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Sample records for channel stabilization

  1. ASSESSMENT OF CHANNEL STABILITY AT BRIDGE SITES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brice, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Assessment of channel stability from field study and the comparison of time-sequential aerial photographs provides information that is needed in site selection, bridge design, and countermeasure placement. Channel instability is indicated by bank erosion, progressive degradation (or aggradation) of the streambed, or natural scour and fill of the streambed. Bank erosion rates are related to stream type and are proportional to stream size. Predictions of future rates are based on past rates, as measured on time-sequential photographs or mps, and on the typical behavior of meander loops.

  2. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  3. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  4. Stability Analysis of a Uniformly Heated Channel with Supercritical Water

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega Gomez, T.; Class, A.; Schulenberg, T.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    2006-07-01

    The thermal-hydraulic stability of a uniformly heated channel at supercritical water pressure has been investigated to help understand the system instability phenomena which may occur in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors (SCWR). We have extended the modeling approach often used for Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor (BWR) stability analysis to supercritical pressure operation conditions. We have shown that Ledinegg excursive instabilities and pressure-drop oscillations (PDO) will not occur in supercritical water systems. The linear stability characteristics of a typical uniformly heated channel were computed by evaluating the eigenvalues of the model. An analysis of non-linear instability phenomena was also performed in the time domain and the dynamic bifurcations were evaluated. (authors)

  5. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  6. Stabilization and dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Joanna A.

    The dynamics of edge flames in narrow channels is studied, first within the context of a reactive diffusive (or constant density) model and then in a variable density model which allows for the consideration of thermal expansion effects. Fuel and oxidizer, separated upstream by a thin plate of finite length, flow into a channel with a prescribed upstream velocity. At the end of the plate, the fuel and oxidizer mix and, when ignited, an edge flame is sustained at some distance from the tip of the plate. Typically, the flame, which is stabilized by heat conduction back to the cold plate, has a tribrachial structure. It consists of a leading edge, made up of lean and rich premixed segments, and an attached diffusion flame trailing behind. The flame can also have a hook-like shape, when one of the premixed branches is missing. This often happens for conditions away from stoichiometry and when the mass diffusivities of the fuel and oxidizer are unequal. Earlier work has determined the behavior of an edge flame in a mixing layer that develops downstream of a splitter plate with no boundaries in the lateral direction. This is relevant to the stabilization and liftoff of jet diffusion flames. The confined case has other possible applications, such as flames in mini-combustor systems, that have been recently tested experimentally. The objective in this work is to determine the effect that confinement has on the edge standoff distance, on the flame shape and on the flame stability. In particular, we examine the influence of channel width, wall temperature, and the effects of differential diffusion. We determine conditions under which the edge flame is stabilized near the tip of the splitter plate, is held near the tip but oscillates back and forth, or is blown-off. We consider a wide range of channel widths and boundary conditions at the walls.

  7. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.

    2016-08-01

    Linear stability of the stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in the inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict the parameter regions in which the stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in the inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of the non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of the steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by the critical wavenumbers and the spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by the streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of two stable stratified flow configurations in a region of low flow rates in the countercurrent liquid-liquid flows. These configurations become unstable with respect to the shear mode of instability. It was revealed that in slightly upward inclined flows the lower and middle solutions for the holdup are stable in the part of the triple solution region, while the upper solution is always unstable. In the case of downward flows, in the triple solution region, none of the solutions are stable with respect to the short-wave perturbations. These flows are stable only in the single solution region at low flow rates of the heavy phase, and the long-wave perturbations are the most unstable ones.

  8. Stability of a series of identical controlled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2015-04-01

    For long open channels it is possible to model the behavior in response to a change in inflow as a delay followed be a reservoir. If we have a series of such models, for instance as a model for the reaches of a primary canal in an irrigation system then it is interesting to examine the possibilities for local control. One possible problem is the interaction between the different reaches and their controllers. For a system of N reaches with identical PID controllers we derive sufficient conditions for stability of the system as a whole.

  9. Stability of a series of controlled channels with uncertain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    For long open channels it is possible to model the behavior in response to a change in inflow as a delay followed be a reservoir. If we have a series of such models, for instance as a model for the reaches of a primary canal in an irrigation system then it is interesting to examine the possibilities for local control. But even when it has been shown that the system is stable there still remains the problem of uncertainty and in the system parameters and the delays. Moreover, due to degradation of the system, parameters may be time dependent. A method is given to verify stability of the system with uncertain parameters.

  10. Enhanced stability of hillslopes and channel beds to mass failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prancevic, Jeff; Lamb, Michael; Palucis, Marisa; Venditti, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The stability of inclined, unconsolidated sediments subjected to groundwater flow on hillslopes and steep channel beds is important for both landscape evolution and natural hazards. Force-balance models have been used for seven decades to predict the stability of slopes, but they generally underpredict the degree of saturation required to destabilize the sediment. Researchers often appeal to heightened stabilizing forces from root and mineral cohesion, and friction acting on the margins of the failure to explain this underprediction. Surprisingly, infinite-slope stability models in their simplest form have never been tested under controlled laboratory conditions. To address this gap in data, we perform a set of controlled laboratory experiments with slope-parallel seepage in the simplest possible configuration. We performed 47 experiments in a 5 m laboratory flume with 4 grain sizes (D50 = 0.7, 2, 5, and 15 mm) and a wide range in bed angles (20° to 43°), spanning both Darcian and turbulent subsurface flow regimes. Our experiments show that granular slopes were more stable than predicted by simple force balance models in experiments that lack root or mineral cohesion. Despite the smooth plastic walls and the long aspect ratio of our flume, we calculate wall and toe friction to be important. Including these additional resistance terms in the model reduces the model misfit with our experimental results. However, there is considerable remaining misfit (up to 50% underestimation of the saturation level required for failure). We investigate two explanations of this heightened stability: 1) standard frictional resistance terms are underestimated, and 2) seepage stresses are overestimated. Both explanations require that we modify the models used to predict slope stability.

  11. The Hydrodynamic Stability of Channel Flow with Compliant Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.; Sibanda, P.

    1996-03-01

    An asymptotic theory is developed for the hydrodynamic stability of an incompressible fluid flowing in a channel in which one wall is rigid and the other is compliant. We exploit the multideck structure of the flow to investigate theoretically the development of disturbances to the flow in the limit of large Reynolds numbers. A simple spring-plate model is used to describe the motion of the compliant wall, and this study considers the effect of the various wall parameters, such as tension, inertia, and damping, on the stability properties. An amplitude equation for a modulated wavetrain is derived and the properties of this equation are studied for a number of cases including linear and nonlinear theory. It is shown that in general the effect of viscoelastic damping is destabilizing. In particular, for large damping, the analysis points to a fast travelling wave, short-scale instability, which may be related to a flutter instability observed in some experiments. This work also demonstrates that the conclusions obtained by previous investigators in which the effect of tension, inertia, and other parameters is neglected, may be misleading. Finally it is shown that a set of compliant-wall parameters exists for which the Haberman type of critical layer analysis leads to stable equilibrium amplitudes, in contrast to many other stability problems where such equilibrium amplitudes are unstable.

  12. Effects of Longitudinal Grooves on the Stability of Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H. Vafadar; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2014-11-01

    The travelling wave instability in a channel with small-amplitude longitudinal grooves of arbitrary shape has been studied. The disturbance velocity field is always three-dimensional with disturbances which connect to the two-dimensional waves in the limit of zero groove amplitude playing the critical role. The presence of grooves destabilizes the flow if the groove wave number β is larger than βtran ~ 4 . 22 , but stabilizes the flow for smaller β. It has been found that βtran does not depend on the groove amplitude. The dependence of the critical Reynolds number on the groove amplitude and wave number has been determined. Special attention has been paid to the drag-reducing long wavelength grooves, including the optimal grooves. It has been demonstrated that such grooves slightly increase the critical Reynolds number, i.e., such grooves do not cause an early breakdown into turbulence.

  13. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A.; Vitoshkin, H.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.

    2016-04-01

    Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the stratified flow with a smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively low flow rates, which is in agreement with experiments, but is not predicted by long-wave analysis. Depending on the flow conditions, the critical perturbations can originate mainly at the interface (so-called "interfacial modes of instability") or in the bulk of one of the phases (i.e., "shear modes"). The present analysis revealed that there is no definite correlation between the type of instability and the perturbation wavelength.

  14. Canonical map approach to channeling stability in crystals. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáenz, A. W.

    1987-11-01

    A nonrelativistic and a relativistic classical Hamiltonian model of two degrees of freedom are considered describing the plane motion of a particle in a potential V(x1,x2)[(x1,x2) =Cartesian coordinates]. Suppose V(x1,x2) is real analytic in its arguments in a neighborhood of the line x2=0, one-periodic in x1 there, and such that the average value of ∂V(x1,0)/∂x2 vanishes. It is proved that, under these conditions and provided that the particle energy E is sufficiently large, there exist for all time two distinguished solutions, one satisfying the equations of motion of the nonrelativistic model and the other those of the relativistic model, whose corresponding configuration-space orbits are one-periodic in x1 and approach the line x2=0 as E→∞. The main theorem is that these solutions are (future) orbitally stable at large enough E if V satisfies the above conditions, as well as natural requirements of linear and nonlinear stability. To prove their existence, one uses a well-known theorem, for which a new and simpler proof is provided, and properties of certain natural canonical maps appropriate to these respective models. It is shown that such solutions are orbitally stable by reducing the maps in question to Birkhoff canonical form and then applying a version of the Moser twist theorem. The approach used here greatly lightens the labor of deriving key estimates for the above maps, these estimates being needed to effect this reduction. The present stability theorem is physically interesting because it is the first rigorous statement on the orbital stability of certain channeling motions of fast charged particles in rigid two-dimensional lattices, within the context of models of the stated degree of generality.

  15. Channel stability downstream from a dam assessed using aerial photographs and stream-gage information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    The stability of the Neosho River channel downstream from John Redmond Dam, in southeast Kansas, was investigated using multiple-date aerial photographs and stream-gage information. Bankfull channel width was used as the primary indicator variable to assess pre- and post-dam channel change. Five six-mile river reaches and four stream gages were used in the analysis. Results indicated that, aside from some localized channel widening, the overall channel change has been minor with little post-dam change in bankfull channel width. The lack of a pronounced postdam channel change may be attributed to a substantial reduction in the magnitude of the post-dam annual peak discharges in combination with the resistance to erosion of the bed and bank materials. Also, the channel may have been overwidened by a series of large floods that predated construction of the dam, including one with an estimated 500-year recurrence interval.

  16. HST/WFC3: IR Channel Photometric Performance and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Varun; Deustua, Susana E.; Gosmeyer, Catherine; McCullough, Peter R.; WFC3 Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) contains two channels: UVIS and IR. The IR channel makes use of a HgCdTe detector produced by Teledyne. By periodically observing a set of bright white dwarf stars we are able to monitor the photometric performance of the IR detector over the last seven years. We present the results of the photometric measurements over time. In addition we discuss the effects of detector behavior not accounted for by the typical calibration (performed by CALWF3) such as the high order nonlinear response of detector pixels, persistence of previous exposures, and contamination of the channel. The findings of this investigation will have a direct impact on the flux calibration of the channel (and the resulting zeropoints).

  17. Biomimetic Transmembrane Channels with High Stability and Transporting Efficiency from Helically Folded Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chao; Li, Wenfang; Dong, Zeyuan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Feihu; Yang, Bing; Deng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chenyang; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-08-01

    Membrane channels span the cellular lipid bilayers to transport ions and molecules into cells with sophisticated properties including high efficiency and selectivity. It is of particular biological importance in developing biomimetic transmembrane channels with unique functions by means of chemically synthetic strategies. An artificial unimolecular transmembrane channel using pore-containing helical macromolecules is reported. The self-folding, shape-persistent, pore-containing helical macromolecules are able to span the lipid bilayer, and thus result in extraordinary channel stability and high transporting efficiency for protons and cations. The lifetime of this artificial unimolecular channel in the lipid bilayer membrane is impressively long, rivaling those of natural protein channels. Natural channel mimics designed by helically folded polymeric scaffolds will display robust and versatile transport-related properties at single-molecule level. PMID:27356157

  18. Calcium channel stability measured by gradual loss of excitability in pawn mutants of Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Schein, S J

    1976-12-01

    Mutants of Paramecium aurelia that are unable to reverse swimming direction are called pawns. They lack the inward ionic (calcium) current required for the upstroke of the electrically excitable membrane response. By following the progressive loss of reversal response and excitability in cells that are suddenly changed from a heterozygous (wild-type) state to a homozygous mutant state, an estimate of the stability and mean lifetime of the calcium channel has been obtained. During rapid growth, channel dilution due to division occurred, but no channel decay was observed. Under conditions of slow growth, decay could also be observed; channel lifetime was found to be from 5 to 8 days. PMID:1035256

  19. Stability of layered channel flow of magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yecko, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The stability of a sheared interface separating a viscous magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) and an ordinary viscous fluid is examined for arbitrary wavelength disturbances using three dimensional linear perturbation theory. The unperturbed state corresponds to a two-layer Poiseuille profile in which a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary orientation is imposed. Coupling between the field and fluid occurs via the magnetic Maxwell stress tensor, formulated here for nonlinear magnetic material, expanding the scope of previous studies of linear media. Neutral curves and stability characteristics at low Reynolds number are presented and analyzed, and are found to depend sensitively on the linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of the material. The stability properties of the flow are shaped by a small set of the least stable modes of the spectrum, a result that evades single mode or potential flow analyses. The gravest modes can be of different character, resembling either interfacial or shear modes, modified by magnetic effects. The commonly cited ferrofluid interface properties of "stabilization by a tangential field" and "destabilization by a normal field" are shown to be invalid here, although the origins of these features can be identified within this problem.

  20. Stability analysis of a square rod bundle sub-channel in supercritical water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-jun, Wang; Ting, You; Lei, Zhang; Hong-fang, Gu; Yu-shan, Luo; Ji-lian, Bian

    2013-07-01

    Extensive investigations on the flow and heat transfer behavior in SCWR fuel assembly have been undertaken worldwide. However, stability analysis of supercritical water in the sub-channels of tight lattices is still lacking. In this paper, the flow stability of a fuel bundle channel with square pitches has been analyzed using commercial CFD code-ANSYS Fluent. Typical dynamic instability of Density Wave Oscillation (DWO) has occurred in heated channel containing fluids at supercritical pressure. A further discussion about the impacts of various operational parameters (e.g. power input, system pressure, mass velocity, inlet temperature, etc) shows that the system becomes more stable as system pressure and/or mass flow rate increases. An increase in inlet temperature also has a stabilizing effect on the system.

  1. Quality control and quality assurance plan for bridge channel-stability assessments in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Gene W.; Pinson, Harlow

    1993-01-01

    A quality control and quality assurance plan has been implemented as part of the Massachusetts bridge scour and channel-stability assessment program. This program is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Massachusetts-Rhode Island District, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Highway Department. Project personnel training, data-integrity verification, and new data-management technologies are being utilized in the channel-stability assessment process to improve current data-collection and management techniques. An automated data-collection procedure has been implemented to standardize channel-stability assessments on a regular basis within the State. An object-oriented data structure and new image management tools are used to produce a data base enabling management of multiple data object classes. Data will be reviewed by assessors and data base managers before being merged into a master bridge-scour data base, which includes automated data-verification routines.

  2. The effects of grain sorting on the stability of gravel and cobble channel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The frictional stability of grains in a channel bed exerts a key control on sediment transport rates. The metric of grain stability, the particle friction angle, is observed in laboratory measurements to decrease with increasing grain size for a given substrate. This phenomenon, along with greater protrusion into the flow, tends to push channel beds towards the condition in which all grain sizes move at similar shear stresses. Qualitative observations of grain stability in mountain channels, however, suggest that a significant portion of the channel bed remains immobile during bankfull flood events. Steps composed of coarse grains sometimes span the channel width and are more resistant to erosion. In addition, size-selective transport is more common in these channels, and coarse grains tend to remain in place as finer grains are transported. This anomalous stability may be explained by the effects of grain sorting. To test this hypothesis we measured in-situ particle friction angles at eight steep sites in California with slopes ranging from 0.9% to 42%. The results indicate that in moderately steep beds (0.9% to 6.5%) particle friction angle is not a function of relative grain size, contrary to previous studies of particle friction angles. On steeper slopes (15% to 42%), however, the typical relationship is partially recovered, and coarser grains have lower particle friction angles than finer ones. Subtle textural differences between moderately steep and very steep channel beds suggest that incipient fluvial sorting into sub-meter-scale patches may be responsible for the grain-size-independent friction angles. In the very steep channel beds, where debris flows tend to dominate transport, grains appear randomly organized with respect to size. Downstream, in moderately steep channel beds, sorting into small clusters places particles next to those of similar size. Sorting into channel-spanning steps occurred at all slopes, however, and the grains within these steps

  3. Propagation of Curved Detonation Waves Stabilized in Annular Channels with a Rectangular Cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Hisahiro; Takahiro Moriya; Kasahara, Jiro; Matsuo, Akiko; Sasamoto, Yuya; Funaki, Ikkoh

    Visualization experiments employing rectangular cross-section curved channels were performed in order to examine the fundamental characteristics of a curved detonation wave propagating stably through an annular channel. A stoichiometric ethylene-oxygen mixture gas and five types of curved channels with different inner radii of curvature were used. The detonation waves propagating in the curved channels were curved due to the expansion waves from the inner walls of the curved channels. The ratio of the inner radius of curved channel (ri) to the normal detonation cell width (λ) was an important factor determining the stability of the curved detonation waves. The detonation propagation mode in the curved channels transitioned from unstable to stable in the range 14 ≤ ri/λ ≤ 26. The normal detonation velocity (Dn) of the curved detonation wave propagating stably in a curved channel was approximately formulated. The approximated Dn given by the formula agreed well with the experimental results. The front shock shape of the curved detonation wave could be reconstructed accurately using the formula. The value of Dn nondimensionalized by the Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity became a function of the local curvature of the curved detonation wave (κ) nondimensionalized by λ regardless of the shape of curved channel. The front shock shapes of the detonation waves in the stable mode became similar to each other under constant ri/λ conditions.

  4. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-08-17

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that extracellular potassium stabilizes an inactivated state in Kv7.1 channels. The effect of extracellular potassium was absent in noninactivating Kv7.1/KCNE1 and Kv7.1/KCNE3 channels, further supporting a stabilized inactivated state as the underlying mechanism. Interestingly, coexpression of Kv7.1 with KCNE2 did not attenuate the inhibition by potassium. In a number of other Kv channels, including Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and Kv7.2-5 channels, currents were only minimally reduced by an increase in extracellular potassium as expected. These results show that extracellular potassium modulates Kv7.1 channels and suggests that physiological changes in potassium concentrations may directly control the function of Kv7.1 channels. This may represent a novel regulatory mechanism of excitability and of potassium transport in tissues expressing Kv7.1 channels. PMID:21843472

  5. Metal-Assisted Channel Stabilization: Disposition of a Single Histidine on the N-terminus of Alamethicin Yields Channels with Extraordinarily Long Lifetimes

    PubMed Central

    Noshiro, Daisuke; Asami, Koji; Futaki, Shiroh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alamethicin, a member of the peptaibol family of antibiotics, is a typical channel-forming peptide with a helical structure. The self-assembly of the peptide in the membranes yields voltage-dependent channels. In this study, three alamethicin analogs possessing a charged residue (His, Lys, or Glu) on their N-termini were designed with the expectation of stabilizing the transmembrane structure. A slight elongation of channel lifetime was observed for the Lys and Glu analogs. On the other hand, extensive stabilization of certain channel open states was observed for the His analog. This stabilization was predominantly observed in the presence of metal ions such as Zn2+, suggesting that metal coordination with His facilitates the formation of a supramolecular assembly in the membranes. Channel stability was greatly diminished by acetylation of the N-terminal amino group, indicating that the N-terminal amino group also plays an important role in metal coordination. PMID:20441743

  6. Whirlin increases TRPV1 channel expression and cellular stability.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, Maria Grazia; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Cuesta, Natalia; Valente, Pierluigi; Camprubí-Robles, María; Yang, Jun; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of TRPV1 are influenced by its interaction with cellular proteins. Here, we identify Whirlin, a cytoskeletal PDZ-scaffold protein implicated in hearing, vision and mechanosensory transduction, as an interacting partner of TRPV1. Whirlin associates with TRPV1 in cell lines and in primary cultures of rat nociceptors. Whirlin is expressed in 55% of mouse sensory C-fibers, including peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors, and co-localizes with TRPV1 in 70% of them. Heterologous expression of Whirlin increased TRPV1 protein expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane, and promoted receptor clustering. Silencing Whirlin expression with siRNA or blocking protein translation resulted in a concomitant degradation of TRPV1 that could be prevented by inhibiting the proteasome. The degradation kinetics of TRPV1 upon arresting protein translation mirrored that of Whirlin in cells co-expressing both proteins, suggesting a parallel degradation mechanism. Noteworthy, Whirlin expression significantly reduced TRPV1 degradation induced by prolonged exposure to capsaicin. Thus, our findings indicate that Whirlin and TRPV1 are associated in a subset of nociceptors and that TRPV1 protein stability is increased through the interaction with the cytoskeletal scaffold protein. Our results suggest that the Whirlin–TRPV1 complex may represent a novel molecular target and its pharmacological disruption might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of peripheral TRPV1-mediated disorders. PMID:26516054

  7. Lateral movement and stability of channel banks near four highway crossings in southwestern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    1994-01-01

    Channel meandering in alluvial streams has caused localized channel instability that has resulted in bridge failure and loss of human life in Mississippi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopera- tion with the Mississippi Department of Transpor- tation, conducted a study to develop a better methodology for defining and estimating channel meandering. For this report, river reaches near four bridge sites with current lateral movement of channel banks were selected for study. The lateral movement of channel banks was studied by mapping meanders from aerial photographs taken at various times, evaluating available discharge measurements, and measuring existing channel geometry and soil strength properties at these sites. Rapid, unre- stricted meander cuts and sandy banks are charac- teristic of the sites. Lateral movement was signi- ficant upstream from all four sites, and only one bridge site did not have significant lateral channel-bank movement during the study period. The development of cutbanks and localized channel-bank erosion have caused unstable conditions at three of the sites. Maps of tops of channel indicate significant lateral movement of channel banks upstream and downstream of all four sites and near the bridges at three of four sites. No significant movement occurred at the U.S. Highway 98 crossing of the Bogue Chitto near Tylertown from 1941 to 1991 despite large floods in 1983 and 1990. Slope stability analyses indicated this site to be marginally stable. The maximum lateral movement indicated from maps of tops of channel banks was 680 feet of northward movement of the right (north) bank of the Homochitto River near the State Highway 33 crossing at Rosetta from 1941 to 1983.

