A. Ugulava; S. Chkhaidze; L. Chotorlishvili; Z. Rostomashvili
2009-02-17
The hodographs of magnetization of nonlinear nuclear magnetic resonance are investigated in the conditions of resonance on the unshifted frequency. It is shown that, depending on the value of amplitude of the variable field and value of frequency shift, topologically different hodographs separated from each other by separatrix are obtained.
Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices
Mulansky, Mario; Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden; Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 17, D-01069 Dresden
2014-06-15
Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.
Detecting nonlinearity and chaos in epidemic data
Ellner, S.; Gallant, A.R.; Theiler, J. |
1993-08-01
Historical data on recurrent epidemics have been central to the debate about the prevalence of chaos in biological population dynamics. Schaffer and Kot who first recognized that the abundance and accuracy of disease incidence data opened the door to applying a range of methods for detecting chaos that had been devised in the early 1980`s. Using attractor reconstruction, estimates of dynamical invariants, and comparisons between data and simulation of SEIR models, the ``case for chaos in childhood epidemics`` was made through a series of influential papers beginning in the mid 1980`s. The proposition that the precise timing and magnitude of epidemic outbreaks are deterministic but chaotic is appealing, since it raises the hope of finding determinism and simplicity beneath the apparently stochastic and complicated surface of the data. The initial enthusiasm for methods of detecting chaos in data has been followed by critical re-evaluations of their limitations. Early hopes of a ``one size fits all`` algorithm to diagnose chaos vs. noise in any data set have given way to a recognition that a variety of methods must be used, and interpretation of results must take into account the limitations of each method and the imperfections of the data. Our goals here are to outline some newer methods for detecting nonlinearity and chaos that have a solid statistical basis and are suited to epidemic data, and to begin a re-evaluation of the claims for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in epidemics using these newer methods. We also identify features of epidemic data that create problems for the older, better known methods of detecting chaos. When we ask ``are epidemics nonlinear?``, we are not questioning the existence of global nonlinearities in epidemic dynamics, such as nonlinear transmission rates. Our question is whether the data`s deviations from an annual cyclic trend (which would reflect global nonlinearities) are described by a linear, noise-driven stochastic process.
Digital Communication using Chaos and Nonlinear Lucas Illing
Illing, Lucas
Digital Communication using Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics Lucas Illing Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 Abstract Digital communication using synchronized chaos is reviewed on the example communication in context, a simplified block di- agram of a typical traditional digital communication system
Household Chaos--Links with Parenting and Child Behaviour
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coldwell, Joanne; Pike, Alison; Dunn, Judy
2006-01-01
Background: The study aimed to confirm previous findings showing links between household chaos and parenting in addition to examining whether household chaos was predictive of children's behaviour over and above parenting. In addition, we investigated whether household chaos acts as a moderator between parenting and children's behaviour. Method:…
Some Nonlinear Equations with Double Solutions: Soliton and Chaos
Yi-Fang Chang
2007-12-03
The fundamental characteristics of soliton and chaos in nonlinear equation are completely different. But all nonlinear equations with a soliton solution may derive chaos. While only some equations with a chaos solution have a soliton. The conditions of the two solutions are different. When some parameters are certain constants, the soliton is derived; while these parameters vary in a certain region, the bifurcation-chaos appears. It connects a chaotic control probably. The double solutions correspond possibly to the wave-particle duality in quantum theory, and connect the double solution theory of the nonlinear wave mechanics. Some nonlinear equations possess soliton and chaos, whose new meanings are discussed briefly in mathematics, physics and particle theory.
Interactive Workshop Discusses Nonlinear Waves and Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsurutani, Bruce; Morales, George; Passot, Thierry
2010-07-01
Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop; La Jolla, California, 1-5 March 2010; Nonlinear waves and chaos were the focus of a weeklong series of informal and interactive discussions at the Eighth International Nonlinear Wave Workshop (NWW8), held in California. The workshop gathered nonlinear plasma and water wave experts from the United States, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Holland, India, and Japan. Attendees were from the fields of space, laboratory, and fusion plasma physics, astrophysics, and applied mathematics. Special focus was placed on nonlinear waves and turbulence in the terrestrial environment as well as in the interstellar medium from observational, laboratory, and theoretical perspectives. Discussions covered temperature anisotropies and related instabilities, the properties and origin of the so-called dissipation range, and various coherent structures of electromagnetic as well as electrostatic nature. Reconnection and shocks were also topics of discussion, as were properties of magnetospheric whistler and chorus waves. Examples and analysis techniques for superdiffusion and subdiffusion were identified. On this last topic, a good exchange of ideas and results occurred between a water wave expert and a plasma expert, with the rest of the audience listening intently.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Two Coupled Nanomechanical Resonators
R. B. Karabalin; M. C. Cross; M. L. Roukes
2008-11-18
Two elastically coupled nanomechanical resonators driven independently near their resonance frequencies show intricate nonlinear dynamics. The dynamics provide a scheme for realizing a nanomechanical system with tunable frequency and nonlinear properties. For large vibration amplitudes the system develops spontaneous oscillations of amplitude modulation that also show period doubling transitions and chaos. The complex nonlinear dynamics are quantitatively predicted by a simple theoretical model.
Specifying the Links between Household Chaos and Preschool Children's Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
2012-01-01
Household chaos has been linked to poorer cognitive, behavioural, and self-regulatory outcomes in young children, but the mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown. Using a diverse sample of families in Chicago, the present study tests for the independent contributions made by five indicators of household chaos: noise, crowding, family…
Chaos, patterns, coherent structures, and turbulence: Reflections on nonlinear science.
Ecke, Robert E
2015-09-01
The paradigms of nonlinear science were succinctly articulated over 25 years ago as deterministic chaos, pattern formation, coherent structures, and adaptation/evolution/learning. For chaos, the main unifying concept was universal routes to chaos in general nonlinear dynamical systems, built upon a framework of bifurcation theory. Pattern formation focused on spatially extended nonlinear systems, taking advantage of symmetry properties to develop highly quantitative amplitude equations of the Ginzburg-Landau type to describe early nonlinear phenomena in the vicinity of critical points. Solitons, mathematically precise localized nonlinear wave states, were generalized to a larger and less precise class of coherent structures such as, for example, concentrated regions of vorticity from laboratory wake flows to the Jovian Great Red Spot. The combination of these three ideas was hoped to provide the tools and concepts for the understanding and characterization of the strongly nonlinear problem of fluid turbulence. Although this early promise has been largely unfulfilled, steady progress has been made using the approaches of nonlinear science. I provide a series of examples of bifurcations and chaos, of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pattern formation, and of turbulence to illustrate both the progress and limitations of the nonlinear science approach. As experimental and computational methods continue to improve, the promise of nonlinear science to elucidate fluid turbulence continues to advance in a steady manner, indicative of the grand challenge nature of strongly nonlinear multi-scale dynamical systems. PMID:26428558
Chaos, patterns, coherent structures, and turbulence: Reflections on nonlinear science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ecke, Robert E.
2015-09-01
The paradigms of nonlinear science were succinctly articulated over 25 years ago as deterministic chaos, pattern formation, coherent structures, and adaptation/evolution/learning. For chaos, the main unifying concept was universal routes to chaos in general nonlinear dynamical systems, built upon a framework of bifurcation theory. Pattern formation focused on spatially extended nonlinear systems, taking advantage of symmetry properties to develop highly quantitative amplitude equations of the Ginzburg-Landau type to describe early nonlinear phenomena in the vicinity of critical points. Solitons, mathematically precise localized nonlinear wave states, were generalized to a larger and less precise class of coherent structures such as, for example, concentrated regions of vorticity from laboratory wake flows to the Jovian Great Red Spot. The combination of these three ideas was hoped to provide the tools and concepts for the understanding and characterization of the strongly nonlinear problem of fluid turbulence. Although this early promise has been largely unfulfilled, steady progress has been made using the approaches of nonlinear science. I provide a series of examples of bifurcations and chaos, of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pattern formation, and of turbulence to illustrate both the progress and limitations of the nonlinear science approach. As experimental and computational methods continue to improve, the promise of nonlinear science to elucidate fluid turbulence continues to advance in a steady manner, indicative of the grand challenge nature of strongly nonlinear multi-scale dynamical systems.
Chaos in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Helicopter Flight-data Analysis
Taylor, James H.
Chaos in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Helicopter Flight-data Analysis James H. Taylor1 and S, N. B., CANADA, E3B 5A3 E-mail: 1) jtaylor@unb.ca, 2) salamat@ee.unb.ca ; Abstract The nonlinear of this study is to characterize the helicopter's vibration mechanism(s) i.e., to determine if the vibrations
Specifying the Links Between Household Chaos and Preschool Children's Development.
Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
2012-10-01
Household chaos has been linked to poorer cognitive, behavioral, and self-regulatory outcomes in young children, but the mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown. Using a diverse sample of families in Chicago, the present study tests for the independent contributions made by five indicators of household chaos: noise, crowding, family instability, lack of routine, and television usually on. Chaos was measured at age 2; outcomes measured at age 5 tap receptive vocabulary, attention and behavior problems, and effortful control. Results show that controlling for all other measures of chaos, children with a lack of routine scored lower on receptive vocabulary and delayed gratification, while children whose television was generally on scored higher on aggression and attention problems. The provision of learning materials mediated a small part of the association between television and receptive vocabulary. Family instability, crowding, and noise did not predict any outcomes once other measures of chaos were controlled. PMID:22919120
Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in a Quantum Artificial Economy
Carlos Pedro Gonçalves
2012-02-29
Chaos and nonlinear economic dynamics are addressed for a quantum coupled map lattice model of an artificial economy, with quantized supply and demand equilibrium conditions. The measure theoretic properties and the patterns that emerge in both the economic business volume dynamics' diagrams as well as in the quantum mean field averages are addressed and conclusions are drawn in regards to the application of quantum chaos theory to address signatures of chaotic dynamics in relevant discrete economic state variables.
Nonlinear system vibration---The appearance of chaos
Hunter, N.F. Jr.
1990-01-01
This paper begins with an examination of the differential equation for a single degree of freedom force excited oscillator and considers the state space behavior of linear, nonlinear, and chaotic single degree of freedom systems. The fundamental characteristics of classical chaos are reviewed: sensitivity to initial conditions, positive Lyapunov exponents, complex Poincare maps, fractal properties of motion in the state space, and broadening of the power spectrum of the system response. Illustrated examples of chaotic behavior include motion in a two well potential -- the chaos beam described in Moon and a hardening base excited Duffing system. Chaos-like phenomenon which occur with nonperiodic forcing are examined in the context of the two well potential and hardening Duffing systems. The paper concludes with some suggestions for detecting and modelling nonlinear or chaotic behavior. 19 refs., 19 figs.
Nonlinear Perspectives on Family Process: Chaos and Catastrophe Theories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Margaret; Koopmans, Matthijs
This paper explores the principal features of nonlinear dynamical systems and applies the theory to parents' acceptance of a child adopted at an older age. Although family systems theories tend to be weak in addressing family change, chaos theory and catastrophe theory allow consideration of sudden, discontinuous change. If stable, the family may…
Linear vs nonlinear and infinite vs finite: An interpretation of chaos
Protopopescu, V.
1990-10-01
An example of a linear infinite-dimensional system is presented that exhibits deterministic chaos and thus challenges the presumably unquestionable connection between chaos and nonlinearity. Via this example, the roles of, and relationships between, linearity, nonlinearity, infinity and finiteness in the occurrence of chaos are investigated. The analysis of these complementary but related aspects leads to: a new interpretation of chaos as the manifestation of incompressible and thus incompressible information and a conjecture about the nonexistence of operationally accessible linear systems.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: Applications in Atmospheric Sciences
A. M. Selvam
2010-11-30
Atmospheric flows, an example of turbulent fluid flows, exhibit fractal fluctuations of all space-time scales ranging from turbulence scale of mm -sec to climate scales of thousands of kilometers - years and may be visualized as a nested continuum of weather cycles or periodicities, the smaller cycles existing as intrinsic fine structure of the larger cycles. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long - range correlations identified as self - organized criticality and are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and is manifested as sensitive dependence on initial condition or 'deterministic chaos' in finite precision computer realizations of nonlinear mathematical models of real world dynamical systems such as atmospheric flows. Though the selfsimilar nature of atmospheric flows have been widely documented and discussed during the last three to four decades, the exact physical mechanism is not yet identified. There now exists an urgent need to develop and incorporate basic physical concepts of nonlinear dynamics and chaos into classical meteorological theory for more realistic simulation and prediction of weather and climate. A review of nonlinear dynamics and chaos in meteorology and atmospheric physics is summarized in this paper.
12.006J / 18.353J Nonlinear Dynamics I: Chaos, Fall 2005
Rothman, Daniel H.
Introduction to the theory and phenomenology of nonlinear dynamics and chaos in dissipative systems. Forced and parametric oscillators. Phase space. Periodic, quasiperiodic, and aperiodic flows. Sensitivity to initial ...
Chaos in the fractional order nonlinear Bloch equation with delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baleanu, Dumitru; Magin, Richard L.; Bhalekar, Sachin; Daftardar-Gejji, Varsha
2015-08-01
The Bloch equation describes the dynamics of nuclear magnetization in the presence of static and time-varying magnetic fields. In this paper we extend a nonlinear model of the Bloch equation to include both fractional derivatives and time delays. The Caputo fractional time derivative (?) in the range from 0.85 to 1.00 is introduced on the left side of the Bloch equation in a commensurate manner in increments of 0.01 to provide an adjustable degree of system memory. Time delays for the z component of magnetization are inserted on the right side of the Bloch equation with values of 0, 10 and 100 ms to balance the fractional derivative with delay terms that also express the history of an earlier state. In the absence of delay, ? = 0 , we obtained results consistent with the previously published bifurcation diagram, with two cycles appearing at ? = 0.8548 with subsequent period doubling that leads to chaos at ? = 0.9436 . A periodic window is observed for the range 0.962 < ? < 0.9858 , with chaos arising again as ? nears 1.00. The bifurcation diagram for the case with a 10 ms delay is similar: two cycles appear at the value ? = 0.8532 , and the transition from two to four cycles at ? = 0.9259 . With further increases in the fractional order, period doubling continues until at ? = 0.9449 chaos ensues. In the case of a 100 millisecond delay the transitions from one cycle to two cycles and two cycles to four cycles are observed at ? = 0.8441 , and ? = 0.8635 , respectively. However, the system exhibits chaos at much lower values of ? (? = 0.8635). A periodic window is observed in the interval 0.897 < ? < 0.9341 , with chaos again appearing for larger values of ? . In general, as the value of ? decreased the system showed transitions from chaos to transient chaos, and then to stability. Delays naturally appear in many NMR systems, and pulse programming allows the user control over the process. By including both the fractional derivative and time delays in the Bloch equation, we have developed a delay-dependent model that predicts instability in this non-linear fractional order system consistent with the experimental observations of spin turbulence.
