membrane has been designed for the rapid detection of environment situation, especially the seawater. It has the great advantages of depositing membranes which are offered by Chemistry Department, Saint-Petersburg State University on the sensors artificially with convenience and efficiency. To detect various heavy metal ions (Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+) simultaneously, respective Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) membrane could be prepared on the surface of the silicon-based sensor in different channel.

  9. Design Study of a Multi-channel Array Particle Spectrometer for Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Andreia; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Gonçalves, P.; Keating, A.; Pimenta, M.; Rodrigues, P.; Trindade, A.

    In this work, a novel particle spectrometer is proposed to fulfil the need to map the space radiation environment for future space missions and to provide more accurate scientific data. The concept of the instrument brings together new radiation-hard technologies, for the photo-sensors and scintillating materials that will improve the quality of the data, while taking into account the limited resources such as mass, power and accommodation, allocated for space radiation monitors. The Multi-channel Array Particle Spectrometer (MAPS), can measure fluxes and energy dis-tributions of protons, ions, electrons and gammas in a wide energy range based on the 3D reconstruction of the particle track through the detector and its deposited energy in the active volume. It consists on a 8 x 8 segmented scintillator block built from 3.2 x 3.2 x 20 mm3 indi-vidual LYSO:Ce rods that are readout at both ends by two 64 pixel Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) matrices, a new generation of high gain (105-106) avalanche photodiodes working in controlled Geiger mode, that collect the scintillating light produced by the interactions of the charged particles in the crystals. Each SiPM matrix is readout by a 64 channel mixed sig-nal analog-digital ASIC, offering both particle identification and particle counting capabilities. Power cycling design of the ASIC allows to activate the particle identification block only during a pre-determined time slice, keeping the total power budget of less than 1 mW/channel. An on-board FPGA sorts the serialized data from the two ASICs and computes the trigger primitives in real-time and in an event-by-event basis. Whenever a charged particle crosses the segmented volume of the detector, the XY coordinates, given by the pixelized crystal positions, and the deposited energy in each crystal is recorded. The double readout scheme allows to compute the light collection asymmetry between both ends of the crystal and to use that information to record the

  10. Increased Vessel Depiction of the Carotid Bifurcation with a Specialized 16-Channel Phased Array Coil at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Quinn; Kim, Seong-Eun; Treiman, Gerald; Parker, Dennis L.; Hadley, J. Rock

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to design and construct a multi-channel receive-only RF coil for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the human carotid artery and bifurcation with optimized signal to noise ratio in the carotid vessels along the full extent of the neck. A neck phantom designed to match the anatomy of a subject with a neck representing the body habitus often seen in subjects with carotid arterial disease, was constructed. Sixteen circular coil elements were arranged on a semi-rigid fiberglass former that closely fit the shape of the phantom, resulting in a 16-channel bilateral phased array coil. Comparisons were made between this coil and a typical 4-channel carotid coil in a study of 10 carotid vessels in 5 healthy volunteers. The 16-channel carotid coil showed a 73% average improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the carotid bifurcation. This coil also maintained an SNR greater than the peak SNR of the 4-channel coil over a vessel length of 10 cm. The resulting increase in SNR improved vessel depiction of the carotid arteries over an extended field of view, and demonstrated better image quality for higher parallel imaging reduction factors compared to the 4-channel coil. PMID:22777692

  11. Recover soft x-ray spectrum using virtual flat response channels with filtered x-ray diode array.

    PubMed

    Tianming, Song; Jiamin, Yang; Rongqing, Yi

    2012-11-01

    A method for the recovery of soft x-ray spectra in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. Virtual detection channels with bandpass responses are obtained using linear combinations of the channel response functions of a filtered x-ray diode array and a weighted correction is introduced to improve the recovery. These virtual channels can be used to calculate radiation fluxes in some specific photon energy bands and hence to recover the spectrum of the whole photon energy range from 80 eV to 4.5 keV. Examples are listed which demonstrate the capability of this method to unfold various spectra such as Planck spectra with different radiation temperatures and to obtain x-ray flux of certain narrow energy interval. PMID:23206046

  12. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments

    PubMed Central

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4–8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic). PMID:21243106

  13. ARRAY OPTIMIZATION FOR TIDAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN A TIDAL CHANNEL – A NUMERICAL MODELING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea

    2014-04-18

    This paper presents an application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate tidal energy extraction in a tidal dominated estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to simulate tidal energy extraction with different turbine array configurations, including location, spacing and array size. Preliminary model results suggest that array optimization for tidal energy extraction in a real-world site is a very complex process that requires consideration of multiple factors. Numerical models can be used effectively to assist turbine siting and array arrangement in a tidal turbine farm for tidal energy extraction.

  14. A six-channel pediatric coil array for detection of children spinal pathologies by MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Terrones, Marcos Alonso; Solís-Nájera, Sergio Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays, magnetic resonance (MR) in Mexico has become a standard technique for clinical imaging. Although most of the times the MR systems contain only coils oriented for adults. Radiologists use these coils for children studies due to the non-availability of pediatric coils. Image quality is decreased due to the low signal to noise ratio delivered to the system. The development of RF coils is always focused towards increasing SNR and optimizing the RF penetration into the sample. Moreover, spinal pathologies in children, which are an important topic in pediatric care, cover congenital and neuromuscular disorders that occur in childhood. In this work, the design of a dedicated six-channel coil for detection of spinal pathologies at 1.5 Tesla is addressed. Numerical electromagnetic simulations were performed in order to evaluate their magnetic field performance at (63.6 MHz) 1.5 Tesla. The magnetic field uniformity as well as the RF penetration depth of the coil configurations was evaluated in order to find the best/optimized coil array configuration. The coil is comprised of three rows, one with 4 coil elements and two with only one coil element. Phantom and in vivo images were acquired with the six-channel pediatric coil array. The phantom images agree with the simulated data. In vivo images acquired with the 6-channel pediatric coil array have shown very good penetration depth and homogeneity, which allow better image quality throughout the whole FOV. In addition, the parallel imaging capabilities of the array allow the acceleration of the experiments avoiding possible motion artifacts.

  15. A six-channel pediatric coil array for detection of children spinal pathologies by MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    López Terrones, Marcos Alonso; Solís-Nájera, Sergio Enrique

    2014-11-07

    Nowadays, magnetic resonance (MR) in Mexico has become a standard technique for clinical imaging. Although most of the times the MR systems contain only coils oriented for adults. Radiologists use these coils for children studies due to the non-availability of pediatric coils. Image quality is decreased due to the low signal to noise ratio delivered to the system. The development of RF coils is always focused towards increasing SNR and optimizing the RF penetration into the sample. Moreover, spinal pathologies in children, which are an important topic in pediatric care, cover congenital and neuromuscular disorders that occur in childhood. In this work, the design of a dedicated six-channel coil for detection of spinal pathologies at 1.5 Tesla is addressed. Numerical electromagnetic simulations were performed in order to evaluate their magnetic field performance at (63.6 MHz) 1.5 Tesla. The magnetic field uniformity as well as the RF penetration depth of the coil configurations was evaluated in order to find the best/optimized coil array configuration. The coil is comprised of three rows, one with 4 coil elements and two with only one coil element. Phantom and in vivo images were acquired with the six-channel pediatric coil array. The phantom images agree with the simulated data. In vivo images acquired with the 6-channel pediatric coil array have shown very good penetration depth and homogeneity, which allow better image quality throughout the whole FOV. In addition, the parallel imaging capabilities of the array allow the acceleration of the experiments avoiding possible motion artifacts.

  16. UV LED array based NLOS UV turbulence channel modeling and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Liao, Linchao; Li, Zening; Lang, Tian; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, we comprehensively study the NLOV UV turbulence effect through simulated and experimental results. A Monte Carlo NLOS UV turbulence channel model, which incorporates the effects of multiple scattering and turbulence attenuation, is proposed based on previous work. To validate this model, a series of outdoor experiments is conducted to investigate the received-signal energy distribution and channel path loss under the turbulence circumstance for the first time. These experimental and simulated results are valuable for studying NLOS UV channel and communication system design. PMID:26368159

  17. Electrophoresis. [in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based techniques for electrophoresis take account of the need either to circumvent the effects of gravity to prevent convection, or to use gravity for fluid stabilization through artificial density gradients. The microgravity environments of orbiting spacecraft provides a new alternative for electrophoresis by avoiding the need for either of these two approaches. The paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning electrophoresis, examines certain experimental techniques (zone and high density gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and isotachophoresis), and examines the electrophoresis of living cells.

  18. Electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  19. Ultra-short channel junctionless transistor with a one-dimensional nanodot array floating gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Takahiko; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Migita, Shinji; Okamoto, Naofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-06-01

    The electrical properties of a junctionless field-effect transistor with a sub-10-nm scale channel and FeOx nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. The anisotropic wet etching of a silicon-on-insulator substrate was used to form V-grooves and define the nanometer-scale channel. The NPs were selectively placed on the bottom of the V-groove using the bio-nano process. Low-voltage operation and a wide threshold voltage (Vth) shift as memory behavior were confirmed in a device with a 3.6-nm channel length. These results indicate that the Vth is controlled by the single-nanodot floating gate along the channel length direction.