  8. Impact of riverine wetlands construction and operation on stream channel stability: Conceptual framework for geomorphic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.; Miller, Michael V.

    1990-11-01

    Wetland conservation is a critical environmental management issue. An emerging approach to this issue involves the construction of wetland environments. Because our understanding of wetlands function is incomplete and such projects must be monitored closely because they may have unanticipated impacts on ecological, hydrological, and geomorphological systems. Assessment of project-related impacts on stream channel stability is an important component of riverine wetlands construction and operation because enhanced erosion or deposition associated with unstable rivers can lead to loss of property, reductions in channel capacity, and degradation of water quality, aquatic habitat, and riparian aesthetics. The water/sediment budget concept provides a scientific framework for evaluating the impact of riverine wetlands construction and operation on stream channel stability. This concept is based on the principle of conservation of mass, i.e., the total amount of water and sediment moving through a specific reach of river must be conserved. Long-term measurements of channel sediment storage and other water/sediment budget components provide the basis for distinguishing between project-related impacts and those resulting from other causes. Changes in channel sediment storage that occur as a result of changes in internal inputs of water or sediment signal a project-related impact, whereas those associated with changes in upstream or tributary inputs denote a change in environmental conditions elsewhere in the watershed. A geomorphic assessment program based on the water/sediment budget concept has been implemented at the site of the Des Plaines River Wetlands Demonstration Projection near Chicago, Illinois, USA. Channel sediment storage changed little during the initial construction phase, suggesting that thus far the project has not affected stream channel stability.

  9. Stabilized finite element methods to simulate the conductances of ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Bin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Lu, Benzhuo

    2015-03-01

    We have previously developed a finite element simulator, ichannel, to simulate ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems via solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) and Size-modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (SMPNP), and succeeded in simulating some ion channel systems. However, the iterative solution between the coupled Poisson equation and the Nernst-Planck equations has difficulty converging for some large systems. One reason we found is that the NP equations are advection-dominated diffusion equations, which causes troubles in the usual FE solution. The stabilized schemes have been applied to compute fluids flow in various research fields. However, they have not been studied in the simulation of ion transport through three-dimensional models based on experimentally determined ion channel structures. In this paper, two stabilized techniques, the SUPG and the Pseudo Residual-Free Bubble function (PRFB) are introduced to enhance the numerical robustness and convergence performance of the finite element algorithm in ichannel. The conductances of the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the anthrax toxin protective antigen pore (PA) are simulated to validate the stabilization techniques. Those two stabilized schemes give reasonable results for the two proteins, with decent agreement with both experimental data and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. For a variety of numerical tests, it is found that the simulator effectively avoids previous numerical instability after introducing the stabilization methods. Comparison based on our test data set between the two stabilized schemes indicates both SUPG and PRFB have similar performance (the latter is slightly more accurate and stable), while SUPG is relatively more convenient to implement.

  10. Stabilization of Kv1.5 channel protein by the inotropic agent olprinone.

    PubMed

    Endo, Ryo; Kurata, Yasutaka; Notsu, Tomomi; Li, Peili; Morikawa, Kumi; Kondo, Takehito; Ogura, Kazuyoshi; Miake, Junichiro; Yoshida, Akio; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Higaki, Katsumi; Kuwabara, Masanari; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2015-10-15

    Olprinone is an inotropic agent that inhibits phosphodiesterase (PDE) III and causes vasodilation. Olprinone has been shown to be less proarrhythmic and possibly affect expression of functional Kv1.5 channels that confer the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier K+ channel current (IKur) responsible for action potential repolarization. To reveal involvement of Kv1.5 channels in the less arrhythmic effect of olprinone, we examined effects of the agent on the stability of Kv1.5 channel proteins expressed in COS7 cells. Olprinone at 30-1000 nM increased the protein level of Kv1.5 channels in a concentration-dependent manner. Chase experiments showed that olprinone delayed degradation of Kv1.5 channels. Olprinone increased the immunofluorescent signal of Kv1.5 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus as well as on the cell surface. Kv1.5-mediated membrane currents, measured as 4-aminopyridine-sensitive currents, were increased by olprinone without changes in their activation kinetics. A protein transporter inhibitor, colchicine, abolished the olprinone-induced increase of Kv.1.5-mediated currents. The action of olprinone was inhibited by 4-aminopyridine, and was not mimicked by the application of 8-Bromo-cAMP. Taken together, we conclude that olprinone stabilizes Kv1.5 proteins at the ER through an action as a chemical chaperone, and thereby increases the density of Kv1.5 channels on the cell membrane. The enhancement of Kv1.5 currents could underlie less arrhythmogenicity of olprinone. PMID:26368666

  11. Relation of channel stability to scour at highway bridges over waterways in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doheny, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from assessments of channel stability and observed-scour conditions at 876 highway bridges over Maryland waterways were entered into a database. Relations were found to exist among specific, deterministic variables and observed-scour and debris conditions. Relations were investigated between (1) high-flow angle of attack and pier- and abutment-footing exposure, (2)abutment location and abutment-footing exposure, (3) type of bed material and pier-footing exposure, (4) tree cover on channel banks and mass wasting of the channel banks, and (5) land use near the bridge and the presence of debris blockage at the bridge opening. The results of the investigation indicate the following: (1) The number of pier and abutment-footing exposures increased for increasing high-flow angles of attack, (2) the number of abutment-footing exposures increased for abutments that protrude into the channel, (3) pier-footing exposures were most common for bridges over streams with channel beds of gravel, (4) mass wasting of channel banks with tree cover of 50 percent or greater near the bridge was less than mass wasting of channel banks with tree cover of less than 50 percent near the bridge, and (5) bridges blockage than bridge in row crop and swamp basins.

  12. Retigabine holds KV7 channels open and stabilizes the resting potential.

    PubMed

    Corbin-Leftwich, Aaron; Mossadeq, Sayeed M; Ha, Junghoon; Ruchala, Iwona; Le, Audrey Han Ngoc; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The anticonvulsant Retigabine is a KV7 channel agonist used to treat hyperexcitability disorders in humans. Retigabine shifts the voltage dependence for activation of the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel to more negative potentials, thus facilitating activation. Although the molecular mechanism underlying Retigabine's action remains unknown, previous studies have identified the pore region of KV7 channels as the drug's target. This suggested that the Retigabine-induced shift in voltage dependence likely derives from the stabilization of the pore domain in an open (conducting) conformation. Testing this idea, we show that the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel has at least two open states, which we named O1 and O2, with O2 being more stable. The O1 state was reached after short membrane depolarizations, whereas O2 was reached after prolonged depolarization or during steady state at the typical neuronal resting potentials. We also found that activation and deactivation seem to follow distinct pathways, suggesting that the KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activity displays hysteresis. As for the action of Retigabine, we discovered that this agonist discriminates between open states, preferentially acting on the O2 state and further stabilizing it. Based on these findings, we proposed a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of Retigabine whereby this drug reduces excitability by enhancing the resting potential open state stability of KV7.2/KV7.3 channels. To address this hypothesis, we used a model for action potential (AP) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found that the resting membrane potential became more negative as a function of Retigabine concentration, whereas the threshold potential for AP firing remained unaltered. PMID:26880756

  13. Retigabine holds KV7 channels open and stabilizes the resting potential

    PubMed Central

    Corbin-Leftwich, Aaron; Mossadeq, Sayeed M.; Ha, Junghoon; Ruchala, Iwona; Le, Audrey Han Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    The anticonvulsant Retigabine is a KV7 channel agonist used to treat hyperexcitability disorders in humans. Retigabine shifts the voltage dependence for activation of the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel to more negative potentials, thus facilitating activation. Although the molecular mechanism underlying Retigabine’s action remains unknown, previous studies have identified the pore region of KV7 channels as the drug’s target. This suggested that the Retigabine-induced shift in voltage dependence likely derives from the stabilization of the pore domain in an open (conducting) conformation. Testing this idea, we show that the heteromeric KV7.2/KV7.3 channel has at least two open states, which we named O1 and O2, with O2 being more stable. The O1 state was reached after short membrane depolarizations, whereas O2 was reached after prolonged depolarization or during steady state at the typical neuronal resting potentials. We also found that activation and deactivation seem to follow distinct pathways, suggesting that the KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activity displays hysteresis. As for the action of Retigabine, we discovered that this agonist discriminates between open states, preferentially acting on the O2 state and further stabilizing it. Based on these findings, we proposed a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of Retigabine whereby this drug reduces excitability by enhancing the resting potential open state stability of KV7.2/KV7.3 channels. To address this hypothesis, we used a model for action potential (AP) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found that the resting membrane potential became more negative as a function of Retigabine concentration, whereas the threshold potential for AP firing remained unaltered. PMID:26880756

  14. Robust Stability of Scaled-Four-Channel Teleoperation with Internet Time-Varying Delays

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Emma; Barreiro, Antonio; Falcón, Pablo; Díaz-Cacho, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We describe the application of a generic stability framework for a teleoperation system under time-varying delay conditions, as addressed in a previous work, to a scaled-four-channel (γ-4C) control scheme. Described is how varying delays are dealt with by means of dynamic encapsulation, giving rise to mu-test conditions for robust stability and offering an appealing frequency technique to deal with the stability robustness of the architecture. We discuss ideal transparency problems and we adapt classical solutions so that controllers are proper, without single or double differentiators, and thus avoid the negative effects of noise. The control scheme was fine-tuned and tested for complete stability to zero of the whole state, while seeking a practical solution to the trade-off between stability and transparency in the Internet-based teleoperation. These ideas were tested on an Internet-based application with two Omni devices at remote laboratory locations via simulations and real remote experiments that achieved robust stability, while performing well in terms of position synchronization and force transparency. PMID:27128914

  15. Robust Stability of Scaled-Four-Channel Teleoperation with Internet Time-Varying Delays.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Emma; Barreiro, Antonio; Falcón, Pablo; Díaz-Cacho, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We describe the application of a generic stability framework for a teleoperation system under time-varying delay conditions, as addressed in a previous work, to a scaled-four-channel (γ-4C) control scheme. Described is how varying delays are dealt with by means of dynamic encapsulation, giving rise to mu-test conditions for robust stability and offering an appealing frequency technique to deal with the stability robustness of the architecture. We discuss ideal transparency problems and we adapt classical solutions so that controllers are proper, without single or double differentiators, and thus avoid the negative effects of noise. The control scheme was fine-tuned and tested for complete stability to zero of the whole state, while seeking a practical solution to the trade-off between stability and transparency in the Internet-based teleoperation. These ideas were tested on an Internet-based application with two Omni devices at remote laboratory locations via simulations and real remote experiments that achieved robust stability, while performing well in terms of position synchronization and force transparency. PMID:27128914

  16. Remote and reversible inhibition of neurons and circuits by small molecule induced potassium channel stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Auffenberg, Eva; Jurik, Angela; Mattusch, Corinna; Stoffel, Rainer; Genewsky, Andreas; Namendorf, Christian; Schmid, Roland M.; Rammes, Gerhard; Biel, Martin; Uhr, Manfred; Moosmang, Sven; Michalakis, Stylianos; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Thoeringer, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating the function of neurons and circuits that translate electrical and chemical signals into behavior represents a major challenges in neuroscience. In addition to optogenetic methods using light-activatable channels, pharmacogenetic methods with ligand induced modulation of cell signaling and excitability have been developed. However, they are largely based on ectopic expression of exogenous or chimera proteins. Now, we describe the remote and reversible expression of a Kir2.1 type potassium channel using the chemogenetic technique of small molecule induced protein stabilization. Based on shield1-mediated shedding of a destabilizing domain fused to a protein of interest and inhibition of protein degradation, this principle has been adopted for biomedicine, but not in neuroscience so far. Here, we apply this chemogenetic approach in brain research for the first time in order to control a potassium channel in a remote and reversible manner. We could show that shield1-mediated ectopic Kir2.1 stabilization induces neuronal silencing in vitro and in vivo in the mouse brain. We also validated this novel pharmacogenetic method in different neurobehavioral paradigms.The DD-Kir2.1 may complement the existing portfolio of pharmaco- and optogenetic techniques for specific neuron manipulation, but it may also provide an example for future applications of this principle in neuroscience research. PMID:26757616

  17. Stability analysis of two phase stratified flow in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagavatula, Dinesh; S, Pushpavanam

    2015-11-01

    Two phase stratified flows arise in extraction operations in microfluidic systems. It is well established that stratified flows in between two infinite plates is always unstable. However such flows are experimentally observed in micro channels. To understand this paradox we perform a linear stability analysis of stratified two phase Poiseuille flow in a rectangular duct. A two-dimensional fully developed flow through the rectangular channel is considered. The linearized equations along with the boundary conditions in primitive variable formulation are numerically solved using Chebyshev collocation method. All the primitive variables, which are the velocity and pressure fields, are retained in the linearised governing equations. Since boundary conditions for disturbance pressure do not exist, the corresponding compatibility conditions derived from the Navier-Stokes equations are collocated both at the walls and the interface. The resulting eigen-value problem is solved using a shift and invert Arnoldi algorithm. The role of different parameters such as Aspect ratio, density ratio, viscosity ratio on the stability characteristics is analyzed. The stability results are validated in the limit of large Aspect Ratios. The flow fields are sought as a combination of Chebyshev polynomials in both y and z directions. Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHDR).

  18. Stability assessment of QKD procedures in commercial quantum cryptography systems versus quality of dark channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, Monika; Melniczuk, Damian; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz; Gruber, Jacek; Jóźwiak, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to the hacking attack including simultaneous and frequent system self-decalibrations, we analyze the stability of the QKD transmission organized in two commercially available systems. The first one employs non-entangled photons as flying qubits in the dark quantum channel for communication whereas the second one utilizes the entangled photon pairs to secretly share the cryptographic key. Applying standard methods of the statistical data analysis to the characteristic indicators of the quality of the QKD communication (the raw key exchange rate [RKER] and the quantum bit error rate [QBER]), we have estimated the pace of the self-decalibration of both systems and the repeatability rate in the case of controlled worsening of the dark channel quality.

  19. Machine-Learning Based Channel Quality and Stability Estimation for Stream-Based Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Waqas; Fischer, Stefan; Rehan, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become more and more diversified and are today able to also support high data rate applications, such as multimedia. In this case, per-packet channel handshaking/switching may result in inducing additional overheads, such as energy consumption, delays and, therefore, data loss. One of the solutions is to perform stream-based channel allocation where channel handshaking is performed once before transmitting the whole data stream. Deciding stream-based channel allocation is more critical in case of multichannel WSNs where channels of different quality/stability are available and the wish for high performance requires sensor nodes to switch to the best among the available channels. In this work, we will focus on devising mechanisms that perform channel quality/stability estimation in order to improve the accommodation of stream-based communication in multichannel wireless sensor networks. For performing channel quality assessment, we have formulated a composite metric, which we call channel rank measurement (CRM), that can demarcate channels into good, intermediate and bad quality on the basis of the standard deviation of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the average of the link quality indicator (LQI) of the received packets. CRM is then used to generate a data set for training a supervised machine learning-based algorithm (which we call Normal Equation based Channel quality prediction (NEC) algorithm) in such a way that it may perform instantaneous channel rank estimation of any channel. Subsequently, two robust extensions of the NEC algorithm are proposed (which we call Normal Equation based Weighted Moving Average Channel quality prediction (NEWMAC) algorithm and Normal Equation based Aggregate Maturity Criteria with Beta Tracking based Channel weight prediction (NEAMCBTC) algorithm), that can perform channel quality estimation on the basis of both current and past values of channel rank estimation. In the end

  20. Long-wave linear stability theory for two-fluid channel flow including compressibility effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segin, Tetyana M.; Kondic, Lou; Tilley, Burt S.

    2006-10-01

    We present the linear stability of the laminar flow of an immiscible system of a compressible gas and incompressible liquid separated by an interface with large surface tension in a thin inclined channel. The flow is driven by an applied pressure drop and gravity. Following the air-water case, which is found in a variety of engineering systems, the ratio of the characteristic values of the gas and liquid densities and viscosities are assumed to be disparate. Under the lubrication approximation, and assuming ideal gas behaviour and isothermal conditions, this approach leads to a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations describing the evolution of the interface between the gas and the liquid and the streamwise density distribution of the gas. This system also includes the effects of viscosity stratification, inertia, shear and capillarity. A linear stability analysis that allows for physically relevant non-zero pressure-drop base state is then performed. In contrast to the zero-pressure drop case which is amenable to the classical normal-mode approach, this configuration requires numerically solving a boundary-value problem for the gas density and interfacial deviations from the base state in the streamwise coordinate. We find that the effect of the gas compressibility on the interfacial stability in the limit of vanishingly small wavenumber is destabilizing, even for Stokes flow in the liquid. However, for finite wavenumber disturbances, compressibility may have stabilizing effects. In this regime, sufficient shear is required to destabilize the flow.

  1. On the Stability of Wave Disturbances in Non-Pressure Round-Cylindrical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2015-04-01

    In hydraulic engineering practice, is well know of and take into account the fact that for a nearly fully filled gravity-flow tunnel with a circular cross section the water flows with shocks, i.e. unstable. Such a phenomenon also occurs when emptying a bottle, but no mathematical confirmation has so far been found for it. In the paper, the estimate of the flow stability is obtained for two limiting cases: - when the channel of circular cross-section is nearly fully filled with water and when it is nearly empty, i.e. the water flow in the channel has a small depth as compared with the radius of the water conduit. Wave equations written in a cylindrical system of coordinates x,r,θ where the x- axis coincides with the axis of the channel; r is the radius vector, θ is the angle counted off from the equatorial plane of the channel upward (with sign "+') and downward (with sign "-') are simplified by neglecting the change of the polar angle (π 2 -θ)in limit of a small width of the free surface of the flow. As a result of this simplification the Helmholtz equation for the wave potential reduces to a Bessel equation with respect to the function ψ(r) not depending on the angle θ and its asymptotic solution will be expressed by the relation ° -- R0 ψ(r) = C -r-cosh k(R0 - r). (1) Dispersion relations will take the form σ = kU0 ± i°gk-tanh-k(R0--h) (2) - for channels with nearly full filling, and ° -------- σ = kU0 ± gktanhk(R0 - h) (3) - for round-cylindrical channels with a small water depth. In these relations, R0 is the radius of the channel, U0 is the stationary water flow velocity, i is the imaginary unit, h is the distance between the horizontal axis and the water level in the channel, σ is the wave disturbance frequency, k is the wave number, C is an arbitrary constant. In the first case, the relation (2) indicates the occurrence of Helmholtz instability of wave disturbances independently of a velocity value of stationary water flow. This result fully

  2. Weakly nonlinear stability analysis of non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish K.; Bera, P.

    2015-06-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory in terms of Landau equation is developed to analyze the nonlinear saturation of stably stratified non-isothermal Poiseuille flow in a vertical channel. The results are presented with respect to fluids: mercury, gases, liquids, and heavy oils. The weakly nonlinear stability results predict only the supercritical instability, in agreement with the published result [Y. C. Chen and J. N. Chung, "A direct numerical simulation of K and H-type flow transition in heated vertical channel," Comput. Fluids 32, 795-822 (2003)] based on direct numerical simulation. Apart from this, the influence of nonlinear interaction among different superimposed waves on the heat transfer rate, real part of wavespeed, and friction coefficient on the wall is also investigated. A substantial enhancement (reduction) in heat transfer rate (friction coefficient) is found for liquids and heavy oils from the basic state beyond the critical Rayleigh number. The amplitude analysis indicates that the equilibrium amplitude decreases on increasing the value of Reynolds number. However, in the case of mercury, influence of nonlinear interaction on the variation of equilibrium amplitude, heat transfer rate, wavespeed, as well as friction coefficient is complex and subtle. The analysis of the nonlinear energy spectra for the disturbance also supports the supercritical instability at and beyond the critical point. Finally, the effect of superimposed waves on the pattern of secondary flow, based on linear stability theory, is also studied. It has been found that the impact of nonlinear interaction of waves on the pattern of secondary flow for mercury is weak compared to gases, which is the consequence of negligible modification in the buoyant production of disturbance kinetic energy of the mercury.

  3. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: Observations and a conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and anthropogenic loss.

  4. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  5. The Role of Extramembranous Cytoplasmic Termini in Assembly and Stability of the Tetrameric K+-Channel KcsA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-active alcohol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol has been proven to be an attractive tool in the investigation of the intrinsic stability of integral membrane protein complexes by taking K+-channel KcsA as a suitable and representative ion channel. In the present study, the roles of both cytoplasmic N and C termini in channel assembly and stability of KcsA were determined. The N terminus (1–18 residues) slightly increased tetramer stability via electrostatic interactions in the presence of 30 mol.% acidic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. Furthermore, the N terminus was found to be potentially required for efficient channel (re)assembly. In contrast, truncation of the C terminus (125–160 residues) greatly facilitated channel reversibility from either a partially or a completely unfolded state, and this domain was substantially involved in stabilizing the tetramer in either the presence or absence of PG in lipid bilayer. These studies provide new insights into how extramembranous parts play their crucial roles in the assembly and stability of integral membrane protein complexes. PMID:20422165

  6. Thermal stability of purified and reconstituted CFTR in a locked open channel conformation.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Luba A; Jensen, Timothy J; Cui, Liying; Kousouros, Joseph N; He, Lihua; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Riordan, John R

    2015-12-01

    CFTR is unique among ABC transporters as the only one functioning as an ion channel and from a human health perspective because mutations in its gene cause cystic fibrosis. Although considerable advances have been made towards understanding CFTR's mechanism of action and the impact of mutations, the lack of a high-resolution 3D structure has hindered progress. The large multi-domain membrane glycoprotein is normally present at low copy number and when over expressed at high levels it aggregates strongly, limiting the production of stable mono-disperse preparations. While the reasons for the strong self-association are not fully understood, its relatively low thermal stability seems likely to be one. The major CF causing mutation, ΔF508, renders the protein very thermally unstable and therefore a great deal of attention has been paid to this property of CFTR. Multiple second site mutations of CFTR in NBD1 where F508 normally resides and small molecule binders of the domain increase the thermal stability of the mutant. These manipulations also stabilize the wild-type protein. Here we have applied ΔF508-stabilizing changes and other modifications to generate wild-type constructs that express at much higher levels in scaled-up suspension cultures of mammalian cells. After purification and reconstitution into liposomes these proteins are active in a locked-open conformation at temperatures as high as 50 °C and remain monodisperse at 4 °C in detergent or lipid for at least a week. The availability of adequate amounts of these and related stable active preparations of homogeneous CFTR will enable stalled structural and ligand binding studies to proceed. PMID:26384709

  7. Stability of the Zagreb realization of the Carnegie-Mellon-Berkeley coupled-channels unitary model

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanovic, H.; Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Stahov, J.; Ceci, S.; Svarc, A.