Chaos, creativity, and substance abuse: the nonlinear dynamics of choice.
Zausner, Tobi
2011-04-01
Artists create their work in conditions of disequilibrium, states of creative chaos that may appear turbulent but are capable of bringing forth new order. By absorbing information from the environment and discharging it negentropically as new work, artists can be modeled as dissipative systems. A characteristic of chaotic systems is a heightened sensitivity to stimuli, which can generate either positive experiences or negative ones that can lead some artists to substance abuse and misguided searches for a creative chaos. Alcohol and drug use along with inadequately addressed co-occurring emotional disorders interfere with artists' quest for the nonlinearity of creativity. Instead, metaphorically modeled by a limit cycle of addiction and then a spiral to disorder, the joys of a creative chaos become an elusive chimera for them rather than a fulfilling experience. Untreated mental illness and addiction to substances have shortened the lives of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Jackson Pollock, all of whom committed suicide. In contrast Edvard Munch and John Callahan, who chose to address their emotional problems and substance abuse, continued to live and remain creative. Choosing to access previously avoided moments of pain can activate the nonlinear power of self-transformation. PMID:21382261
Nonlinear dynamics, chaos and complex cardiac arrhythmias
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, L.; Courtemanche, M.; Shrier, A.; Goldberger, A. L.
1987-01-01
Periodic stimulation of a nonlinear cardiac oscillator in vitro gives rise to complex dynamics that is well described by one-dimensional finite difference equations. As stimulation parameters are varied, a large number of different phase-locked and chaotic rhythms is observed. Similar rhythms can be observed in the intact human heart when there is interaction between two pacemaker sites. Simplified models are analyzed, which show some correspondence to clinical observations.
Chaos in a 4D dissipative nonlinear fermionic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydogmus, Fatma
2015-12-01
Gursey Model is the only possible 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear self-coupled spinor term. It has been assumed to be similar to the Heisenberg's nonlinear generalization of Dirac's equation, as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles. Gursey Model admits particle-like solutions for the derived classical field equations and these solutions are instantonic in character. In this paper, the dynamical nature of damped and forced Gursey Nonlinear Differential Equations System (GNDES) are studied in order to get more information on spinor type instantons. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by constructing the bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré sections. Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum graphs of GNDES are also constructed to characterize the chaotic behavior.
Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos
Brambila, D. S.; Fratalocchi, A.
2013-01-01
By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter. PMID:23912934
Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos.
Brambila, D S; Fratalocchi, A
2013-01-01
By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter. PMID:23912934
Integrability and chaos in nonlinearly coupled optical beams
David, D.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a study, using dynamical systems methods, of the equations describing the polarization behavior of two nonlinearly coupled optical beams counterpropagating in a nonlinear medium. In the travelling-wave regime assumption, this system possesses a Lie-Poisson structure on the manifold C{sup 2} {times} C{sup 2}. In the case where the medium is assumed to be isotropic, this system exhibits invariance under the Hamiltonian action of two copies of the rotation group, S{sup 1}, and actually reduces to a lower-dimensional system on the two-sphere, S{sup 2}. We study the dynamics on the reduced space and examine the structure of the phase portrait by determining the fixed points and infinite-period homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits; we concentrate on presenting some exotic behaviour that occurs when some parameters are varied, and we also show special solutions associated with some of the above-mentioned orbits. Last, we demonstrate the existence of complex dynamics when the system is subject to certain classes of Hamiltonian perturbations. To this end, we make use of the Melnikov method to analytically show the occurrence of either horseshoe chaos, or Arnold diffusion. 19 refs.
Controlling spatiotemporal chaos in active dissipative-dispersive nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, S. N.; Pradas, M.; Kalliadasis, S.; Papageorgiou, D. T.; Pavliotis, G. A.
2015-08-01
We present an alternative methodology for the stabilization and control of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems exhibiting low-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. We show that with an appropriate choice of time-dependent controls we are able to stabilize and/or control all stable or unstable solutions, including steady solutions, traveling waves (single and multipulse ones or bound states), and spatiotemporal chaos. We exemplify our methodology with the generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, a paradigmatic model of spatiotemporal chaos, which is known to exhibit a rich spectrum of wave forms and wave transitions and a rich variety of spatiotemporal structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Complexity, Chaos, and Nonlinear Dynamics: A New Perspective on Career Development Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloch, Deborah P.
2005-01-01
The author presents a theory of career development drawing on nonlinear dynamics and chaos and complexity theories. Career is presented as a complex adaptive entity, a fractal of the human entity. Characteristics of complex adaptive entities, including (a) autopiesis, or self-regeneration; (b) open exchange; (c) participation in networks; (d)…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooker, John C.
1991-01-01
Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).
Chaos Theory as a Model for Life Transitions Counseling: Nonlinear Dynamics and Life's Changes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bussolari, Cori J.; Goodell, Judith A.
2009-01-01
Chaos theory is presented for counselors working with clients experiencing life transitions. It is proposed as a model that considers disorder, unpredictability, and lack of control as normal parts of transition processes. Nonlinear constructs from physics are adapted for use in counseling. The model provides a method clients can use to…
Generating independent chaotic attractors by chaos anticontrol in nonlinear circuits
Chapeau-Blondeau, FranÃ§ois
attractors, depending on initial conditions. We demonstrate that the state space equidistant repartition of these attractors is on a precise curve, that depends of the system parameters. A mathematical formula giving phenomenon. Recently, the traditional trend of understanding and analyzing chaos has evolved to a new phase
12.006J / 18.353J / 2.050J Nonlinear Dynamics I: Chaos, Fall 2006
Rothman, Daniel
This course provides an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of nonlinear dynamics and chaos in dissipative systems. The content is structured to be of general interest to undergraduates in science and engineering.
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, July, 2004. © 2004 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Dynamical Models of Love J. C. Sprott1 , University to produce chaos. Key Words. Love, romance, differential equations, chaos. INTRODUCTION The power
Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Patterns, and Chaos Irving R. Epstein*
Showalter, Kenneth
. I. Introduction If one were to show a freshman chemistry class two beakers of solution and suggest, with the work of Onsager and particularly Prigogine and collaborators8 on nonlinear thermodynamics beginning
Facilitating Joint Chaos and Fractal Analysis of Biosignals through Nonlinear Adaptive Filtering
Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Tung, Wen-wen
2011-01-01
Background Chaos and random fractal theories are among the most important for fully characterizing nonlinear dynamics of complicated multiscale biosignals. Chaos analysis requires that signals be relatively noise-free and stationary, while fractal analysis demands signals to be non-rhythmic and scale-free. Methodology/Principal Findings To facilitate joint chaos and fractal analysis of biosignals, we present an adaptive algorithm, which: (1) can readily remove nonstationarities from the signal, (2) can more effectively reduce noise in the signals than linear filters, wavelet denoising, and chaos-based noise reduction techniques; (3) can readily decompose a multiscale biosignal into a series of intrinsically bandlimited functions; and (4) offers a new formulation of fractal and multifractal analysis that is better than existing methods when a biosignal contains a strong oscillatory component. Conclusions The presented approach is a valuable, versatile tool for the analysis of various types of biological signals. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by offering new important insights into brainwave dynamics and the very high accuracy in automatically detecting epileptic seizures from EEG signals. PMID:21915312
Chaos in cylindrical stadium billiards via a generic nonlinear mechanism
Thomas Gilbert; David P. Sanders
2010-09-03
We describe conditions under which higher-dimensional billiard models in bounded, convex regions are fully chaotic, generalizing the Bunimovich stadium to dimensions above two. An example is a three-dimensional stadium bounded by a cylinder and several planes; the combination of these elements may give rise to defocusing, allowing large chaotic regions in phase space. By studying families of marginally-stable periodic orbits that populate the residual part of phase space, we identify conditions under which a nonlinear instability mechanism arises in their vicinity. For particular geometries, this mechanism rather induces stable nonlinear oscillations, including in the form of whispering-gallery modes.
Basko, D.M.
2011-07-15
Research Highlights: > In a one-dimensional disordered chain of oscillators all normal modes are localized. > Nonlinearity leads to chaotic dynamics. > Chaos is concentrated on rare chaotic spots. > Chaotic spots drive energy exchange between oscillators. > Macroscopic transport coefficients are obtained. - Abstract: The subject of this study is the long-time equilibration dynamics of a strongly disordered one-dimensional chain of coupled weakly anharmonic classical oscillators. It is shown that chaos in this system has a very particular spatial structure: it can be viewed as a dilute gas of chaotic spots. Each chaotic spot corresponds to a stochastic pump which drives the Arnold diffusion of the oscillators surrounding it, thus leading to their relaxation and thermalization. The most important mechanism of equilibration at long distances is provided by random migration of the chaotic spots along the chain, which bears analogy with variable-range hopping of electrons in strongly disordered solids. The corresponding macroscopic transport equations are obtained.
Chaos and the quantum: how nonlinear effects can explain certain quantum paradoxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarris, Wm C.
2011-07-01
In recent years we have suggested that many of the so-called paradoxes resulting from the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics could well have more logical parallels based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Perhaps quantum mechanics might not be strictly linear as has been commonly postulated, and indeed, during the past year experimentalists have discovered signatures of chaos in a definitely quantum system. As an illustration of what can go wrong when quantum effects are forced into a linear interpretation, I examine Bell-type inequalities. In conventional derivations of such inequalities, classical systems are found to impose upper limits on the statistical correlations between, say, the properties of a pair of separated but entangled particles, whereas quantum systems allow greater correlations. Numerous experiments have upheld the quantum predictions (greater statistical correlations than allowed classically), which has led to inferences such as the instantaneous transmission of information between effectively infinitely separated particles — Einstein's "spooky action-at-a-distance," incompatible with relativity. I argue that there is nothing wrong with the quantum mechanical side of such derivations (the usual point of attack by those attempting to debunk Bell-type arguments), but implicit in the derivations on the classical side is the assumption of independent, uncorrelated particles. As a result, one is comparing uncorrelated probabilities versus conditional probabilities rather than comparing classical versus quantum mechanics, making moot the experimental inferences. Further, nonlinear classical systems are known to exhibit correlations that can easily be as great as and overlap with quantum correlations — so-called nonextensive thermodynamics with its nonadditive entropy has verified this with numerous examples. Perhaps quantum mechanics does contain fundamental nonlinear elements. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory could well provide a bridge between the determinism so dear to Einstein and the statisical interpretation of the Copenhagen school. Einstein and Bohr both could have been right in their debates.
Mutation and chaos in nonlinear models of heredity.
Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Saburov, Mansoor; Nawi, Ashraf Mohamed
2014-01-01
We shall explore a nonlinear discrete dynamical system that naturally occurs in population systems to describe a transmission of a trait from parents to their offspring. We consider a Mendelian inheritance for a single gene with three alleles and assume that to form a new generation, each gene has a possibility to mutate, that is, to change into a gene of the other kind. We investigate the derived models and observe chaotic behaviors of such models. PMID:25136693
Mutation and Chaos in Nonlinear Models of Heredity
Nasir Ganikhodjaev; Mansoor Saburov; Ashraf Mohamed Nawi
2013-04-21
In this short communication, we shall explore a nonlinear discrete dynamical system that naturally occurs in population systems to describe a transmission of a trait from parents to their offspring. We consider a Mendelian inheritance for a single gene with three alleles and assume that to form a new generation, each gene has a possibility to mutate, that is, to change into a gene of the other kind. We investigate the derived models. A numerical simulation assists us to get some clear picture about chaotic behaviors of such models.
Study of nonlinear dynamics and chaos in MEMS/NEMS resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Tajaddodianfar, Farid
2015-05-01
With the successes in numerous applications from signal filtering to chemical and mass sensing, micro- and nano-electro-mechanical resonators continue to be one of the most widely studied topics of the micro-electro-mechanical systems community. Nonlinearities arising out of different sources such as mid-plane stretching and electrostatic force lead to a rich nonlinear dynamics in the time response of these systems which should be investigated for appropriate design and fabrication of them. Motivated by this need, present study is devoted to analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of nano resonators with electrostatic forces on both sides. Based on the potential function and phase portrait of the unperturbed system, the resonator dynamics is categorized to four physical situations and it is shown that the system undergoes homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits which are responsible for the appearance of chaos in the resonator response. Bifurcation diagram of nano resonator is plotted by variation of applied AC actuation voltage and it is shown that the system possess rich dynamic behavior such as periodic doubling, quasi-periodic, bifurcation and chaotic motion which are classified and studied in more details by plotting time response and phase plane of the each category. The main result of this paper indicates that the necessary condition for the creation of chaos in the resonator is intersection of the system steady state response with the homoclinic orbit. This occurs when the system steady state velocity or amplitude reaches to the homoclinic orbit maximum speed or amplitude. The critical oscillating amplitudes corresponding to these situations are derived based on the system parameters which can be used to propose the new analytical criteria for chaos detection in resonators.
Turbulent Fluid Motion 6: Turbulence, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Deterministic Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, Robert G.