  20. Injector-concentrator electrodes for microchannel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2003-05-06

    An input port geometry, with injector-concentrator electrodes, for planar microchannel array for electrophoresis. This input port geometry enables efficient extraction and injection of the DNA sample from a single input port. The geometry, which utilizes injector-concentrator electrodes, allows simultaneous concentration, in different channels, of the sample into a longitudinally narrow strip just before releasing it for a run with enhanced injection spatial resolution, and time resolution. Optional multiple electrodes, at a different bias than the concentrator electrodes, may be used to discriminate against sample impurity ions. Electrode passivation can be utilized to prevent electrolysis. An additional electrode in or on the input hole can better define the initial loading. The injector-concentrator electrodes are positioned so that they cross the drift channel in a narrow strip at the bond plane between the top and bottom plates of the instrument and are located close to the inlet hole. The optional sample purification electrodes are located at a greater distance from the input hole than the injector-concentrate electrodes.

  1. Channel calibration for digital array radar in the presence of amplitude-phase and mutual coupling errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Jianzhi; Chen, Zengping

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-phase errors and mutual coupling errors among multi-channels in digital array radar (DAR) will seriously deteriorate the performance of signal processing such as digital beam-forming (DBF) and high resolution direction finding. In this paper, a combined algorithm for error calibration in DAR has been demonstrated. The algorithm firstly estimates the amplitude-phase errors of each channel using interior calibration sources with the help of the calibration network. Then the signals from far field are received and the amplitude-phase errors are compensated. According to the subspace theories, the relationship between the principle eigenvectors and distorted steering vectors is expressed, and the cost function containing the mutual coupling matrix (MCM) and incident directions is established. Making use of the properties of MCM of uniform linear array, Gauss-Newton method is implied to iteratively compute the MCM and the direction of arrival (DOA). Simulation results have shown the effectiveness and performance of proposed algorithm. Based on an 8-elements DAR test-bed, experiments are carried out in anechoic chamber. The results illustrate that the algorithm is feasible in actual systems.

  2. Microsecond electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Plenert, Matthew L.; Shear, Jason B.

    2003-01-01

    Although analysis strategies exist for probing a diverse array of molecular properties, most of these approaches are not amenable to the study of reaction intermediates and other transient species. Separations in particular can provide detailed information on attributes not readily measured by spectroscopy but typically are performed over time scales much longer than the life span of highly unstable compounds. Here we report the development of an electrophoretic strategy that dramatically extends the practical speed limit for fractionations and demonstrate its utility in examining transient hydroxyindole photoproducts. Fluorescent reaction intermediates are optically generated in femtoliter volumes within a flowing reagent stream and are differentially transported at velocities as large as 1.3 m⋅s−1, thereby minimizing band variance and allowing multicomponent reaction mixtures to be resolved over separation paths as short as 9 μm. Analyte migration times and band variances do not deviate significantly from basic theory for separations performed with fields that exceed 0.1 MV⋅cm−1, indicating that effects from Joule heating are minor. We demonstrate the feasibility of achieving baseline resolution of a binary mixture in <10 μs, nearly 100-fold faster than previously possible. Application of this approach to the study of a range of short-lived molecules should be feasible. PMID:12629208

  3. A 32-Channel Phased-Array Receive with Asymmetric Birdcage Transmit RF Coil for Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dregely, Isabel; Ruset, Iulian C.; Wiggins, Graham; Mareyam, Azma; Mugler, John P.; Altes, Talissa A.; Meyer, Craig; Ruppert, Kai; Wald, Lawrence L.; Hersman, F. William

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HP Xe) has the potential to become a non-invasive contrast agent for lung MRI. In addition to its utility for imaging of ventilated airspaces, the property of xenon to dissolve in lung tissue and blood upon inhalation provides the opportunity to study gas exchange. Implementations of imaging protocols for obtaining regional parameters that exploit the dissolved phase are limited by the available signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), excitation homogeneity, and length of acquisition times. To address these challenges, a 32-channel receive-array coil complemented by an asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HP Xe resonance at 3T was developed. First results of spin-density imaging in healthy subjects and subjects with obstructive lung disease demonstrated the improvements in image quality by high resolution ventilation images with high SNR. Parallel imaging performance of the phased-array coil was demonstrated by acceleration factors up to three in 2D acquisitions and up to six in 3D acquisitions. Transmit-field maps showed a regional variation of only 8% across the whole lung. The newly developed phased-array receive coil with the birdcage transmit coil will lead to an improvement in existing imaging protocols, but moreover enable the development of new, functional lung imaging protocols based on the improvements in excitation homogeneity, SNR, and acquisition speed. PMID:23132336

  4. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea. PMID:26775937

  5. Characterization of a single cell of Chlorella in a microfluidic channel using amperometric electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Seok; Bai, Seoung Jai

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of O2 and/or mediators secreted by a single cell of Chlorella fusea were analyzed by using amperometric measurements on microelectrodes embedded in a microfluidic device. A single cell was trapped in a microfluidic channel, which simplifies the mass transfer phenomenon, i.e., one-dimensional distribution of solutes in the channel. Such amperometric measurements allowed us to obtain more refined data in a localized space and to understand photosynthetic behavior of algae at the single cell level. In addition, the concentration of a photosynthetic mediator, p-benzoquinone, was numerically calculated by using the finite element method. PMID:24966046

  6. Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sansinena, J. M.; Yee, C. K.; Sapuri, A.; Swanson, Basil I.; Redondo, A.; Parikh, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the design of ionic reservoir arrays within a double phospholipid bilayer to ultimately develop a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors. As a first step, a primary bilayer lipid membrane is deposited onto an array of electrodes patterned onto a substrate surface. Subsequently, an array of microvoids is created within the bilayer by a wet photolithographic patterning of phospholipid bilayers using a deep UV light source and a quartz/chrome photomask. To ensure registry, the photomask used to pattern bilayers is designed to match up the microvoids within the primary bilayer with the array of electrodes on the substrate surface. The deposition of a secondary bilayer lipid membrane onto the primary bilayer that spans across the patterned microvoids leads to the formation of the array of ionic reservoirs within the double phospholipid bilayer. This is accomplished using giant unilamellar vesicles and by exploiting membrane electrostatics. The use of ion-channels incorporated into the secondary bilayer that covers the individual ionic reservoirs allows the construction of a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors that are able to recognize different target-agents simultaneously.

  7. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  8. Subtle anion effects on anion exchange and thermolysis: Square supra-channels via array of sinusoidal coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, So Yun; Park, Min Woo; Noh, Tae Hwan; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2013-12-01

    Self-assembly of AgX (X=ClO4-,BF4-) with a new diethylbis(4-pyridyl)silane (L) ligand basically gives rise to a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal structure. Weak C-H⋯π interactions between ethyl and pyridyl groups result in the formation of infinite square supra-channel structures via a molecular array of four sinusoidal chains. The supra-channel size is 10.1-10.7 Å with a void cross-section of 2.1-3.1 Å for [Ag(L)](ClO4) and 9.9-10.5 Å with a void cross-section of 2.0-3.0 Å for [Ag(L)](BF4). The supra-channels are occupied by each counteranion. Anion exchange of [Ag(L)](BF4) with NaClO4 occurs smoothly, whereas the reverse anion exchange of [Ag(L)](ClO4) with NaBF4 does not. Calcination of [Ag(L)](ClO4) crystals at 400 °C produces a circle morphology with evolving burned organics, and, at 600 °C, forms network circles consisting of a silver(0)/silver chloride (chlorargyrite)/silicon(IV) oxide composite with a micro-sized convexo-concave surface. In contrast, calcination of [Ag(L)](BF4) crystals at 600 °C produces silver(0) materials without silicon(IV) oxide.

  9. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Single carbon fiber electrodes (d = 8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ˜150 μm pitch. Approach. Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm-1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results. Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in five rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in three acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with three layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance. From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ˜150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response.

  10. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  11. A nanoplasmonic probe as a triple channel colorimetric sensor array for protein discrimination.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinpeng; Lu, Yuexiang; Chang, Ning; Yang, Jiaoe; Yang, Jiacheng; Zhang, Sichun; Liu, Yueying

    2016-06-20

    The salt-induced aggregation, nanoparticle regrowth and self-assembly behaviors of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and DNA conjugates could be changed after interaction with different proteins, generating various color changes and a unique fingerprint pattern for each protein. The triple-channel colorimetric signals have been employed for protein discrimination with the naked eye. PMID:27228956

  12. Modelling of the flow field surrounding tidal turbine arrays for varying positions in a channel.

    PubMed

    Daly, T; Myers, L E; Bahaj, A S

    2013-02-28

    The modelling of tidal turbines and the hydrodynamic effects of tidal power extraction represents a relatively new challenge in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Many different methods of defining flow and boundary conditions have been postulated and examined to determine how accurately they replicate the many parameters associated with tidal power extraction. This paper outlines the results of numerical modelling analysis carried out to investigate different methods of defining the inflow velocity boundary condition. This work is part of a wider research programme investigating flow effects in tidal turbine arrays. Results of this numerical analysis were benchmarked against previous experimental work conducted at the University of Southampton Chilworth hydraulics laboratory. Results show significant differences between certain methods of defining inflow velocities. However, certain methods do show good correlation with experimental results. This correlation would appear to justify the use of these velocity inflow definition methods in future numerical modelling of the far-field flow effects of tidal turbine arrays. PMID:23319708

  13. DNA electrophoresis in microfabricated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2010-10-01

    Picking up at the conclusion of Viovy’s review of the physics of gel electrophoresis [J.-L. Viovy, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 813 (2000)10.1103/RevModPhys.72.813], this review synthesizes the experimental data, theoretical models, and simulation results for DNA electrophoresis in microfabricated and nanofabricated devices appearing since the seminal paper by Volkmuth and Austin [Nature (London) 358, 600 (1992)10.1038/358600a0]. Prototype versions of these devices separate DNA by molecular weight at a rate far superior to gel electrophoresis. After providing an overview of the requisite background material in polymer physics, electrophoresis, and microfluidic device fabrication, the focus is on the following three generic problems: (i) collision with an isolated post, (ii) transport in an array of posts, and (iii) entropic trapping and filtration in the slit-well motif. The transport phenomena are examined here in the context of the length and time scales characterizing the DNA, the device, and the applied electric field.