    2011-09-15

    In Hadzimehmedovicet al.[Phys. Rev. C 84, 035204 (2011)] we have used the Zagreb realization of Carnegie-Melon-Berkeley coupled-channel, unitary model as a tool for extracting pole positions from the world collection of partial-wave data, with the aim of eliminating model dependence in pole-search procedures. In order that the method is sensible, we in this paper discuss the stability of the method with respect to the strong variation of different model ingredients. We show that the Zagreb CMB procedure is very stable with strong variation of the model assumptions and that it can reliably predict the pole positions of the fitted partial-wave amplitudes.

  8. Self-assembled two-dimensional nanofluidic proton channels with high thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiao-Jing; Raidongia, Kalyan; Koltonow, Andrew R; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) sheets can readily stack to form flexible, free-standing films with lamellar microstructure. The interlayer spaces in such lamellar films form a percolated network of molecularly sized, 2D nanochannels that could be used to regulate molecular transport. Here we report self-assembled clay-based 2D nanofluidic channels with surface charge-governed proton conductivity. Proton conductivity of these 2D channels exceeds that of acid solution for concentrations up to 0.1 M, and remains stable as the reservoir concentration is varied by orders of magnitude. Proton transport occurs through a Grotthuss mechanism, with activation energy and mobility of 0.19 eV and 1.2 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. Vermiculite nanochannels exhibit extraordinary thermal stability, maintaining their proton conduction functions even after annealing at 500 °C in air. The ease of constructing massive arrays of stable 2D nanochannels without lithography should prove useful to the study of confined ionic transport, and will enable new ionic device designs. PMID:26165550

  9. Self-assembled two-dimensional nanofluidic proton channels with high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jiao-Jing; Raidongia, Kalyan; Koltonow, Andrew R.; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-07-01

    Exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) sheets can readily stack to form flexible, free-standing films with lamellar microstructure. The interlayer spaces in such lamellar films form a percolated network of molecularly sized, 2D nanochannels that could be used to regulate molecular transport. Here we report self-assembled clay-based 2D nanofluidic channels with surface charge-governed proton conductivity. Proton conductivity of these 2D channels exceeds that of acid solution for concentrations up to 0.1 M, and remains stable as the reservoir concentration is varied by orders of magnitude. Proton transport occurs through a Grotthuss mechanism, with activation energy and mobility of 0.19 eV and 1.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Vermiculite nanochannels exhibit extraordinary thermal stability, maintaining their proton conduction functions even after annealing at 500 °C in air. The ease of constructing massive arrays of stable 2D nanochannels without lithography should prove useful to the study of confined ionic transport, and will enable new ionic device designs.

  10. Weakly nonlinear stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic channel flow using an efficient numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Jonathan; Priede, Jānis

    2013-12-01

    We analyze weakly nonlinear stability of a flow of viscous conducting liquid driven by pressure gradient in the channel between two parallel walls subject to a transverse magnetic field. Using a non-standard numerical approach, we compute the linear growth rate correction and the first Landau coefficient, which in a sufficiently strong magnetic field vary with the Hartmann number as μ 1˜ (0.814-i19.8)× 10^{-3}textit {Ha} and μ 2˜ (2.73-i1.50)× 10^{-5}textit {Ha}^{-4}. These coefficients describe a subcritical transverse velocity perturbation with the equilibrium amplitude |A|2=Re [μ 1]/Re [μ 2](textit {Re}c-textit {Re})˜ 29.8textit {Ha}5(textit {Re}c-textit {Re}), which exists at Reynolds numbers below the linear stability threshold textit {Re}c˜ 4.83× 104textit {Ha}. We find that the flow remains subcritically unstable regardless of the magnetic field strength. Our method for computing Landau coefficients differs from the standard one by the application of the solvability condition to the discretized rather than continuous problem. This allows us to bypass both the solution of the adjoint problem and the subsequent evaluation of the integrals defining the inner products, which results in a significant simplification of the method.

  11. Linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation of two layer channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kirti; Govindarajan, Rama; Tripathi, Manoj

    2015-11-01

    We study the stability of two-fluid flow through a plane channel at Reynolds numbers of a hundred to a thousand. The two fluids have the same density but different viscosities. The fluids, when miscible, are separated from each other by a mixed layer of small but finite thickness, across which viscosity changes from that of one fluid to that of the other. When immiscible, the interface is sharp. Our study spans a range of Schmidt numbers, viscosity ratios and location and thickness of the mixed layer. Our two-dimensional linear stability results predict well the behaviour displayed by our three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at early times. In both linear and non-linear regimes, the miscible flow is more unstable than the corresponding immiscible one, and the miscible flow breaks spanwise symmetry more readily to go into three-dimensionality. We show that the miscible flow over our range of parameters is always significantly more unstable than the corresponding immiscible case.

  12. Origin of the improved mobility and photo-bias stability in a double-channel metal oxide transistor

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hong Yoon; Kang, Youngho; Hwang, Ah Young; Lee, Chang Kyu; Han, Seungwu; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Bae, Jong-Uk; Shin, Woo-Sup; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance and photo-bias stability of double-channel ZnSnO/InZnO (ZTO/IZO) thin-film transistors. The field-effect mobility (μFE) and photo-bias stability of the double-channel device were improved by increasing the thickness of the front IZO film (tint) compared to the single-ZTO-channel device. A high-mobility (approximately 32.3 cm2/Vs) ZTO/IZO transistor with excellent photo-bias stability was obtained from Sn doping of the front IZO layer. First-principles calculations revealed an increase in the formation energy of O vacancy defects in the Sn-doped IZO layer compared to the IZO layer. This observation suggests that the superior photo-bias stability of the double-channel device is due to the effect of Sn doping during thermal annealing. However, these improvements were observed only when tint was less than the critical thickness. The rationale for this observation is also discussed based on the oxygen vacancy defect model. PMID:24441830

  13. Benchmarking and qualification of the NUFREQ-NPW code for best estimate prediction of multi-channel core stability margins

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; McFarlane, A.F.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The NUFREQ-NPW code was modified and set up at Westinghouse, USA for mixed fuel type multi-channel core-wide stability analysis. The resulting code, NUFREQ-NPW, allows for variable axial power profiles between channel groups and can handle mixed fuel types. Various models incorporated into NUFREQ-NPW were systematically compared against the Westinghouse channel stability analysis code MAZDA-NF, for which the mathematical model was developed, in an entirely different manner. Excellent agreement was obtained which verified the thermal-hydraulic modeling and coding aspects. Detailed comparisons were also performed against nuclear-coupled reactor core stability data. All thirteen Peach Bottom-2 EOC-2/3 low flow stability tests were simulated. A key aspect for code qualification involved the development of a physically based empirical algorithm to correct for the effect of core inlet flow development on subcooled boiling. Various other modeling assumptions were tested and sensitivity studies performed. Good agreement was obtained between NUFREQ-NPW predictions and data. Moreover, predictions were generally on the conservative side. The results of detailed direct comparisons with experimental data using the NUFREQ-NPW code; have demonstrated that BWR core stability margins are conservatively predicted, and all data trends are captured with good accuracy. The methodology is thus suitable for BWR design and licensing purposes. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Surface Energy Anisotropy Effects on Pore-Channel Stability:Rayleigh Instabilities in m-Plane Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Santala, Melissa K.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-09-07

    Internal, high-aspect-ratio pore channels with their long axes parallel to the m(10{bar 1}0) plane of sapphire were generated through sequential application of photolithography, ion-beam etching and solid-state diffusion bonding. The axial orientation of channels within the m plane was systematically varied to sample a range of bounding-surface crystallographies. The morphologic evolution of these pore channels during anneals at 1700 C was recorded by postanneal optical microscopy. The development and growth of periodic axial variations in the pore channel radius was observed, and ultimately led to the formation of discrete pores. The wavelength and average pore spacing, assumed to reflect the kinetically dominant perturbation wavelength, varied with the in-plane pore channel orientation, as did the time for complete channel breakup. Results are compared to those previously obtained when pore channels were etched into c(0001)-plane sapphire and annealed under similar conditions. The results indicate a strong effect of surface stability on the evolution behavior.

  15. Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, and Lattice Defect Evolution During Cyclic Channel Die Compression of OFHC Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S. S.; Raghu, T.

    2015-02-01

    Oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper samples are severe plastically deformed by cyclic channel die compression (CCDC) technique at room temperature up to an effective plastic strain of 7.2. Effect of straining on variation in electrical conductivity, evolution of deformation stored energy, and recrystallization onset temperatures are studied. Deformation-induced lattice defects are quantified using three different methodologies including x-ray diffraction profile analysis employing Williamson-Hall technique, stored energy based method, and electrical resistivity-based techniques. Compared to other severe plastic deformation techniques, electrical conductivity degrades marginally from 100.6% to 96.6% IACS after three cycles of CCDC. Decrease in recrystallization onset and peak temperatures is noticed, whereas stored energy increases and saturates at around 0.95-1.1J/g after three cycles of CCDC. Although drop in recrystallization activation energy is observed with the increasing strain, superior thermal stability is revealed, which is attributed to CCDC process mechanics. Low activation energy observed in CCDC-processed OFHC copper is corroborated to synergistic influence of grain boundary characteristics and lattice defects distribution. Estimated defects concentration indicated continuous increase in dislocation density and vacancy with strain. Deformation-induced vacancy concentration is found to be significantly higher than equilibrium vacancy concentration ascribed to hydrostatic stress states experienced during CCDC.

  16. The Role of Phosphatidic Acid and Cardiolipin in Stability of the Tetrameric Assembly of Potassium Channel KcsA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the roles of two anionic phospholipids—phosphatidic acid (PA), which is an important signaling molecule, and cardiolipin (CL), which plays a crucial role in the bioenergetics of the cell—in stabilizing the oligomeric structure of potassium channel KcsA were determined. The stability of KcsA was drastically increased as a function of PA or CL content (mol%) in phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers. Deletion of the membrane-associated N terminus significantly reduced channel stability at high levels of PA content; however, the intrinsic stability of this protein was marginally affected in the presence of CL. These studies indicate that the electrostatic-hydrogen bond switch between PA and N terminus, involving basic residues, is much stronger than the stabilizing effect of CL. Furthermore, the unique properties of the PA headgroup alter protein assembly and folding properties differently from the CL headgroup, and both lipids stabilize the tetrameric assembly via their specific interaction on the extra- or the intracellular side of KcsA. PMID:20352202

  17. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mobeen; Spelbrink, Robin E J; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette

    2007-12-11

    In this study, we investigated how the presence of anionic lipids influenced the stability and folding properties of the potassium channel KcsA. By using a combination of gel electrophoresis, tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments, we found that the presence of the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol-induced dissociation. Surprisingly, the presence of phosphatidic acid (PA) had a much larger effect on the stability of KcsA and this lipid, in addition, significantly influenced the folding properties of the protein. The data indicate that PA creates some specificity over PG, and that it most likely stabilizes the tetramer via both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:18036565

  18. Analysis of inter-residue contacts reveals folding stabilizers in P-loops of potassium, sodium, and TRPV channels.

    PubMed

    Korkosh, V S; Zhorov, B S; Tikhonov, D B

    2016-05-01

    The family of P-loop channels includes potassium, sodium, calcium, cyclic nucleotide-gated and TRPV channels, as well as ionotropic glutamate receptors. Despite vastly different physiological and pharmacological properties, the channels have structurally conserved folding of the pore domain. Furthermore, crystallographic data demonstrate surprisingly similar mutual disposition of transmembrane and membrane-diving helices. To understand determinants of this conservation, here we have compared available high-resolution structures of sodium, potassium, and TRPV1 channels. We found that some residues, which are in matching positions of the sequence alignment, occur in different positions in the 3D alignment. Surprisingly, we found 3D mismatches in well-packed P-helices. Analysis of energetics of individual residues in Monte Carlo minimized structures revealed cyclic patterns of energetically favorable inter- and intra-subunit contacts of P-helices with S6 helices. The inter-subunit contacts are rather conserved in all the channels, whereas the intra-subunit contacts are specific for particular types of the channels. Our results suggest that these residue-residue contacts contribute to the folding stabilization. Analysis of such contacts is important for structural and phylogenetic studies of homologous proteins. PMID:26646260

  19. Polycystin-1 is a Cardiomyocyte Mechanosensor That Governs L-type Ca2+ Channel Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pedrozo, Zully; Criollo, Alfredo; Battiprolu, Pavan K.; Morales, Cyndi R.; Contreras, Ariel; Fernández, Carolina; Jiang, Nan; Luo, Xiang; Caplan, Michael J.; Somlo, Stefan; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Gillette, Thomas G.; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background L-type calcium channel (LTCC) activity is critical to afterload-induced hypertrophic growth of the heart. However, mechanisms governing mechanical stress-induced activation of LTCC activity are obscure. Polycystin-1 (PC-1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor-like protein that functions as a mechanosensor in a variety of cell types and is present in cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results We subjected neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) to mechanical stretch by exposing them to hypo-osmotic (HS) medium or cyclic mechanical stretch, triggering cell growth in a manner dependent on LTCC activity. RNAi-dependent knockdown of PC-1 blocked this hypertrophy. Over-expression of a C-terminal fragment of PC-1 was sufficient to trigger NRVM hypertrophy. Exposing NRVMs to HS medium resulted in an increase in α1C protein levels, a response that was prevented by PC-1 knockdown. MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, rescued PC-1 knockdown-dependent declines in α1C protein. To test this in vivo, we engineered mice harboring conditional silencing of PC-1 selectively in cardiomyocytes (PC-1 KO) and subjected them to mechanical stress in vivo (transverse aortic constriction, TAC). At baseline, PC-1 KO mice manifested decreased cardiac function relative to littermate controls, and α1C LTCC protein levels were significantly lower in PC-1 KO hearts. Whereas control mice manifested robust TAC-induced increases in cardiac mass, PC-1 KO mice showed no significant growth. Likewise, TAC-elicited increases in hypertrophic markers and interstitial fibrosis were blunted in the knockout animals Conclusions PC-1 is a cardiomyocyte mechanosensor and is required for cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves stabilization of α1C protein. PMID:25888683

  20. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Inactivity–Induced Increase in nAChRs Up–Regulates Shal K+ Channels to Stabilize Synaptic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Yong; Tsunoda, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Long–term synaptic changes, which are essential for learning and memory, are dependent on homeostatic mechanisms that stabilize neural activity. Homeostatic responses have also been implicated in pathological conditions, including nicotine addiction. Although multiple homeostatic pathways have been described, little is known about how compensatory responses are tuned to prevent them from overshooting their optimal range of activity. We show that prolonged inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the major excitatory receptor in the Drosophila CNS, results in a homeostatic increase in the Dα7 nAChR. This response then induces an increase in the transient A–type K+ current carried by Shal/Kv4 channels. While increasing Dα7 boosts mEPSCs, the ensuing increase in Shal channels serves to stabilize postsynaptic potentials. This identifies a novel mechanism to fine–tune the homeostatic response. PMID:22081160

  2. Vegetative impacts upon bedload transport capacity and channel stability for differing alluvial planforms in the Yellow River source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi Wei; Yu, Guo An; Brierley, Gary; Wang, Zhao Yin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching-braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Upper Yellow River in western China. Although the regional geology and climate are relatively consistent across the study area, there is a distinct gradient in the presence and abundance of riparian vegetation for these reaches atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (elevations in the study area range from 2800 to 3400 m a.s.l.). To date, the influence of vegetative impacts upon channel planform and bedload transport capacity of alluvial reaches of the Upper Yellow River remains unclear because of a lack of hydrological and field data. In this region, the types and pattern of riparian vegetation vary with planform type as follows: trees exert the strongest influence in the anabranching reach, the meandering reach flows through meadow vegetation, the anabranching-braided reach has a grass, herb, and sparse shrub cover, and the braided reach has no riparian vegetation. A non-linear relation between vegetative cover on the valley floor and bedload transport capacity is evident, wherein bedload transport capacity is the highest for the anabranching reach, roughly followed by the anabranching-braided, braided, and meandering reaches. The relationship between the bedload transport capacity of a reach and sediment supply from upstream exerts a significant influence upon channel stability. Bedload transport capacity during the flood season (June-September) in the braided reach is much less than the rate of sediment supply, inducing bed aggradation and dynamic channel adjustments. Rates of channel adjustment are less pronounced for the anabranching-braided and anabranching reaches, while the meandering reach is relatively stable (i.e., this is a passive meandering reach).

  3. A shared mechanism for lipid- and β-subunit-coordinated stabilization of the activated K+ channel voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    The low-dielectric plasma membrane provides an energy barrier hindering transmembrane movement of charged particles. The positively charged, voltage-sensing fourth transmembrane domain (S4) of voltage-gated ion channels must surmount this energy barrier to initiate channel activation, typically necessitating both membrane depolarization and interaction with membrane lipid phospho-head groups (MLPHGs). In contrast, and despite containing S4, the KCNQ1 K+ channel α subunit exhibits predominantly constitutive activation when in complexes with transmembrane β subunits, MinK-related peptide (MiRP) 1 (KCNE2) or MiRP2 (KCNE3). Here, using a 2-electrode voltage clamp and scanning mutagenesis of channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we discovered that 2 of the 8 MiRP2 extracellular domain acidic residues (D54 and D55) are important for KCNQ1-MiRP2 constitutive activation. Double-mutant thermodynamic cycle analysis revealed energetic coupling of D54 and D55 to R237 in KCNQ1 S4 but not to 10 other native or introduced polar residues in KCNQ1 S4 and surrounding linkers. MiRP2-D54 and KCNQ1-R237 also similarly dictated susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of MLPHG hydrolysis, whereas other closely situated polar residues did not. Thus, by providing negative charge near the plasma membrane extracellular face, MiRP2 uses a lipomimetic mechanism to constitutively stabilize the activated KCNQ1 voltage sensor.—Choi, E., Abbott, G. W. A shared mechanism for lipid- and β-subunit-coordinated stabilization of the activated K+ channel voltage sensor. PMID:20040519

  4. Impacts of warm water on Antarctic ice shelf stability through basal channel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Karen E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves provide resistance to the flow of grounded ice towards the ocean. If this resistance is decreased as a result of ice shelf thinning or disintegration, acceleration of grounded ice can occur, increasing rates of sea-level rise. Loss of ice shelf mass is accelerating, especially in West Antarctica, where warm seawater is reaching ocean cavities beneath ice shelves. Here we use satellite imagery, airborne ice-penetrating radar and satellite laser altimetry spanning the period from 2002 to 2014 to map extensive basal channels in the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica. The highest density of basal channels is found in West Antarctic ice shelves. Within the channels, warm water flows northwards, eroding the ice shelf base and driving channel evolution on annual to decadal timescales. Our observations show that basal channels are associated with the development of new zones of crevassing, suggesting that these channels may cause ice fracture. We conclude that basal channels can form and grow quickly as a result of warm ocean water intrusion, and that they can structurally weaken ice shelves, potentially leading to rapid ice shelf loss in some areas.

  5. A shared mechanism for lipid- and beta-subunit-coordinated stabilization of the activated K+ channel voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2010-05-01

    The low-dielectric plasma membrane provides an energy barrier hindering transmembrane movement of charged particles. The positively charged, voltage-sensing fourth transmembrane domain (S4) of voltage-gated ion channels must surmount this energy barrier to initiate channel activation, typically necessitating both membrane depolarization and interaction with membrane lipid phospho-head groups (MLPHGs). In contrast, and despite containing S4, the KCNQ1 K(+) channel alpha subunit exhibits predominantly constitutive activation when in complexes with transmembrane beta subunits, MinK-related peptide (MiRP) 1 (KCNE2) or MiRP2 (KCNE3). Here, using a 2-electrode voltage clamp and scanning mutagenesis of channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we discovered that 2 of the 8 MiRP2 extracellular domain acidic residues (D54 and D55) are important for KCNQ1-MiRP2 constitutive activation. Double-mutant thermodynamic cycle analysis revealed energetic coupling of D54 and D55 to R237 in KCNQ1 S4 but not to 10 other native or introduced polar residues in KCNQ1 S4 and surrounding linkers. MiRP2-D54 and KCNQ1-R237 also similarly dictated susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of MLPHG hydrolysis, whereas other closely situated polar residues did not. Thus, by providing negative charge near the plasma membrane extracellular face, MiRP2 uses a lipomimetic mechanism to constitutively stabilize the activated KCNQ1 voltage sensor. PMID:20040519

  6. Temporal stability of a coarse sediment community in the Central Eastern English Channel Paleovalleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozach, Sophie; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2012-07-01

    The natural variation of the benthic community of eastern Channel paleovalleys was investigated over a four-year period in the context of an aggregate extraction licence for the French side of the English Channel. Six surveys were conducted: twice a year (mid-April: pre-recruitment and the end of August: post-recruitment) in 2007, 2009 and 2010. The area showed similar features of community structural parameters, to other coarse sediment areas in the eastern English Channel. This area also presented an outstanding constancy over time. The baseline obtained allows the identification of cause-effect relationships between the impact of aggregate dredging and environmental changes and also highlights the consequences of dredging on key ecological attributes. The long-term biological recovery rate will thereby be easier to assess. The use of this baseline is discussed in terms of implications for future management of the study area.

  7. Linear stability analysis of pressure-driven channel flow of a Newtonian and a Herschel-Bulkley fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kirti; Valluri, Prashant; Spelt, Peter; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    The linear stability of pressure-driven channel flow of a Newtonian layer past a non-Newtonian fluid is studied; the latter is assumed to possess a finite yield stress and to exhibit a power-law behaviour. Coupled Orr-Sommerfeld-type eigenvalue equations are derived and solved using a spectral collocation method in the absence of unyielded regions. The numerical solutions of these equations are in agreement with analytical predictions valid in the long-wave limit. Our results indicate that increasing the yield stress (prior to the formation of unyielded regions) and shear thickening tendency of the non-Newtonian fluid promote instability. An analysis of the disturbance `energy' illustrates the presence of an unstable, `interfacial' mode at all Reynolds numbers studied, and an additional, less unstable `shear' mode at relatively high Reynolds numbers. The influence of non-Newtonian rheology on the stability characteristics of these modes is elucidated.

  8. Effects of a Regional Channel Stabilization Project on Suspended Sediment Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under legislation passed in 1984, three federal agencies constructed more than $300 million worth of channel erosion control measures in 16 watersheds in northern Mississippi between 1985 and 2003. Most work was completed between 1985 and 1995, and was confined to six larger watersheds. Flows of w...