1996-01-01
Several turbulent and nonturbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained. The unaveraged equations are used numerically in conjunction with tools and concepts from nonlinear dynamics, including time series, phase portraits, Poincare sections, Liapunov exponents, power spectra, and strange attractors. Initially neighboring solutions for a low-Reynolds-number fully developed turbulence are compared. The turbulence is sustained by a nonrandom time-independent external force. The solutions, on the average, separate exponentially with time, having a positive Liapunov exponent. Thus, the turbulence is characterized as chaotic. In a search for solutions which contrast with the turbulent ones, the Reynolds number (or strength of the forcing) is reduced. Several qualitatively different flows are noted. These are, respectively, fully chaotic, complex periodic, weakly chaotic, simple periodic, and fixed-point. Of these, we classify only the fully chaotic flows as turbulent. Those flows have both a positive Liapunov exponent and Poincare sections without pattern. By contrast, the weakly chaotic flows, although having positive Liapunov exponents, have some pattern in their Poincare sections. The fixed-point and periodic flows are nonturbulent, since turbulence, as generally understood, is both time-dependent and aperiodic.
Dynamical Systems on Three Manifolds Part I: Knots, Links and Chaos
Yi Song; S. P. Banks; David Diaz
2007-06-16
In this paper, we give an explicit construction of dynamical systems (defined within a solid torus) containing any knot (or link) and arbitrarily knotted chaos. The first is achieved by expressing the knots in terms of braids, defining a system containing the braids and extending periodically to obtain a system naturally defined on a torus and which contains the given knotted trajectories. To get explicit differential equations for dynamical systems containing the braids, we will use a certain function to define a tube neigbourhood of the braid. The second one, generating chaotic systems, is realized by modeling the Smale horseshoe.
The nonlinear bifurcation and chaos of coupled heave and pitch motions of a truss spar platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Lei; Liu, Liqin; Liu, Chunyuan; Tang, Yougang
2015-10-01
This paper presents the results from a numerical study on the nonlinear dynamic behaviors including bifurcation and chaos of a truss spar platform. In view of the mutual influences between the heave and the pitch modes, the coupled heave and pitch motion equations of the spar platform hull were established in the regular waves. In order to analyze the nonlinear motions of the platform, three-dimensional maximum Lyapunov exponent graphs and the bifurcation graphs were constructed, the Poincaré maps and the power spectrums of the platform response were calculated. It was found that the platform motions are sensitive to wave frequency. With changing wave frequency, the platform undergoes complicated nonlinear motions, including 1/2 sub-harmonic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion. When the wave frequency approaches the natural frequency of the heave mode of the platform, the platform moves with quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motional ternately. For a certain range of wave frequencies, the platform moves with totally chaotic motion. The range of wave frequencies which leads to chaotic motion of the platform increases with increasing wave height. The three-dimensional maximum Lyapunov exponent graphs and the bifurcation graphs reveal the nonlinear motions of the spar platform under different wave conditions.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos of Microcantilever-Based TM-AFMs with Squeeze Film Damping Effects
Zhang, Wen-Ming; Meng, Guang; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Chen, Jie-Yu
2009-01-01
In Atomic force microscope (AFM) examination of a vibrating microcantilever, the nonlinear tip-sample interaction would greatly influence the dynamics of the cantilever. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics and chaos of a tip-sample dynamic system being run in the tapping mode (TM) were investigated by considering the effects of hydrodynamic loading and squeeze film damping. The microcantilever was modeled as a spring-mass-damping system and the interaction between the tip and the sample was described by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. The fundamental frequency and quality factor were calculated from the transient oscillations of the microcantilever vibrating in air. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the coupled nonlinear dynamic system using the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits and time histories. Results indicated the occurrence of periodic and chaotic motions and provided a comprehensive understanding of the hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers. It was demonstrated that the coupled dynamic system will experience complex nonlinear oscillation as the system parameters change and the effect of squeeze film damping is not negligible on the micro-scale. PMID:22412340
Detecting Nonlinearity and Edge-of-Chaos Phenomena in Ordinal Data.
Heath, Rachel
2015-07-01
Some but not all algorithms for detecting nonlinearity in experimental data, such as prediction methods and Lyapunov spectra, require a much larger amount of stable continuous data than is generally available from individual human participants. A new method for detecting nonlinearity in relatively short data sets, Monotonic Ectropy, computes the change in Shannon information as ordinal scale values evolve over time by comparing runs of various lengths and directions. This method compares two successive ordinal scale changes with similar monotonic changes for three successive ordinal scale values. The resulting index discriminates a chaotic Henon series from both Gaussian noise and phase-randomised surrogate series, the latter containing the stochastic structure of the Henon series but without the nonlinearity. The empirical utility of the technique is illustrated using mood rating data obtained from two participants, one suffering from chronic depression, the other showing no signs of the disorder. Although Monotonic Ectropy discriminated between the mood ratings of the depressed and nondepressed subjects, evidence for nonlinearity was only obtained using Lempel-Ziv complexity, a measure based on symbolic dynamics. This was probably due to Monotonic Ectropy's unique sensitivity to edge-of-chaos phenomena. PMID:26058334
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 445-454. © 2011 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Chaos in Easter Island Ecology J. C. Sprott1 , Department and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol.8, No.1, January, 2004. © 2004 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Book Review Chaos and Time-Series Analysis. By Julien Clinton with color versions of many of the figures and much supplementaryand updated information (including answers
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 223-232.1 © 2013 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences.2 3 Is Chaos Good for Learning?4 5 J. C. Sprott 1 or perhaps prison. They behave unpredictably (Lynam & Widiger,37 2001) and have impaired memory that inhibits
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 387-395.1 © 2012 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences.2 3 Spatiotemporal Chaos in Easter Island Ecology4 5 J. C), but with considerable uncertainty, and they only show solutions54 that attract to one of the stable equilibria (either
Taylor, Richard
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 117-129. © 2008 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Biophilic Fractals and the Visual Journey of Organic Screen
Position Control for Non-linear, Multiple-Link Robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.; Moya, M. M.
1987-01-01
Several approaches to complicated control problem examined. Report surveys methods for controlling motion of robot manipulators. Applies to coupled, highly nonlinear multiple-link robots. Presents adaptive control technique based on discrete linear model of robot arm, obtained by linearizing nonlinear dynamical equations about nominal trajectory. Parameters of model calculated with adaptive parameter-identification algorithm. Based on system model, optimal control input computed using position and velocity feedback.
Experimental investigation of linear and nonlinear wave systems: A quantum chaos approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neicu, Toni
2002-09-01
An experimental and numerical study of linear and nonlinear wave systems using methods and ideas developed from quantum chaos is presented. We exploit the analogy of the wave equation for the flexural modes of a thin clover-shaped acoustic plate to the stationary solutions of the Schrodinger wave equation for a quantum clover-shaped billiard, a generic system that has regular and chaotic regions in its phase space. We observed periodic orbits in the spectral properties of the acoustic plate, the first such definitive acoustic experiment. We also solved numerically the linear wave equation of the acoustic plate for the first few hundred eigenmodes. The Fourier transform of the eigenvalues show peaks corresponding to the principal periodic orbits of the classical billiard. The signatures of the periodic orbits in the spectra were unambiguously verified by deforming one edge of the plate and observing that only the peaks corresponding to the orbits that hit this edge changed. The statistical measures of the eigenvalues are intermediate between universal forms for completely integrable and chaotic systems. The density distribution of the eigenfunctions agrees with the Porter-Thomas formula of chaotic systems. The viscosity dependence and effects of nonlinearity on the Faraday surface wave patterns in a stadium geometry were also investigated. The ray dynamics inside the stadium, a paradigm of quantum chaos, is completely chaotic. The majority of the observed patterns of the orbits resemble three eigenstates of the stadium: the bouncing ball, longitudinal, and bowtie patterns. We observed many disordered patterns that increase with the viscosity. The experimental results were analyzed using recent theoretical work that explains the suppression of certain modes. The theory also predicts that the perimeter dissipation is too strong for whispering gallery modes, which contradicts our observations of these modes for a fluid with low viscosity. Novel vortex patterns were observed in a strongly nonlinear, dissipative granular system of vertically vibrated rods. Above a critical packing fraction, moving domains of nearly vertical rods were seen to coexist with horizontal rods. The vertical domains coarsen to form several large vortices, which were driven by the anisotropy and inclination of the rods.
Taylor, Richard
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 129-136. © 2011 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. The Art and Science of Foam Bubbles R. P. Taylor 1 of Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences. Denis Weaire, Stefan Hutzler, Wiebke Drenckhan form
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: Applications for Prediction of Weather and Climate
J. S. Pethkar; A. M. Selvam
2001-04-19
Turbulence, namely, irregular fluctuations in space and time characterize fluid flows in general and atmospheric flows in particular.The irregular,i.e., nonlinear space-time fluctuations on all scales contribute to the unpredictable nature of both short-term weather and long-term climate.It is of importance to quantify the total pattern of fluctuations for predictability studies. The power spectra of temporal fluctuations are broadband and exhibit inverse power law form with different slopes for different scale ranges. Inverse power-law form for power spectra implies scaling (self similarity) for the scale range over which the slope is constant. Atmospheric flows therefore exhibit multiple scaling or multifractal structure.Standard meteorological theory cannot explain satisfactorily the observed multifractal structure of atmospheric flows.Selfsimilar spatial pattern implies long-range spatial correlations. Atmospheric flows therefore exhibit long-range spatiotemporal correlations, namely,self-organized criticality,signifying order underlying apparent chaos. A recently developed non-deterministic cell dynamical system model for atmospheric flows predicts the observed self-organized criticality as intrinsic to quantumlike mechanics governing flow dynamics.The model predictions are in agreement with continuous periodogram spectral analysis of meteorological data sets.
A Self-Check System for Mental Health Care based on Nonlinear and Chaos Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Cheng, Huaichang; Tang, Yuan Guang
2007-11-01
We applied nonlinear and chaos analysis to fingertip pulse wave data. The largest Lyapunov exponent, a measure of the "divergence" of the trajectory of the attractor in phase space, was found to be a useful index of mental health in humans, particularly for the early detection of dementia and depressive psychosis, and for monitoring mental changes in healthy persons. Most of the methods used for assessing mental health are subjective. A few of existing objective methods, such as those using EEG and ECG, for example, are not simple to use and expansive. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use economical device, a PC mouse with an integrated sensor for measuring the pulse waves, and its required software, to make the measurements. After about 1 min of measurement, the Lyapunov exponent is calculated and displayed as a graph on the PC. An advantage of this system is that the measurements can be made very easily, and hence mental health can be assessed during operating a PC using the pulse wave mouse. Moreover, the measured data can be saved according to the time and date, so diurnal changes and changes over longer time periods can be monitored as a time series and history. At the time the pulse waves are measured, we ask the subject about his or her physical health and mood, and use their responses, along with the Lyapunov exponents, as factors causing variation in the divergence. The changes in the Lyapunov exponent are displayed on the PC as constellation graphs, which we developed to facilitate simpler self-diagnosis and problem resolution.
Louis Ehwerhemuepha; Godfrey E. Akpojotor
2013-06-05
The presence of physical systems whose characteristics change in a seemingly erratic manner gives rise to the study of chaotic systems. The characteristics of these systems are due to their hypersensitivity to changes in initial conditions. In order to understand chaotic systems, some sort of simulation and visualization is pertinent. Consequently, in this work, we have simulated and graphically visualized chaos in a driven nonlinear pendulum as a means of introducing chaotic systems. The visualized results obtained which highlight the hypersensitivity of the pendulum to initial conditions can be used to effectively introduce the physics of chaotic system. The simulation and visualization programme is written in Python codes.
Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link Between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function
stressors. Household Chaos and Parent Regulation Living in a calm predictable home is crucial to healthy.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father in socioeconomically distressed contexts. Keywords: parenting, executive function, environment, socioeconomic status
Milonni, P.W.
1989-01-01
The theoretical and experimental status of chaos in nonlinear optics and laser physics will be reviewed. Attention will then be focused on the possibility of chaotic behavior in individual atoms and molecules driven by intense radiation fields. 46 refs., 7 figs.
Goldstone, Robert
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 229-252. © 2011 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. Innovation, Imitation, and Problem-Solving in a Networked and performance. Rather than simply encouraging conformity, groups provided information to each individual about
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, January, 2005. © 2005 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. Dynamical Models of Happiness J. C. Sprott,1 University. The power of mathematics has rarely been applied to the dynamics of happiness, although some dynamical
Sprott, Julien Clinton
405 Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.405-407. © 2006 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Book Review Images of a Complex World: The Art and Poetry Theory in Psychology and Life Sciences, practitioners in diverse disciplines have come together to foster
Taylor, Richard
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-12. © 2015 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. Human Physiological Benefits of Viewing Nature: EEG. P. Taylor, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR Abstract: Psychological and physiological benefits
Taylor, Richard
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.91-96. © 2012 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. The Transience of Virtual Fractals R. P. Taylor 1 books, also known as peep show books, were popular as novelty souvenirs for tourist attractions
Non-linear dynamics for clinicians: chaos theory, fractals, and complexity at the bedside
of terms and concepts, such as non-linearity, fractals, periodic oscillations, bifurcations, and complexity the components of a non-linear network interact-ie, they are coupled. Examples include the interaction of abrupt, non-linear transitions is called a bifurcation.1,4 This term describes situations in which a very
D. M. Basko
2013-12-04
We study the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"oinger equation with weak disorder, focusing on the regime when the nonlinearity is, on the one hand, weak enough for the normal modes of the linear problem to remain well resolved, but on the other, strong enough for the dynamics of the normal mode amplitudes to be chaotic for almost all modes. We show that in this regime and in the limit of high temperature, the macroscopic density $\\rho$ satisfies the nonlinear diffusion equation with a density-dependent diffusion coefficient, $D(\\rho)=D_0\\rho^2$. An explicit expression for $D_0$ is obtained in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linear problem, which is then evaluated numerically. The role of the second conserved quantity (energy) in the transport is also quantitatively discussed.