  14. Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory tests of a two-channel prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, J. J.; Reynaud, F.; Connes, P.

    1995-05-01

    We present a complete two-telescope version of a fiber-linked coherent array that is meant to be used for mounting on the dish of a radio telescope. This was built with 20-cm amateur telescopes and includes three different servo subsystems for guiding, nulling of the air path difference, and fiber length control. Laboratory tests of the fully integrated system in front of a star simulator are described.

  15. Automated tuning of an eight-channel cardiac transceive array at 7 tesla using piezoelectric actuators

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Graeme A; Rodgers, Christopher T; Hess, Aaron T; Snyder, Carl J; Vaughan, J Thomas; Robson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultra-high field (UHF) MR scanning in the body requires novel coil designs due to B1 field inhomogeneities. In the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM) design, maximum B1 transmit power can only be achieved if each individual transmit element is tuned and matched for different coil loads, which requires a considerable amount of valuable scanner time. Methods An integrated system for autotuning a multichannel parallel transmit (pTx) cardiac TEM array was devised, using piezoelectric actuators, power monitoring equipment and control software. The reproducibility and performance of the system were tested and the power responses of the coil elements were profiled. An automated optimization method was devised and evaluated. Results The time required to tune an eight-element pTx cardiac RF array was reduced from a mean of 30 min to less than 10 min with the use of this system. Conclusion Piezoelectric actuators are an attractive means of tuning RF coil arrays to yield more efficient B1 transmission into the subject. An automated mechanism for tuning these elements provides a practical solution for cardiac imaging at UHF, bringing this technology closer to clinical use. Magn Reson Med 73:2390–2397, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:24986525

  16. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  17. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  18. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  19. Cooperative absorption of terahertz radiation by plasmon modes in an array of field-effect transistors with two-dimensional electron channel

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. V.; Tsymbalov, G. M.; Fateev, D. V.; Shur, M. S.

    2006-09-18

    The authors computer simulations show that plasmon modes excited in an array of field-effect transistors with two-dimensional electron channel strongly couple to terahertz radiation due to the synchronization of plasma oscillations in different unit cells of the array. It is shown that in such a device the higher-order plasmon modes are excited much more effectively than in a large area two-dimensional electron channel coupled to terahertz radiation by a slit-grating gate. Effective excitation of the higher-order plasmon modes makes it possible to design terahertz plasmonic devices with operating frequencies up to 15 THz or even higher.

  20. Arrayed Hollow Channels in Silk-based Scaffolds Provide Functional Outcomes for Engineering Critically-sized Tissue Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Wray, Lindsay S.; Golinski, Julianne M.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine there is a need for scaffolds that support large, critically-sized tissue formation. Major limitations in reaching this goal are the delivery of oxygen and nutrients throughout the bulk of the engineered tissue as well as host tissue integration and vascularization upon implantation. To address these limitations we previously reported the development of a porous scaffold platform made from biodegradable silk protein that contains an array of vascular-like structures that extend through the bulk of the scaffold. Here we report that the hollow channels play a pivotal role in enhancing cell infiltration, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the scaffold bulk, and promoting in vivo host tissue integration and vascularization. The unique features of this protein biomaterial system, including the vascular structures and tunable material properties, render this scaffold a robust and versatile tool for implementation in a variety of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and disease modeling applications. PMID:25395920

  1. Teaching real-time ultrasonic imaging with a 4-channel sonar array, TI C6711 DSK and MATLAB.

    PubMed

    York, George W P; Welch, Thad B; Wright, Cameron H G

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic medical imaging courses often stop at the theory or MATLAB simulation level, since professors find it challenging to give the students the experience of designing a real-time ultrasonic system. Some of the practical problems of working with real-time data from the ultrasonic transducers can be avoided by working at lower frequencies (sonar to low ultrasound) range. To facilitate this, we have created a platform using the ease of MATLAB programming with the real-time processing capability of the low-cost Texas Instruments C6711 DSP starter kit and a 4-channel sonar array. With this platform students can design a B-mode or Color-Mode sonar system in the MATLAB environment. This paper will demonstrate how the platform can be used in the classroom to demonstrate the real-time signal processing stages including beamforming, multi-rate sampling, demodulation, filtering, image processing, echo imaging, and Doppler frequency estimation. PMID:15850134

  2. Transition to turbulence and mixing in a viscoelastic fluid flowing inside a channel with a periodic array of cylindrical obstacles.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Muzio; Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Ellero, Marco

    2013-04-26

    Using Lagrangian simulations of a viscoelastic fluid modeled with an Oldroyd-B constitutive equation, we demonstrate that the flow through a closely spaced linear array of cylinders confined in a channel undergoes a transition to a purely elastic turbulent regime above a critical Weissenberg number (We). The high-We regime is characterized by an unsteady motion and a sudden increase in the flow resistance in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, a power-law scaling behavior of the integral quantities as well as enhanced mixing of mass is observed. A stability analysis based on the dynamic mode decomposition method allows us to identify the most energetic modes responsible for the unsteady behavior, which correspond to filamental structures of polymer over- or underextension advected by the main flow preserving their shape. These time-dependent flow features strictly resemble the elastic waves reported in recent numerical simulations. PMID:23679735

  3. Design and performance of a fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genghua; Shu, Rong; Hou, Libing; Li, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting lidar has an ultra-high sensitivity which can be hundreds even thousands of times higher than the linear detection lidar. It can significantly increase the system's capability of detection rang and imaging density, saving size and power consumings in airborne or space-borne applications. Based on Geiger-mode Si avalanche photodiodes (Si-APD), a prototype photon counting lidar which used 8 APDs coupled with a 1×8-pixel fiber array has been made in June, 2011. The experiments with static objects showed that the photon counting lidar could operate in strong solar background with 0.04 receiving photoelectrons on average. Limited by less counting times in moving platforms, the probability of detection and the 3D imaging density would be lower than that in static platforms. In this paper, a latest fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system is introduced. The correlation range receiver algorithm of photon counting 3D imaging is improved for airborne signal photon events extraction and noise filter. The 3D imaging experiments in the helicopter shows that the false alarm rate is less than 6×10-7, and the correct rate is better than 99.9% with 4 received photoelectrons and 0.7MHz system noise on average.

  4. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system. PMID:24510795

  5. Inertial focusing in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion-contraction cavity arrays using two secondary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, M.; Li, W. H.; Alici, G.

    2013-08-01

    The focusing of particles has a variety of applications in industry and biomedicine, including wastewater purification, fermentation filtration, and pathogen detection in flow cytometry, etc. In this paper a novel inertial microfluidic device using two secondary flows to focus particles is presented. The geometry of the proposed microfluidic channel is a simple straight channel with asymmetrically patterned triangular expansion-contraction cavity arrays. Three different focusing patterns were observed under different flow conditions: (1) a single focusing streak on the cavity side; (2) double focusing streaks on both sides; (3) half of the particles were focused on the opposite side of the cavity, while the other particles were trapped by a horizontal vortex in the cavity. The focusing performance was studied comprehensively up to flow rates of 700 µl min-1. The focusing mechanism was investigated by analysing the balance of forces between the inertial lift forces and secondary flow drag in the cross section. The influence of particle size and cavity geometry on the focusing performance was also studied. The experimental results showed that more precise focusing could be obtained with large particles, some of which even showed a single-particle focusing streak in the horizontal plane. Meanwhile, the focusing patterns and their working conditions could be adjusted by the geometry of the cavity. This novel inertial microfluidic device could offer a continuous, sheathless, and high-throughput performance, which can be potentially applied to high-speed flow cytometry or the extraction of blood cells.

  6. Fully automated analysis of multi-resolution four-channel micro-array genotyping data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaspour, Mohsen; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Podder, Mohua; Tebbutt, Scott J.