  9. Digital multi-channel stabilization of four-mode phase-sensitive parametric multicasting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan; Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Kuo, Bill P P; Myslivets, Evgeny; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2014-07-28

    Stable four-mode phase-sensitive (4MPS) process was investigated as a means to enhance two-pump driven parametric multicasting conversion efficiency (CE) and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Instability of multi-beam, phase sensitive (PS) device that inherently behaves as an interferometer, with output subject to ambient induced fluctuations, was addressed theoretically and experimentally. A new stabilization technique that controls phases of three input waves of the 4MPS multicaster and maximizes CE was developed and described. Stabilization relies on digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) specifically was developed to control pump phases to guarantee stable 4MPS operation that is independent of environmental fluctuations. The technique also controls a single (signal) input phase to optimize the PS-induced improvement of the CE and SNR. The new, continuous-operation DPLL has allowed for fully stabilized PS parametric broadband multicasting, demonstrating CE improvement over 20 signal copies in excess of 10 dB. PMID:25089457

  10. Transient calnexin interaction confers long-term stability on folded K+ channel protein in the ER.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Rajesh; Lee, Eun Jeon; Papazian, Diane M

    2004-06-15

    We recently showed that an unglycosylated form of the Shaker potassium channel protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by proteasomes in mammalian cells despite apparently normal folding and assembly. These results suggest that channel proteins with a native structure can be substrates for ER-associated degradation. We have now tested this hypothesis using the wild-type Shaker protein. Wild-type Shaker is degraded by cytoplasmic proteasomes when it is trapped in the ER and prevented from interacting with calnexin. Neither condition alone is sufficient to destabilize the protein. Proteasomal degradation of the wild-type protein is abolished when ER mannosidase I trimming of the core glycan is inhibited. Our results indicate that transient interaction with calnexin provides long-term protection from ER-associated degradation. PMID:15161937

  11. Soliton solutions and their stability for the flow of relativistic fluids through channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Wiita, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The flow of a perfect relativistic fluid through channels of various cross-sections is considered with reference to models of radio galaxies. Soliton-like solutions are found and their topologies are discussed. The calculations show that these solutions are unstable. It is suggested that under realistic astrophysical conditions the growth rate of the instabilities is so slow that soliton-type blobs may persist for a significant time.

  12. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  13. Effect of normal and parallel magnetic fields on the stability of interfacial flows of magnetic fluids in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yecko, Philip

    2010-02-01

    The effect of an imposed magnetic field on the linear stability of immiscible two-fluid Poiseuille flow in a channel is examined for low Reynolds numbers. Surface tension acts on the interface, the fluids have different densities and viscosities, and one fluid is magnetic (ferrofluid). A Langevin function is used to model the fluid magnetization, resulting in a nonlinear permeability; the stability properties depend on this permeability relation both directly and indirectly, through the base state solution. Uniform magnetic fields applied normal or parallel to the interface both lead to an interfacial instability. Normal fields excite longer wavelength modes, generally having higher growth rates, but parallel fields can excite faster growing modes in high permeability fluids at large applied field strength. Whether or not the field stabilizes or destabilizes the flow depends on the viscosity and layer thickness ratios in a simple way, while the placement of the magnetic fluid layer does not play a major role. Growth rates predicted for realistic microchannel conditions are shown to be large enough to make ferrofluid manipulation a practical method of control.

  14. Outward stabilization of the S4 segments in domains III and IV enhances lidocaine block of sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Michael F; Hanck, Dorothy A

    2007-01-01

    The anti-arrhythmic drug lidocaine has been shown to have a lower affinity for block of voltage-gated sodium channels at hyperpolarized potentials compared to depolarized potentials. Concomitantly, lidocaine reduces maximum gating charge (Qmax) by 40% resulting from the complete stabilization of the S4 in domain III in an outward, depolarized position and partial stabilization of the S4 in domain IV in wild-type Na+ channels (NaV1.5). To investigate whether the pre-positioning of the S4 segments in these two domains in a depolarized conformation increases affinity for lidocaine block, a cysteine residue was substituted for the 3rd outermost charged residue in the S4 of domain III (R3C-DIII) and for the 2nd outermost Arg in S4 of domain IV (R2C-DIV) in NaV1.5. After biotinylation by exposure to extracellular MTSEA-biotin the mutated S4s became stabilized in an outward, depolarized position. For Na+ channels containing both mutations (R3C-DIII + R2C-DIV) the IC50 for rested-state lidocaine block decreased from 194 ± 15 μm in control to 28 ± 2 μm after MTSEA-biotin modification. To determine whether an intact inactivation gate (formed by the linker between domains III and IV) was required for local anaesthetic drugs to modify Na+ channel gating currents, a Cys was substituted for the Phe in the IFM motif of the inactivation gate (ICM) and then modified by intracellular MTSET (WT-ICMMTSET) before exposure to intracellular QX-222, a quarternary amine. Although WT-ICMMTSET required higher concentrations of drug to block INa compared to WT, Qmax decreased by 35% and the V1/2 shifted leftward as previously demonstrated for WT. The effect of stabilization of the S4s in domains III and IV in the absence of an intact inactivation gate on lidocaine block was determined for R3C-DIII + ICM, R2C-DIV + ICM and R3C-DIII + R2C-DIV + ICM, and compared to WT-ICM. IC50 values were 1360 ± 430 μm, 890 ± 70 μm, 670 ± 30 μm and 1920 ± 60 μm, respectively. Thermodynamic mutant

  15. Protein interactions central to stabilizing the K[superscript +] channel selectivity filter in a four-sited configuration for selective K[superscript +] permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, David B.; Zeng, Weizhong; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Jiang, Youxing

    2011-11-18

    The structural and functional conversion of the nonselective NaK channel to a K{sup +} selective channel (NaK2K) allows us to identify two key residues, Tyr and Asp in the filter sequence of TVGYGD, that participate in interactions central to stabilizing the K{sup +} channel selectivity filter. By using protein crystallography and channel electrophysiology, we demonstrate that the K{sup +} channel filter exists as an energetically strained structure and requires these key protein interactions working in concert to hold the filter in the precisely defined four-sited configuration that is essential for selective K{sup +} permeation. Disruption of either interaction, as tested on both the NaK2K and eukaryotic K{sub v}1.6 channels, can reduce or completely abolish K{sup +} selectivity and in some cases may also lead to channel inactivation due to conformational changes at the filter. Additionally, on the scaffold of NaK we recapitulate the protein interactions found in the filter of the Kir channel family, which uses a distinct interaction network to achieve similar stabilization of the filter.

  16. Linear stability of optimal streaks in the log-layer of turbulent channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizard, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The importance of secondary instability of streaks for the generation of vortical structures attached to the wall in the logarithmic region of turbulent channels is studied. The streaks and their linear instability are computed by solving equations associated with the organized motion that include an eddy-viscosity modeling the effect of incoherent fluctuations. Three friction Reynolds numbers, Reτ = 2000, 3000, and 5000, are investigated. For all flow cases, optimal streamwise vortices (i.e., having the highest potential for linear transient energy amplification) are used as initial conditions. Due to the lift-up mechanism, these optimal perturbations lead to the nonlinear growth of streaks. Based on a Floquet theory along the spanwise direction, we observe the onset of streak secondary instability for a wide range of spanwise wavelengths when the streak amplitude exceeds a critical value. Under neutral conditions, it is shown that streak instability modes have their energy mainly concentrated in the overlap layer and propagate with a phase velocity equal to the mean streamwise velocity of the log-layer. These neutral log-layer modes exhibit a sinuous pattern and have characteristic sizes that are proportional to the wall distance in both streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with the Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis (A. Townsend, the structure of turbulent shear flow, Cambridge university press, 1976 2nd edition). In particular, for a distance from the wall varying from y+ ≈ 100 (in wall units) to y ≈ 0.3h, where h is half the height of the channel, the neutral log-layer modes are self-similar with a spanwise width of λz ≈ y/0.3 and a streamwise length of λx ≈ 3λz, independently of the Reynolds number. Based on this observation, it is suggested that compact vortical structures attached to the wall can be ascribed to streak secondary instabilities. In addition, spatial distributions of fluctuating vorticity components show that the onset

  17. Equal-channel angular pressing of commercial aluminum alloys: Grain refinement, thermal stability and tensile properties

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Zenji; Fujinami, Takayoshi; Nemoto, Minoru; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-03-01

    Using equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing at room temperature, the grain sizes of six different commercial aluminum-based alloys (1100, 2024, 3004, 5083, 6061, and 7075) were reduced to within the submicrometer range. These grains were reasonably stable up to annealing temperatures of {approximately} 200 C and the submicrometer grains were retained in the 2024 and 7075 alloys to annealing temperatures of 300 C. Tensile testing after ECA pressing through a single pass, equivalent to the introduction of a strain of {approximately}1, showed there is a significant increase in the values of the 0.2 pct proof stress and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) for each alloy with a corresponding reduction in the elongations to failure. It is demonstrated that the magnitudes of these stresses scale with the square rot of the Mg content in each alloy. Similar values for the proof stresses and the UTS were attained at the same equivalent strains in samples subjected to cold rolling, but the elongations to failure were higher after ECA pressing to equivalent strains >1 because of the introduction of a very small grain size. Detailed results for the 1100 and 3004 alloys show good agreement with the standard Hall-Petch relationship.

  18. Formation of a compound flux rope by the merging of two filament channels, the associated dynamics, and its stability

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Inoue, Satoshi; Magara, Tetsuya E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We present observations of compound flux rope formation, which occurred on 2014 January 1, via merging of two nearby filament channels, the associated dynamics, and its stability using multiwavelength data. We also discuss the dynamics of cool and hot plasma moving along the newly formed compound flux rope. The merging started after the interaction between the southern leg of the northward filament and the northern leg of the southward filament at ≈01:21 UT and continued until a compound flux rope formed at ≈01:33 UT. During the merging, the cool filament plasma heated up and started to move along both sides of the compound flux rope, i.e., toward the north (≈265 km s{sup –1}) and south (≈118 km s{sup –1}) from the point of merging. After traveling a distance of ≈150 Mm toward the north, the plasma cooled down and started to return back to the south (≈14 km s{sup –1}) after ≈02:00 UT. The observations provide a clear example of compound flux rope formation via merging of two different flux ropes and the occurrence of a flare through tether cutting reconnection. However, the compound flux rope remained stable in the corona and had a confined eruption. The coronal magnetic field decay index measurements revealed that both the filaments and the compound flux rope axis lie within the stability domain (decay index <1.5), which may be the possible cause for their stability. The present study also deals with the relationship between the filament's chirality (sinistral) and the helicity (positive) of the surrounding flux rope.

  19. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean

  20. Channel widening due to urbanization and a major flood can alter bed particle organization and bed stability in an urban boulder-bed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Behrns, K.; Blanchet, Z.; Hankin, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Anacostia River is a tributary of the Potomac River north of Washington D.C. that has become progressively more urbanized in the past 50 years. Bankfull discharge and bankfull width in the Anacostia have increased by 3- 4x in the past 50 years. Nearby watersheds of similar size and geology, but without significant urbanization, contain threshold gravel-bed streams. The Anacostia, however, is not a threshold channel; it exhibits break-up of boulder-bed channels in upstream reaches and significant gravel bar formation in downstream reaches. These gravel bars have grown and migrated considerably in the past 10-15 years, contributing significantly to local channel widening that can be twice that of adjacent reaches. The purpose of this study is to determine bedload transport rates and grain size distributions and their relationship to discharge, bed organization and sediment supply. Bed mobility data come from both bedload transport measurements and measurements of channel bed changes. Channel bed changes were obtained from a) repeated channel cross section surveys, b) surface and subsurface size distributions, and c) bed particle organization measurements (measurements of location of particles within reaches). These measurements were made prior to and after the floods of 2006, which equalled the largest floods on record for most parts of the Anacostia River. In some boulder bed reaches, boulders were removed from the center of the channel and deposited along and on the channel banks. The mid-channel boulders were replaced by sheets of gravel and cobbles, significantly altering the bed mobility of the channels.

  1. Optimization of power compression and stability of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of 248 nm laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Borisov, A.B.

    2004-12-01

    The controlled formation in an underdense plasma of stable multi-PW relativistic micrometer-scale channels, which conduct a confined power at 248 nm exceeding 10{sup 4} critical powers and establish a peak channel intensity of {approx}10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}, can be achieved with the use of an appropriate gradient in the electron density in the initial launching phase of the confined propagation. This mode of channel formation optimizes both the power compression and the stability by smoothing the transition from the incident spatial profile to that associated with the lowest channel eigenmode, the dynamically robust structure that governs the confined propagation. A chief outcome is the ability to stably conduct coherent energy at fluences greater than 10{sup 9} J/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Hydrophobic interactions between the S5 segment and the pore helix stabilizes the closed state of Slo2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hansen, Angela; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2016-04-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, Slo2.1K(+) channels are in a closed state unless activated by an elevation in [Na(+)]i. Fenamates such as niflumic acid also activate Slo2.1. Previous studies suggest that activation of Slo2.1 channels is mediated by a conformational change in the selectivity filter, and not a widening of the aperture formed by the S6 segment bundle crossing as occurs in voltage-gated K(+) channels. It is unclear how binding of Na(+) or fenamates is allosterically linked to opening of the presumed selectivity filter activation gate in Slo2.1. Here we examined the role of the S5 transmembrane segment in the activation of Slo2.1. Channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and whole cell currents measured with the voltage-clamp technique. Ala substitution of five residues located on a single face of the S5 α-helical segment induced constitutive channel activity. Leu-209, predicted to face towards Phe-240 in the pore helix was investigated by further mutagenesis. Mutation of Leu-209 to Glu or Gln induced maximal channel activation as did the combined mutation to Ala of all three hydrophobic S5 residues predicted to be adjacent to Phe-240. Together these results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between residues in S5 and the C-terminal end of the pore helix stabilize Slo2.1 channels in a closed state. PMID:26724206

  3. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) Engineering of the experiment and first data on kink stability of a current channel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M.; Intrator, T.; Vermare, L.; Begay, D.; Furno, I.; Werley, K.; Fineup, B.

    2001-10-01

    Major subsystems of the RSX experiment have been designed, built and brought on line by undergraduate students this year. We describe a relatively inexpensive magnet pulsed power system and a novel probe drive. We describe the engineering and construction of a 5kA, 700 Volt, critically damped, 30 msec pulse electrolytic capacitor bank and SCR switching network that drives the magnet coils. Failsafe design, ease of maintenance and operator safety were important factors. SPICE circuit simulations and performance data are compared. A novel axial probe drive that allows one probe to explore all of a cylindrical volume is described. This includes axial, angular and radial motion with high relative repeatability and absolute position accuracy. We opted for vacuum sanitary and plasma compatible position sensing technology with motion feedback to reduce the accuracy constraints on the probe movement mechanisms that remained inside the vacuum vessel. We show the first RSX data, which was taken to address the kink stability boundary of the single current channels we create with the RSX plasma guns.

  4. Improving electrical performance and bias stability of HfInZnO-TFT with optimizing the channel thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Ding, Xing-Wei; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hao

    2013-10-15

    RF magnetron sputtered HfInZnO film and atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were employed for thin film transistors (TFTs) as channel layer and gate insulator, respectively. To achieve HfInZnO-TFT with high performance and good bias stability, the thickness of HfInZnO active layer was optimized. The performance of HfInZnO-TFTs was found to be thickness dependent. As the HfInZnO active layer got thicker, the leakage current greatly increased from 1.73 × 10{sup −12} to 2.54 × 10{sup −8} A, the threshold voltage decreased from 7.4 to −4.7 V, while the subthreshold swing varied from 0.41 to 1.07 V/decade. Overall, the HfInZnO film showed superior performance, such as saturation mobility of 6.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, threshold voltage of 4.2 V, subthreshold swing of 0.43 V/decade, on/off current ratio of 3 × 10{sup 7} and V{sub th} shift of 3.6 V under V{sub GS}= 10 V for 7200 s. The results demonstrate the possibility of fabricating TFTs using HfInZnO film as active layer and using ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate insulator.

  5. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  6. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function*

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J.; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J.; Flucher, Bernhard E.; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I–IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca2+ channel function. PMID:26100638

  7. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J; Flucher, Bernhard E; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-08-21

    L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I-IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca(2+) channel function. PMID:26100638

  8. Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference

    PubMed Central

    Slowik, Daria; Henderson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    With the ultimate goal of detailed structural analysis of mammalian and particularly human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), we have investigated the relative stability of human and rat VGSCs and compared them with electric eel VGSC. We found that NaV1.3 from rat was the most stable after detergent solubilisation. The order of stability was rNaV1.3 > hNaV1.2 > hNaV1.1 > hNaV1.6 > hNaV1.3 > hNaV1.4. However, a comparison with the VGSC from Electrophorus electricus, which is most similar to NaV1.4, shows that the eel VGSC is considerably more stable in detergent than the human VGSCs examined. We conclude that current methods of structural analysis, such as single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), may be most usefully targeted to eel VGSC or rNaV1.3, but that structural analysis on the full spectrum of VGSCs, by methods that require greater stability such as crystallisation and X-ray crystallography, will require further stabilisation of the channel. PMID:25838126

  9. Benchmarking the stability of human detergent-solubilised voltage-gated sodium channels for structural studies using eel as a reference.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Daria; Henderson, Richard

    2015-07-01

    With the ultimate goal of detailed structural analysis of mammalian and particularly human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), we have investigated the relative stability of human and rat VGSCs and compared them with electric eel VGSC. We found that NaV1.3 from rat was the most stable after detergent solubilisation. The order of stability was rNaV1.3>hNaV1.2>hNaV1.1>hNaV1.6>hNaV1.3>hNaV1.4. However, a comparison with the VGSC from Electrophorus electricus, which is most similar to NaV1.4, shows that the eel VGSC is considerably more stable in detergent than the human VGSCs examined. We conclude that current methods of structural analysis, such as single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), may be most usefully targeted to eel VGSC or rNaV1.3, but that structural analysis on the full spectrum of VGSCs, by methods that require greater stability such as crystallisation and X-ray crystallography, will require further stabilisation of the channel. PMID:25838126

  10. Mutation of light-dependent phosphorylation sites of the Drosophila transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) ion channel affects its subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Alexander C; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-05-31

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  11. Mutation of Light-dependent Phosphorylation Sites of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential-like (TRPL) Ion Channel Affects Its Subcellular Localization and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Oberacker, Tina; Pfannstiel, Jens; Weigold, Sebastian; Will, Carina; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila phototransduction cascade terminates in the opening of the ion channel transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL). Contrary to TRP, TRPL undergoes light-dependent subcellular trafficking between rhabdomeric photoreceptor membranes and an intracellular storage compartment, resulting in long term light adaptation. Here, we identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of TRPL that affect TRPL stability and localization. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed a light-dependent change in the TRPL phosphorylation pattern. Mutation of eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites neither affected multimerization of the channels nor the electrophysiological response of flies expressing the mutated channels. However, these mutations resulted in mislocalization and enhanced degradation of TRPL after prolonged dark-adaptation. Mutation of subsets of the eight C-terminal phosphorylation sites also led to a reduction of TRPL content and partial mislocalization in the dark. This suggests that a light-dependent switch in the phosphorylation pattern of the TRPL channel mediates stable expression of TRPL in the rhabdomeres upon prolonged dark-adaptation. PMID:23592784

  12. Electrical stability enhancement of the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistor by formation of Au nanoparticles on the back-channel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byungsu; Lee, Jaesang; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a significant improvement in various electrical instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) by implanting Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the a-IGZO back-channel. This TFT showed the enhanced stability of threshold voltage (Vth) under ambient humidity, illumination stress, and a-IGZO thickness variation tests. Application of back-channel Au NPs to a-IGZO TFT is regarded to control the surface potential, to lead reversible carrier trap/injection, and to increase incident UV light absorption by local surface plasmon. Au NPs are formed by e-beam evaporation, and therefore, this technique can be applicable to the TFT manufacturing process.

  13. High-resolution structures of the M2 channel from influenza A virus reveal dynamic pathways for proton stabilization and transduction

    PubMed Central

    Thomaston, Jessica L.; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Fraser, James S.; Klein, Michael L.; Fiorin, Giacomo; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    The matrix 2 (M2) protein from influenza A virus is a proton channel that uses His37 as a selectivity filter. Here we report high-resolution (1.10 Å) cryogenic crystallographic structures of the transmembrane domain of M2 at low and high pH. These structures reveal that waters within the pore form hydrogen-bonded networks or “water wires” spanning 17 Å from the channel entrance to His37. Pore-lining carbonyl groups are well situated to stabilize hydronium via second-shell interactions involving bridging water molecules. In addition, room temperature crystallographic structures indicate that water becomes increasingly fluid with increasing temperature and decreasing pH, despite the higher electrostatic field. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations reveal a collective switch of hydrogen bond orientations that can contribute to the directionality of proton flux as His37 is dynamically protonated and deprotonated in the conduction cycle. PMID:26578770

  14. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Coquille River basin, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Coquille River basin, which encompasses 2,745 km2 (square kilometers) of the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that:

  15. A defined heteromeric KV1 channel stabilizes the intrinsic pacemaking and regulates the output of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons to thalamic targets.