Basko, D M
2014-02-01
We study the discrete nonlinear Schröinger equation with weak disorder, focusing on the regime when the nonlinearity is, on the one hand, weak enough for the normal modes of the linear problem to remain well resolved but, on the other, strong enough for the dynamics of the normal mode amplitudes to be chaotic for almost all modes. We show that in this regime and in the limit of high temperature, the macroscopic density ? satisfies the nonlinear diffusion equation with a density-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(?) = D(0)?(2). An explicit expression for D(0) is obtained in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linear problem, which is then evaluated numerically. The role of the second conserved quantity (energy) in the transport is also quantitatively discussed. PMID:25353559
Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.
1992-01-01
The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling), and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain; thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on an aluminum panel and a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained betwen the experimental and numerical results.
Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.
1992-01-01
The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanics of Cross-linked Rubbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The paper develops a general theory for finite rubber viscoelasticity, and specifies it in the form, convenient for solving problems important for rubber, tire and space industries. Based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a general nonlinear theory has been developed for arbitrary nonisothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids. In this theory, the constitutive equations are presented as the sum of known equilibrium (rubber elastic) and non-equilibrium (liquid polymer viscoelastic) terms. These equations are then simplified using several modeling arguments. Stability constraints for the proposed constitutive equations are also discussed. It is shown that only strong ellipticity criteria are applicable for assessing stability of the equations governing viscoelastic solids.
Quantum-mechanical research on nonlinear resonance and the problem of quantum chaos.
Ugulava, A; Chotorlishvili, L; Nickoladze, K
2004-08-01
The quantum-mechanical investigation of nonlinear resonance in terms of approximation to moderate nonlinearity is reduced to the investigation of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation. The eigenstates of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation are nondegenerate in a certain area of pumping amplitude values in the neighborhood of the classical separatrix. Outside this area, the system finds itself in a degenerate state for both small and large pumping amplitude values. Degenerate energy terms arise as a result of merging and branching of pairs of nondegenerate energy terms. Equations are obtained for finding the merging points of energy terms. These equations are solved by numerical methods. The main objective of this paper is to establish a quantum analog of the classical stochastic layer formed in the separatrix area. With this end in view, we consider a nonstationary quantum-mechanical problem of perturbation of the state of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation. It is shown that in passing through the branching point the system may pass from the pure state to the mixed one. At multiple passages through branching points there develops the irreversible process of "creeping" of the system to quantum states. In that case, the observed population of a certain number of levels can be considered, in our opinion, to be a quantum analog of the stochastic layer. The number of populated levels is defined by a perturbation amplitude. PMID:15447577
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tél, Tamás
2015-09-01
We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium
?umer, Slobodan
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non (Nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory) Quantum information theory Our group is also a part of the bigger program Quantum maps, quantum chaos, random matrix theory: wave-dynamics, wave-chaos, PT-symmetric Hamiltonians
Bradley, Elizabeth
1990-12-01
Most of the recent literature on chaos and nonlinear dynamics is written either for popular science magazine readers or for advanced mathematicians. This paper gives a broad introduction to this interesting and rapidly ...
Flach, Sergej
propagation due to exponentially localized normal modes (NMs) of the random potential. The significance of AL as t1/3 [14,15]. However when starting from a distributed single normal mode state, faster growthThe crossover from strong to weak chaos for nonlinear waves in disordered systems This article has
A Structure behind Primitive Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogasawara, Yoshihito
2015-06-01
Recently, a new concept, primitive chaos, has been proposed as a concept closely related to the fundamental problems of physics itself such as determinism, causality, free will, predictability, and irreversibility [
Measurement of nonlinear rheology of cross-linked biopolymer gels Chase P. Broedersz,ab
of shear thickening or thinning. By contrast, the nonlinear response of reconstituted cross-linking and stress generation. At a larger scale, most tissue cells are not viable when suspended in a fluid, exhibiting both a pronounced elastic stiffening212 and large, negative normal stress under applied shear.13
Dynamic non-linear response of cross-linked actin networks: an energy dissipation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Sayantan; Gardel, Margaret L.
2014-03-01
Cross-linked bio-polymer networks that primarily maintain the shape and rigidity in eukaryotic cells show striking non-linear mechanical properties. Here, we study the steady-state energy dissipation (Ediss) over a complete sinusoidal shear strain cycle for a macroscopic assembly of reconstituted network of actin filaments cross-linked with Filamin A, over wide range of strain amplitude and frequency values. For small values of the applied strain amplitudes (linear regime) Ediss increases monotonously with the increasing frequency over the entire frequency range studied but in the non-linear regime (larger applied strain amplitudes), a clear saturation in Ediss is observed at higher frequencies. Also, the normalized dissipated energy distribution binned over the fixed strain intervals along the shear cycle show frequency dependence in the nonlinear regime but remains frequency independent in the linear regime. Remarkably, the monotonously increasing behavior of Ediss with frequency is also observed in the non-linear regime when a more rigid cross-linker A-Actinin is used, suggesting the importance of flexibility of cross-linkers in controlling the non-linear mechanical response in this class of materials. MRSEC Kadanoff-Rice Post Doctoral Fellowship.
Chen, Zhiyu; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua; Guo, Yinghui; Jiang, Hengyun; Zhou, Tao
2013-09-01
A method to improve the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of analog photonic links has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which only consists of a phase modulator (PM), a polarizer and an optical filter. Such structure could compensate for the chromatic dispersion and the nonlinearity of the modulator simultaneously. In addition, by adjusting the states of polarization (SOPs) launching into the PM and the polarizer, the proposed scheme could also be reconfigured to mitigate the second harmonic nonlinearity induced by the photodetector. Experimental results show that the suppressions of the second-order and third-order intermodulation distortions (IMD2 & IMD3) are larger than 14-dB and 25.4-dB, respectively. Furthermore, the SFDR can achieve ~110-dB · Hz(4/5) for 40-km fiber transmission, which is 26-dB higher than that of the link without compensation. PMID:24103972
Nonlinear Optimization-Based Device-Free Localization with Outlier Link Rejection
Xiao, Wendong; Song, Biao; Yu, Xiting; Chen, Peiyuan
2015-01-01
Device-free localization (DFL) is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS) measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR) for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1) affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2) outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3) target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) approach. PMID:25853406
Nonlinear optimization-based device-free localization with outlier link rejection.
Xiao, Wendong; Song, Biao; Yu, Xiting; Chen, Peiyuan
2015-01-01
Device-free localization (DFL) is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS) measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR) for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1) affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2) outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3) target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) approach. PMID:25853406
Chaos in driven Alfven systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.; Mjolhus, E.
1990-01-01
The chaos in a one-dimensional system, which would be nonlinear stationary Alfven waves in the absence of an external driver, is characterized. The evolution equations are numerically integrated for the transverse wave magnetic field amplitude and phase using the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (DNLS), including resistive wave damping and a long-wavelength monochromatic, circularly polarized driver. A Poincare map analysis shows that, for the nondissipative (Hamiltonian) case, the solutions near the phase space (soliton) separatrices of this system become chaotic as the driver amplitude increases, and 'strong' chaos appears when the driver amplitude is large. The dissipative system exhibits a wealth of dynamical behavior, including quasiperiodic orbits, period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos, sudden transitions to chaos, and several types of strange attractors.
Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos for ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jin-Qing; Zhao, Geng; Zhou, Liu-Lai; Chen, Guanrong
Accelerator driven clean nuclear power system (ADS) as an innovative technique in the 21st century is among the most challenge of high-tech fields since it makes nuclear power system safer, cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable. ADS is very necessary option for sustainable development of nuclear energy in the 21st century. However, beam halo-chaos occurred in high-current accelerators of ADS has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of intensity ion beam.To understand the complex of beam halo-chaos, this paper analyzes one of the main physical mechanism for halo-chaos formation, i.e. nonlinear resonance overlapping routes to halo-chaos. Then some efficient nonlinear control methods of beam halo-chaos are presented. The simulation results demonstrate that the control methods we proposed are very effective for beam halo-chaos suppression.
Naraigh, Lennon O
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the theory of generic non-normal nonlinear evolutionary equations, with potential applications in Fluid Dynamics and Optics. Two theoretical models are presented. The first is a model two-level non-normal nonlinear system that not only highlights the phenomena of linear transient growth, subcritical transition and global modes, but is also of potential interest in its own right in the field of nonlinear optics. The second is the fairly familiar inhomogeneous nonlinear complex Ginzburg--Landau (CGL) equation. The two-level model is exactly solvable for the nonlinear global mode and its stability, while for the spatially-extended CGL equation, perturbative solutions for the global mode and its stability are presented, valid for inhomogeneities with arbitrary scales of spatial variation and global modes of small amplitude, corresponding to a scenario near criticality. For other scenarios, a numerical iterative nonlinear eigenvalue technique is preferred. Two global modes of different...
Compact discrete-time chaos generator circuit
Dudek, Piotr
Compact discrete-time chaos generator circuit P. Dudek and V.D. Juncu A three-transistor CMOS circuit is presented, with adjustable nonlinear characteristics, which can be used as a map that generates discrete-time chaotic signals. A method of constructing a chaos generator using two map circuits is also
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Náraigh, LennonÓ
2015-08-01
This paper is concerned with the theory of generic non-normal nonlinear evolutionary equations, with potential applications in Fluid Dynamics and Optics. Two theoretical models are presented. The first is a model two-level non-normal nonlinear system that not only highlights the phenomena of linear transient growth, subcritical transition and global modes, but is also of potential interest in its own right in the field of nonlinear optics. The second is the fairly familiar inhomogeneous nonlinear complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation. The two-level model is exactly solvable for the nonlinear global mode and its stability, while for the spatially-extended CGL equation, perturbative solutions for the global mode and its stability are presented, valid for inhomogeneities with arbitrary scales of spatial variation and global modes of small amplitude, corresponding to a scenario near criticality. For other scenarios, a numerical iterative nonlinear eigenvalue technique is preferred. Two global modes of different amplitudes are revealed in the numerical approach. For both the two-level system and the nonlinear CGL equation, the analytical calculations are supplemented with direct numerical simulation, thus showing the fate of unstable global modes. For the two-level model this results in unbounded growth of the full nonlinear equations. For the spatially-extended CGL model in the subcritical regime, the global mode of larger amplitude exhibits a 'one-sided' instability leading to a chaotic dynamics, while the global mode of smaller amplitude is always unstable (theory confirms this). However, advection can stabilize the mode of larger amplitude.
Lennon O. Naraigh
2015-01-06
This paper is concerned with the theory of generic non-normal nonlinear evolutionary equations, with potential applications in Fluid Dynamics and Optics. Two theoretical models are presented. The first is a model two-level non-normal nonlinear system that not only highlights the phenomena of linear transient growth, subcritical transition and global modes, but is also of potential interest in its own right in the field of nonlinear optics. The second is the fairly familiar inhomogeneous nonlinear complex Ginzburg--Landau (CGL) equation. The two-level model is exactly solvable for the nonlinear global mode and its stability, while for the spatially-extended CGL equation, perturbative solutions for the global mode and its stability are presented, valid for inhomogeneities with arbitrary scales of spatial variation and global modes of small amplitude, corresponding to a scenario near criticality. For other scenarios, a numerical iterative nonlinear eigenvalue technique is preferred. Two global modes of different amplitudes are revealed in the numerical approach. For both the two-level system and the nonlinear CGL equation, the analytical calculations are supplemented with direct numerical simulation, thus showing the fate of unstable global modes. For the two-level model this results in unbounded growth of the full nonlinear equations. For the spatially-extended CGL model in the subcritical regime, the global mode of larger amplitude exhibits a `one-sided' instability leading to a chaotic dynamics, while the global mode of smaller amplitude is always unstable (theory confirms this). However, advection can stabilize the mode of larger amplitude.
Quantum Correlations, Chaos and Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhok, Vaibhav
Quantum chaos is the study of quantum systems whose classical description is chaotic. How does chaos manifest itself in the quantum world? In this spirit, we study the dynamical generation of entanglement as a signature of chaos in a system of periodically kicked coupled-tops, where chaos and entanglement arise from the same physical mechanism. The long-time entanglement as a function of the position of an initially localized wave packet very closely correlates with the classical phase space surface of section - it is nearly uniform in the chaotic sea, and reproduces the detailed structure of the regular islands. The uniform value in the chaotic sea is explained by the random state conjecture. As classically chaotic dynamics take localized distributions in phase space to random distributions, quantized versions take localized coherent states to pseudo-random states in Hilbert space. Such random states are highly entangled, with an average value near that of the maximally entangled state. For a map with global chaos, we derive that value based on new analytic results for the entropy of random states. For a mixed phase space, we use the Percival conjecture to identify a "chaotic subspace" of the Hilbert space. The typical entanglement, averaged over the unitarily invariant Haar measure in this subspace, agrees with the long-time averaged entanglement for initial states in the chaotic sea. In all cases the dynamically generated entanglement is that of a random complex vector, even though the system is time-reversal invariant, and the Floquet operator is a member of the circular orthogonal ensemble. Continuing on our journey to find the footprints of chaos in the quantum world, we explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The measurement record is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top on a large ensemble of identical systems. We find an increase in the rate of information gain and hence higher fidelities in the process when the Floquet maps employed increase in chaoticity. We make predictions for the information gain using random matrix theory in the fully chaotic regime and show a remarkable agreement between the two. Finally we discuss how this approach can be used in general as a benchmark for information gain in an experimental implementation based on nonlinear dynamics of atomic spins measured weakly by the Faraday rotation of a laser probe. The last part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the nature of quantum correlations themselves. Quantum correlations are at the heart of the weirdness of quantum mechanics and at the same time serve as a resource for the potential benefits quantum information processing might provide. For example, Einstein described quantum entanglement as "spooky action at a distance". However, even entanglement does not fully capture the complete quantum character of a system. Quantum discord aims to fill this gap and captures essentially all the quantum correlations in a quantum state. There is a considerable interest in the research community about quantum discord, since there is evidence showing this very quantity as responsible for the exponential speed up of a certain class of quantum algorithms over classical ones. Now, an important question arises: Is discord just a mathematical construct or does it have a definable physical role in information processing? This thesis provides a link between quantum discord and an actual physical task involving communication between two parties. We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. We further derive a quantitative relation between the yield of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol in the presence of noise and the quantum discord of
On nonlinear Koopman's construction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majewski, W?adys?aw A.; Marciniak, Marcin
1997-12-01
We show that there exists a possibility for a nonlinear variant of Koopman's construction. This gives a natural way for introducing nonlinear quantum maps. Applications to quantum chaos are indicated.