    2006-03-01

    We present a fully-automated and robust microarray image analysis system for handling multi-resolution images (down to 3-micron with sizes up to 80 MBs per channel). The system is developed to provide rapid and accurate data extraction for our recently developed microarray analysis and quality control tool (SNP Chart). Currently available commercial microarray image analysis applications are inefficient, due to the considerable user interaction typically required. Four-channel DNA microarray technology is a robust and accurate tool for determining genotypes of multiple genetic markers in individuals. It plays an important role in the state of the art trend where traditional medical treatments are to be replaced by personalized genetic medicine, i.e. individualized therapy based on the patient's genetic heritage. However, fast, robust, and precise image processing tools are required for the prospective practical use of microarray-based genetic testing for predicting disease susceptibilities and drug effects in clinical practice, which require a turn-around timeline compatible with clinical decision-making. In this paper we have developed a fully-automated image analysis platform for the rapid investigation of hundreds of genetic variations across multiple genes. Validation tests indicate very high accuracy levels for genotyping results. Our method achieves a significant reduction in analysis time, from several hours to just a few minutes, and is completely automated requiring no manual interaction or guidance.

  7. Ratcheted electrophoresis of Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Mikołaj; Bishop, Kyle J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The realization of nanoscale machines requires efficient methods by which to rectify unbiased perturbations to perform useful functions in the presence of significant thermal noise. The performance of such Brownian motors often depends sensitively on their operating conditions—in particular, on the relative rates of diffusive and deterministic motions. In this letter, we present a type of Brownian motor that uses contact charge electrophoresis of a colloidal particle within a ratcheted channel to achieve directed transport or perform useful work against an applied load. We analyze the stochastic dynamics of this model ratchet to show that it functions under any operating condition—even in the limit of strong thermal noise and in contrast to existing ratchets. The theoretical results presented here suggest that ratcheted electrophoresis could provide a basis for electrochemically powered, nanoscale machines capable of transport and actuation of nanoscale components.

  8. A microchannel electrophoresis DNA sequencing system

    SciTech Connect

    Madabhushi, R S; Warth, T; Balch, J W; Bass, M; Brewer, L R; Copeland, A C; Davidson, J C; Fitch, J P; Kegelmeyer, L M; Kimbrough, J R; McCready, P; Nelson, D; Pastrone, R L; Richardson, P M; Swierkowski, S P; Tarte, L A; Vainer, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to increase the DNA sequencing throughput of the Joint Genome Institute, we have developed a microchannel electrophoresis system. The critical new and unique elements of this system include 1) a process for the production of arrays of 96 and 384 microchannels on bonded glass substrates up to 14 x 58 cm and 2) new sieving media for high resolution and high speed separations. With custom fabrication apparatus, microchannels are etched in a borosilicate substrate, and then fusion bonded to a top substrate 1.1 mm thick that has access holes formed in it. SEM examination shows a typical microchannel to be 40 micrometers deep x 180 micrometers wide by 46 cm long. This technology offers significant advantages over discrete capillaries or conventional slab-gel approaches. High throughput DNA sequencing with over 550 base pairs resolution has been achieved in roughly half the time of conventional sequencers. In February 1999, we begin a pre-production evaluation protocol for the microchannel and for three glass capillary electrophoresis systems (two from industry and one developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the Joint Genome Institute). In order to utilize these instruments for DNA production sequencing, we have been evaluating and implementing software to convert raw electropherograms into called DNA bases with an associated probability of error. Our original intent was to utilize the DNA base calling software known as Plan and Phred developed by the University of Washington. This software has been outstanding for our slab gel electrophoresis systems currently in the production facility. In our tests and evaluations of this software applied to microchannel data, we observed that the electropherograms are of a different statistical and underlying signal structure compared to slab gels. Even with substantial modifications to the software, base calling performance was not satisfactory for the microchannel data. In this paper, we will present o The

  9. Design and performance evaluation of a disk array controller with fibre channel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoming; Xie, Changsheng; Liu, Ruifang; Wan, Jiguang

    2005-09-01

    Storage demands are growing rapidly with the increasing usages of multimedia, stream casting, and large scale database. High-performance RAID storage is a critical component for many large-scale data-intensive applica¬tions. The goal of our project is to implement high performance external RAID controller based on Intel IOP321. The software design of the RAID controller is introduced, which consists of six functional modules: SCSI Target, Cache Management, RAID Kernel, I/O Schedule, SCSI Initiator and Global Configuration. A PC architecture RAID controller with Fibre Channel interface to host has been implemented to test algorithms and evaluate performances. We also present hardware scheme of the controller based on Intel IOP321 processor.

  10. Quantum dots encoded Au coated polystyrene bead arranged micro-channel for multiplex arrays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Zhan; Yang, Runyu; Zou, Linling; Zhou, Zhen; Mi, Tie; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a promising micro-channel multiplex immunoassay method based on the quantum dots encoded beads which requires micro-volume sample. Briefly, Au nanoparticles coated polystyrene (PS) beads were prepared and Quantum dots (QDs) were employed to encode 4 types of the PS beads by different emission wavelength QDs and various intensities. Different coding types of the beads were immobilized with different antibodies on the surface and BSA was used to block the unsatisfied sites. The antibody linked beads were then arranged in the 150 µm diameter optical capillary where the specific reactions took place before the detections. Results showed that the antibody on the Au coated surface maintains the bioactivity for the immunoreactions. Using this system, the fluorescent intensity was linear with analyte concentration in the range of 1×10(-7)-1×10(-5) mg/mL (RSD<5%, 4 repeats) and the lower detection limit reached 5×10(-8) mg/mL. It was proved to be a promising approach for the future miniaturization analytical devices. PMID:26695326

  11. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  12. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  13. 4 T Actively detuneable double-tuned 1H/31P head volume coil and four-channel 31P phased array for human brain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Avdievich, N I; Hetherington, H P

    2007-06-01

    Typically 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies are limited by SNR considerations. Although phased arrays can improve the SNR; to date 31P phased arrays for high-field systems have not been combined with 31P volume transmit coils. Additionally, to provide anatomical reference for the 31P studies, without removal of the coil or patient from the magnet, double-tuning (31P/1H) of the volume coil is required. In this work we describe a series of methods for active detuning and decoupling enabling use of phased arrays with double-tuned volume coils. To demonstrate these principles we have built and characterized an actively detuneable 31P/1H TEM volume transmit/four-channel 31P phased array for 4 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the human brain. The coil can be used either in volume-transmit/array-receive mode or in TEM transmit/receive mode with the array detuned. Threefold SNR improvement was obtained at the periphery of the brain using the phased array as compared to the volume coil. PMID:17379554

  14. Evaluation of a 512-Channel Faraday-Strip Array Detector Coupled to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mattauch-Herzog Mass Spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, G. D.; Ray, Steven J.; Rubinshtein, Arnon A.; Felton, Jermey; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, Bonner M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2009-07-01

    A 512-channel Faraday-strip array detector has been developed and fitted to a Mattauch-Herzog geometry mass spectrograph for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple mass-to-charge values. Several advantages are realized by using simultaneous detection methods, including higher duty cycles, removal of correlated noise, and multianalyte transient analyses independent of spectral skew. The new 512-channel version offers narrower, more closely spaced pixels, providing improved spectral peak sampling and resolution. In addition, the electronics in the amplification stage of the new detector array incorporate a sample-and-hold feature that enables truly simultaneous interrogation of all 512 channels. While sensitivity and linear dynamic range remain impressive for this Faraday-based detector system, limits of detection and isotope ratio data have suffered slightly from leaky p-n junctions produced during the manufacture of the semiconductor-based amplification and readout stages. This paper describes the new 512-channel detector array, the current dominant noise sources, and the figures of merit for the device as pertaining to inductively coupled plasma ionization.

  15. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, D.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Lazarus, I. H.; Page, R. D.; Thomas, S.

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  16. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. A Two-dimensional Sixteen Channel Transmit/Receive Coil Array for Cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Design, Evaluation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, Christof; Renz, Wolfgang; Winter, Lukas; Hezel, Fabian; Rieger, Jan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Graessl, Andreas; Seifert, Frank; Hoffmann, Werner; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Kellman, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To design, evaluate and apply a two-dimensional 16 channel transmit/receive coil array tailored for cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla. Material and Methods The cardiac coil array consists of 2 sections each using 8 elements arranged in a 2 × 4 array. RF safety was validated by SAR simulations. Cardiac imaging was performed using 2D CINE FLASH imaging, T2* mapping and fat-water separation imaging. The characteristics of the coil array were analyzed including parallel imaging performance, left ventricular chamber quantification and overall image quality. Results RF characteristics were found to be appropriate for all subjects included in the study. The SAR values derived from the simulations fall well in the limits of legal guidelines. The baseline SNR advantage at 7.0 T was put to use to acquire 2D CINE images of the heart with a very high spatial resolution of (1 × 1 × 4) mm3. The proposed coil array supports 1D acceleration factors of up to R=4 without impairing image quality significantly. Conclusions The 16 channel TX/RX coil has the capability to acquire high contrast and high spatial resolution images of the heart at 7.0 Tesla. PMID:22706727

  18. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  19. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  20. Electrophoresis for biological production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Preparative electrophoresis may provide a unique method for meeting ever more stringent purity requirements. Prolonged near zero gravity in space may permit the operation of preparative electrophoresis equipment with 100 times greater throughput than is currently available. Some experiments with influenza Virus Antigen, Erythropoietin and Antihemophaliac Factor, along with process and economic projections, are briefly reviewed.