    PubMed

    Ovsepian, Saak V; Steuber, Volker; Le Berre, Marie; O'Hara, Liam; O'Leary, Valerie B; Dolly, J Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The output of the cerebellum to the motor axis of the central nervous system is orchestrated mainly by synaptic inputs and intrinsic pacemaker activity of deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) projection neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that the soma of these cells is enriched with K(V)1 channels produced by mandatory multi-merization of K(V)1.1, 1.2 α and KV β2 subunits. Being constitutively active, the K(+) current (IK(V)1) mediated by these channels stabilizes the rate and regulates the temporal precision of self-sustained firing of these neurons. Placed strategically, IK(V)1 provides a powerful counter-balance to prolonged depolarizing inputs, attenuates the rebound excitation, and dampens the membrane potential bi-stability. Somatic location with low activation threshold render IK(V)1 instrumental in voltage-dependent de-coupling of the axon initial segment from the cell body of projection neurons, impeding invasion of back-propagating action potentials into the somato-dendritic compartment. The latter is also demonstrated to secure the dominance of clock-like somatic pacemaking in driving the regenerative firing activity of these neurons, to encode time variant inputs with high fidelity. Through the use of multi-compartmental modelling and retro-axonal labelling, the physiological significance of the described functions for processing and communication of information from the lateral DCN to thalamic relay nuclei is established. PMID:23318870

  16. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  17. Modelling Temporal Stability of EPI Time Series Using Magnitude Images Acquired with Multi-Channel Receiver Coils

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Chloe; Balteau, Evelyne; Lutti, Antoine; Josephs, Oliver; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Krueger and Glover introduced a model describing the temporal SNR (tSNR) of an EPI time series as a function of image SNR (SNR0). This model has been used to study physiological noise in fMRI, to optimize fMRI acquisition parameters, and to estimate maximum attainable tSNR for a given set of MR image acquisition and processing parameters. In its current form, this noise model requires the accurate estimation of image SNR. For multi-channel receiver coils, this is not straightforward because it requires export and reconstruction of large amounts of k-space raw data and detailed, custom-made image reconstruction methods. Here we present a simple extension to the model that allows characterization of the temporal noise properties of EPI time series acquired with multi-channel receiver coils, and reconstructed with standard root-sum-of-squares combination, without the need for raw data or custom-made image reconstruction. The proposed extended model includes an additional parameter κ which reflects the impact of noise correlations between receiver channels on the data and scales an apparent image SNR (SNR′0) measured directly from root-sum-of-squares reconstructed magnitude images so that κ = SNR′0/SNR0 (under the condition of SNR0>50 and number of channels ≤32). Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the extended model parameters can be estimated with high accuracy. The estimation of the parameter κ was validated using an independent measure of the actual SNR0 for non-accelerated phantom data acquired at 3T with a 32-channel receiver coil. We also demonstrate that compared to the original model the extended model results in an improved fit to human task-free non-accelerated fMRI data acquired at 7T with a 24-channel receiver coil. In particular, the extended model improves the prediction of low to medium tSNR values and so can play an important role in the optimization of high-resolution fMRI experiments at lower SNR levels. PMID:23284874

  18. Dynamic stability analysis for capillary channel flow: One-dimensional and three-dimensional computations and the equivalent steady state technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grah, Aleksander; Dreyer, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft technology provides a series of applications for capillary channel flow. It can serve as a reliable means for positioning and transport of liquids under low gravity conditions. Basically, capillary channels provide liquid paths with one or more free surfaces. A problem may be flow instabilities leading to a collapse of the liquid surfaces. A result is undesired gas ingestion and a two phase flow which can in consequence cause several technical problems. The presented capillary channel consists of parallel plates with two free liquid surfaces. The flow rate is established by a pump at the channel outlet, creating a lower pressure within the channel. Owing to the pressure difference between the liquid phase and the ambient gas phase the free surfaces bend inwards and remain stable as long as they are able to resist the steady and unsteady pressure effects. For the numerical prediction of the flow stability two very different models are used. The one-dimensional unsteady model is mainly based on the Bernoulli equation, the continuity equation, and the Gauss-Laplace equation. For three-dimensional evaluations an open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is applied. For verifications the numerical results are compared with quasisteady and unsteady data of a sounding rocket experiment. Contrary to previous experiments this one results in a significantly longer observation sequence. Furthermore, the critical point of the steady flow instability could be approached by a quasisteady technique. As in previous experiments the comparison to the numerical model evaluation shows a very good agreement for the movement of the liquid surfaces and for the predicted flow instability. The theoretical prediction of the flow instability is related to the speed index, based on characteristic velocities of the capillary channel flow. Stable flow regimes are defined by stability criteria for steady and unsteady flow. The one-dimensional computation of the speed index

  19. Short channel amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor arrays for ultra-high definition active matrix liquid crystal displays: Electrical properties and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Chang; Kim, Young Sun; Yu, Eric Kai-Hsiang; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    The electrical properties and stability of ultra-high definition (UHD) amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with short channel (width/length = 12/3 μm) were examined. A-IGZO TFT arrays have a mobility of ∼6 cm2/V s, subthreshold swing (S.S.) of 0.34 V/decade, threshold voltage of 3.32 V, and drain current (Id) on/off ratio of <109 with Ioff below 10-13 A. Overall these devices showed slightly different electrical characteristics as compared to the long channel devices; non-saturation of output curve at high drain-to-source voltage (Vds), negative shift of threshold voltage with increasing Vds, and the mobility reduction at high gate voltage (Vgs) were observed. The second derivative method adopting Tikhonov's regularization theory is suggested for the robust threshold voltage extraction. The temperature dependency of γ-value was established after taking into consideration the impact of source/drain contact resistances. The AC bias-temperature stress was used to simulate the actual operation of active matrix liquid crystal displays (AM-LCDs). The threshold voltage shift had a dependency on the magnitude of drain bias stress, frequency, and duty cycle due to the impact ionization accelerated at high temperature. This study demonstrates that the short channel effects, source/drain contact resistances and impact ionization have to be taken into account during optimization of UHD AM-LCDs.

  20. Disease-associated mutations in the extracytoplasmic loops of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator do not impede biosynthetic processing but impair chloride channel stability.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, M M; Aleksandrov, A A; Riordan, J R

    2001-05-01

    Consistent with its function as a chloride channel regulated entirely from the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) glycoprotein exposes little of its mass on the exterior surface of cells. The first and fourth extracytoplasmic loops (ELs) contain approximately 15 and 30 residues, respectively; the other four ELs are extremely short. To examine the influence of missense mutants in ELs detected in patients with cystic fibrosis, we have expressed them in mammalian (baby hamster kidney (BHK21)) cells and assessed their biosynthetic processing and chloride channel activity. In contrast to previous findings that 18 of 30 disease-associated missense mutations in cytoplasmic loops caused retention of the nascent polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum, all the EL mutants studied matured and were transported to the cell surface. This pronounced asymmetry is consistent with the notion that endoplasmic reticulum quality control of nascent CFTR is exerted primarily on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Although this set of EL mutations has little effect on CFTR maturation, most of them seriously compromise its chloride channel activity. Substitutions at six different positions in EL1 and single positions in EL2 and EL4 all destabilized the open state, some of them severely, indicating that the ELs contribute to the stability of the CFTR ion pore. PMID:11278813

  1. Helicity, membrane incorporation, orientation and thermal stability of the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel from E. coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, I. T.; Sukharev, S. I.; Blount, P.; Kung, C.; Brunger, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present structural studies on the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) from E. coli in detergent micelles and lipid vesicles. Both transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicate that the protein is highly helical in detergents as well as liposomes. The secondary structure of the proteins was shown to be highly resistant towards denaturation (25-95 degrees C) based on an ellipticity thermal profile. Amide H+/D+ exchange was shown to be extensive (ca. 66%), implying that two thirds of the protein are water accessible. MscL, reconstituted in oriented lipid bilayers, was shown to possess a net bilayer orientation using dichroic ratios measured by attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Here, we present and discuss this initial set of structural data on this new family of ion-channel proteins.

  2. Evaluation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) shortwave channel's stability using in-flight calibration sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers were designed to make absolute measurements of the incoming solar, earth-reflected solar, and earth-emitted fluxes for investigations of the earth's climate system. Thermistor bolometers were the sensors used for the ERBE scanning radiometric package. Each thermistor bolometer package consisted of three narrow field of view broadband radiometric channels measuring shortwave, longwave, and total (0.2 micron to 50 microns) radiation. The in-flight calibration facilities include Mirror Attenuator Mosaics, shortwave internal calibration source, and internal blackbody sources to monitor the long-term responsivity of the radiometers. This paper describes the in-flight calibration facilities, the calibration data reduction techniques, and the results from the in-flight shortwave channel calibrations. The results indicate that the ERBE shortwave detectors were stable to within +/- 1 percent for up to five years of flight operation.

  3. High-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) of frequency stabilized 9xx diode laser bars with a channel spacing of 1.5 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Holly, Carlo; Krauch, Niels; Witte, Ulrich; Westphalen, Thomas; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    We present a compact High-Power DenseWavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) based on Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) for spectrally stabilized diode lasers with a low average beam quality M2 <=50. The center wavelengths of the five input channels with a spectral spacing of 1.5 nm are 973 nm, 974.5 nm, 976 nm, 977.5 nm and 979 nm. Multiplexing efficiencies of 97%+/-2% have been demonstrated with single mode, frequency stabilized laser radiation. Since the diffraction efficiency strongly depends on the beam quality, the multiplexing efficiency decreases to 94% (M2 = 25) and 85%+/-3% (M2 = 45) if multimode radiation is overlaid. Besides, the calculated multiplexing efficiency of the radiation with M2 = 45 amounts to 87:5 %. Thus, calculations and measurements are in good agreement. In addition, we developed a dynamic temperature control for the multiplexing VBGs which adapts the Bragg wavelengths to the diode laser center wavelengths. In short, the prototype with a radiance of 70GWm-2 sr-1 consists of five spectrally stabilized and passively cooled diode laser bars with 40Woutput after beam transformation. To achieve a good stabilization performance ELOD (Extreme LOw Divergence) diode laser bars have been chosen in combination with an external resonator based on VBGs. As a result, the spectral width defined by 95% power inclusion is < 120pm for each beam source across the entire operating range from 30 A to 120 A. Due to the spectral stabilization, the output power of each bar decreases in the range of < 5 %.

  4. Streak instability and generation of hairpin-vortices by a slotted jet in channel crossflow: Experiments and linear stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Jimmy; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Streaks and hairpin-vortices are experimentally generated in a laminar plane Poiseuille crossflow by injecting a continuous jet through a streamwise slot normal to the crossflow, with air as the working media. Small disturbances form stable streaks, however, higher disturbances cause the formation of streaks which undergo instability leading to the generation of hairpin vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the flow conditions close to the generation of hairpin-vortices. Measurements are carried out in the cases of natural and phase-locked disturbance employing smoke visualisation, particle image velocimetry, and hot-wire anemometry, which include, the dominant frequency, wavelength, and the disturbance shape (or eigenfunctions) associated with the coherent part of the velocity field. A linear stability analysis for both one- and two-dimensional base-flows is carried out to understand the mechanism of instability and good agreement of wavelength and eigenfunctions are obtained when compared to the experimental data, and a slight under-prediction of the growth-rates by the linear stability analysis consistent with the final nonlinear stages in transitional flows. Furthermore, an energy analysis for both the temporal and spatial stability analysis revels the dominance of the symmetric varicose mode, again, in agreement with the experiments, which is found to be governed by the balance of the wallnormal shear and dissipative effects rather than the spanwise shear. In all cases the anti-symmetric sinuous modes governed by the spanwise shear are found to be damped both in analysis and in our experiments.

  5. Intracellular potassium stabilizes human ether-à-go-go-related gene channels for export from endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Dennis, Adrienne T; Trieu, Phan; Charron, Francois; Ethier, Natalie; Hebert, Terence E; Wan, Xiaoping; Ficker, Eckhard

    2009-04-01

    Several therapeutic compounds have been identified that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cause torsade de pointes arrhythmias not by direct block of the cardiac potassium channel human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) but via disruption of hERG trafficking to the cell surface membrane. One example of a clinically important compound class that potently inhibits hERG trafficking are cardiac glycosides. We have shown previously that inhibition of hERG trafficking by cardiac glycosides is initiated via direct block of Na(+)/K(+) pumps and not via off-target interactions with hERG or any other protein. However, it was not known how pump inhibition at the cell surface is coupled to hERG processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that depletion of intracellular K(+)-either indirectly after long-term exposure to cardiac glycosides or directly after exposure to gramicidin in low sodium media-is sufficient to disrupt hERG trafficking. In K(+)-depleted cells, hERG trafficking can be restored by permeating K(+) or Rb(+) ions, incubation at low temperature, exposure to the pharmacological chaperone astemizole, or specific mutations in the selectivity filter of hERG. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for drug-induced trafficking inhibition in which cardiac glycosides produce a [K(+)](i)-mediated conformational defect directly in the hERG channel protein. PMID:19139152

  6. Intracellular Potassium Stabilizes Human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene Channels for Export from Endoplasmic ReticulumS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Dennis, Adrienne T.; Trieu, Phan; Charron, Francois; Ethier, Natalie; Hebert, Terence E.; Wan, Xiaoping; Ficker, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Several therapeutic compounds have been identified that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cause torsade de pointes arrhythmias not by direct block of the cardiac potassium channel human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) but via disruption of hERG trafficking to the cell surface membrane. One example of a clinically important compound class that potently inhibits hERG trafficking are cardiac glycosides. We have shown previously that inhibition of hERG trafficking by cardiac glycosides is initiated via direct block of Na+/K+ pumps and not via off-target interactions with hERG or any other protein. However, it was not known how pump inhibition at the cell surface is coupled to hERG processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that depletion of intracellular K+—either indirectly after long-term exposure to cardiac glycosides or directly after exposure to gramicidin in low sodium media—is sufficient to disrupt hERG trafficking. In K+-depleted cells, hERG trafficking can be restored by permeating K+ or Rb+ ions, incubation at low temperature, exposure to the pharmacological chaperone astemizole, or specific mutations in the selectivity filter of hERG. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for drug-induced trafficking inhibition in which cardiac glycosides produce a [K+]i-mediated conformational defect directly in the hERG channel protein. PMID:19139152

  7. Secondary structure, stability and tetramerisation of recombinant K(V)1.1 potassium channel cytoplasmic N-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, G W; Bloemendal, M; Van Stokkum, I H; Mercer, E A; Miller, R T; Sewing, S; Wolters, M; Pongs, O; Srai, S K

    1997-08-15

    The recombinant N-terminal fragment (amino acids 14-162) of a tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel (K(V)1.1) has been studied using spectroscopic techniques. Evidence is presented that it forms a tetramer in aqueous solution, whereas when solubilised in 1% Triton X-100 it remains monomeric. The secondary structure content of both monomeric and tetrameric K(V)1.1 N-terminal fragment has been estimated from FTIR and CD spectroscopy to be 20-25% alpha-helix, 20-25% beta-sheet, 20% turns and 30-40% random coil. Solubilisation of the protein in detergent is shown by hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis to alter tertiary structure rather than secondary structure and this may be the determining factor in tetramerisation ability. Using molecular modelling we propose a supersecondary structure consisting of two structural domains. PMID:9300810

  8. Characterization of Jupiter's Deep Circulation and Static Stability through Wide Channel Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics and Interactions of Southern Midlatitudes Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, Raul; Dowling, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed features and dynamics of Jovian vortices are sensitive to the underlying environmental structure of Jupiter's atmosphere, in particular to the vertical wind shear and the static stability, and that forward modeling techniques can be successfully used to eliminate a large range of possibilities in a self-consistent manner and hence constrain the atmospheric structure below the cloud regions (Youseff and Marcus 2003, Morales-Juberias et al. 2005). However, these studies have generally been done on a narrow latitude-band basis ( 15^o). Here we present wide channel simulations ( 40 ^o) of two major meteorological events observed in the southern atmosphere of Jupiter involving the interaction of the Great Red Spot (GRS) with other nearby vortices. By studying these two events using wide channel simulations, not unlike the strategy used in terrestrial synoptic meteorology, we show that we can gain new insights into the patterns governing Jupiter's global circulations, drawing a coherent picture of the vertical structure of the atmosphere for the whole southern mid-latitudinal regions of Jupiter over time.

  9. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jonas E.; Mobli, Mehdi; Brust, Andreas; Alewood, Paul F.; King, Glenn F.; Rash, Lachlan D.

    2012-01-01

    APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3. PMID:22851922

  10. Cyclisation increases the stability of the sea anemone peptide APETx2 but decreases its activity at acid-sensing ion channel 3.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jonas E; Mobli, Mehdi; Brust, Andreas; Alewood, Paul F; King, Glenn F; Rash, Lachlan D

    2012-07-01

    APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3. PMID:22851922

  11. Transcriptional activation of the anchoring protein SAP97 by heat shock factor (HSF)-1 stabilizes Kv1.5 channels in HL-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ting, YK; Morikawa, K; Kurata, Y; Li, P; Bahrudin, U; Mizuta, E; Kato, M; Miake, J; Yamamoto, Y; Yoshida, A; Murata, M; Inoue, T; Nakai, A; Shiota, G; Higaki, K; Nanba, E; Ninomiya, H; Shirayoshi, Y; Hisatome, I

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The expression of voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv) 1.5 is regulated by members of the heat shock protein (Hsp) family. We examined whether the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1) and its inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) could affect the expression of Kv1.5 channels and its anchoring protein, synapse associated protein 97 (SAP97). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Transfected mouse atrial cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cells) and COS7 cells were subjected to luciferase reporter gene assay and whole-cell patch clamp. Protein and mRNA extracts were subjected to Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. KEY RESULTS Heat shock of HL-1 cells induced expression of Hsp70, HSF-1, SAP97 and Kv1.5 proteins. These effects were reproduced by wild-type HSF-1. Both heat shock and expression of HSF-1, but not the R71G mutant, increased the SAP97 mRNA level. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against SAP97 abolished HSF-1-induced increase of Kv1.5 and SAP97 proteins. A luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that the SAP97 promoter region (from −919 to −740) that contains heat shock elements (HSEs) was required for this induction. Suppression of SIRT1 function either by nicotinamide or siRNA decreased the level of SAP97 mRNA. SIRT1 activation by resveratrol had opposing effects. A treatment of the cells with GGA increased the level of SAP97 mRNA, Kv1.5 proteins and IKur current, which could be modified with either resveratrol or nicotinamide. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS HSF-1 induced transcription of SAP97 through SIRT1-dependent interaction with HSEs; the increase in SAP97 resulted in stabilization of Kv1.5 channels. These effects were mimicked by GGA. PMID:21232033

  12. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABAB receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η

    PubMed Central

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-01-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling. PMID:25560757

  13. Improved performance and stability of field-effect transistors with polymeric residue-free graphene channel transferred by gold layer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Trung, Tran Quang; Jung, Jin-Heak; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-03-01

    One of the most significant issues that occurs when applying chemical-vapor deposited (CVD) graphene (Gr) to various high-performance device applications is the result of polymeric residues. Polymeric residues remain on the Gr surface during Gr polymer support transfer to an arbitrary substrate, and these residues degrade CVD Gr electrical properties. In this paper, we propose that a thin layer of gold be used as a CVD Gr transfer layer, instead of a polymer support layer, to enable a polymer residue-free transfer. Comparative investigation of the surface morphological and qualitative analysis of residues on Gr surfaces and Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) using two transfer methods demonstrates that gold-transferred Gr, with uniform, smooth, and clean surfaces, enable GFETs to perform better than Gr transferred by the polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In GFETs fabricated by the gold transfer method, field-effect carrier mobility was greatly enhanced and the position of the Dirac point was significantly reduced compared to GFETs fabricated by the PMMA transfer method. In addition, compared to the PMMA-transferred GFETs, the gold-transferred GFETs showed greatly increased stability with smaller hysteresis and higher resistance to gate bias stress effects. These results suggest that the gold transfer method for Gr provides significant improvements in GFET performance and reliability by minimizing the polymeric residues and defects on Gr. PMID:24448397

  14. Medium timescale stability of tidal mudflats in Bridgwater Bay, Bristol Channel, UK: Influence of tides, waves and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Jason R.; Kirby, Robert

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an 11-year study into mudflat elevation changes within the intertidal zone at Stert Flats in Bridgwater Bay, Somerset. This site is located in the outer Severn Estuary/inner Bristol Channel which is a macro-hypertidal regime dominated by physical processes, characterized by strong tidal currents, high turbidity and a significant degree of exposure to wind generated waves. Two transects of stakes were installed perpendicular to the coast, extending seawards 300 m from the edge of the saltmarsh onto the mudflats, against which variations in accretion or erosion could be measured. The mudflats themselves consisted of an underlying consolidated clay of Holocene age and a surface veneer of fluid mud and/or mobile sand patches which varied both spatially and temporally. Mudflat development was recorded over both short-term (monthly/seasonal) and medium-term (inter-annual) timescales. The results display a significant degree of scatter over all timescales. Such variability in response may be expected in such a dynamic system where noise can be attributed to a combination of factors such as the mobility of surface fluid mud and sand patches and the migration of the underlying ridge-runnel drainage network. Despite this, the expected short-term variations related to neap-spring tidal conditions and seasonal influences were observed at a number of locations on the transects although these were weakly expressed. The over-riding feature of the profiles is a consistent long-term trend of erosion which appears to be masking shorter term trends within the dataset. Viewed over the 11-year period, the changes in mudflat elevation closely match the pattern of the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the 1990s, suggesting a strong climatic control over mudflat development on a medium-term/decadal scale. Most profiles display a strong erosional trend during the early 1990s when the NAO index was positive. The erosional trend peaked in

  15. Characterization of Jupiter's Deep Circulation and Static Stability through Wide Channel Numerical Simulations of the Dynamics and Interactions of Southern Midlatitudes Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, Raul; Dowling, T. E.

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed features and dynamics of Jovian vortices are sensitive to the underlying environmental structure of Jupiter’s atmosphere, in particular to the vertical wind shear and the static stability, and that forward modeling techniques can be successfully used to eliminate a large range of possibilities in a self-consistent manner and hence constrain the atmospheric structure below the cloud regions (Youseff and Marcus 2003, Morales-Juberias et al. 2005). However, these studies have generally been done on a narrow latitude-band basis (˜15°). Here we present wide channel simulations (˜40°) of two major meteorological events observed in the southern atmosphere of Jupiter involving the interaction of the Great Red Spot (GRS) with other nearby vortices. Namely, the spots associated with the recirculation of the South Tropical Disturbance of 1979 (Smith et al. 1979) and the White Ovals (WOS) in 2000 when ovals BE and FA merged to form BA (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2001). By studying these two events using wide channel simulations, not unlike the strategy used in terrestrial synoptic meteorology, we show that we can gain new insights into the patterns governing Jupiter's global circulations, drawing a coherent picture of the vertical structure of the atmosphere for the whole southern mid-latitudinal regions of Jupiter over time. In particular, we find that the model output best captures the dynamics of the individual vortices and the morphology of their interactions when the deformation length in this region is like that derived by Read et al. 2006 and the deep winds vary following a dependence like that derived by Dowling 1995 in which the westward jets remain constant with depth but the eastward jets increase with depth. Computational resources were provided by the New Mexico Computing Applications Center and NMT. This work was supported by PATM grants NNX08AE91G and NNX08AE64G.