The abundant symmetry structure of hierarchies of nonlinear equations obtained by reciprocal links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carillo, Sandra; Fuchssteiner, Benno
1989-07-01
Explicit computation for a Kawamoto-type equation shows that there is a rich associated symmetry structure for four separate hierarchies of nonlinear integrodifferential equations. Contrary to the general belief that symmetry groups for nonlinear evolution equations in 1+1 dimensions have to be Abelian, it is shown that, in this case, the symmetry group is noncommutative. Its semisimple part is isomorphic to the affine Lie algebra A(1)1 associated to sl(2,C). In two of the additional hierarchies that were found, an explicit dependence of the independent variable occurs. Surprisingly, the generic invariance for the Kawamoto-type equation obtained in Rogers and Carillo [Phys. Scr. 36, 865 (1987)] via a reciprocal link to the Möbius invariance of the singularity equation of the Kaup-Kupershmidt (KK) equation only holds for one of the additional hierarchies of symmetry groups. Thus the generic invariance is not a universal property for the complete symmetry group of equations obtained by reciprocal links. In addition to these results, the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of the hierarchy is given. A direct Bäcklund transformation between the (KK) hierarchy and the hierarchy of singularity equation for the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation is exhibited: This shows that the abundant symmetry structure found for the Kawamoto equation must exist for all fifth-order equations, which are known to be completely integrable since these equations are connected either by Bäcklund transformations or reciprocal links. It is shown that similar results must hold for all hierarchies emerging out of singularity hierarchies via reciprocal links. Furthermore, general aspects of the results are discussed.
PT-Symmetry-Breaking Chaos in Optomechanics.
Lü, Xin-You; Jing, Hui; Ma, Jin-Yong; Wu, Ying
2015-06-26
We demonstrate PT-symmetry-breaking chaos in an optomechanical system, which features an ultralow driving threshold. In principle, this chaos will emerge once a driving laser is applied to the cavity mode and lasts for a period of time. The driving strength is inversely proportional to the starting time of chaos. This originally comes from the dynamical enhancement of nonlinearity by field localization in the PT-symmetry-breaking phase. Moreover, this chaos is switchable by tuning the system parameters so that a PT-symmetry phase transition occurs. This work may fundamentally broaden the regimes of cavity optomechanics and nonlinear optics. It offers the prospect of exploring ultralow-power-laser-triggered chaos and its potential applications in secret communication. PMID:26197125
Reflective confocal laser scanning microscopy and nonlinear microscopy of cross-linked rabbit cornea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krueger, Alexander; Hovakimyan, Marina; Ramirez, Diego F.; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Heisterkamp, Alexander
2009-07-01
Cross-linking of the cornea with application of Ribovlavin and UV-A light is an evolving clinical treatment of the eye disease keratoconus. Despite the positive clinical track record of corneal cross-linking, the complex wound healing process after the treatment is still under investigation. In this study an animal model was used to clarify the state of wound healing 5 weeks after treatment. Cross-linked rabbit corneae were imaged with reflective confocal laser scanning and nonlinear microscopy, namely second harmonic imaging microscopy (SHIM) and two-photon excited autofluorescence. First results show that the NAD(P) H-autofluorescence of the corneal keratocytes and their scattering signal still show a signature of the treatment five weeks after the cross-linking procedure. The SHIM signals show the structural morphology of the fibrous collagen sheets in the stroma of the cornea. SHIM detected in the forward direction differs substantially from backward SHIM, but no signature of treatment was found in both detection channels of the SHIM signal.
The "Chaos" Pattern in Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindsay, Jean S.
Piaget's theory of the cognitive development of the child is related to the recently developed non-linear "chaos" model. The term "chaos" refers to the tendency of dynamical, non-linear systems toward irregular, sometimes unpredictable, deterministic behavior. Piaget identified this same pattern in his model of cognitive development in children.…
Brian R. Hunt; Edward Ott
2015-04-28
In this paper we propose, discuss and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy", and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy, to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, Brian R.; Ott, Edward
2015-09-01
In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.
Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward
2015-09-01
In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based. PMID:26428571
Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3)
Akerib, Daniel S.
Catalog Entry for PHYS 522: NONLINEAR OPTICS PHYS 522 (3) Nonlinear Optics (3) Classical and propagation. Properties of optical fibers and nonlinear materials. Theory of nonlinear propagation, solitons, inverse scattering transforms, optical chaos. Applications to lasers, optical violability, self
An introduction to chaos theory in CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, Thomas H.
1990-01-01
The popular subject 'chaos theory' has captured the imagination of a wide variety of scientists and engineers. CFD has always been faced with nonlinear systems and it is natural to assume that nonlinear dynamics will play a role at sometime in such work. This paper will attempt to introduce some of the concepts and analysis procedures associated with nonlinear dynamics theory. In particular, results from computations of an airfoil at high angle of attack which exhibits a sequence of bifurcations for single frequency unsteady shedding through period doublings cascading into low dimensional chaos are used to present and demonstrate various aspects of nonlinear dynamics in CFD.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, Jim
2003-01-01
Four theoretical streams--contexualism/ecology, systems theory, realism/constructivism, and chaos theory--contributed to a theory of individuals as complex, unique, nonlinear, adaptive chaotic and open systems. Individuals use purposive action to construct careers but can make maladaptive and inappropriate choices. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
Habib, S; Greenbaum, B; Jacobs, K; Shizume, K; Sundaram, B; Habib, Salman; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2005-01-01
The relationship between chaos and quantum mechanics has been somewhat uneasy -- even stormy, in the minds of some people. However, much of the confusion may stem from inappropriate comparisons using formal analyses. In contrast, our starting point here is that a complete dynamical description requires a full understanding of the evolution of measured systems, necessary to explain actual experimental results. This is of course true, both classically and quantum mechanically. Because the evolution of the physical state is now conditioned on measurement results, the dynamics of such systems is intrinsically nonlinear even at the level of distribution functions. Due to this feature, the physically more complete treatment reveals the existence of dynamical regimes -- such as chaos -- that have no direct counterpart in the linear (unobserved) case. Moreover, this treatment allows for understanding how an effective classical behavior can result from the dynamics of an observed quantum system, both at the level of t...
Apthorp, Deborah; Nagle, Fintan; Palmisano, Stephen
2014-01-01
Visually-induced illusions of self-motion (vection) can be compelling for some people, but they are subject to large individual variations in strength. Do these variations depend, at least in part, on the extent to which people rely on vision to maintain their postural stability? We investigated by comparing physical posture measures to subjective vection ratings. Using a Bertec balance plate in a brightly-lit room, we measured 13 participants' excursions of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) over a 60-second period with eyes open and with eyes closed during quiet stance. Subsequently, we collected vection strength ratings for large optic flow displays while seated, using both verbal ratings and online throttle measures. We also collected measures of postural sway (changes in anterior-posterior CoP) in response to the same visual motion stimuli while standing on the plate. The magnitude of standing sway in response to expanding optic flow (in comparison to blank fixation periods) was predictive of both verbal and throttle measures for seated vection. In addition, the ratio between eyes-open and eyes-closed CoP excursions during quiet stance (using the area of postural sway) significantly predicted seated vection for both measures. Interestingly, these relationships were weaker for contracting optic flow displays, though these produced both stronger vection and more sway. Next we used a non-linear analysis (recurrence quantification analysis, RQA) of the fluctuations in anterior-posterior position during quiet stance (both with eyes closed and eyes open); this was a much stronger predictor of seated vection for both expanding and contracting stimuli. Given the complex multisensory integration involved in postural control, our study adds to the growing evidence that non-linear measures drawn from complexity theory may provide a more informative measure of postural sway than the conventional linear measures. PMID:25462216
Kot, M.
1991-01-01
Much of the recent work in nonlinear dynamics has centered on new techniques for identifying order in seemingly chaotic systems. To determine the robustness of these techniques, chaos must, to some extent, be brought into the laboratory. Preliminary investigations of the forded double-Monod equations, a model for a predator and a prey in a chemostat with periodic variation of inflowing substrate, suggested that simple microbial systems might provide the perfect framework for determining the efficacy and relevance of the new nonlinear dynamics in dealing with complex population dynamics. Progress in two areas of research, mathematical analysis and computer simulation of the periodically forced double-Monod equations and of related models; and experimental (chemostat) population studies that evaluate the accuracy and generality of the models, (and also judge the usefulness of various new techniques of nonlinear dynamics to the study of populations) is reported.
Physicalism, Chaos and Reductionism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, Alwyn
In addition to ignoring the severe practical problems posed by decoherence phenomena, quantum mind hypotheses are motivated by a misunderstanding of the nature of classical (i. e. nonquantum) dynamics. As presently understood, nonlinear dynamical systems — of which the brain is clearly one — exhibit the twin phenomena of chaos and emergence. The first of these impedes reductionist formulations as does quantum theory, and the second leads to hierarchical structures in biological organisms and cognitive systems, which are difficult to analyze reductively. Thus a quantum mind theory must rest on empirical evidence rather than philosophical speculation.
Physics and Applications of Laser Diode Chaos
Sciamanna, Marc
2015-01-01
An overview of chaos in laser diodes is provided which surveys experimental achievements in the area and explains the theory behind the phenomenon. The fundamental physics underpinning this behaviour and also the opportunities for harnessing laser diode chaos for potential applications are discussed. The availability and ease of operation of laser diodes, in a wide range of configurations, make them a convenient test-bed for exploring basic aspects of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. It also makes them attractive for practical tasks, such as chaos-based secure communications and random number generation. Avenues for future research and development of chaotic laser diodes are also identified.
Physics and Applications of Laser Diode Chaos
Marc Sciamanna; K. Alan Shore
2015-07-31
An overview of chaos in laser diodes is provided which surveys experimental achievements in the area and explains the theory behind the phenomenon. The fundamental physics underpinning this behaviour and also the opportunities for harnessing laser diode chaos for potential applications are discussed. The availability and ease of operation of laser diodes, in a wide range of configurations, make them a convenient test-bed for exploring basic aspects of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. It also makes them attractive for practical tasks, such as chaos-based secure communications and random number generation. Avenues for future research and development of chaotic laser diodes are also identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David
2012-03-01
Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.
Applying Chaos Theory to Lesson Planning and Delivery
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cvetek, Slavko
2008-01-01
In this article, some of the ways in which thinking about chaos theory can help teachers and student-teachers to accept uncertainty and randomness as natural conditions in the classroom are considered. Building on some key features of complex systems commonly attributed to chaos theory (e.g. complexity, nonlinearity, sensitivity to initial…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris
1995-04-01
Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos in two-electron atoms R. Blümel and W. P. Reinhardt; Part III. Semiclassical Approximations: 20. Semiclassical theory of spectral rigidity M. V. Berry; 21. Semiclassical structure of trace formulas R. G. Littlejohn; 22. h-Expansion for quantum trace formulas P. Gaspard; 23. Pinball scattering B. Eckhardt, G. Russberg, P. Cvitanovic, P. E. Rosenqvist and P. Scherer; 24. Logarithm breaking time in quantum chaos G. P. Berman and G. M. Zaslavsky; 25. Semiclassical propagation: how long can it last? M. A. Sepulveda, S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller; 26. The quantized Baker's transformation N. L. Balazs and A. Voros; 27. Classical structures in the quantized baker transformation M. Saraceno; 28. Quantum nodal points as fingerprints of classical chaos P. Leboeuf and A. Voros; 29. Chaology of action billiards A. M. Ozorio de Almeida and M. A. M. de Aguiar; Part IV. Level Statistics and Random Matrix Theory: 30. Characterization of chaotic quantum spectra and universality of level fluctuation laws O. Bohigas, M. J. Giannono, and C. Schmit; 31. Quantum chaos, localization and band random matrices F. M. Izrailev; 32. Structural invariance in channel space: a step toward understanding chaotic scattering in quantum mechanics T. H. Seligman; 33. Spectral properties of a Fermi accelerating disk R. Badrinarayanan and J. J. José; 34. Spectral properties of systems with dynamical localization T. Dittrich and U. Smilansky; 35. Unbound quantum diffusion and fractal spectra T. Geisel, R. Ketzmerick and G. Petschel; 36. Microwave studies in irregularly shaped billiards H.-J. Stöckmann, J. Stein and M. Kollman; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris
2006-11-01
Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos in two-electron atoms R. Blümel and W. P. Reinhardt; Part III. Semiclassical Approximations: 20. Semiclassical theory of spectral rigidity M. V. Berry; 21. Semiclassical structure of trace formulas R. G. Littlejohn; 22. h-Expansion for quantum trace formulas P. Gaspard; 23. Pinball scattering B. Eckhardt, G. Russberg, P. Cvitanovic, P. E. Rosenqvist and P. Scherer; 24. Logarithm breaking time in quantum chaos G. P. Berman and G. M. Zaslavsky; 25. Semiclassical propagation: how long can it last? M. A. Sepulveda, S. Tomsovic and E. J. Heller; 26. The quantized Baker's transformation N. L. Balazs and A. Voros; 27. Classical structures in the quantized baker transformation M. Saraceno; 28. Quantum nodal points as fingerprints of classical chaos P. Leboeuf and A. Voros; 29. Chaology of action billiards A. M. Ozorio de Almeida and M. A. M. de Aguiar; Part IV. Level Statistics and Random Matrix Theory: 30. Characterization of chaotic quantum spectra and universality of level fluctuation laws O. Bohigas, M. J. Giannono, and C. Schmit; 31. Quantum chaos, localization and band random matrices F. M. Izrailev; 32. Structural invariance in channel space: a step toward understanding chaotic scattering in quantum mechanics T. H. Seligman; 33. Spectral properties of a Fermi accelerating disk R. Badrinarayanan and J. J. José; 34. Spectral properties of systems with dynamical localization T. Dittrich and U. Smilansky; 35. Unbound quantum diffusion and fractal spectra T. Geisel, R. Ketzmerick and G. Petschel; 36. Microwave studies in irregularly shaped billiards H.-J. Stöckmann, J. Stein and M. Kollman; Index.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03046 Iani Chaos
This image shows a small portion of Iani Chaos. The brighter floor material is being covered by sand, probably eroded from the mesas of the Chaos.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.7S, Longitude 341.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03200 Iani Chaos
This VIS image of Iani Chaos shows the layered deposit that occurs on the floor. It appears that the layers were deposited after the chaos was formed.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.3S, Longitude 342.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Missing link: A nonlinear post-Friedmann framework for small and large scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milillo, Irene; Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco; Maselli, Andrea
2015-07-01
We present a nonlinear post-Friedmann framework for structure formation, generalizing to cosmology the weak-field (post-Minkowskian) approximation, unifying the treatment of small and large scales. We consider a universe filled with a pressureless fluid and a cosmological constant ? , the theory of gravity is Einstein's general relativity and the background is the standard flat ? CDM cosmological model. We expand the metric and the energy-momentum tensor in powers of 1 /c , keeping the matter density and peculiar velocity as exact fundamental variables. We assume the Poisson gauge, including scalar and tensor modes up to 1 /c4 order and vector modes up to 1 /c5 terms. Through a redefinition of the scalar potentials as a resummation of the metric contributions at different orders, we obtain a complete set of nonlinear equations, providing a unified framework to study structure formation from small to superhorizon scales, from the nonlinear Newtonian to the linear relativistic regime. We explicitly show the validity of our scheme in the two limits: at leading order we recover the fully nonlinear equations of Newtonian cosmology; when linearized, our equations become those for scalar and vector modes of first-order relativistic perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge. Tensor modes are nondynamical at the 1 /c4 order we consider (gravitational waves only appear at higher order): they are purely nonlinear and describe a distortion of the spatial slices determined at this order by a constraint, quadratic in the scalar and vector variables. The main results of our analysis are as follows: (a) at leading order a purely Newtonian nonlinear energy current sources a frame-dragging gravitomagnetic vector potential, and (b) in the leading-order Newtonian regime and in the linear relativistic regime, the two scalar metric potentials are the same, while the nonlinearity of general relativity makes them different. Possible applications of our formalism include the calculations of the vector potential and the difference between the two scalar potentials from Newtonian N-body simulations, and the extension of Newtonian approximations used in structure formation studies, to include relativistic effects.