  1. Preparative electrophoresis experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiehler, A.

    1972-01-01

    A multifaceted study supporting the NASA programs to develop a space electrophoresis capability has been conducted. The study involved principally the technique of continuous free electrophoresis. It comprised a critical review of the art, study of new techniques for enhancing resolution and stability, and construction and initial testing of a high resolution cell. The effort resulted in a significant advance in free electrophoresis technique. It has provided also a much improved base for developments exploiting the added advantages of a zero-gravity environment.

  2. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass filtering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequency analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass filter can also be determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to distinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes’ hearing problems. Scientific hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized. PMID:25317171

  3. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  4. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  5. Rapid, Single-Molecule Assays in Nano/Micro-Fluidic Chips with Arrays of Closely Spaced Parallel Channels Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Brian K.; King, Jason K.; Robinson, William N.; Hofmeister, William H.; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective pharmaceutical drug discovery depends on increasing assay throughput while reducing reagent needs. To this end, we are developing an ultrasensitive, fluorescence-based platform that incorporates a nano/micro-fluidic chip with an array of closely spaced channels for parallelized optical readout of single-molecule assays. Here we describe the use of direct femtosecond laser machining to fabricate several hundred closely spaced channels on the surfaces of fused silica substrates. The channels are sealed by bonding to a microscope cover slip spin-coated with a thin film of poly(dimethylsiloxane). Single-molecule detection experiments are conducted using a custom-built, wide-field microscope. The array of channels is epi-illuminated by a line-generating red diode laser, resulting in a line focus just a few microns thick across a 500 micron field of view. A dilute aqueous solution of fluorescently labeled biomolecules is loaded into the device and fluorescence is detected with an electron-multiplying CCD camera, allowing acquisition rates up to 7 kHz for each microchannel. Matched digital filtering based on experimental parameters is used to perform an initial, rapid assessment of detected fluorescence. More detailed analysis is obtained through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Simulated fluorescence data is shown to agree well with experimental values. PMID:25140634

  6. Rapid, single-molecule assays in nano/micro-fluidic chips with arrays of closely spaced parallel channels fabricated by femtosecond laser machining.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Brian K; King, Jason K; Robinson, William N; Hofmeister, William H; Davis, Lloyd M

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective pharmaceutical drug discovery depends on increasing assay throughput while reducing reagent needs. To this end, we are developing an ultrasensitive, fluorescence-based platform that incorporates a nano/micro-fluidic chip with an array of closely spaced channels for parallelized optical readout of single-molecule assays. Here we describe the use of direct femtosecond laser machining to fabricate several hundred closely spaced channels on the surfaces of fused silica substrates. The channels are sealed by bonding to a microscope cover slip spin-coated with a thin film of poly(dimethylsiloxane). Single-molecule detection experiments are conducted using a custom-built, wide-field microscope. The array of channels is epi-illuminated by a line-generating red diode laser, resulting in a line focus just a few microns thick across a 500 micron field of view. A dilute aqueous solution of fluorescently labeled biomolecules is loaded into the device and fluorescence is detected with an electron-multiplying CCD camera, allowing acquisition rates up to 7 kHz for each microchannel. Matched digital filtering based on experimental parameters is used to perform an initial, rapid assessment of detected fluorescence. More detailed analysis is obtained through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Simulated fluorescence data is shown to agree well with experimental values. PMID:25140634

  7. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... may indicate: Acute infection Bone marrow cancer called multiple myeloma Chronic inflammatory disease (for example, rheumatoid arthritis and ... test Hemoglobin Hyperimmunization Immunoelectrophoresis - ... electrophoresis - serum Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus ...

  8. Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial three-dimensional particle focusing under viscoelastic flow in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion–contraction cavity arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, D.; Zhang, J.; Yan, S.; Pan, C.; Alici, G.; Nguyen, N. T.; Li, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, 3D particle focusing in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion–contraction cavity arrays (ECCA channel) is achieved by exploiting the dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial effects. First, the mechanism of particle focusing in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids was introduced. Then particle focusing was demonstrated experimentally in this channel with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using three different sized particles (3.2 μm, 4.8 μm, and 13 μm), respectively. Also, the effects of dean flow (or secondary flow) induced by expansion–contraction cavity arrays were highlighted by comparing the particle distributions in a single straight rectangular channel with that in the ECCA channel. Finally, the influences of flow rates and distances from the inlet on focusing performance in the ECCA channel were studied. The results show that in the ECCA channel particles are focused on the cavity side in Newtonian fluid due to the synthesis effects of inertial and dean-drag force, whereas the particles are focused on the opposite cavity side in non-Newtonian fluid due to the addition of viscoelastic force. Compared with the focusing performance in Newtonian fluid, the particles are more easily and better focused in non-Newtonian fluid. Besides, the Dean flow in visco-elastic fluid in the ECCA channel improves the particle focusing performance compared with that in a straight channel. A further advantage is three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing that in non-Newtonian fluid is realized according to the lateral side view of the channel while only two-dimensional (2D) particle focusing can be achieved in Newtonian fluid. Conclusively, this novel Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial microfluidic device could offer a continuous, sheathless, and high throughput (>10 000 s−1) 3D focusing performance, which may be valuable in various applications from high speed flow cytometry to cell counting, sorting, and analysis. PMID:26339309

  9. Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial three-dimensional particle focusing under viscoelastic flow in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion-contraction cavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D; Zhang, J; Yan, S; Pan, C; Alici, G; Nguyen, N T; Li, W H

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, 3D particle focusing in a straight channel with asymmetrical expansion-contraction cavity arrays (ECCA channel) is achieved by exploiting the dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial effects. First, the mechanism of particle focusing in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids was introduced. Then particle focusing was demonstrated experimentally in this channel with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using three different sized particles (3.2 μm, 4.8 μm, and 13 μm), respectively. Also, the effects of dean flow (or secondary flow) induced by expansion-contraction cavity arrays were highlighted by comparing the particle distributions in a single straight rectangular channel with that in the ECCA channel. Finally, the influences of flow rates and distances from the inlet on focusing performance in the ECCA channel were studied. The results show that in the ECCA channel particles are focused on the cavity side in Newtonian fluid due to the synthesis effects of inertial and dean-drag force, whereas the particles are focused on the opposite cavity side in non-Newtonian fluid due to the addition of viscoelastic force. Compared with the focusing performance in Newtonian fluid, the particles are more easily and better focused in non-Newtonian fluid. Besides, the Dean flow in visco-elastic fluid in the ECCA channel improves the particle focusing performance compared with that in a straight channel. A further advantage is three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing that in non-Newtonian fluid is realized according to the lateral side view of the channel while only two-dimensional (2D) particle focusing can be achieved in Newtonian fluid. Conclusively, this novel Dean-flow-coupled elasto-inertial microfluidic device could offer a continuous, sheathless, and high throughput (>10 000 s(-1)) 3D focusing performance, which may be valuable in various applications from high speed flow cytometry to cell counting, sorting, and analysis. PMID:26339309

  10. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  11. A high-density, high-channel count, multiplexed μECoG array for auditory-cortex recordings.

    PubMed

    Escabí, Monty A; Read, Heather L; Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Higgins, Nathan C; Storace, Douglas A; Liu, Andrew S K; Gifford, Adam M; Burke, John F; Campisi, Matthew; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E; Spiegel Jan, Van der; Huang, Yonggang; Li, Ming; Wu, Jian; Rogers, John A; Litt, Brian; Cohen, Yale E

    2014-09-15

    Our understanding of the large-scale population dynamics of neural activity is limited, in part, by our inability to record simultaneously from large regions of the cortex. Here, we validated the use of a large-scale active microelectrode array that simultaneously records 196 multiplexed micro-electrocortigraphical (μECoG) signals from the cortical surface at a very high density (1,600 electrodes/cm(2)). We compared μECoG measurements in auditory cortex using a custom "active" electrode array to those recorded using a conventional "passive" μECoG array. Both of these array responses were also compared with data recorded via intrinsic optical imaging, which is a standard methodology for recording sound-evoked cortical activity. Custom active μECoG arrays generated more veridical representations of the tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex than current commercially available passive μECoG arrays. Furthermore, the cortical representation could be measured efficiently with the active arrays, requiring as little as 13.5 s of neural data acquisition. Next, we generated spectrotemporal receptive fields from the recorded neural activity on the active μECoG array and identified functional organizational principles comparable to those observed using intrinsic metabolic imaging and single-neuron recordings. This new electrode array technology has the potential for large-scale, temporally precise monitoring and mapping of the cortex, without the use of invasive penetrating electrodes. PMID:24920021