  16. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    subject to incision and aggradation as well as lateral shifts in thalweg position and bank deposition and erosion. * In fluvial reaches, unit bar area declined a net 5.3-83.6 percent from 1939 to 2009. The documented reduction in bar area may be attributable to several factors, including vegetation establishment and stabilization of formerly active bar surfaces, lateral channel changes and resulting alterations in sediment deposition and erosion patterns, and streamflow and/or tide differences between photographs. Other factors that may be associated with the observed reduction in bar area but not assessed in this reconnaissance level study include changes in the sediment and hydrology regimes of these rivers over the analysis period. * In tidal reaches, unit bar area increased on the Tillamook and Nehalem Rivers (98.0 and 14.7 percent, respectively), but declined a net 24.2 to 83.1 percent in the other four tidal reaches. Net increases in bar area in the Tidal Tillamook and Nehalem Reaches were possibly attributable to tidal differences between the photographs as well as sediment deposition behind log booms and pile structures on the Tillamook River between 1939 and 1967. * The armoring ratio (ratio of the median grain sizes of a bar's surface and subsurface layers) was 1.6 at Lower Waldron Bar on the Miami River, tentatively indicating a relative balance between transport capacity and sediment supply at this location. Armoring ratios, however, ranged from 2.4 to 5.5 at sites on the Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Nehalem Rivers; these coarse armor layers probably reflect limited bed-material supply at these sites. * On the basis of mapping results, measured armoring ratios, and channel cross section surveys, preliminary conclusions are that the fluvial reaches on the Tillamook, Trask, Kilchis, and Nehalem Rivers are currently sediment supply-limited in terms of bed material - that is, the transport capacity of the channel generally exceeds the supply of bed material. The

  17. Microstructure stability of ultra-fine grained magnesium alloy AZ31 processed by extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (EX–ECAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Stráská, Jitka; Janeček, Miloš; Čížek, Jakub; Stráský, Josef; Hadzima, Branislav

    2014-08-15

    Thermal stability of the ultra-fine grained (UFG) microstructure of magnesium AZ31 alloy was investigated. UFG microstructure was achieved by a combined two-step severe plastic deformation process: the extrusion (EX) and subsequent equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). This combined process leads to refined microstructure and enhanced microhardness. Specimens with UFG microstructure were annealed isochronally at temperatures 150–500 °C for 1 h. The evolution of microstructure, mechanical properties and dislocation density was studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), microhardness measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The coarsening of the fine-grained structure at higher temperatures was accompanied by a gradual decrease of the microhardness and decrease of dislocation density. Mechanism of grain growth was studied by general equation for grain growth and Arrhenius equation. Activation energies for grain growth were calculated to be 115, 33 and 164 kJ/mol in temperature ranges of 170–210 °C, 210–400 °C and 400–500 °C (443–483 K, 483–673 K and 673–773 K), respectively. - Highlights: • Microhardness of UFG AZ31 alloy decreases with increasing annealing temperature. • This fact has two reasons: dislocation annihilations and/or grain growth. • The activation energies for grain growth were calculated for all temperature ranges.

  18. Modulation of Human Mitochondrial Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 (hVDAC-2) Structural Stability by Cysteine-assisted Barrel-lipid Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Svetlana Rajkumar; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Human mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (hVDAC-2), the most predominant isoform seen in brain mitochondria, is not only crucial for cell survival but is also implicated in Alzheimer disease. The abundance of cysteines in this isoform is particularly fascinating, as hVDAC-1 cysteines have no associated functional role. We report a detailed biophysical examination of a Cys-less mutant of hVDAC-2, and its behavioral comparison with the wild type protein. Our findings suggest that cysteine mutation results in the formation of a better barrel at the expense of weakened protein-lipid interactions. The wild type protein displays stronger lipid association, despite being less structured. A reversal in behavior of both proteins is observed in the case of chemical denaturation, with the Cys-less mutant exhibiting lowered unfolding free energies. In bicellar systems comprising 14-C phosphocholines, we observe that protein-lipid interactions are weakened in both constructs, resulting in barrel structure destabilization. Our biochemical and biophysical studies together reveal key structural roles for the cysteine residues. We find that minor conformational variations in local residues are sufficient to define the membrane protein dynamics in hVDAC-2. Such subtle sequence variations contribute to differential stability of VDACs and may have implications in their in vivo regulation and recycling. PMID:23873934

  19. Quantitative determination of capsaicin, a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 agonist, by liquid chromatography quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry: evaluation of in vitro metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2009-02-01

    Capsaicin is the most abundant pungent molecule present in red peppers and it is widely used for food flavoring, in pepper spray in self-defense devices and more recently in ointments for the relief of neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is a selective agonist of transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1. A selective and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of capsaicin by LC-ESI/MS/MS was developed. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(18) Waters Symmetry column combined with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 220 microL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in full-scan MS/MS mode using two-segment analysis. An analytical range of 10-5000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve constructed in rat plasma. The interbatch precision and accuracy observed were 6.5, 6.7, 5.3 and 101.2, 102.7, 103.5% at 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL, respectively. An in vitro metabolic stability study was performed in rat, dog and mouse liver microsomes and the novel analytical method was adapted and used to determine intrinsic clearance of capsaicin. Results suggest very rapid degradation with T(1/2) ranging from 2.3 to 4.1 min and high clearance values suggesting that drug bioavailability will be considerably reduced, consequently affecting drug response and efficacy. PMID:18816461

  20. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  1. Improved Mobility and Bias Stability of Thin Film Transistors Using the Double-Layer a-InGaZnO/a-InGaZnO:N Channel.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Zhang, L; Li, X H; Xu, H Y; Liu, Y C

    2016-04-01

    The amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated based on a double-layer channel structure, where the channel is composed of an ultrathin nitro-genated a-IGZO (a-IGZO:N) layer and an undoped a-IGZO layer. The double-layer channel device showed higher saturation mobility and lower threshold-voltage shift (5.74 cm2/Vs, 2.6 V) compared to its single-layer counterpart (0.17 cm2/Vs, 7.23 V). The improvement can be attributed to three aspects: (1) improved carrier transport properties of the channel by the a-IGZO:N layer with high carrier mobility and the a-IGZO layer with high carrier concentration, (2) reduced interfacial trap density between the active channel and the gate insulator, and (3) higher surface flatness of the double-layer channel. Our study reveals key insights into double-layer channel, involving selecting more suitable electrical property for back-channel layer and more suitable interface modification for active layer. Meanwhile, room temperature fabrication amorphous TFTs offer certain advantages on better flexibility and higher uniformity over a large area. PMID:27451684

  2. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  3. RFI channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A class of channel models is presented which exhibit varying burst error severity much like channels encountered in practice. An information-theoretic analysis of these channel models is made, and conclusions are drawn that may aid in the design of coded communication systems for realistic noisy channels.

  4. [Interactions of peripheral mu-opioid receptors and K(ATP)-channels in regulation of cardiac electrical stability in ischemia, reperfusion, and postinfarction cardiosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Maslov, L N; Krylatov, A V; Naryzhaia, N V; Solenkova, N V; Lishmanov, A Iu; Bogomaz, S A; Gross, G J; Stefano, J B; Loktiushina, B A

    2002-07-01

    It has been shown that mu-opioid receptor stimulation by intravenous administration of the selective mu receptor agonist DALDA in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg prevented ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias in rats subjected to coronary artery occlusion (10 min) and reperfusion (10 min), and also increased the ventricular fibrillation threshold in rats with postinfarction cardiac fibrosis. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment with the selective mu receptor antagonist CTAP in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg or by prior injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide (2 mg/kg) which does not penetrate the blood-braib barrier. Both antagonists by themselves had no effect on the incidence of occlusion or reperfusion-induced arrhythmias or on the ventricular fibrillation threshold. Pre-treatment with ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) blocker glibenclamide in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg completely abolished the antiarrhythmic effect of DALDA. We believe that DALDA prevents occurrence of electrical instability during ischemia and reperfusion and increases the ventricular fibrillation threshold in rats with postinfarction cardiac fibrosis via stimulation of peripheral mu-opioid receptor which appear to be coupled to the KATP channel. PMID:12238351

  5. Analysis of Trafficking, Stability and Function of Human Connexin 26 Gap Junction Channels with Deafness-Causing Mutations in the Fourth Transmembrane Helix

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Cinzia; Walker, Amy E.; DePriest, Adam D.; Cone, Angela C.; Lu, Connie; Badger, John; Skerrett, I. Martha; Sosinsky, Gina E.

    2013-01-01

    Human Connexin26 gene mutations cause hearing loss. These hereditary mutations are the leading cause of childhood deafness worldwide. Mutations in gap junction proteins (connexins) can impair intercellular communication by eliminating protein synthesis, mis-trafficking, or inducing channels that fail to dock or have aberrant function. We previously identified a new class of mutants that form non-functional gap junction channels and hemichannels (connexons) by disrupting packing and inter-helix interactions. Here we analyzed fourteen point mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix of connexin26 (Cx26) that cause non-syndromic hearing loss. Eight mutations caused mis-trafficking (K188R, F191L, V198M, S199F, G200R, I203K, L205P, T208P). Of the remaining six that formed gap junctions in mammalian cells, M195T and A197S formed stable hemichannels after isolation with a baculovirus/Sf9 protein purification system, while C202F, I203T, L205V and N206S formed hemichannels with varying degrees of instability. The function of all six gap junction-forming mutants was further assessed through measurement of dye coupling in mammalian cells and junctional conductance in paired Xenopus oocytes. Dye coupling between cell pairs was reduced by varying degrees for all six mutants. In homotypic oocyte pairings, only A197S induced measurable conductance. In heterotypic pairings with wild-type Cx26, five of the six mutants formed functional gap junction channels, albeit with reduced efficiency. None of the mutants displayed significant alterations in sensitivity to transjunctional voltage or induced conductive hemichannels in single oocytes. Intra-hemichannel interactions between mutant and wild-type proteins were assessed in rescue experiments using baculovirus expression in Sf9 insect cells. Of the four unstable mutations (C202F, I203T, L205V, N206S) only C202F and N206S formed stable hemichannels when co-expressed with wild-type Cx26. Stable M195T hemichannels displayed an increased

  6. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  7. Flag flapping in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat; Jha, Sourabh; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    We study the flapping of a flag in an inviscid channel flow. We focus especially on how quantities vary with channel spacing. As the channel walls move inwards towards the flag, heavier flags become more unstable, while light flags' stability is less affected. We use a vortex sheet model to compute large-amplitude flapping, and find that the flag undergoes a series of jumps to higher flapping modes as the channel walls are moved towards the flag. Meanwhile, the drag on the flag and the energy lost to the wake first rise as the walls become closer, then drop sharply as the flag moves to a higher flapping mode.

  8. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  9. AVHRR channel selection for land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Hoffer, R.M.; Chapman, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mapping land cover of large regions often requires processing of satellite images collected from several time periods at many spectral wavelength channels. However, manipulating and processing large amounts of image data increases the complexity and time, and hence the cost, that it takes to produce a land cover map. Very few studies have evaluated the importance of individual Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels for discriminating cover types, especially the thermal channels (channels 3, 4 and 5). Studies rarely perform a multi-year analysis to determine the impact of inter-annual variability on the classification results. We evaluated 5 years of AVHRR data using combinations of the original AVHRR spectral channels (1-5) to determine which channels are most important for cover type discrimination, yet stabilize inter-annual variability. Particular attention was placed on the channels in the thermal portion of the spectrum. Fourteen cover types over the entire state of Colorado were evaluated using a supervised classification approach on all two-, three-, four- and five-channel combinations for seven AVHRR biweekly composite datasets covering the entire growing season for each of 5 years. Results show that all three of the major portions of the electromagnetic spectrum represented by the AVHRR sensor are required to discriminate cover types effectively and stabilize inter-annual variability. Of the two-channel combinations, channels 1 (red visible) and 2 (near-infrared) had, by far, the highest average overall accuracy (72.2%), yet the inter-annual classification accuracies were highly variable. Including a thermal channel (channel 4) significantly increased the average overall classification accuracy by 5.5% and stabilized inter-annual variability. Each of the thermal channels gave similar classification accuracies; however, because of the problems in consistently interpreting channel 3 data, either channel 4 or 5 was found to be a more

  10. TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Benemei, Silvia; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, namely TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPM8, expressed by C- and Aδ-fibres primary sensory neurons, in cough mechanism. Selective stimuli for these channels have been proven to provoke and, more rarely, to inhibit cough. More importantly, cough threshold to TRP agonists is increased by proinflammatory conditions, known to favour cough. Off-target effects of various drugs, such as tiotropium or desflurane, seem to produce their protective or detrimental actions on airway irritation and cough via TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively. Thus, TRPs appear to encode the process that initiates or potentiates cough, activated by exogenous irritants and endogenous proinflammatory mediators. More research on TRP channels may result in innovative cough medicines. PMID:25725213

  11. CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1987-01-01

    This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

  12. Alluvial channel hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Peter

    1988-07-01

    The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of

  13. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  14. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  15. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  16. Opening the shaker K+ channel with hanatoxin.

    PubMed

    Milescu, Mirela; Lee, Hwa C; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J

    2013-02-01

    Voltage-activated ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane voltage, a property that is fundamental to the roles of these channels in electrical signaling. Protein toxins from venomous organisms commonly target the S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains in these channels and modify their gating properties. Studies on the interaction of hanatoxin with the Kv2.1 channel show that this tarantula toxin interacts with the S1-S4 domain and inhibits opening by stabilizing a closed state. Here we investigated the interaction of hanatoxin with the Shaker Kv channel, a voltage-activated channel that has been extensively studied with biophysical approaches. In contrast to what is observed in the Kv2.1 channel, we find that hanatoxin shifts the conductance-voltage relation to negative voltages, making it easier to open the channel with membrane depolarization. Although these actions of the toxin are subtle in the wild-type channel, strengthening the toxin-channel interaction with mutations in the S3b helix of the S1-S4 domain enhances toxin affinity and causes large shifts in the conductance-voltage relationship. Using a range of previously characterized mutants of the Shaker Kv channel, we find that hanatoxin stabilizes an activated conformation of the voltage sensors, in addition to promoting opening through an effect on the final opening transition. Chimeras in which S3b-S4 paddle motifs are transferred between Kv2.1 and Shaker Kv channels, as well as experiments with the related tarantula toxin GxTx-1E, lead us to conclude that the actions of tarantula toxins are not simply a product of where they bind to the channel, but that fine structural details of the toxin-channel interface determine whether a toxin is an inhibitor or opener. PMID:23359283

  17. Channel Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rigon, Riccardo

    This review proceeds from Luna Leopold's and Ronald Shreve's lasting accomplishments dealing with the study of random-walk and topologically random channel networks. According to the random perspective, which has had a profound influence on the interpretation of natural landforms, nature's resiliency in producing recurrent networks and landforms was interpreted to be the consequence of chance. In fact, central to models of topologically random networks is the assumption of equal likelihood of any tree-like configuration. However, a general framework of analysis exists that argues that all possible network configurations draining a fixed area are not necessarily equally likely. Rather, a probability P(s) is assigned to a particular spanning tree configuration, say s, which can be generally assumed to obey a Boltzmann distribution: P(s) % e^-H(s)/T, where T is a parameter and H(s) is a global property of the network configuration s related to energetic characters, i.e. its Hamiltonian. One extreme case is the random topology model where all trees are equally likely, i.e. the limit case for T6 4 . The other extreme case is T 6 0, and this corresponds to network configurations that tend to minimize their total energy dissipation to improve their likelihood. Networks obtained in this manner are termed optimal channel networks (OCNs). Observational evidence suggests that the characters of real river networks are reproduced extremely well by OCNs. Scaling properties of energy and entropy of OCNs suggest that large network development is likely to effectively occur at zero temperature (i.e. minimizing its Hamiltonian). We suggest a corollary of dynamic accessibility of a network configuration and speculate towards a thermodynamics of critical self-organization. We thus conclude that both chance and necessity are equally important ingredients for the dynamic origin of channel networks---and perhaps of the geometry of nature.

  18. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  19. Stability, transition and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A glimpse is provided of the research program in stability, transition, and turbulence based on numerical simulations. This program includes both the so-called abrupt and the restrained transition processes. Attention is confined to the prototype problems of channel flow and the parallel boundary layer in the former category and the Taylor-Couette flow in the latter category. It covers both incompressible flows and supersonic flows. Some representative results are presented.

  20. Speed, adaptation, and stability of the response to light in cone photoreceptors: The functional role of Ca-dependent modulation of ligand sensitivity in cGMP-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The response of cone photoreceptors to light is stable and reproducible because of the exceptional regulation of the cascade of enzymatic reactions that link visual pigment (VP) excitation to the gating of cyclic GMP (cGMP)-gated ion channels (cyclic nucleotide–gated [CNG]) in the outer segment plasma membrane. Regulation is achieved in part through negative feedback control of some of these reactions by cytoplasmic free Ca2+. As part of the control process, Ca2+ regulates the phosphorylation of excited VP, the activity of guanylate cyclase, and the ligand sensitivity of the CNG ion channels. We measured photocurrents elicited by stimuli in the form of flashes, steps, and flashes superimposed on steps in voltage-clamped single bass cones isolated from striped bass retina. We also developed a computational model that comprises all the known molecular events of cone phototransduction, including all Ca-dependent controls. Constrained by available experimental data in bass cones and cone transduction biochemistry, we achieved an excellent match between experimental photocurrents and those simulated by the model. We used the model to explore the physiological role of CNG ion channel modulation. Control of CNG channel activity by both cGMP and Ca2+ causes the time course of the light-dependent currents to be faster than if only cGMP controlled their activity. Channel modulation also plays a critical role in the regulation of the light sensitivity and light adaptation of the cone photoresponse. In the absence of ion channel modulation, cone photocurrents would be unstable, oscillating during and at the offset of light stimuli. PMID:22200947

  1. A physically-based channel-modeling framework integrating HEC-RAS sediment transport capabilities and the USDA-ARS bank-stability and toe-erosion model (BSTEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical, one-dimensional, mobile bed, sediment-transport models simulate vertical channel adjustment, raising or lowering cross-section node elevations to simulate erosion or deposition. This approach does not account for bank erosion processes including toe scour and mass failure. In many systems...

  2. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (< 200O) specs highly desired for front-end frequency channelizer requirements in cognitive and software-defined radio architectures. The methods presented in this chapter finally overcome the high impedance bottleneck that has plagued capacitively transduced micro-mechanical resonators over the past decade. The third method introduces a capacitively transduced micromechanical resonator constructed in hot filament CVD boron-doped microcrystalline diamond (MCD) structural material that posts a measured Q of 146,580 at 232.441 kHz, which is 3x higher than the previous high for conductive polydiamond. Moreover, radial-contour mode disk resonators fabricated in the same MCD film and using material mismatched stems exhibit a Q of 71,400 at 299.86 MHz. The material used here further exhibits an acoustic velocity of 18,516 m/s, which is now the highest to date among

  3. TS - Dean interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of TS waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The prediction obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. At low Reynolds numbers the wave interaction is generally stabilizing to both disturbances, though as the Reynolds number increases, many linearly unstable TS waves are further destabilized by the presence of Dean vortices.

  4. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  5. Slope stability and stabilization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, L.W.; Lee, T.S.; Boyce, G.M.; Sharma, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    Slope stability can be a major problem during the construction of surface facilities. Cutting into existing ground disturbs the mechanics of the surrounding area, which can result in landslides and rock falls. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stability analysis, suitable methods of analysis with and without the use of computers, and examples of common stability problems and stabilization methods for cuts and fills. It includes detailed discussions of methods used in slope stability analysis, including the Ordinary Method of Slices, Simplified Janbu Method, Simplified Bishop Method, Spencer`s Method, other limit equilibrium methods, numerical methods, total stress analysis, effective stress analysis, and the use of computer programs to solve problems. Chapters include: General Slope Stability Concepts; Engineering Geology Principles; Groundwater Conditions; Geologic Site Exploration; Laboratory Testing Interpretation; Slope Stability Concepts; Slope Stabilization Methods; and Design, Construction and Maintenance.

  6. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  7. Channel nut tool

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  8. Mood stabilizer psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2012-01-01

    Mood stabilizers represent a class of drugs that are efficacious in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The most established medications in this class are lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine. In addition to their therapeutic effects for treatment of acute manic episodes, these medications often are useful as prophylaxis against future episodes and as adjunctive antidepressant medications. While important extracellular effects have not been excluded, most available evidence suggests that the therapeutically relevant targets of this class of medications are in the interior of cells. Herein we give a prospective of a rapidly evolving field, discussing common effects of mood stabilizers as well as effects that are unique to individual medications. Mood stabilizers have been shown to modulate the activity of enzymes, ion channels, arachidonic acid turnover, G protein coupled receptors and intracellular pathways involved in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Understanding the therapeutic targets of mood stabilizers will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and to the development of improved therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Furthermore, the involvement of mood stabilizers in pathways operative in neuroprotection suggests that they may have utility in the treatment of classical neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22707923

  9. Calcium channels in Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Schein, S J

    1977-01-01

    Reversal of swimming direction in paramecium is dependent on the calcium influx through the excitable-membrane calcium channels. Several mutants of Paramecium aurelia have been selected on the basis of their resistance to the paralyzing effect of barium. The mutants have reduced reversal behavior and are in the same three pawn genes as discovered by Kung (16, 17). Also, in barium solutions, the pawns live longer than the wild-type; however, pwB mutants are more resistant to barium toxicity than pwA mutants. These results suggest that the selection picked up mutants in the calcium channel. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate this point directly, showing defective calcium activation in all pawns, but also defective anomalous rectification in pwB mutants. A model is presented which accounts for the differences between pwA and pwB mutants. It ascribes the depolarization-sensitive "gate" function to the pwA gene product and the "pore" function to the pwB gene product. Additionally, the stability of the channel structure is demonstrated, channel half-life being from five to eight days. PMID:928443

  10. Rubinstein-Zaltzman Instability in Micro- and Nano-Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Demekhin, Evgeny; Ganchenko, Georgy

    2012-02-01

    The effects of geometric confinement on electro-convective instability due to nonequilibrium electro-osmotic slip at the interface between an electrolytic fluid and charge-selective solid is studied. It is shown that the topology of the marginal stability curves and the behavior of the critical parameters depend strongly on both channel geometry and dimensionless Debye length at low voltages for sufficiently deep channels, corresponding to the Rubsinstein-Zaltzman instability mechanism. However, stability is governed almost entirely by channel depth for narrow channels at higher voltages. For shallow channels, it is shown that above a transition threshold, determined by both channel depth and Debye length, the low-voltage instability is completely suppressed.

  11. The Earliest Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.; Wei, C.

    2009-12-01

    Supplying protocells with ions required assistance from channels spanning their membrane walls. The earliest channels were most likely short proteins that formed transmembrane helical bundles surrounding a water-filled pore. These simple aggregates were capable of transporting ions with efficiencies comparable to those of complex, contemporary ion channels. Channels with wide pores exhibited little ion selectivity but also imposed only modest constraints on amino acid sequences of channel-forming proteins. Channels with small pores could have been selective but also might have required a more precisely defined sequence of amino acids. In contrast to modern channels, their protocellular ancestors had only limited capabilities to regulate ion flux. It is postulated that subsequent evolution of ion channels progressed primarily to acquire precise regulation, and not high efficiency or selectivity. It is further proposed that channels and the surrounding membranes co-evolved.

  12. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  13. Gramicidin Channels: Versatile Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Olaf S.; Koeppe, Roger E., II; Roux, Benoît

    Gramicidin channels are miniproteins in which two tryptophan-rich subunits associate by means of transbilayer dimerization to form the conducting channels. That is, in contrast to other ion channels, gramicidin channels do not open and close; they appear and disappear. Each subunit in the bilayer-spanning channel is tied to the bilayer/solution interface through hydrogen bonds that involve the indole NH groups as donors andwater or the phospholipid backbone as acceptors. The channel's permeability characteristics are well-defined: gramicidin channels are selective for monovalent cations, with no measurable permeability to anions or polyvalent cations; ions and water move through a pore whose wall is formed by the peptide backbone; and the single-channel conductance and cation selectivity vary when the amino acid sequence is varied, even though the permeating ions make no contact with the amino acid side chains. Given the plethora of available experimental information—for not only the wild-type channels but also for channels formed by amino acid-substituted gramicidin analogues—gramicidin channels continue to provide important insights into the microphysics of ion permeation through bilayer-spanning channels. For similar reasons, gramicidin channels constitute a system of choice for evaluating computational strategies for obtaining mechanistic insights into ion permeation through the more complex channels formed by integral membrane proteins.