Chaos and Quantum Chaos in Nuclear Systems
Luca Salasnich
1995-10-15
The presence of chaos and quantum chaos is shown in two different nuclear systems. We analyze the chaotic behaviour of the classical SU(2) Yang--Mills--Higgs system, and then we study quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model calculating the spectral statistics of $A=46$--$50$ atomic nuclei.
P T -Symmetry-Breaking Chaos in Optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Xin-You; Jing, Hui; Ma, Jin-Yong; Wu, Ying
2015-06-01
We demonstrate P T -symmetry-breaking chaos in an optomechanical system, which features an ultralow driving threshold. In principle, this chaos will emerge once a driving laser is applied to the cavity mode and lasts for a period of time. The driving strength is inversely proportional to the starting time of chaos. This originally comes from the dynamical enhancement of nonlinearity by field localization in the P T -symmetry-breaking phase. Moreover, this chaos is switchable by tuning the system parameters so that a P T -symmetry phase transition occurs. This work may fundamentally broaden the regimes of cavity optomechanics and nonlinear optics. It offers the prospect of exploring ultralow-power-laser-triggered chaos and its potential applications in secret communication.
Nonlinear dynamics experiments in plasmas
Nurujjaman, Md
2009-01-01
The study of nonlinear dynamics or chaos theory has emerged in the last three decades or so as an important interdisciplinary area of research encompassing a wide range of fields like: fluids, plasmas, biomedical sciences, finance, turbulence, astronomy, material sciences, etc. In plasma chaos was first experimentally observed by Boswell. Different other nonlinear dynamics related phenomena like, the intermittency route to a chaos, Homoclinic chaos, Period adding route to chaos and period subtracting, mode locking, period pulling, etc., had been observed by several researchers. In this thesis, we have presented (a) anode glow related observation of chaos to order transition and homoclinic bifurcation; (b) coherence resonance and stochastic resonance; and self organized criticality behavior in glow discharge plasma.
Quantum chaos in an ultrastrongly coupled bosonic junction.
Naether, Uta; García-Ripoll, Juan José; Mazo, Juan José; Zueco, David
2014-02-21
The semiclassical and quantum dynamics of two ultrastrongly coupled nonlinear resonators cannot be explained using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation or the Bose-Hubbard model, respectively. Instead, a model beyond the rotating wave approximation must be studied. In the semiclassical limit this model is not integrable and becomes chaotic for a finite window of parameters. For the quantum dimer we find corresponding regions of stability and chaos. The more striking consequence for both semiclassical and quantum chaos is that the tunneling time between the sites becomes unpredictable. These results, including the transition to chaos, can be tested in experiments with superconducting microwave resonators. PMID:24579602
Habib, Salman; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2005-06-01
The relationship between chaos and quantum mechanics has been somewhat uneasy--even stormy, in the minds of some people. However, much of the confusion may stem from inappropriate comparisons using formal analyses. In contrast, our starting point here is that a complete dynamical description requires a full understanding of the evolution of measured systems, necessary to explain actual experimental results. This is of course true, both classically and quantum mechanically. Because the evolution of the physical state is now conditioned on measurement results, the dynamics of such systems is intrinsically nonlinear even at the level of distribution functions. Due to this feature, the physically more complete treatment reveals the existence of dynamical regimes--such as chaos--that have no direct counterpart in the linear (unobserved) case. Moreover, this treatment allows for understanding how an effective classical behavior can result from the dynamics of an observed quantum system, both at the level of trajectories as well as distribution functions. Finally, we have the striking prediction that time-series from measured quantum systems can be chaotic far from the classical regime, with Lyapunov exponents differing from their classical values. These predictions can be tested in next-generation experiments. PMID:15980320
Salman Habib; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Benjamin Greenbaum; Kurt Jacobs; Kosuke Shizume; Bala Sundaram
2005-05-11
The relationship between chaos and quantum mechanics has been somewhat uneasy -- even stormy, in the minds of some people. However, much of the confusion may stem from inappropriate comparisons using formal analyses. In contrast, our starting point here is that a complete dynamical description requires a full understanding of the evolution of measured systems, necessary to explain actual experimental results. This is of course true, both classically and quantum mechanically. Because the evolution of the physical state is now conditioned on measurement results, the dynamics of such systems is intrinsically nonlinear even at the level of distribution functions. Due to this feature, the physically more complete treatment reveals the existence of dynamical regimes -- such as chaos -- that have no direct counterpart in the linear (unobserved) case. Moreover, this treatment allows for understanding how an effective classical behavior can result from the dynamics of an observed quantum system, both at the level of trajectories as well as distribution functions. Finally, we have the striking prediction that time-series from measured quantum systems can be chaotic far from the classical regime, with Lyapunov exponents differing from their classical values. These predictions can be tested in next-generation experiments.
Antonio Leon
2008-04-18
The first part of this paper defines recursive interactions by means of logistic functions and derives a general result on the way interacting systems evolve in attractors. It also defines the notion of coevolution trajectory and presents a new family of attractors: orbital attractors (including single, irregular, folded, complex and discontinuous orbits). The second part summarizes the results of a first experimental analysis of recursive interactions in both binary and multiple interactions. Among other results, this analysis reveals that interacting systems may easily evolve from chaos to order.
Experimental Evidence of Chaos from Memristors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Gale, Ella
Until now, most memristor-based chaotic circuits proposed in the literature are based on mathematical models which assume ideal characteristics such as piecewise-linear or cubic nonlinearities. The idea, illustrated here and originating from the experimental approach for device characterization, is to realize a chaotic system exploiting the nonlinearity of only one memristor with a very simple experimental set-up using feedback. In this way, a simple circuit is obtained and chaos is experimentally observed and is confirmed by the calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Numerical results using the Strukov model support the existence of robust chaos in our circuit. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of chaos in a real memristor circuit and suggests that memristors are well placed for hardware encryption.
Experimental evidence of chaos from memristors
L. V. Gambuzza; L. Fortuna; M. Frasca; E. Gale
2015-04-24
Until now, most memristor-based chaotic circuits proposed in the literature are based on mathematical models which assume ideal characteristics such as piece-wise linear or cubic non-linearities. The idea, illustrated here and originating from the experimental approach for device characterization, is to realize a chaotic system exploiting the non-linearity of only one memristor with a very simple experimental set-up using feedback. In this way a simple circuit is obtained and chaos is experimentally observed and is confirmed by the calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Numerical results using the Strukov model support the existence of robust chaos in our circuit. This is the first experimental demonstration of chaos in a real memristor circuit and suggests that memristors are well placed for hardware encryption.
Improvement and empirical research on chaos control by theory of "chaos?+?chaos?=?order".
Fulai, Wang
2012-12-01
This paper focuses on advancing the understanding of Parrondian effects and their paradoxical behavior in nonlinear dynamical systems. Some examples are given to show that a dynamics combined by more than two discrete chaotic dynamics in deterministic manners can give rise to order when combined. The chaotic maps in our study are more general than those in the current literatures as far as "chaos + chaos?=?order" is concerned. Some problems left over in the current literatures are solved. It is proved both theoretically and numerically that, given any m chaotic dynamics generated by the one-dimensional real Mandelbrot maps, it is no possible to get a periodic system when all the m chaotic dynamics are alternated in random manner, but for any integer m(m ? 2) a dynamics combined in deterministic manner by m Mandelbrot chaotic dynamics can be found to give rise to a periodic dynamics of m periods. Numerical and mathematical analysis prove that the paradoxical phenomenon of "chaos + chaos?=?order" also exist in the dynamics generated by non-Mandelbrot maps. PMID:23278080
Kot, M.
1990-07-01
A recurrent theme of much recent research is that seemingly random fluctuations often occur as the result of simple deterministic mechanisms. Hence, much of the recent work in nonlinear dynamics has centered on new techniques for identifying order in seemingly chaotic systems. To determine the robustness of these techniques, chaos must, to some extent, be brought into the laboratory. Preliminary investigations of the forced double-Monod equations, a model for a predator and a prey in a chemostat with periodic variation in inflowing substrate concentration, suggest that simple microbial systems may provide the perfect framework for determining the efficacy and relevance of the new nonlinear dynamics in dealing with complex population dynamics. This research has two main goals, that is the mathematical analysis and computer simulation of the periodically forced double-Monod equations and of related models; and experimental (chemostat) population studies that evaluate the accuracy and generality of the models, and that judge the usefulness of various new techniques of nonlinear dynamics to the study of populations.
Chaos breaking mechanism in solitary VCSELs
Virte, Martin
2015-01-01
In this letter, a new mechanism limiting the range of parameters for which polarization chaos dynamics in solitary VCSELs can appear is theoretically highlighted and investigated. We show that, even though another linearly polarized steady-state is stable, polarization chaos can appear because an unstable periodic orbit isolates the two dynamics. In certain conditions, however, this barrier becomes ineffective leading to the complete disappearance of the chaotic dynamics. Here, we clarify this mechanism and its effect on the VCSEL dynamics. In addition, we link the emergence of a different barrier orbit to a qualitative change in the polarization chaos dynamics.
Chaos breaking mechanism in solitary VCSELs
Martin Virte
2015-10-22
In this letter, a new mechanism limiting the range of parameters for which polarization chaos dynamics in solitary VCSELs can appear is theoretically highlighted and investigated. We show that, even though another linearly polarized steady-state is stable, polarization chaos can appear because an unstable periodic orbit isolates the two dynamics. In certain conditions, however, this barrier becomes ineffective leading to the complete disappearance of the chaotic dynamics. Here, we clarify this mechanism and its effect on the VCSEL dynamics. In addition, we link the emergence of a different barrier orbit to a qualitative change in the polarization chaos dynamics.
Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos
Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2013-12-15
In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x–y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Released 11 November 2003
Aureum Chaos is a large crater that was filled with sediment after its formation. After the infilling of sediment, something occurred that caused the sediment to be broken up into large, slumped blocks and smaller knobs. Currently, it is believed that the blocks and knobs form when material is removed from the subsurface, creating void space. Subsurface ice was probably heated, and the water burst out to the surface, maybe forming a temporary lake. Other areas of chaos terrain have large outflow channels that emanate from them, indicating that a tremendous amount of water was released.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -3.2, Longitude 331 East (29 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
At the easternmost end of Valles Marineris, a rugged, jumbled terrain known as chaos displays a stratigraphy that could be described as precarious. Perched on top of the jumbled blocks is another layer of sedimentary material that is in the process of being eroded off the top. This material is etched by the wind into yardangs before it ultimately is stripped off to reveal the existing chaos.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -7.8, Longitude 19.1 East (340.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
High-dimensional chaos from self-sustained collisions of solitons
Yildirim, O. Ozgur E-mail: oozgury@gmail.com; Ham, Donhee E-mail: oozgury@gmail.com
2014-06-16
We experimentally demonstrate chaos generation based on collisions of electrical solitons on a nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear line creates solitons, and an amplifier connected to it provides gain to these solitons for their self-excitation and self-sustenance. Critically, the amplifier also provides a mechanism to enable and intensify collisions among solitons. These collisional interactions are of intrinsically nonlinear nature, modulating the phase and amplitude of solitons, thus causing chaos. This chaos generated by the exploitation of the nonlinear wave phenomena is inherently high-dimensional, which we also demonstrate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huwe, Terence K.