  12. A high-density, high-channel count, multiplexed μECoG array for auditory-cortex recordings

    PubMed Central

    Escabí, Monty A.; Read, Heather L.; Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Higgins, Nathan C.; Storace, Douglas A.; Liu, Andrew S. K.; Gifford, Adam M.; Burke, John F.; Campisi, Matthew; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E.; der Spiegel Jan, Van; Huang, Yonggang; Li, Ming; Wu, Jian; Rogers, John A.; Litt, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the large-scale population dynamics of neural activity is limited, in part, by our inability to record simultaneously from large regions of the cortex. Here, we validated the use of a large-scale active microelectrode array that simultaneously records 196 multiplexed micro-electrocortigraphical (μECoG) signals from the cortical surface at a very high density (1,600 electrodes/cm2). We compared μECoG measurements in auditory cortex using a custom “active” electrode array to those recorded using a conventional “passive” μECoG array. Both of these array responses were also compared with data recorded via intrinsic optical imaging, which is a standard methodology for recording sound-evoked cortical activity. Custom active μECoG arrays generated more veridical representations of the tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex than current commercially available passive μECoG arrays. Furthermore, the cortical representation could be measured efficiently with the active arrays, requiring as little as 13.5 s of neural data acquisition. Next, we generated spectrotemporal receptive fields from the recorded neural activity on the active μECoG array and identified functional organizational principles comparable to those observed using intrinsic metabolic imaging and single-neuron recordings. This new electrode array technology has the potential for large-scale, temporally precise monitoring and mapping of the cortex, without the use of invasive penetrating electrodes. PMID:24920021

  13. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  14. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  15. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  16. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  17. Combustion wave propagation regimes in a channel equipped with an array of cross-flow cylindrical obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinos, Thomas Arthur Richard

    Flame propagation through a channel equipped with obstacles was studied experimentally. Two types of obstacle geometries were investigated, i.e., wall-mounted cross-flow cylinders and fence-type obstacles mounted on the top and bottom channel surfaces. The motivation for this research is its applications to both high-speed propulsion and industrial explosion safety. The effect of obstacle distribution and blockage ratio on flame acceleration was investigated in a 2.54cm x 7.6cm "narrow" channel with wall-mounted cross-flow cylindrical obstacles. The cylinders were arranged in a "staggered" or "inline" pattern, with blockage ratios of 0.5 and 0.67. Schlieren images were used to study the flame shape and its leading edge velocity for a range of fuel-air mixtures compositions. It was determined that initial flame propagation occurs faster in higher blockage ratios due to the higher frequency perturbation to the flow. Flame acceleration led to different quasi-steady flame and detonation propagation regimes. In general, higher final steady flame velocities were reached in the lower blockage ratios, and detonation limits were found to be influenced by the geometry. The influence of channel width on flame acceleration was also determined using fence-type obstacles with a single blockage ratio. Experiments were performed in a 2.54cm x 7.6cm and 7.6cm x 7.6cm channel. Schlieren images were again used to study the flame shape and to obtain leading edge velocity. The flame tip was found to have a parabolic profile across the channel width for the narrower channel and flatter profile in the wider channel. It was determined that the channel width has a weak effect on the flame velocity down the channel length. As such, flame acceleration was initially only slightly more pronounced in the narrow channel before the reverse became true later in the wide channel.

  18. Short channel amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor arrays for ultra-high definition active matrix liquid crystal displays: Electrical properties and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Chang; Kim, Young Sun; Yu, Eric Kai-Hsiang; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    The electrical properties and stability of ultra-high definition (UHD) amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with short channel (width/length = 12/3 μm) were examined. A-IGZO TFT arrays have a mobility of ∼6 cm2/V s, subthreshold swing (S.S.) of 0.34 V/decade, threshold voltage of 3.32 V, and drain current (Id) on/off ratio of <109 with Ioff below 10-13 A. Overall these devices showed slightly different electrical characteristics as compared to the long channel devices; non-saturation of output curve at high drain-to-source voltage (Vds), negative shift of threshold voltage with increasing Vds, and the mobility reduction at high gate voltage (Vgs) were observed. The second derivative method adopting Tikhonov's regularization theory is suggested for the robust threshold voltage extraction. The temperature dependency of γ-value was established after taking into consideration the impact of source/drain contact resistances. The AC bias-temperature stress was used to simulate the actual operation of active matrix liquid crystal displays (AM-LCDs). The threshold voltage shift had a dependency on the magnitude of drain bias stress, frequency, and duty cycle due to the impact ionization accelerated at high temperature. This study demonstrates that the short channel effects, source/drain contact resistances and impact ionization have to be taken into account during optimization of UHD AM-LCDs.

  19. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  20. Fraction collector for electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Rotating-tube electrophoresis apparatus employs rotating jet of eluting buffer to reduce effects of convection during separation. Designed for separation of microorganisms and biological species, system combines gravity/gradient compensating of lumen with buffer flush at fraction outlet to increase separation efficiency.

  1. Investigations of heat transfer, entropy generation and pressure build up for upward flow in a vertical channel equipped with a fin array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitallah, Medhat A.; Zohir, Alaa E.

    2015-11-01

    The optimal thermal systems design criteria by maximizing the amount of heat transfer per pressure losses is a very important topic. In this work, flow and convection and radiation heat transfer characteristics are studied numerically for a flow in a vertical channel equipped with transverse fin array. The influences of fin height on heat transfer characteristics and fluid flow is investigated. Large number of fins is used (40 fins) in order to reach the fully developed conditions after few fins from the entrance. Based on the calculated data of temperature and velocity, the local entropy generation is calculated through the whole channel by solving the entropy generation equation. The results are validated against the available data in the literature and both results are in a good agreement. Optimizations for flow conditions and channel geometry are performed in order to obtain maximum heat transfer per pumping power losses. The results showed that the highest values of total heat transfer per pumping power losses are obtained at fin height to the gap width values of 0.1 and 0.3. The effect of heat transfer by radiation on entropy generation is examined and, the effect of the ratio, Gr/Re2, on the pressure field is also investigated. It was found that a positive pressure gradient appears downstream in the channel when the value of Gr/Re2 exceeds a certain limit. For Gr/Re2 values between 0 and 9, the pressure gradient is negative; however, when the value Gr/Re2 exceeds 9, the pressure starts to build up through the channel axis.

  2. Twenty-channel bolometer array for studying impurity radiation and transport in the TCS field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostora, M. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-10-01

    A bolometer array diagnostic has been developed for the University of Washington Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment (TCS) field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment in order to measure radially resolved total radiated power per unit length of the FRC. This will provide radiation energy loss information, useful in power balance and impurity studies. The 20-element photodiode bolometer will be mounted at the midplane of the TCS cylindrical vacuum chamber to view the rotating magnetic field (RMF) generated FRC plasma. Key features of this new bolometer array are (1) extensive electrical shielding against the RMF, (2) robust electrical isolation, (3) trans-impedance amplifiers using a microcoax interface at the array and a fiber optic interface to the screen room, and (4) a custom glass-on-metal socket for the 20-element photodiode chip to ensure high vacuum compatibility. The bolometer array can be retracted behind a gate valve using a stepper motor to protect it during vacuum chamber bakeout. The slit assembly housing is interchangeable to provide flexibility for the viewing sightlines.

  3. Segmented field OFFGEL® electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tobolkina, Elena; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Momotenko, Dmitry; Maillard, Julien; Girault, Hubert H

    2012-11-01

    A multielectrode setup for protein OFFGEL electrophoresis that significantly improves protein separation efficiency has been developed. Here, the electric field is applied by segments between seven electrodes connected in series to six independent power supplies. The aim of this strategy is to distribute evenly the electric field along the multiwell system, and as a consequence to enhance electrophoresis in terms of separation time, resolution, and protein collection efficiency, while minimizing the overall potential difference and therefore the Joule heating. The performances were compared to a standard two-electrode setup for OFFGEL fractionation of a protein mixture, using UV-Vis spectroscopy for quantification and MALDI-MS for identification. The electrophoretic separation process was simulated, and optimized by solving the time-dependent Nernst-Planck differential equation. PMID:23086720

  4. Analysis of electrophoresis performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    The SAMPLE computer code models electrophoresis separation in a wide range of conditions. Results are included for steady three dimensional continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), time dependent gel and acetate film experiments in one or two dimensions and isoelectric focusing in one dimension. The code evolves N two dimensional radical concentration distributions in time, or distance down a CFE chamber. For each time or distance increment, there are six stages, successively obtaining the pH distribution, the corresponding degrees of ionization for each radical, the conductivity, the electric field and current distribution, and the flux components in each direction for each separate radical. The final stage is to update the radical concentrations. The model formulation for ion motion in an electric field ignores activity effects, and is valid only for low concentrations; for larger concentrations the conductivity is, therefore, also invalid.