  14. Interaction of local anesthetics with the K+ channel pore domain

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Noel W.; Zhorov, Boris S.; Moczydlowski, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Local anesthetics and related drugs block ionic currents of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ conducted across the cell membrane by voltage-dependent ion channels. Many of these drugs bind in the permeation pathway, occlude the pore and stop ion movement. However channel-blocking drugs have also been associated with decreased membrane stability of certain tetrameric K+ channels, similar to the destabilization of channel function observed at low extracellular K+ concentration. Such drug-dependent stability may result from electrostatic repulsion of K+ from the selectivity filter by a cationic drug molecule bound in the central cavity of the channel. In this study we used the pore domain of the KcsA K+ channel protein to test this hypothesis experimentally with a biochemical assay of tetramer stability and theoretically by computational simulation of local anesthetic docking to the central cavity. We find that two common local anesthetics, lidocaine and tetracaine, promote thermal dissociation of the KcsA tetramer in a K+-dependent fashion. Docking simulations of these drugs with open, open-inactivated and closed crystal structures of KcsA yield many energetically favorable drug-channel complexes characterized by nonbonded attraction to pore-lining residues and electrostatic repulsion of K+. The results suggest that binding of cationic drugs to the inner cavity can reduce tetramer stability of K+ channels. PMID:23545989

  15. Evaporation from flowing channels ( mass-transfer formulas).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Sturm, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    Stability-dependent and Dalton-type mass transfer formulas are determined from experimental evaporation data in ambient and heated channels and are shown to have similar performance in prediction of evaporation. The formulas developed are compared with those proposed by other investigators for lakes and flowing channels. -from ASCE Publications Information

  16. Phase stabilization of spatiotemporally multiplexed ultrafast amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M; Kienel, M; Klenke, A; Eidam, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2016-04-18

    Actively stabilized, simultaneous spatial and temporal coherent beam combination is a promising power-scaling technique for ultrafast laser systems. For a temporal combination based on optical delay lines, multiple stable states of operation arise for common stabilization techniques. A time resolved Jones' calculus is applied to investigate the issue. A mitigation strategy based on a temporally gated error signal acquisition is derived and demonstrated, enabling to stabilize laser systems with arbitrary numbers of amplifier channels and optical delay lines. PMID:27137231

  17. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (< 200O) specs highly desired for front-end frequency channelizer requirements in cognitive and software-defined radio architectures. The methods presented in this chapter finally overcome the high impedance bottleneck that has plagued capacitively transduced micro-mechanical resonators over the past decade. The third method introduces a capacitively transduced micromechanical resonator constructed in hot filament CVD boron-doped microcrystalline diamond (MCD) structural material that posts a measured Q of 146,580 at 232.441 kHz, which is 3x higher than the previous high for conductive polydiamond. Moreover, radial-contour mode disk resonators fabricated in the same MCD film and using material mismatched stems exhibit a Q of 71,400 at 299.86 MHz. The material used here further exhibits an acoustic velocity of 18,516 m/s, which is now the highest to date among

  18. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  19. Fading channel simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  20. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  1. Optimal channels for channelized quadratic estimators.

    PubMed

    Kupinski, Meredith K; Clarkson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for estimation tasks that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. Maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimates are challenging to compute from high-dimensional likelihoods. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of channelized quadratic estimators (CQEs), since estimating likelihood moments from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. The channelized likelihood is then used to form ML estimates of the parameter(s). In this work we choose an imaging example in which the second-order statistics of the image data depend upon the parameter of interest: the correlation length. Correlation lengths are used to approximate background textures in many imaging applications, and in these cases an estimate of the correlation length is useful for pre-whitening. In a simulation study we compare the estimation performance, as measured by the root-mean-squared error (RMSE), of correlation length estimates from CQE and power spectral density (PSD) distribution fitting. To abide by the assumptions of the PSD method we simulate an ergodic, isotropic, stationary, and zero-mean random process. These assumptions are not part of the CQE formalism. The CQE method assumes a Gaussian channelized likelihood that can be a valid for non-Gaussian image data, since the channel outputs are formed from weighted sums of the image elements. We have shown that, for three or more channels, the RMSE of CQE estimates of correlation length is lower than conventional PSD estimates. We also show that computing CQE by using a standard nonlinear optimization method produces channels that yield RMSE within 2% of the analytic optimum. CQE estimates of anisotropic correlation length estimation are reported to demonstrate this technique on a two-parameter estimation problem. PMID:27409452

  2. Channel catfish pond fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful aquaculture enterprise in the U.S. is channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus production. In the U.S., 257 million kg of channel catfish were sold in 2007 at a value of $455 million. Large-scale commercial channel catfish culture began in the late 1950s and expanded rapidly from 1978...

  3. Regulation of Ion Channels by Pyridine Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoil, Peter J.; Tipparaju, Srinivas M.; Barski, Oleg A.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that in addition to their role as soluble electron carriers, pyridine nucleotides [NAD(P)(H)] also regulate ion transport mechanisms. This mode of regulation seems to have been conserved through evolution. Several bacterial ion–transporting proteins or their auxiliary subunits possess nucleotide-binding domains. In eukaryotes, the Kv1 and Kv4 channels interact with pyridine nucleotide–binding β-subunits that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Binding of NADP+ to Kvβ removes N-type inactivation of Kv currents, whereas NADPH stabilizes channel inactivation. Pyridine nucleotides also regulate Slo channels by interacting with their cytosolic regulator of potassium conductance domains that show high sequence homology to the bacterial TrkA family of K+ transporters. These nucleotides also have been shown to modify the activity of the plasma membrane KATP channels, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the transient receptor potential M2 channel, and the intracellular ryanodine receptor calcium release channels. In addition, pyridine nucleotides also modulate the voltage-gated sodium channel by supporting the activity of its ancillary subunit—the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein. Moreover, the NADP+ metabolite, NAADP+, regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis via the 2-pore channel, ryanodine receptor, or transient receptor potential M2 channels. Regulation of ion channels by pyridine nucleotides may be required for integrating cell ion transport to energetics and for sensing oxygen levels or metabolite availability. This mechanism also may be an important component of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, memory, and circadian rhythms, and disruption of this regulatory axis may be linked to dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:23410881

  4. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  5. Controlled beta-quench treatment of fuel channels

    SciTech Connect

    Moeckel, Andreas; Cremer, Ingo; Kratzer, Anton; Walter, Dirk; Perkins, Richard A.

    2007-07-01

    The trend towards higher fuel assembly discharge burnups poses new challenges for fuel channels in terms of their dimensional behavior and corrosion resistance. Beta-quenching of fuel channels has been applied by the nuclear industry to improve the dimensional stability of this component. This led AREVA NP to develop a new technique for beta quenching of fuel channels that combines the effect of beta-quenching with the optimization of the microstructure in order to improve the dimensional behavior of fuel channels by randomizing the crystallographic texture, while maintaining the excellent corrosion behavior of the fuel channels by providing intermetallic phase particles of optimum average size. The first fuel channels with these optimized material properties have been placed in the core of a German boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant in spring of 2004. Some more channels will follow in 2007 to broaden in-pile experience and to receive irradiation feedback from two other nuclear power plants. (authors)

  6. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  7. Bacterial Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Compton, Emma L R; Mindell, Joseph A

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial ion channels were known, but only in special cases, such as outer membrane porins in Escherichia coli and bacterial toxins that form pores in their target (bacterial or mammalian) membranes. The exhaustive coverage provided by a decade of bacterial genome sequencing has revealed that ion channels are actually widespread in bacteria, with homologs of a broad range of mammalian channel proteins coded throughout the bacterial and archaeal kingdoms. This review discusses four groups of bacterial channels: porins, mechano-sensitive (MS) channels, channel-forming toxins, and bacterial homologs of mammalian channels. The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria blocks access of essential nutrients; to survive, the cell needs to provide a mechanism for nutrients to penetrate the OM. Porin channels provide this access by forming large, nonspecific aqueous pores in the OM that allow ions and vital nutrients to cross it and enter the periplasm. MS channels act as emergency release valves, allowing solutes to rapidly exit the cytoplasm and to dissipate the large osmotic disparity between the internal and external environments. MS channels are remarkable in that they do this by responding to forces exerted by the membrane itself. Some bacteria produce toxic proteins that form pores in trans, attacking and killing other organisms by virtue of their pore formation. The review focuses on those bacterial toxins that kill other bacteria, specifically the class of proteins called colicins. Colicins reveal the dangers of channel formation in the plasma membrane, since they kill their targets with exactly that approach. PMID:26443789

  8. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  9. C. elegans TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    TRP (transient receptor potential) channels represent a superfamily of cation channels found in all eukaryotes. The C. elegans genome encodes seventeen TRP channels covering all of the seven TRP subfamilies. Genetic analyses in C. elegans have implicated TRP channels in a wide spectrum of behavioral and physiological processes, ranging from sensory transduction (e.g. chemosensation, touch sensation, proprioception and osmosensation) to fertilization, drug dependence, organelle biogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression, and neurotransmitter/hormone release. Many C. elegans TRP channels share similar activation and regulatory mechanisms with their vertebrate counterparts. Studies in C. elegans have also revealed some previously unrecognized functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. C. elegans represents an excellent genetic model organism for the study of function and regulation of TRP channels in vivo. PMID:21290304

  10. Graph-state basis for Pauli channels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoyu; Jiang Lizhen

    2011-05-15

    Quantum capacities of Pauli channels are not additive, a degenerate quantum code may improve the hashing bound of the capacity. The difficulty in approaching the capacity is how to calculate the coherent information of a generic degenerate quantum code. Using graph state basis, we greatly reduce the problem for the input of quantum error-correcting code. We show that for a graph diagonal state passing through a Pauli channel the output state is diagonalizable and the joint output state of the system and ancilla is block diagonalizable. When the input state is an equal probable mixture of codewords of a stabilizer code, the coherent information can be analytically obtained.

  11. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  12. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Steel, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. Grain heights are less than their diameter so the grains resemble antacid tablets, coins, or poker chips. These grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by grain and channel sizes. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories. Supported by an Undergraduate Research Grant from Penn State Erie, The Behrend College.

  13. Laser Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter covers the basics of the field of stabilizing lasers to optical frequency references such as optical cavities and molecular transitions via the application of servo control systems. These discussions are given with reference to the real-life frequency metrology experienced in Hall-Labs (now Ye-Labs), JILA, University of Colorado. The subjects covered include: the basics of control system stability, a discussion of both the theoretical and experimental limitations, an outline of optical cavity susceptibility to environmental noise, and a brief introduction to the use and limitations of molecular transitions as frequency references.

  14. Flag flutter in inviscid channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas

    2015-03-01

    Using nonlinear vortex-sheet simulations, we determine the region in parameter space in which a straight flag in a channel-bounded inviscid flow is unstable to flapping motions. We find that for heavier flags, greater confinement increases the size of the region of instability. For lighter flags, confinement has little influence. We then compute the stability boundaries analytically for an infinite flag and find similar results. For the finite flag, we also consider the effect of channel walls on the large-amplitude periodic flapping dynamics. We find that multiple flapping states are possible but rare at a given set of parameters, when periodic flapping occurs. As the channel walls approach the flag, its flapping amplitude decreases roughly in proportion to the near-wall distance, for both symmetric and asymmetric channels. Meanwhile, its dominant flapping frequency and mean number of deflection extrema (or "wavenumber") increase in a nearly stepwise fashion. That is, they remain nearly unchanged over a wide range of channel spacing, but when the channel spacing is decreased below a certain value, they undergo sharp increases corresponding to a higher flapping mode.

  15. Parallel information processing channels created in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    In the retina, several parallel channels originate that extract different attributes from the visual scene. This review describes how these channels arise and what their functions are. Following the introduction four sections deal with these channels. The first discusses the “ON” and “OFF” channels that have arisen for the purpose of rapidly processing images in the visual scene that become visible by virtue of either light increment or light decrement; the ON channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light increment and the OFF channel processes images that become visible by virtue of light decrement. The second section examines the midget and parasol channels. The midget channel processes fine detail, wavelength information, and stereoscopic depth cues; the parasol channel plays a central role in processing motion and flicker as well as motion parallax cues for depth perception. Both these channels have ON and OFF subdivisions. The third section describes the accessory optic system that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells of Dogiel; these cells play a central role, in concert with the vestibular system, in stabilizing images on the retina to prevent the blurring of images that would otherwise occur when an organism is in motion. The last section provides a brief overview of several additional channels that originate in the retina. PMID:20876118

  16. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  17. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  18. Man-induced channel adjustment in Tennessee streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.H.; Simon, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Channel modifications in Tennessee, particularly in the western part, have led to large-scale instabilities in the channelized rivers and may have contributed to several bridge failures. These modifications, together with land-use practices, led to downcutting, headward erosion, downstream aggradation, accelerated scour, and bank instabilities. Changes in gradient by channel straightening caused more severe channel response than did dredging or clearing. Large-scale changes continue to occur in all the channelized rivers: the Obion River, its forks, and the South Fork Forked Deer River. However, the non-channelized Hatchie River in west Tennessee not only withstood the natural stresses imposed by the wet years of 1973 to 1975 but continues to exhibit characteristics of stability. Water-surface slope, the primary dependent variable, proved to be a sensitive and descriptive parameter useful in determining channel adjustment. Adjustments to man-induced increases in channel-slope are described by inverse exponential functions of the basic form S=ae(-b(t)); where ' S ' is some function describing channel-slope, ' t ' is the number of years since completion of channel work, and ' a ' and ' b ' are coefficients. Response times for the attainment of ' equilibrium ' channel slopes are a function of the magnitude and extent of the imposed modifications. The adjusted profile gradients attained by the streams following channelization are similar to the predisturbed profile gradients, where no alteration to channel length was made. Where the channels were straightened by constructing cut-offs, thus shortening channel length, then slope adjustments (reduction) proceed past the predisturbed profile gradients, to new profiles with lower gradients. (USGS)

  19. Visual stability

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, David

    2011-01-01

    Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down. PMID:21242136

  20. Fully converged iterative method for coupled channel problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Di; Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.

    2016-05-01

    We implemented a numerical method using a distorted-wave perturbative approach for coupled-channel scattering problems. Our new method provides a way to avoid costly computations for the propagation of the full solutions in coupled-channel problems to large distances for slowly vanishing couplings. Thus, instead of dealing with large matrices, all computations are performed in a channel by channel fashion. The distorted wavefunction for each channel is initialized with the appropriate solution (which includes the diagonal element of the coupling potential matrix). We then solve single-channel inhomogeneous radial equations which contain the (off-diagonal) couplings as a perturbation, and we iterate until desired accuracy is achieved. We tested for stability by continuing to iterate even after convergence has been achieved, e.g., for a total of 75 iterations. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (ARO-MURI W911NF-14-1-0378), and from NSF (Grant No. PHY-1415560).

  1. Assembly of functional CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Riordan, John R

    2005-01-01

    The assembly of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is of interest from the broad perspective of understanding how ion channels and ABC transporters are formed as well as dealing with the mis-assembly of CFTR in cystic fibrosis. CFTR is functionally distinct from other ABC transporters because it permits bidirectional permeation of anions rather than vectorial transport of solutes. This adaptation of the ABC transporter structure can be rationalized by considering CFTR as a hydrolyzable-ligand-gated channel with cytoplasmic ATP as ligand. Channel gating is initiated by ligand binding when the protein is also phosphorylated by protein kinase A and made reversible by ligand hydrolysis. The two nucleotide-binding sites play different roles in channel activation. CFTR self-associates, possibly as a function of its activation, but most evidence, including the low-resolution three-dimensional structure, indicates that the channel is monomeric. Domain assembly and interaction within the monomer is critical in maturation, stability, and function of the protein. Disease-associated mutations, including the most common, DeltaF508, interfere with domain folding and association, which occur both co- and post-translationally. Intermolecular interactions of mature CFTR have been detected primarily with the N- and C-terminal tails, and these interactions have some impact not only on channel function but also on localization and processing within the cell. The biosynthetic processing of the nascent polypeptide leading to channel assembly involves transient interactions with numerous chaperones and enzymes on both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:15709975

  2. Basaltic Lava Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    In Hawaii, the mode of lava transport - through open channels or through insulating lava tubes - determines the thermal, rheological, and emplacement history of a lava flow. Most Hawaiian lavas are erupted at near-liquidus temperatures and are therefore crystal-poor; lava transport through open channels allows rapid cooling and consequent rapid increases in lava crystallinity. Solidified aa flows resulting from channelized flow are typically fine-grained throughout their thickness, indicating cooling of the entire flow thickness during transport. In contrast, transport of lava through insulating tubes permits flow over long distances with little cooling. Flows emerging from such tubes typically have pahoehoe flow surfaces with glassy crusts. Groundmass textures that coarsen from the flow rind to the interior reflect rates of post-emplacement, rather than syn-emplacement, cooling. To distinguish eruption conditions that result in lava channels from those that allow formation of lava tubes, we have performed a series of laboratory experiments involving injection of PEG 600 (a wax with a Newtonian rheology and freezing temperature of 19ºC) into cold water through both uniform and non-uniform sloping channels. In uniform channels, tube formation can be distinguished from open channel flow using a dimensionless parameter based on a solidification time scale, an advection time scale, and a Rayleigh number that describes convection by heat loss from crust-free shear zones. Theoretical analysis predicts that in the open channel regime, the width of the crust (dc) will vary with the channel width (W) as dc = W5/3. Crustal coverage of non-uniform channels in both laboratory experiments and field examples from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is consistent with this prediction. However, experiments in non-uniform channels illustrate additional controls on the surface coverage of lava channels. Most important is crustal extension resulting from flow acceleration through constrictions

  3. Effects of microgravity on liposome-reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on cardiac gap junction channeling activity were investigated aboard NASA zero-gravity aircraft. Liposome-reconstituted gap junctions were assayed for channel function during free-fall, and the data were compared with channeling at 1 g. Control experiments tested for 0 g effects on the structural stability of liposomes, and on the enzyme-substrate signalling system of the assay. The results demonstrate that short periods of microgravity do not perturb reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity.

  4. RFI channels, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cutoff parameters for a class of channel models exhibiting burst noise behavior were calculated and the performance of interleaved coding strategies was evaluated. It is concluded that, provided the channel memory is large enough and is properly exploited, interleaved coding is nearly optimal.

  5. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  6. Venus - Sinuous Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This full resolution radar mosaic from Magellan at 49 degrees south latitude, 273 degrees east longitude of an area with dimensions of 130 by 190 kilometers (81 by 118 miles), shows a 200 kilometer (124 mile) segment of a sinuous channel on Venus. The channel is approximately 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) wide. These channel-like features are common on the plains of Venus. In some places they appear to have been formed by lava which may have melted or thermally eroded a path over the plains' surface. Most are 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 2 miles) wide. They resemble terrestrial rivers in some respects, with meanders, cutoff oxbows, and abandoned channel segments. However, Venus channels are not as tightly sinuous as terrestrial rivers. Most are partly buried by younger lava plains, making their sources difficult to identify. A few have vast radar-dark plains units associated with them, suggesting large flow volumes. These channels appear to be older than other channel types on Venus, as they are crossed by fractures and wrinkle ridges, and are often buried by other volcanic materials. In addition, they appear to run both upslope and downslope, suggesting that the plains were warped by regional tectonism after channel formation. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet).

  7. Intra-membrane molecular interactions of K%2B channel proteins : application to problems in biodefense and bioenergy.

    SciTech Connect

    Moczydlowski, Edward G.

    2013-07-01

    Ion channel proteins regulate complex patterns of cellular electrical activity and ionic signaling. Certain K+ channels play an important role in immunological biodefense mechanisms of adaptive and innate immunity. Most ion channel proteins are oligomeric complexes with the conductive pore located at the central subunit interface. The long-term activity of many K+ channel proteins is dependent on the concentration of extracellular K+; however, the mechanism is unclear. Thus, this project focused on mechanisms underlying structural stability of tetrameric K+ channels. Using KcsA of Streptomyces lividans as a model K+ channel of known structure, the molecular basis of tetramer stability was investigated by: 1. Bioinformatic analysis of the tetramer interface. 2. Effect of two local anesthetics (lidocaine, tetracaine) on tetramer stability. 3. Molecular simulation of drug docking to the ion conduction pore. The results provide new insights regarding the structural stability of K+ channels and its possible role in cell physiology.

  8. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values. PMID:24979633

  9. Jamming in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; McCausland, Jeffrey; Steel, Fiona

    2010-03-01

    We experimentally study jamming of cylindrical grains in a vertical channel. The grains have a low aspect-ratio (height/diameter < 1) so their shape is like antacid tablets or poker chips. They are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section. The channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. It is observed that grains sometimes jam in this apparatus. In a jam, grains form a stable structure from one side of the channel to the other with nothing beneath them. Jams may be strong enough to support additional grains above. The probability of a jam occurring is a function of the grain height and diameter. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  10. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  11. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. S.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes and mudflats. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through vegetation's influence on the cohesive strength of channel banks. Understanding the morphology of a tidal channel network is thus essential to understanding both the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and the topographic signature of life. A critical measure of the morphology of a channel network is the unchanneled path length, which is characteristic of the efficiency with which a network dissects the marsh platform. However, the processes which control the formation and maintenance of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we show that an unvegetated marsh platform (Estero La Ramada, Baja California, Mexico) is dissected by a less efficient channel network than a vegetated one (Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States). The difference in geometric efficiency reflects a difference in the branching and meandering characteristics of the network, characteristics controlled by the density of vegetation on the channel banks. Our results suggest a feedback between network geometry and vegetation, mediated by fluxes of nutrients and salinity through the channel network, maintains the observed network geometries. An efficient network can support a denser vegetation community which stabilizes channel banks, leading to an efficient meandering geometry.

  12. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  13. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  14. Channel coding for satellite mobile channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. H. H.; Hanzo, L.; Steele, R.

    1989-09-01

    The deployment of channel coding and interleaving to enhance the bit-error performance of a satellite mobile radio channel is addressed for speech and data transmissions. Different convolutional codes (CC) using Viterbi decoding with soft decision are examined with interblock interleaving. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with Berlekamp-Massey hard decision decoding or soft decision trellis decoding combined with block interleaving are also investigated. A concatenated arrangement employing RS and CC coding as the outer and inner coders, respectively, is used for transmissions via minimum shift keying over Gaussian and Rayleigh fading channels. For an interblock interleaving period of 2880 bits, a concatenated arrangement of an RS(48,36), over the Galois field GF(256) and punctured PCC(3,1,7) yielding an overall coding rate of 1/2, provides a coding gain of 42dB for a BER of 10 to the -6th, and an uncorrectable error detection probability of 1 - 10 to the -9th.