2009-01-01
"Embracing the chaos" is an ongoing challenge for librarians. Embracing the chaos means librarians must have a plan for responding to the flood of new products, widgets, web tools, and gizmos that students use daily. In this article, the author argues that library instruction and access services have been grappling with that chaos with some degree…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenfield, Margo; McGrane, Shawn; Bolme, Cindy; Chavez, David; Veauthier, Jacqueline; Hanson, Susan; Myers, Thomas; Scharff, Jason
2015-06-01
In general, conventional molecular explosives are white to off-white in color and only absorb ultraviolet light. A novel approach to synthetically link optically active energetic chromophores to existing molecular energetic materials has resulted in increased photoactivity in the visible (532 nm) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Tetrazine, an energetic optically active chromophore, which absorbs around 532 nm, has been derivatized with various energetic materials including pentaeythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitroglycerine (NG) and dinitroazetidine (DNAZ). We report the corresponding photochemistry and photochemical quantum yields of these new materials under various wavelength and intensity regimes.
Stochastic Representation of Chaos using Terminal Attractors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A nonlinear version of the Liouville equation based upon terminal attractors is proposed for describing post-instability motions of dynamical systems with exponential divergence of trajectories such as those leading to chaos and turbulence. As a result, the post-instability motions are represented by expectations, variances, and higher moments of the state variables as functions of time. The proposed approach can be applied to conservative chaos, and in particular, to n-bodies problem, as well as to dissipative systems, and in particular, to chaotic attractors and turbulence.
Subharmonics, chaos and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Laszlo; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.
2012-05-01
While studying finite amplitude ultrasonic wave resonance in a one dimensional liquid-filled cavity formed by a narrow band transducer and a plane reflector, subharmonics of the driver's frequency were observed (1,2) in addition to the expected harmonic structure. Subsequently, it was realized that the system was one of the many examples of parametric resonance in which the observed subharmonics are parametrically generated. The generation mechanism also requires a sufficiently high threshold value of the driving amplitude so that the system becomes increasingly nonlinear in response. The nonlinear features were recently investigated and are the focus of this paper. An ultrasonic interferometer with optical precision was built. The transducers were compressional, undamped quartz and Lithium Niobate crystals ranging from 1-10 MHz, driven by a high power amplifier. Both an optical diffraction system and a receiver transducer attached to an aligned reflector were used to observe the generated frequency components in the cavity. There are at least 5 regions of excitation that were identified. It is shown that from a region of oscillation stability into an unstable region leads to a cascade of bifurcations (subharmonics) culminating in chaotic oscillations. A further increase in the amplitude results in a reversion of the chaos into a second region of stability. A first-principle based explanation of the experimental findings is presented.
Taylor, Richard
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 145-154. © 2009 Society to contribute to the culture of aesthetics and philosophy. Proportional systems such as Phi or the Fibonacci
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Collapsed terrain in Hydapsis Chaos.
This is the source terrain for several outflow channels. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
VIS Instrument. Latitude 3.2, Longitude 333.2 East. 19 meter/pixel resolution.
Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R
2013-03-01
We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x = 0 for any t ? 0. Here, u(s)(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations. PMID:23521260
Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.
2014-06-10
The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvénic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.
Anlage, Steven
MUMURI onRI on ""The Effects of HighThe Effects of High Power Microwaves and Chaos in 21Power on semiconductor devices, circuits and systems (a)Modeling from basic equations of physics (b) Experimental studies of chaos and nonlinear RF effects in high speed circuits and digital systems D. Boise State Univ. studies
Abraham, N.B.; Arecchi, F.T.; Lugiato, L.A.
1988-01-01
The following topics are considered: laser and maser instabilities, classical and quantum noise, transverse effects, dynamics in optical bistability and nonlinear optical media, and methods of analysis in nonlinear dynamics. Particular papers are presented on multistability and chaos in a two-photon microscopic maser, quantum chaos in quantum optics, spatial chaos in bistable optical arrays, four-wave mixing and dynamics, and bifurcation problems in nonlinear optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, Dongyul; Juhasz, Tibor; Brown, Donald J.; Jester, James V.
2013-03-01
In this study we test the hypothesis that nonlinear optical (NLO) multiphoton photoactivation of riboflavin using a focused femtosecond (FS) laser light can be used to induce cross-linking (CXL) and mechanically stiffen collagen as a potential clinical therapy for the treatment of keratoconus and corneal ectasia. Riboflavin-soaked, compressed collagen hydrogels are cross-linked using a FS laser tuned to 760 nm and set to either 100 mW (NLO CXL I) or 150 mW (NLO CXL II) of laser power. FS pulses are focused into the hydrogel using a 0.75 NA objective lens, and the hydrogel is three-dimensionally scanned. Measurement of hydrogel stiffness by indentation testing show that the calculated elastic modulus (E) values are significantly increased over twofold following NLO CXL I and II compared with baseline values (P<0.05). Additionally, no significant differences are detected between NLO CXL and single photon, UVA CXL (P>0.05). This data suggests that NLO CXL has a comparable effect to conventional UVA CXL in mechanically stiffening collagen and may provide a safe and effective approach to localize CXL at different regions and depths within the cornea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaponov-Grekhov, Andrei V.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Engelbrecht, Jüri
Since 1972 the Schools on Nonlinear Physics in Gorky have been a meeting place for Soviet Scientists working in this field. Since 1989 the proceedings appear in English. They present a good cross section of nonlinear physics in the USSR. This third volume emerged from material presented at the 1989 School. It contains sections dealing with nonlinear problems in physics and astrophysics, quantum and solid state physics, dynamical chaos and self-organization.
THEORY OF SECULAR CHAOS AND MERCURY'S ORBIT
Lithwick, Yoram; Wu Yanqin
2011-09-20
We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, which dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities modify the frequencies, and can shift them into and out of resonance with either the planets' eigenfrequencies (forming eccentricity or inclination secular resonances), or with linear combinations of those frequencies (forming mixed high-order secular resonances). The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drives secular chaos. We calculate the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances, display them together on a newly developed map (the 'map of the mean momenta'), and find good agreement between analytical and numerical results. This map also graphically demonstrates how chaos emerges from overlapping secular resonances. We then apply this newfound understanding to Mercury to elucidate the origin of its orbital chaos. We find that since Mercury's two free precession frequencies (in eccentricity and inclination) lie within {approx}25% of two other eigenfrequencies in the solar system (those of the Jupiter-dominated eccentricity mode and the Venus-dominated inclination mode), secular resonances involving these four modes overlap and cause Mercury's chaos. We confirm this with N-body integrations by showing that a slew of these resonant angles alternately librate and circulate. Our new analytical understanding allows us to calculate the criterion for Mercury to become chaotic: Jupiter and Venus must have eccentricity and inclination of a few percent. The timescale for Mercury's chaotic diffusion depends sensitively on the forcing. As it is, Mercury appears to be perched on the threshold for chaos, with an instability timescale comparable to the lifetime of the solar system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
This false color image was collected during Southern Fall and shows part of the Aureum Chaos.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -3.6, Longitude 332.9 East (27.1 West). 35 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Chaos in the Kepler System C. Chicone , B. Mashhoony and D. G. Retzlo z
Chicone, Carmen
Chaos in the Kepler System C. Chicone , B. Mashhoony and D. G. Retzlo z The long-term dynamical dimensional Kepler system. Speci cally, we consider the nonlinear evolution of the relative orbit due Kepler problem 1], we have found evidence for transient chaos. Speci cally, we have considered in our
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guess, Doug; Sailor, Wayne
1993-01-01
An introduction to the concepts and terminology of chaos science and a discussion of its implications for the behavioral and social sciences are provided. The paper points out that chaos science assumptions pertaining to nonlinearity, controlled randomness, and dynamic system modeling offer challenging new directions to assessment and intervention…
Oestreicher, Christian
2007-01-01
Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely although they can be predicted to some extent in line with the chaos theory Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory, A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865
Decoherence, determinism and chaos
Noyes, H.P.
1994-01-01
The author claims by now to have made his case that modern work on fractals and chaos theory has already removed the presumption that classical physics is `deterministic`. Further, he claims that in so far as classical relativistic field theory (i.e. electromagnetism and gravitation) are scale invariant, they are self-consistent only if the idea of `test-particle` is introduced from outside the theory. Einstein spent the last years of his life trying to use singularities in the metric as `particles` or to get them out of the non-linearities in a grand unified theory -- in vain. So classical physics in this sense cannot be the fundamental theory. However, the author claims to have shown that if he introduces a `scale invariance bounded from below` by measurement accuracy, then Tanimura`s generalization of the Feynman proof as reconstructed by Dyson allows him to make a consistent classical theory for decoherent sources sinks. Restoring coherence to classical physics via relativistic action-at-a distance is left as a task for the future. Relativistic quantum mechanics, properly reconstructed from a finite and discrete basis, emerges in much better shape. The concept of `particles has to be replaced by NO-YES particulate events, and particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation properly formulated.
Quantum Chaos and Quantum Computing Structures
Carlos Pedro Gonçalves
2012-08-13
A system of quantum computing structures is introduced and proven capable of making emerge, on average, the orbits of classical bounded nonlinear maps on \\mathbb{C} through the iterative action of path-dependent quantum gates. The effects of emerging nonlinear dynamics and chaos upon the quantum averages of relevant observables and quantum probabilities are exemplified for a version of Chirikov's standard map on \\mathbb{C} . Both the individual orbits and ensemble properties are addressed so that the Poincar\\'e map for Chirikov's standard map, in the current quantum setting, is reinterpreted in terms of a quantum ensemble which is then formally introduced within the formalized system of quantum computing structures, in terms of quantum register machines, revealing three phases of quantum ensemble dynamics: the regular, the chaotic and an intermediate phase called complex quantum stochastic phase which shares similarities to the edge of chaos notion from classical cellular automata and classical random boolean networks' evolutionary computation.
Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators
Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie
2014-03-31
Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.
ASYMPTOTIC AND INCREASING PROPAGATION OF CHAOS EXPANSIONS FOR GENEALOGICAL PARTICLE MODELS
Del Moral , Pierre
ASYMPTOTIC AND INCREASING PROPAGATION OF CHAOS EXPANSIONS FOR GENEALOGICAL PARTICLE MODELS PIERRE with genealogical tree models. Applications to nonlinear filtering problems and interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms are discussed. Key words. Interacting particle systems, historical and genealogical tree models
Understanding Chaos via Nuclei
Pavel Cejnar; Pavel Stránský
2014-10-14
We use two models of nuclear collective dynamics - the geometric collective model and the interacting boson model - to illustrate principles of classical and quantum chaos. We propose these models as a suitable testing ground for further elaborations of the general theory of chaos in both classical and quantum domains.
Understanding chaos via nuclei
Cejnar, Pavel; Stránský, Pavel
2014-01-08
We use two models of nuclear collective dynamics-the geometric collective model and the interacting boson model-to illustrate principles of classical and quantum chaos. We propose these models as a suitable testing ground for further elaborations of the general theory of chaos in both classical and quantum domains.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moseley, Bryan; Dustin, Daniel
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors advance a metaphor born of chaos theory that views the college classroom as a complex dynamical system. The authors reason further that "teaching as chaos" provides a more accurate representation of the teaching-learning process than the existing linear scientific metaphors on which traditional learning assessments are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, David
2011-01-01
About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…
Marat Akhmet; Mehmet Onur Fen
2012-09-09
A new phenomenon, entrainment of chaos, which is understood as a seizure of an irregular behavior by limit cycles, is discussed. As a result, chaotic cycles appear if the chaos amplitude is small. Otherwise, the chaos is not necessarily cyclic, if the perturbations are strong and/or diameter of the limit cycle is small. Sensitivity as a main and a unique ingredient is considered and, in addition, period-doubling route to chaos is chosen for extension. The results may be of strong importance for engineering sciences, brainwaves and biomusicology phenomena as well as can be developed for hydrodynamics. Theoretical results are supported by simulations and discussions over Chua's oscillators, entrainment of chaos by toroidal attractors and controlling problems. Moreover, through an example, by means of the Lyapunov functions method, a chaotic attractor is provided.
Quantum chaos in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations
Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Bulgakov, E.N.; Krive, I.V.
1995-10-01
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a mesoscopic ballistic ring are considered under the influence of a resonant magnetic field with one and two frequencies. The authors investigate the oscillations of the time-averaged electron energy at zero temperature in the regime of an isolated quantum nonlinear resonance and at the transition to quantum chaos, when two quantum nonlinear resonances overlap. It is shown that the time-averaged energy exhibits resonant behavior as a function of the magnetic flux, and has a ``staircase`` dependence on the amplitude of the external field. The delocalization of the quasi-energy eigenfunctions is analyzed.
Probability Simulations by Non-Lipschitz Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
1996-01-01
It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-Lipschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices. Self-organizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed.
Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics
Davis, M.J.
1993-12-01
Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandrup, H. E.
2002-09-01
This talk summarises a combined theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of chaos and transient chaos in time-dependent Hamiltonian systems which aim to model elliptical galaxies. The existence of large amounts of chaos in near-equilibrium configurations is of potential importance because configurations incorporating large numbers of chaotic orbits appear to be substantially more susceptible than nearly integrable systems to various irregularities associated with, e.g., internal substructures, satellite galaxies, and/or the effects of a high density environment. Alternatively, transient chaos, reflecting exponential sensitivity over comparatively short time intervals, can prove important by significantly increasing the overall efficiency of violent relaxation so as to facilitate a more rapid evolution towards a `well-mixed' equilibrium. Completely conclusive `smoking gun' evidence for chaos and chaotic mixing has not yet been obtained, although evidence for the presence of chaos can in principle be extracted from such data sets as provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Interestingly, however, arguments completely analogous to those applied to self-gravitating systems also suggest the presence of chaos in charged particle beams, a setting which is amenable to controlled experiments.
Regularity and chaos in 0+ states of the interacting boson model using quantum measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karampagia, S.; Bonatsos, Dennis; Casten, R. F.