  5. Happy bicentennial, electrophoresis!

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2009-12-01

    A short survey of electrophoresis and a celebration of its bicentennial, with some remarkable mementos and a list of books that shaped the field. Where one also learns of a secret production plant with a huge-scale electrophoretic apparatus for skimming of latex from Hevea brasiliensis and keeping the wheels of the Ally Army running during World War II. And of cyber (mammoth) 2D gels of 1.5 x 1 m in size accommodating >12,000 spots. PMID:19938305

  6. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  7. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  8. High-channel-count, high-density microelectrode array for closed-loop investigation of neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Tsai, David; John, Esha; Chari, Tarun; Yuste, Rafael; Shepard, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    We present a system for large-scale electrophysiological recording and stimulation of neural tissue with a planar topology. The recording system has 65,536 electrodes arranged in a 256 × 256 grid, with 25.5 μm pitch, and covering an area approximately 42.6 mm(2). The recording chain has 8.66 μV rms input-referred noise over a 100 ~ 10k Hz bandwidth while providing up to 66 dB of voltage gain. When recording from all electrodes in the array, it is capable of 10-kHz sampling per electrode. All electrodes can also perform patterned electrical microstimulation. The system produces ~ 1 GB/s of data when recording from the full array. To handle, store, and perform nearly real-time analyses of this large data stream, we developed a framework based around Xilinx FPGAs, Intel x86 CPUs and the NVIDIA Streaming Multiprocessors to interface with the electrode array. PMID:26738029

  9. Travelling Wave Electrophoresis Due To Selective Currents At Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, William; Edwards, Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Using COMSOL finite element modeling software we simulate a 2D traveling-wave electrophoresis (TWE) device for microfluidic chromatography and electrolyte concentration. A periodic array of four electrodes each produce AC potentials shifted by a quarter-period from one another. This yields an electric wave which travels down the channel. Ions of varying mobilities in solution are carried along with the electric wave or left behind at different rates. We employ a simplified model for asymmetric reactions at the electrodes in order to solve the issue of electric double layer shielding at the electrodes. The selective reactions allow for the formation of diffusion layers of ions which attempt to follow the traveling electric wave. We examine the formation of these diffusion layers and how various system parameters affect motion of various ions through the system. With easy control over the traveling electric wave's frequency and direction one may employ this method for concentrating or separating bands of electrolytes. NSF Grant 1066730.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF REACTIVE DYES IN SPENT DYEBATHS AND WASTEWATER BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection and mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase extraction were employed for the identification of reactive vinylsulfone and chlorotriazine dyes and their hydrolysis products in spent dyebaths and raw and treated wastewater. Re...

  11. Integration of biological ion channels onto optically addressable micro-fluidic electrode arrays for single molecule characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Bachand, George David; Keller, David J.; Patrick, Elizabeth L.; Marshall, Jason A.; Ortiz, Theodore P.; Meyer, Lauren A.; Davis, Ryan W.; Brozik, James A.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter

    2004-12-01

    The challenge of modeling the organization and function of biological membranes on a solid support has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily driven by potential applications in biosensor design. Affinity-based biosensors show great promise for extremely sensitive detection of BW agents and toxins. Receptor molecules have been successfully incorporated into phospholipid bilayers supported on sensing platforms. However, a collective body of data detailing a mechanistic understanding of membrane processes involved in receptor-substrate interactions and the competition between localized perturbations and delocalized responses resulting in reorganization of transmembrane protein structure, has yet to be produced. This report describes a systematic procedure to develop detailed correlation between (recognition-induced) protein restructuring and function of a ligand gated ion channel by combining single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and single channel current recordings. This document is divided into three sections: (1) reported are the thermodynamics and diffusion properties of gramicidin using single molecule fluorescence imaging and (2) preliminary work on the 5HT{sub 3} serotonin receptor. Thirdly, we describe the design and fabrication of a miniaturized platform using the concepts of these two technologies (spectroscopic and single channel electrochemical techniques) for single molecule analysis, with a longer term goal of using the physical and electronic changes caused by a specific molecular recognition event as a transduction pathway in affinity based biosensors for biotoxin detection.

  12. Evaluation of the Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC at cryogenic temperature using a visible hybrid H2RG focal plane array in 32 channel readout mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Hall, Donald N. B.; Finger, Gert; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Joerg

    2008-07-01

    Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) has developed a new CMOS device known as the SIDECAR application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This single chip provides all the functionality of FPA drive electronics to operate visible and infrared imaging detectors with a fully digital interface. At the last SPIE conference we presented test and performance results of a Teledyne 2K×2K silicon PIN diode array hybridized to a Hawaii-2RG multiplexer, the Hybrid Visible Silicon Imager (HyViSI). This detector was read out with the ESO standard IR detector controller IRACE, which delivers detector limited performance. We have now tested the H2RG HyViSI detector with the new TIS SIDECAR ASIC in 32 channel readout mode at cryogenic temperatures. The SIDECAR has been evaluated down to 105 Kelvin operating temperature and performance results have been compared to those obtained with external electronics. We find that the SIDECAR ASIC provides performance equal to optimized external electronics.

  13. Phenomenology of colloidal crystal electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medebach, Martin; Palberg, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    We studied the motion of polycrystalline solids comprising of charged sub-micron latex spheres suspended in deionized water. These were subjected to a low frequency alternating square wave electric field in an optical cell of rectangular cross section. Velocity profiles in X and Y direction were determined by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. The observed complex flow profiles are time dependent due to the combined effects of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, crystal elasticity, and friction of the crystals at the cell wall. On small time scales elastic deformation occurs. On long time scales channel formation is observed. At intermediate times steady state profiles are dominated by a solid plug of polycrystalline material moving in the cell center. At large field strengths the plug shear melts. Mobilities in the shear molten state are on the order of (6.5±0.5) 10-8 m2 V-1 s-1 and connect continuously with those of the equilibrium fluid. The apparent mobility of the plug is much larger than of the fluid and like the mobility of the fluid decreases with increasing particle number density. We qualitatively attribute the accelerated motion of the plug to an incomplete exposure to the electro-osmotic flow profile.

  14. Micro free-flow electrophoresis: theory and applications

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Ryan T.

    2009-01-01

    Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) is a technique that performs an electrophoretic separation on a continuous stream of analyte as it flows through a planar flow channel. The electric field is applied perpendicularly to the flow to deflect analytes laterally according to their mobility as they flow through the separation channel. Miniaturization of FFE (μFFE) over the past 15 years has allowed analytical and preparative separation of small volume samples. Advances in chip design have improved separations by reducing interference from bubbles generated by electrolysis. Mechanisms of band broadening have been examined theoretically and experimentally to improve resolution in μFFE. Separations using various modes such as zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and field-step electrophoresis have been demonstrated. PMID:19290514

  15. Acupuncture Sample Injection for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A simple nanoliter-scale injection technique was developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to form the well-defined sample plugs in microfluidic channels. Sample injection was achieved by performing acupuncture on a channel with a needle and applying external pressure to a syringe. This technique allowed us to achieve reproducible injection of a 3-nL segment into a microchannel for PDMS microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with bead packing were successfully performed by applying a single potential in the most simplified straight channel. The advantages of this acupuncture injection over the electrokinetic injection in microchip CE include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware, capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into a same microchannel, capability of injecting sample plugs into any position of a microchannel, independence on sample solutions during the loading step, and ease in making microchips due to the straight channel, etc. PMID:27056036

  16. Apparatus for electrophoresis separation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously performing electrophoresis separations on a plurality of slab gels containing samples of protein, protein subunits or nucleic acids. A reservoir of buffer solution is divided into three compartments by two parallel partitions having vertical slots spaced along their length. A sheet of flexible, electrically insulative material is attached to each partition and is provided with vertical slits aligned with the slots. Slab-gel holders are received within the slots with the flexible material folded outwardly as flaps from the slits to overlay portions of the holder surfaces and thereby act as electrical and liquid seals. An elongated, spaghetti-like gel containing a sample of specimen that was previously separated by isoelectric focusing techniques is vertically positioned along a marginal edge portion of the slab gel. On application of an electrical potential between the two outer chambers of buffer solution, a second dimensional electrophoresis separation in accordance with molecular weight occurs as the specimen molecules migrate across the slab gel.

  17. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  18. A small-area low-power current readout circuit using two-stage conversion method for 64-channel CNT sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-San; Lee, Seongsoo; Wee, Jae-Kyung; Song, Inchae

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a small-area and low-power current readout circuit with a novel two-stage conversion method is presented for 64-channel CNT (carbon nanotube) sensor arrays. In the first stage, current of each CNT sensor is amplified by 64 active input current mirrors (AICMs). In the second stage, the amplified current is converted to a voltage level through the shared variable gain amplifier (S-VGA). Then the S-VGA output is digitalized by successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC). The proposed readout circuit significantly reduces chip area and power consumption, since VGA is shared over 64 channels and passive elements are used only in S-VGA. Fabricated chip area is 0.173 mm(2) in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. Measured power consumption and linearity error are 73.06 μW and 5.3%, respectively, at the input current range of 10 nA-10 μA and conversion rate of 640 samples/s. A prototype real-time CNT sensor system was implemented using the fabricated readout circuit, and successfully detected alcohol reaction. PMID:23853327

  19. Evaluation of the packaging and encapsulation reliability in fully integrated, fully wireless 100 channel Utah Slant Electrode Array (USEA): Implications for long term functionality

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Rieth, L.; Tathireddy, P.; Harrison, R.; Oppermann, H.; Klein, M.; Töpper, M.; Jung, E.; Normann, R.; Clark, G.; Solzbacher, F.