  15. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  16. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  17. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  18. Channel in Kasei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 November 2004 The Kasei Valles are a suite of very large, ancient outflow channels. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the youngest channel system in the Kasei Valles. Torrents of mud, rocks, and water carved this channel as flow was constricted through a narrow portion of the valley. Layers exposed by the erosion that created the channel can be seen in its walls. This 1.4 meters (5 feet) per pixel image is located near 21.1oN, 72.6oW. The picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  19. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  20. TRP channels in disease.

    PubMed

    Jordt, S E; Ehrlich, B E

    2007-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of proteins with six main subfamilies termed the TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPML (mucolipin), and TRPA (ankyrin) groups. The sheer number of different TRPs with distinct functions supports the statement that these channels are involved in a wide range of processes ranging from sensing of thermal and chemical signals to reloading intracellular stores after responding to an extracellular stimulus. Mutations in TRPs are linked to pathophysiology and specific diseases. An understanding of the role of TRPs in normal physiology is just beginning; the progression from mutations in TRPs to pathophysiology and disease will follow. In this review, we focus on two distinct aspects of TRP channel physiology, the role of TRP channels in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and their role in the transduction of painful stimuli in sensory neurons. PMID:18193640

  1. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  2. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flows in Expanding Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, Peter; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2008-10-24

    We present an experimental realization of the classical Jeffery-Hamel flows inside a wedge-shaped channel. We compare the measured velocity fields with the predictions of Jeffery-Hamel theory. A detailed experimental study of bifurcation diagrams for the solutions reveals the absolute stability of the pure outflow solution and an interesting hysteretic structure for bifurcations. We also observe a multiple vortex flow regime predicted earlier numerically and analytically. Experimental studies of the stability of the flow to perturbations at the channel exit are also conducted.

  4. Fracture channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.; Schoenberg, M.

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  5. Mechanosensitive channels in microbes.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ching; Martinac, Boris; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    All cells, including microbes, detect and respond to mechanical forces, of which osmotic pressure is most ancient and universal. Channel proteins have evolved such that they can be directly stretched open when the membrane is under turgor pressure. Osmotic downshock, as in rain, opens bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels to jettison osmolytes, relieving pressure and preventing cell lysis. The ion flux through individual channel proteins can be observed directly with a patch clamp. MS channels of large and small conductance (MscL and MscS, respectively) have been cloned, crystallized, and subjected to biophysical and genetic analyses in depth. They are now models to scrutinize how membrane forces direct protein conformational changes. Eukaryotic microbes have homologs from animal sensory channels of the TRP superfamily. The MS channel in yeast is also directly sensitive to membrane stretch. This review examines the key concept that proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer can respond to the changes in the mechanical environment the lipid bilayer provides. PMID:20825352

  6. The Maritime satellite communication channel - Channel model, performance of modulation and coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenauer, Joachim; Dolainsky, Frank; Lutz, Erich; Papke, Wolfgang; Schweikert, Robert

    1987-05-01

    Toward the year 2000, maritime satellite communications using the INMARSAT system will employ a second and third generation of satellites and new ship earth stations (SES). The new SES standards will use very small antennas with gains between 0 and 15 dBi. At the lower end of SES there will be no antenna stabilization. The communication channel for such small stations is described by a model including multipath fading, Doppler shift, and noise. The results of an extensive measurement program were used to determine the parameters of the channel model, which depend on antenna type and elevation angle. Analytical calculations as well as synthetic and stored channel hardware simulations have been sued to determine the performance of several modulation schemes. A complete data link using PSK modems with AFC/Costas loop, interleaving, and FEC codecs at 1.2 kbits/s, was built up around a hardware maritime channel simulator to study the performance of data transmission on the small SES maritime channel. Theoretical and measured results are given for interleaved Viterbi decoding with channel state information and Reed-Solomon codes. The measurements show that with interleaved FEC schemes, the required E(b)/N(o) for a BER of 0.00001 is in the range of 9-15 dB, and the effects of multipath fading are almost compensated for.

  7. Evolution of ice-shelf channels in Antarctic ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, R.

    2015-03-01

    Ice shelves buttress the continental ice flux and mediate ice-ocean interactions. They are often traversed by channels in which basal melting is enhanced, impacting ice-shelf stability. Here, channel evolution is investigated using a transient, three-dimensional full Stokes model and geophysical data collected on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Antarctica. The modeling confirms basal melting as a feasible mechanism for channel creation, although channels may also advect without melting for many tens of kilometers. Channels can be out of hydrostatic equilibrium depending on their width and the upstream melt history. Inverting surface elevation for ice thickness in those areas is erroneous and corresponding observational evidence is presented at RBIS by comparing the hydrostatically inverted ice thickness with radar measurements. The model shows that channelized melting imprints the flowfield characteristically, which can result in enhanced horizontal shearing across channels. This is exemplified for a channel at RBIS using observed surface velocities and opens up the possibility to classify channelized melting from space, an important step towards incorporating these effects in ice-ocean models.

  8. Evolution of ice-shelf channels in Antarctic ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, R.

    2015-06-01

    Ice shelves buttress the continental ice flux and mediate ice-ocean interactions. They are often traversed by channels in which basal melting is enhanced, impacting ice-shelf stability. Here, channel evolution is investigated using a transient, three-dimensional full Stokes model and geophysical data collected on the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Antarctica. The modeling confirms basal melting as a feasible mechanism for channel creation, although channels may also advect without melting for many tens of kilometers. Channels can be out of hydrostatic equilibrium depending on their width and the upstream melt history. Inverting surface elevation for ice thickness using hydrostatic equilibrium in those areas is erroneous, and corresponding observational evidence is presented at RBIS by comparing the hydrostatically inverted ice thickness with radar measurements. The model shows that channelized melting imprints the flow field characteristically, which can result in enhanced horizontal shearing across channels. This is exemplified for a channel at RBIS using observed surface velocities and opens up the possibility to classify channelized melting from space, an important step towards incorporating these effects in ice-ocean models.

  9. Curved-channel microchannel array plates. [photoelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The microchannel array plate (MCP) is a photoelectric detector with an imaging capability comparable to that of a photographic plate. Recently MCPs in which the channels are curved to inhibit ion feedback have become available. These devices represent a major advance in MCP technology, since a single curved-channel MCP can be operated stably at high gain in the pulse-counting mode without any of the problems of stability of response or short lifetime reported for 'chevron' MCP detectors. Attention is given to the mode of operation of channel electron multipliers (CEM) and MCP, curved-channel MCP, test procedures, and performance characteristics. The accumulated test data show that the fundamental operating characteristics of the curved-channel MCP are directly related to those for the CEM.

  10. Morphodynamics of Floodplain Chute Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. R.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Floodplain chute channel formation is a key process that can enable rivers to transition from single-thread to multi-thread planform geometries. Floodplain chute channels are usually incisional channels connecting topographic lows across point bars and in the floodplain. Surprisingly, it is still not clear what conditions promote chute channel formation and what governs their morphodynamic behavior. Towards this end we have initiated an empirical and theoretical study of floodplain chute channels in Indiana, USA. Using elevation models and satellite imagery we mapped 3064 km2 of floodplain in Indiana, and find that 37.3% of mapped floodplains in Indiana have extensive chute channel networks. These chute channel networks consist of two types of channel segments: meander cutoffs of the main channel and chute channels linking the cutoffs together. To understand how these chute channels link meander cutoffs together and eventually create floodplain channel networks we use Delft3D to explore floodplain morphodynamics. Our first modeling experiment starts from a generic floodplain prepopulated with meander cutoffs to test under what conditions chute channels form.We find that chute channel formation is optimized at an intermediate flood discharge. If the flood discharge is too large the meander cutoffs erosively diffuse, whereas if the floodwave is too small the cutoffs fill with sediment. A moderately sized floodwave reworks the sediment surrounding the topographic lows, enhancing the development of floodplain chute channels. Our second modeling experiments explore how floodplain chute channels evolve on the West Fork of the White River, Indiana, USA. We find that the floodplain chute channels are capable of conveying the entire 10 yr floodwave (Q=1330m3/s) leaving the inter-channel areas dry. Moreover, the chute channels can incise into the floodplain while the margins of channels are aggrading, creating levees. Our results suggest that under the right conditions

  11. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  12. Stabilizing brokerage

    PubMed Central

    Stovel, Katherine; Golub, Benjamin; Milgrom, Eva M. Meyersson

    2011-01-01

    A variety of social and economic arrangements exist to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information over gaps in social structure. Each of these arrangements bears some relationship to the idea of brokerage, but this brokerage is rarely like the pure and formal economic intermediation seen in some modern markets. Indeed, for reasons illuminated by existing sociological and economic models, brokerage is a fragile relationship. In this paper, we review the causes of instability in brokerage and identify three social mechanisms that can stabilize fragile brokerage relationships: social isolation, broker capture, and organizational grafting. Each of these mechanisms rests on the emergence or existence of supporting institutions. We suggest that organizational grafting may be the most stable and effective resolution to the tensions inherent in brokerage, but it is also the most institutionally demanding. PMID:22198763

  13. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  14. Hydrophobic Coupling of Lipid Bilayer Energetics to Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Robyn L.; Chi, Aung K.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Providence, Lyndon L.; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrophobic coupling between membrane-spanning proteins and the lipid bilayer core causes the bilayer thickness to vary locally as proteins and other “defects” are embedded in the bilayer. These bilayer deformations incur an energetic cost that, in principle, could couple membrane proteins to each other, causing them to associate in the plane of the membrane and thereby coupling them functionally. We demonstrate the existence of such bilayer-mediated coupling at the single-molecule level using single-barreled as well as double-barreled gramicidin channels in which two gramicidin subunits are covalently linked by a water-soluble, flexible linker. When a covalently attached pair of gramicidin subunits associates with a second attached pair to form a double-barreled channel, the lifetime of both channels in the assembly increases from hundreds of milliseconds to a hundred seconds—and the conductance of each channel in the side-by-side pair is almost 10% higher than the conductance of the corresponding single-barreled channels. The double-barreled channels are stabilized some 100,000-fold relative to their single-barreled counterparts. This stabilization arises from: first, the local increase in monomer concentration around a single-barreled channel formed by two covalently linked gramicidins, which increases the rate of double-barreled channel formation; and second, from the increased lifetime of the double-barreled channels. The latter result suggests that the two barrels of the construct associate laterally. The underlying cause for this lateral association most likely is the bilayer deformation energy associated with channel formation. More generally, the results suggest that the mechanical properties of the host bilayer may cause the kinetics of membrane protein conformational transitions to depend on the conformational states of the neighboring proteins. PMID:12719487

  15. Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-12-15

    Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

  16. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  17. TRP Channels and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Louis S.; Abooj, Mruvil

    2013-01-01

    Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control etc. PMID:22910182

  18. MLKL forms cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bingqing; Fang, Sui; Chen, Xueqin; Hu, Hong; Chen, Peiyuan; Wang, Huayi; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-01-01

    The mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein is a key factor in tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis. Recent studies on necroptosis execution revealed a commitment role of MLKL in membrane disruption. However, our knowledge of how MLKL functions on membrane remains very limited. Here we demonstrate that MLKL forms cation channels that are permeable preferentially to Mg2+ rather than Ca2+ in the presence of Na+ and K+. Moreover, the N-terminal domain containing six helices (H1-H6) is sufficient to form channels. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we further determine that helix H1, H2, H3, H5 and H6 are transmembrane segments, while H4 is located in the cytoplasm. Finally, MLKL-induced membrane depolarization and cell death exhibit a positive correlation to its channel activity. The Mg2+-preferred permeability and five transmembrane segment topology distinguish MLKL from previously identified Mg2+-permeable channels and thus establish MLKL as a novel class of cation channels. PMID:27033670

  19. Mitochondrial Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In work spanning more than a century, mitochondria have been recognized for their multifunctional roles in metabolism, energy transduction, ion transport, inheritance, signaling, and cell death. Foremost among these tasks is the continuous production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, which requires a large electrochemical driving force for protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This process requires a membrane with relatively low permeability to ions to minimize energy dissipation. However, a wealth of evidence now indicates that both selective and nonselective ion channels are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, along with several known channels on the outer membrane. Some of these channels are active under physiological conditions, and others may be activated under pathophysiological conditions to act as the major determinants of cell life and death. This review summarizes research on mitochondrial ion channels and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. Except in a few cases, our understanding of the structure of mitochondrial ion channels is limited, indicating the need for focused discovery in this area. PMID:17059356

  20. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B.; Chintapalli, Sree V.; Sassic, Jessica K.; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide–gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4–S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  1. Trp channels and itch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuohao; Dong, Xinzhong

    2016-05-01

    Itch is a unique sensation associated with the scratch reflex. Although the scratch reflex plays a protective role in daily life by removing irritants, chronic itch remains a clinical challenge. Despite urgent clinical need, itch has received relatively little research attention and its mechanisms have remained poorly understood until recently. The goal of the present review is to summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms of acute as well as chronic itch and classifications of the primary itch populations in relationship to transient receptor potential (Trp) channels, which play pivotal roles in multiple somatosensations. The convergent involvement of Trp channels in diverse itch signaling pathways suggests that Trp channels may serve as promising targets for chronic itch treatments. PMID:26385480

  2. Chaos in quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  3. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large-m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  4. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  5. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  6. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials. PMID:9463884

  7. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  8. Channel on Ascraeus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a deep channel formed on the northern flank of the large volcano, Ascraeus Mons. Layers of volcanic rock are exposed in the channel walls, and the dark dots on the valley floor are boulders derived from erosion of these materials. The picture occurs near 14.5oN, 102.8oW, and is illuminated from the lower left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  9. Morphodynamic modeling of erodible laminar channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2007-11-01

    A two-dimensional model for the erosion generated by viscous free-surface flows, based on the shallow-water equations and the lubrication approximation, is presented. It has a family of self-similar solutions for straight erodible channels, with an aspect ratio that increases in time. It is also shown, through a simplified stability analysis, that a laminar river can generate various bar instabilities very similar to those observed in natural rivers. This theoretical similarity reflects the meandering and braiding tendencies of laminar rivers indicated by F. Métivier and P. Meunier [J. Hydrol. 27, 22 (2003)]. Finally, we propose a simple scenario for the transition between patterns observed in experimental erodible channels.

  10. Influence of bank materials, bed sediment, and riparian vegetation on channel form along a gravel-to-sand transition reach of the Upper Tualatin River, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Jim M.; Hadley, Keith S.; Schipper, Aafke M.; Leuven, Rob S. E. W.; Gardiner, Christine Perala

    2011-02-01

    We examined the role of bed sediment size, bank materials, riparian vegetation, and discharge on channel form along a 10-km reach of the Upper Tualatin River, encompassing both gravel and sand-bed reaches. Statistical correlations and analyses of downstream changes of channel morphology reveal that bank materials and bed sediment are the dominant controls on channel cross section form. A rapid downstream reduction in bed sediment size in the gravel-bed channel is followed by an abrupt transition to a narrower, deeper, and less sinuous sand-bed channel with more cohesive bank materials. The simultaneous reductions in channel slope, bed sediment size, and width-to-depth ratio indicate the channel crosses a geomorphic threshold to maintain continuity in sediment transport. This gravel-to-sand transition and associated change in channel form are induced by a break in valley slope and an increase in bank resistance from cohesive bank materials. Bank materials, measured as the average percent silt and clay in banks, are a primary influence on channel form within both subreaches but demonstrate a greater influence on channel width and vertical stability in the gravel-bed channel and on channel depth and lateral stability in the sand-bed channel. Riparian vegetation at current densities and compositions is not a significant control on contemporary channel cross section form and may be responding to the bank and channel stability provided by cohesive bank materials in the laterally dynamic gravel-bed channel.

  11. Numerical simulation of spinning detonation in circular section channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. A.; Manuylovich, I. S.; Markov, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulation of three-dimensional structures of gas detonation in circular section channels that emerge due to the instability when the one-dimensional flow is initiated by energy supply at the closed end of the channel is performed. It is found that in channels with a large diameter, an irregular three-dimensional cellular detonation structure is formed. Furthermore, it is found that in channels with a small diameter circular section, the initially plane detonation wave is spontaneously transformed into a spinning detonation wave, while passing through four phases. A critical value of the channel diameter that divides the regimes with the three-dimensional cellular detonation and spinning detonation is determined. The stability of the spinning detonation wave under perturbations occurring when the wave passes into a channel with a greater (a smaller) diameter is investigated. It is found that the spin is preserved if the diameter of the next channel (into which the wave passes) is smaller (respectively, greater) than a certain critical value. The computations were performed on the Lomonosov supercomputer using from 0.1 to 10 billions of computational cells. All the computations of the cellular and spinning detonation were performed in the whole long three-dimensional channel (up to 1 m long) rather than only in its part containing the detonation wave; this made it possible to adequately simulate and investigate the features of the transformation of the detonation structure in the process of its propagation.

  12. Developments in relativistic channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Channels of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from numerous…

  14. SK channels and calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions are Nature's most widely used signaling mechanism, mediating communication between pathways at virtually every physiological level. Ion channels are no exception, as the activities of a wide range of ion channels are intricately shaped by fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Mirroring the importance and the breadth of Ca2+ signaling, free Ca2+ levels are tightly controlled, and a myriad of Ca2+ binding proteins transduce Ca2+ signals, each with its own nuance, comprising a constantly changing symphony of metabolic activity. The founding member of Ca2+ binding proteins is calmodulin (CaM), a small, acidic, modular protein endowed with gymnastic-like flexibility and E-F hand motifs that chelate Ca2+ ions. In this review, I will trace the history that led to the realization that CaM serves as the Ca2+-gating cue for SK channels, the experiments that revealed that CaM is an intrinsic subunit of SK channels, and itself a target of regulation. PMID:25942650

  15. SK channels and calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Adelman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions are Nature's most widely used signaling mechanism, mediating communication between pathways at virtually every physiological level. Ion channels are no exception, as the activities of a wide range of ion channels are intricately shaped by fluctuations in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Mirroring the importance and the breadth of Ca(2+) signaling, free Ca(2+) levels are tightly controlled, and a myriad of Ca(2+) binding proteins transduce Ca(2+) signals, each with its own nuance, comprising a constantly changing symphony of metabolic activity. The founding member of Ca(2+) binding proteins is calmodulin (CaM), a small, acidic, modular protein endowed with gymnastic-like flexibility and E-F hand motifs that chelate Ca(2+) ions. In this review, I will trace the history that led to the realization that CaM serves as the Ca(2+)-gating cue for SK channels, the experiments that revealed that CaM is an intrinsic subunit of SK channels, and itself a target of regulation. PMID:25942650

  16. Visual Channel Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.

    This teacher training module classifies visual channel problems into the following four main areas: visual perception, revisualization (memory), visual-motor (eye-hand coordination), and ocular-motor tasks. Specific deficits are listed under these main headings, behaviors are given to help identify the problem, and ways to improve the condition…

  17. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  18. Learning in Tactile Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  19. Keeping the Channels Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Jacob

    1996-01-01

    Institutional communication channels need to be clear so that administrators have the information necessary to make informed decisions whenever and wherever required. The secret is to treat the arrival of information--the good, the bad, and the neutral--in essentially the same way, and always thank the person who brings the news, regardless of its…

  20. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  1. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  2. THERMAL INSTABILITY OF ΔF508 CFTR CHANNEL FUNCTION: PROTECTION BY SINGLE SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS AND INHIBITING CHANNEL ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; O’Donnell, Nicolette; Landstrom, Allison; Skach, William R.; Dawson, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ΔF508 CFTR was stable at 22°C and increased at 28°C; a temperature permissive for ΔF508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37°C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ΔF508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as “thermal inactivation.” Thermal inactivation of ΔF508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ΔF508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ΔF508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37°C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ΔF508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ΔF508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:22680785

  3. Cement compositions for cementing wells allowing pressure gas channeling in the cemented annulus to be controlled

    SciTech Connect

    Porcevaux, P. A.; Piot, B. M.; Vercaemer, C. J.

    1985-08-27

    The invention relates to cement compositions for cementing wells, which allow pressure gas-channeling to be effectively controlled up to more than about 485 F. The cement composition contains a styrene-butadiene latex and a stabilizer. The film of latex interrupts gas-channeling after an extremely brief path.

  4. Composite stabilizer unit

    DOEpatents

    Ebaugh, Larry R.; Sadler, Collin P.; Carter, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    An improved fin stabilized projectile including multiple stabilizer fins upon a stabilizer unit situated at the aft end of the projectile is provided, the improvement wherein the stabilizer fins are joined into the stabillizer unit by an injection molded engineering grade polymer.

  5. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  6. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  7. The Earliest Ion Channels in Protocellular Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

    2010-01-01

    Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously selfassemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their structures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological reality, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This

  8. The earliest ion channels in protocellular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

    Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously self-assemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their struc-tures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological real-ity, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This

  9. Gating mechanosensitive channels in bacteria with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Renata; Miller, Samantha; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Third Institute of Physics Team; School of Medical Sciences Collaboration

    The regulation of growth and integrity of bacteria is critically linked to mechanical stress. Bacteria typically maintain a high difference of osmotic pressure (turgor pressure) with respect to the environment. This pressure difference (on the order of 1 atm) is supported by the cell envelope, a composite of lipid membranes and a rigid cell wall. Turgor pressure is controlled by the ratio of osmolytes inside and outside bacteria and thus, can abruptly increase upon osmotic downshock. For structural integrity bacteria rely on the mechanical stability of the cell wall and on the action of mechanosensitive (MS) channels: membrane proteins that release solutes in response to stress in the cell envelope. We here present experimental data on MS channels gating. We activate channels by indenting living bacteria with the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). We compare responses of wild-type and mutant bacteria in which some or all MS channels have been eliminated.

  10. Channeling of aluminum in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.G.; Hopkins, C.G.

    1985-05-15

    A systematic study of channeling of aluminum in the silicon crystal is reported. Depth distributions measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry are reported for 40-, 75-, and 150-keV aluminum channeled in the <100> and <110> directions of silicon. The profile dependence on alignment angle is shown for 150-keV aluminum in the <110> of silicon. Aluminum has low electronic stopping in silicon and corresponding deep channeled profiles are observed for aligned implants and deep channeling tails are observed on random implants. The maximum channeling range for 150-keV Al in <100> silicon is about 2.8 ..mu..m and is about 6.4 ..mu..m in <110> silicon. Some ions will reach the maximum channeling range even for 2/sup 0/ misalignment. Many of the deep channeling tails and ''supertails'' reported in earlier literature can be explained by the normal channeling of aluminum in silicon.