    2011-01-01

    The encapsulation and packaging reliability in fully integrated, fully wireless 100 channel Utah Slant Electrode Array (USEA)/integrated neural interface-recording version 5 (INI-R5) has been evaluated by monitoring the extended long term in-vitro functional stability and recording longevity. The INI encapsulated with 6-μm Parylene-C was immersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at room temperature for a period of over 12 months. The USEA/INI-R5, while being soaked was powered and configured wirelessly through 2.765 MHz inductive link and the transmitted frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated radio-frequency (RF) (900 MHz Industrial, scientific, medical-ISM band) signal was also recorded wirelessly as a function of soak time. In order to test the long term recording ability, in-vitro wireless recording was performed in agarose for few channels. The full functionality and the ability of the electrodes to record artificial neural signals even after 12 months of PBS soak provides a measure of encapsulation reliability, the functional and recording stability in fully integrated wireless neural interface and potential usefulness for future chronic implants. PMID:23288983

  20. Large Volume Coagulation Utilizing Multiple Cavitation Clouds Generated by Array Transducer Driven by 32 Channel Drive Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Asai, Ayumu; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is a noninvasive treatment, in which focused ultrasound is generated outside the body and coagulates a diseased tissue. The advantage of this method is minimal physical and mental stress to the patient, and the disadvantage is the long treatment time caused by the smallness of the therapeutic volume by a single exposure. To improve the efficiency and shorten the treatment time, we are focusing attention on utilizing cavitation bubbles. The generated microbubbles can convert the acoustic energy into heat with a high efficiency. In this study, using the class D amplifiers, which we have developed, to drive the array transducer, we demonstrate a new method to coagulate a large volume by a single HIFU exposure through generating cavitation bubbles distributing in a large volume and vibrating all of them. As a result, the coagulated volume by the proposed method was 1.71 times as large as that of the conventional method.

  1. Eight-channel transceiver RF coil array tailored for ¹H/¹⁹F MR of the human knee and fluorinated drugs at 7.0 T.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yiyi; Waiczies, Helmar; Winter, Lukas; Neumanova, Pavla; Hofmann, Daniela; Rieger, Jan; Mekle, Ralf; Waiczies, Sonia; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an eight-channel dual-tuned transceiver surface RF coil array for combined (1)H/(19)F MR of the human knee at 7.0 T following application of (19)F-containing drugs. The (1)H/(19)F RF coil array includes a posterior module with two (1)H loop elements and two anterior modules, each consisting of one (1)H and two (19)F elements. The decoupling of neighbor elements is achieved by a shared capacitor. Electromagnetic field simulations were performed to afford uniform transmission fields and to be in accordance with RF safety guidelines. Localized (19)F MRS was conducted with 47 and 101 mmol/L of flufenamic acid (FA) – a (19)F-containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug – to determine T1 and T2 and to study the (19)F signal-to-dose relationship. The suitability of the proposed approach for (1)H/(19)F MR was examined in healthy subjects. Reflection coefficients of each channel were less than -17 dB and coupling between channels was less than -11 dB. Q(L)/Q(U) was less than 0.5 for all elements. MRS results demonstrated signal stability with 1% variation. T1 and T2 relaxation times changed with concentration of FA: T1 /T2 = 673/31 ms at 101 mmol/L and T1 /T2 = 616/26 ms at 47 mmol/L. A uniform signal and contrast across the patella could be observed in proton imaging. The sensitivity of the RF coil enabled localization of FA ointment administrated to the knee with an in-plane spatial resolution of (1.5 × 1.5) mm(2) achieved in a total scan time of approximately three minutes, which is well suited for translational human studies. This study shows the feasibility of combined (1)H/(19)F MRI of the knee at 7.0 T and proposes T1 and T2 mapping methods for quantifying fluorinated drugs in vivo. Further technological developments are necessary to promote real-time bioavailability studies and quantification of (19)F-containing medicinal compounds in vivo. PMID:25916199

  2. Possibility of Microchip Electrophoresis for Biological Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. Nucleic acid fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis in a chip with microfabricated channels, with automated detection as well as on-line data evaluation. Microfabricated devices are forecast to be fundamental to the postgenome era, especially in the field of genetics and medicine. However, although there are many reports of the use of these instruments to evaluate standard DNA, DNA ladders, PCR products, and commercially available plasmid digests, little information is available their use with biological material. In this report, we showed the accuracy of sizing and quantification of endonuclease-digested plasmid DNA. We also showed the feasibility of on-microchip endonuclease treatment of plasmid DNA and sequential analysis as an additional application for DNA analysis. Furthermore, to evaluate the possibility of microchip electrophoresis for biological application, the results of the examination of blood sugar in human plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential were shown.

  3. Controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires in arrays of open nanofluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Massimo; Bonvin, Eric; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Forró, László; Horváth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH3NH3PbI3 in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. The presently discovered crystallization leads to the fabrication of mm2-sized surfaces composed of perovskite nanowires having controlled sizes, cross-sectional shapes, aspect ratios and orientation which have not been achieved thus far by other deposition methods. The automation of this general strategy paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films well-suited for various optoelectronic devices, e.g. solar cells, lasers, light-emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  4. Controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires in arrays of open nanofluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Massimo; Bonvin, Eric; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Forró, László; Horváth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH3NH3PbI3 in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. The presently discovered crystallization leads to the fabrication of mm2-sized surfaces composed of perovskite nanowires having controlled sizes, cross-sectional shapes, aspect ratios and orientation which have not been achieved thus far by other deposition methods. The automation of this general strategy paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films well-suited for various optoelectronic devices, e.g. solar cells, lasers, light-emitting diodes and photodetectors. PMID:26806213

  5. Controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanowires in arrays of open nanofluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Spina, Massimo; Bonvin, Eric; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Náfrádi, Bálint; Forró, László; Horváth, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Spatial positioning of nanocrystal building blocks on a solid surface is a prerequisite for assembling individual nanoparticles into functional devices. Here, we report on the graphoepitaxial liquid-solid growth of nanowires of the photovoltaic compound CH3NH3PbI3 in open nanofluidic channels. The guided growth, visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, undergoes through a metastable solvatomorph formation in polar aprotic solvents. The presently discovered crystallization leads to the fabrication of mm(2)-sized surfaces composed of perovskite nanowires having controlled sizes, cross-sectional shapes, aspect ratios and orientation which have not been achieved thus far by other deposition methods. The automation of this general strategy paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films well-suited for various optoelectronic devices, e.g. solar cells, lasers, light-emitting diodes and photodetectors. PMID:26806213

  6. Fluorescence Detection In Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarner, Susan

    1988-04-01

    Fluorescence detection is in common usage in forensic science laboratories for the visualization of three enzyme markers. The fluorogenic substrates, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, 4-methylutbel-liveryl acetate, and fluorecein diacetate, are acted upon by the enzymes Erythrocyte Acid Phospha, tase, Esterase-D, and Carbonic Anhydrase-III, respectively, to produce compounds visible to the analyst when viewed with transmitted UV light at 365 nm. Additionally, the choice of fluorogenic corn, pounds may help detect a specific enzyme from a related enzyme. One of the responsibilities of a forensic science laboratory may be the analysis of blood for genetically controlled polymorphic enzymes and protein markers. The genetic markers are said to be polymorphic because each exhibits types which can be differentiated and allows for the inclusion or exclusion of possible-donors of the blood. Each genetic marker can be separated into these recognizable types by electrophoresis, a technique which separates compounds based on electrical charges. Electrophoresis is conducted by placing a portion or extract of each bloodstain into a support medium which will conduct electricity. This is known as a plate or membrane. By controlling the pH of the buffer and the potential that is applied to the plate, the analyst can achieve separation of the types within an enzyme marker. The types appear as differing patterns of bands. Once the bloodstain has been subjected to electrophoresis, the enzymes must be visualized. This is generally best accomplished by using the specific activity of the enzyme. For the enzymes described in the present work, the visualization is performed by over-layering the plate with a piece of filter paper that 'has been saturated with the appropriate non-fluorescent substrate and buffer. The bands of enzyme, which is now in discrete patterns, will act upon the non-fluorescent substrate to create a fluorescent compound. The plate is then viewed with transmitted UV

  7. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  8. Static continuous electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for carrying out a moving wall type electrophoresis process for separation of cellular particles. The apparatus includes a water-tight housing containing an electrolytic buffer solution. A separation chamber in the housing is defined by spaced opposed moving walls and spaced opposed side walls. Substrate assemblies, which support the moving wall include vacuum ports for positively sealing the moving walls against the substrate walls. Several suction conduits communicate with the suction ports and are arranged in the form of valleys in a grid plate. The raised land portion of the grid plat supports the substrate walls against deformation inwardly under suction. A cooling chamber is carried on the back side of plate. The apparatus also has tensioner means including roller and adjustment screws for maintaining the belts in position and a drive arrangement including an electric motor with a gear affixed to its output shaft. Electrode assemblies are disposed to provide the required electric field.

  9. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  10. Characterization of a 12-channel optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector assembly for space flight environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Macmurphy, Shawn L.; Friedberg, Patricia R.

    2002-07-01

    Presented here is the second set of testing conducted by the Technology Validation Laboratory for Photonics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the twelve optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector for space flight environments. In the first set of testing the commercial 62.5/125 cable assembly was characterized using space flight parameters (published in SPIE Vol. 3440). The testing showed that the cable assembly would survive a typical space flight mission with the exception of a vacuum environment. Two enhancements were conducted to the existing technology to better suit the vacuum environment as well as the existing optoelectronics and increase the reliability of the assembly during vibration. The MTP assembly characterized here has a 100/140 optical commercial fiber and non outgassing connector and cable components. The characterization for this enhanced fiber optic cable assembly involved vibration, thermal and radiation testing. The data and results of this characterization study are presented which include optical in-situ testing.