2015-05-01
Background: Statistical measures of chaos have long been used in the study of chaotic dynamics in the framework of the interacting boson model. The use of large numbers of bosons renders possible additional studies of chaos that can provide a direct comparison with similar classical studies of chaos. Purpose: We intend to provide complete quantum chaotic dynamics at zero angular momentum in the vicinity of the arc of regularity and link the results of the study of chaos using statistical measures with those of the study of chaos using classical measures. Method: Statistical measures of chaos are applied on the spectrum and the transition intensities of 0+ states in the framework of the interacting boson model. Results: The energy dependence of chaos is provided for the first time using statistical measures of chaos. The position of the arc of regularity was also found to be stable in the limit of large boson numbers. Conclusions: The results of the study of chaos using statistical measures are consistent with previous studies using classical measures of chaos, as well as with studies using statistical measures of chaos, but for small number of bosons and states with angular momentum greater than 2.
Enacting a Chaos Theory Curriculum through Computer Interactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iseke-Barnes, Judith M.
1997-01-01
Examines human-computer interaction from two views of cognition: the representationist view and the enactivist perspective. A chaos-theory context is discussed from an enactivist stance. In this context, high school students manipulate nonlinear dynamic computer programs. Implications of the enactive stance for education and research are also…
Organisational Leadership and Chaos Theory: Let's Be Careful
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galbraith, Peter
2004-01-01
This article addresses issues associated with applications of ideas from "chaos theory" to educational administration and leadership as found in the literature. Implications are considered in relation to claims concerning the behaviour of non-linear dynamic systems, and to the nature of the interpretations and recommendations that are made. To aid…
Ecosystem Simulations and Chaos on the Graphing Calculator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinn, Robb
2007-01-01
An eighth grade algebra class used graphing calculators to simulate ecosystems. One simulation introduced mathematical chaos. The activities exposed the students to nonlinear patterns and modeling. The rate-of-change investigations related the ideas of intercept and slope to the changing equilibrium. The chaotic model intrigued them and was useful…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-344, 28 April 2003
This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image mosaic was constructed from data acquired by the MOC red wide angle camera. The large, circular feature in the upper left is Aram Chaos, an ancient impact crater filled with layered sedimentary rock that was later disrupted and eroded to form a blocky, 'chaotic' appearance. To the southeast of Aram Chaos, in the lower right of this picture, is Iani Chaos. The light-toned patches amid the large blocks of Iani Chaos are known from higher-resolution MOC images to be layered, sedimentary rock outcrops. The picture center is near 0.5oN, 20oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.
Chaos, Fractals, and Polynomials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tylee, J. Louis; Tylee, Thomas B.
1996-01-01
Discusses chaos theory; linear algebraic equations and the numerical solution of polynomials, including the use of the Newton-Raphson technique to find polynomial roots; fractals; search region and coordinate systems; convergence; and generating color fractals on a computer. (LRW)
Stochastic Representation of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2006-01-01
A nonlinear version of the Liouville equation based on terminal attractors is part of a mathematical formalism for describing postinstability motions of dynamical systems characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism can be applied to both conservative systems (e.g., multibody systems in celestial mechanics) and dissipative systems (e.g., viscous fluids). The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Valluri, Monica; Pearson, Sarah; Kupper, Andreas Hans Wilhelm; Hogg, David W.
2016-01-01
Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos around galaxies should be triaxial in shape with universal density profiles. A significant number of orbits in such systems are chaotic, though it is commonly assumed that chaos is not dynamically relevant for galaxy halos because the timescales over which chaos is computed to be important are generally long relative to the dynamical time. In recent work, we showed that even when chaos is not important for restructuring the global structure of a galaxy, chaos can greatly enhance the density evolution and alter the morphologies of stellar streams over just a few orbital times by causing streams to 'fan out.' This occurs because the orbits of the stars in stellar streams have small distributions of fundamental frequencies and are therefore sensitive to mild chaos that modulates the frequencies on small-scales over much faster timescales. This suggests that the morphology of tidal streams alone can be used to estimate the significance of chaos along the orbits of the progenitor systems, thereby placing constraints on the global properties of the gravitational potential. I will explain our theoretical understanding of this phenomenon and discuss implications for a recently discovered stellar stream (the Ophiuchus stream) that may be on a chaotic orbit in the inner Milky Way due to the influence of the time-dependent, triaxial potential of the Galactic bar.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glasser, L.
1989-01-01
The evolution of ideas about the concept of chaos is surveyed. Discussed are chaos in deterministic, dynamic systems; order in dissipative systems; and thermodynamics and irreversibility. Included are logistic and bifurcation maps to illustrate points made in the discussion. (CW)
Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devaney, Robert L.
2004-01-01
Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.
Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackerby, Rae Fortunato
This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in still other cases, they oscillate periodically among two or more precise values. At certain values, the equations iterate random results, with no convergence, divergence or periodicity: "chaos." At still other values, the equations behave chaotically for many iterations; then a periodic oscillation emerges from the chaos. These emergent patterns provide a significantly better model fit to the dynamic reality of psychological behavior because qualitatively reorganized behavior is logically possible and incorporated in the model's metaphysical assumptions.
Theory of Secular Chaos and Mercury's Orbit
Lithwick, Yoram
2010-01-01
We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, because these often dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple massive planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities can shift the frequencies into and out of secular resonance with the planets' eigenfrequencies, or with linear combinations of those frequencies. The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drive secular chaos in planetary systems. We quantify the resulting dynamics for the first time by calculating the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances. When results from both analytical calculations and numerical integrations are displayed together in a newly developed "map of the mean momenta" (MMM), the agreement is excellent. This map is particularly revealing for non-coplanar planetary systems and demonstrates graphically that...
Experimental observation of quantum chaos in a beam of light.
Lemos, Gabriela B; Gomes, Rafael M; Walborn, Stephen P; Souto Ribeiro, Paulo H; Toscano, Fabricio
2012-01-01
The manner in which unpredictable chaotic dynamics manifests itself in quantum mechanics is a key question in the field of quantum chaos. Indeed, very distinct quantum features can appear due to underlying classical nonlinear dynamics. Here we observe signatures of quantum nonlinear dynamics through the direct measurement of the time-evolved Wigner function of the quantum-kicked harmonic oscillator, implemented in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. Our setup is decoherence-free and we can continuously tune the semiclassical and chaos parameters, so as to explore the transition from regular to essentially chaotic dynamics. Owing to its robustness and versatility, our scheme can be used to experimentally investigate a variety of nonlinear quantum phenomena. As an example, we couple this system to a quantum bit and experimentally investigate the decoherence produced by regular or chaotic dynamics. PMID:23169052
Versatile and robust chaos synchronization phenomena imposed by delayed shared feedback coupling
Fischer, Ingo
demonstrate chaos synchronization imposed by a delayed shared feedback coupling between two nonlinear electro-optic functional purposes. In this paper we introduce a versatile system of mutually delay-coupled electro-optic electro-optic nonlinear delay oscilla- tors, labeled as i=1,2. Following the principle of 17,18 , in each
Frequency comb formation and transition to chaos in microresonators with near-zero dispersion.
Rogov, Andrei S; Narimanov, Evgenii E
2014-08-01
We investigate the frequency comb formation in microresonators with near-zero dispersion, study the route from integrability to chaos in the corresponding nonlinear system, and demonstrate the key role of nonlinear dynamics of such a system for frequency comb generation and stability. PMID:25078163
Chaos in a Fractional Order Chua System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.; Qammar, Helen Killory
1996-01-01
This report studies the effects of fractional dynamics in chaotic systems. In particular, Chua's system is modified to include fractional order elements. Varying the total system order incrementally from 2.6 to 3.7 demonstrates that systems of 'order' less than three can exhibit chaos as well as other nonlinear behavior. This effectively forces a clarification of the definition of order which can no longer be considered only by the total number of differentiations or by the highest power of the Laplace variable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
16 October 2004 Aram Chaos is the name of an approximately 275 km (171 mi) diameter impact crater near Ares Vallis, roughly half way between the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site in Meridiani Planum and the easternmost troughs of the Valles Marineris. The Aram Chaos crater is partially filled with a thick accumulation of layered rock. Erosion has exposed light- and dark-toned rock materials in the basin. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small area exhibiting some of the rock outcrops in Aram Chaos. The light-toned rocks may be sedimentary in origin. This image is located near 4.0oN, 20.6oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
Liang, Xiaojun; Kumar, Shiva
2014-12-01
A recursive perturbation theory to model the fiber-optic system is developed. Using this perturbation theory, a multi-stage compensation technique to mitigate the intra-channel nonlinear impairments is investigated. The technique is validated by numerical simulations of a single-polarization single-channel fiber-optic system operating at 28 Gbaud, 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (32-QAM), and 40 × 80 km transmission distance. It is found that, with 2 samples per symbol, the multi-stage scheme with eight compensation stages increases the Q-factor as compared with linear compensation by 4.5 dB; as compared with single-stage compensation, the computational complexity is reduced by a factor of 1.3 and the required memory for storing perturbation coefficients is decreased by a factor of 13. PMID:25606904
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geddada, Nagesh; Karanki, Srinivas B.; Mishra, Mahesh K.
2014-06-01
This paper proposes a modified four-leg distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) topology for compensation of unbalanced and nonlinear loads in three-phase four-wire distribution system. DSTATCOM, connected in parallel to the load, supplies reactive and harmonic powers demanded by unbalanced nonlinear loads. In this proposed topology, the voltage source inverter (VSI) of DSTATCOM is connected to point of common coupling (point of interconnection of source, load, DSTATCOM) through interface inductor and series capacitance, unlike the conventional topology which consists of interface inductor alone. Load compensation with a lower value of input DC link voltage of VSI is possible in this modified topology compared to conventional topology. A comparative study on modified and conventional topologies in terms of voltage rating of inverter power switches, switching losses in VSI and power rating of input DC capacitor of VSI is presented. The detailed design aspects of DC link capacitor and interface series capacitor are also presented. The reference filter currents are generated using instantaneous symmetrical component theory and are tracked using hysteresis current control technique. A detailed simulation study is carried out, to compare the compensation performances of conventional, modified topologies using PSCAD simulator and experimental studies are done to validate the simulation results.
Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos
Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.
2014-06-09
Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.
2011-01-01
Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…
Ma, Teng-Ying; Ma, Na-Na; Yan, Li-Kai; Guan, Wei; Su, Zhong-Min
2013-03-01
The switchable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) responses of the photoisomerized chromophore dithienylperfluorocyclopentene (DTE) derivatives, organic-inorganic systems of Lindqvist-type [Mo?O??]²?, have been investigated by tuning open-ring and the closed-ring form. In the present paper, we performed density functional theory (DFT) combined with finite field (FF) methods to calculate the second-order NLO coefficients for these organic-inorganic compounds. The calculations with three functionals (B3LYP/CAM-B3LYP/LC-BLYP) confirm the switching behavior on NLO properties by the photoisomerization reaction. The ?(tot) value of system 2c (closed-ring form) is 10 times larger than that of its open-ring form (system 2o). And the other two pairs of systems also show good tuning properties. The ampliative ratio on second-order NLO coefficients between systems 2o and 2c (?(2c)/?(2o)) is 13 times as large as that of DTE (?(DTEc)/?(DTEo)). It suggests that introduction of [Mo?O??]²? and organic groups to the DTE monomer effectively improve the conversion ratio of second-order NLO coefficients between the open-ring and closed-ring forms. PMID:23419765
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenberg, Richard; Hoppa, Gregory V.; Tufts, B. R.; Geissler, Paul; Riley, Jeannemarie; Kadel, Steven
1999-10-01
The characteristics of chaos regions on Europa suggest they may be sites of melt-through from below. They are wide ranging in size, location, and age. The largest are hundreds of kilometers across. Most are similar to Conamara with a matrix reminiscent of frozen slush and often rafts of preexisting crust. Edges are of two types: ramps, perhaps the tapering of crustal thickness to zero, or cliffs, where rafts appear to have broken clear from the shore. The small features called lenticulae generally appear to be small chaoses with textured matrix and occasional rafts, and many domes may be small chaoses raised by isostatic compensation following refreezing of the crust. The extent of chaoses often appears to be limited by ridge systems with the coastline parallel and set back by a distance comparable to the width of the ridge system. Preexisting ridges often survive as causeways or chains of rafts. Boundaries of chaoses are apparently not controlled by preexisting cracks, consistent with formation by a thermal, rather than mechanical, process. Ridges may thicken the crust such that melt-through is more likely (but not always) between ridge systems. Subsequent cracks and ridges form across preexisting chaoses, ranging from fresh cases with few cracks or ridges across them (with paths somewhat jagged as they meander among rafts) to heavily dissected examples. Isolated tilted raft-like blocks surrounded by densely ridged terrain may be relics of former chaotic terrain. Thus two fundamental resurfacing processes have alternated over Europa's geological history: melt-through (at various places and times) forming chaos terrain, and tectonic cracking and dilation building densely ridged and banded terrain. Mapping of chaos features based on morphology at 200 m shows that they correlate, albeit imperfectly, with dark regions in global (2-km resolution) mosaics (except dark regions due to ridge margins or craters). Extrapolating from our mapping of the 5% of Europa covered by appropriate images, at least 18% of the surface of Europa is fresh appearing chaos, an additional 4% is slightly modified chaos, and much more older chaotic terrain has been overprinted by tectonic structures. Considerable area has been available globally to accommodate the expansion of crust that occurs along extensional ridges and bands. Chaos ubiquity suggests that europan geology has been dominated by the effects of having liquid water under a very thin ice shell, with chaos regions being widespread indicators of occasional zero shell thickness.
Regularization of chaos by noise in electrically driven nanowire systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hessari, Peyman; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Chae, Junseok; Park, Cheol Woo; Lee, GyuWon
2014-04-01
The electrically driven nanowire systems are of great importance to nanoscience and engineering. Due to strong nonlinearity, chaos can arise, but in many applications it is desirable to suppress chaos. The intrinsically high-dimensional nature of the system prevents application of the conventional method of controlling chaos. Remarkably, we find that the phenomenon of coherence resonance, which has been well documented but for low-dimensional chaotic systems, can occur in the nanowire system that mathematically is described by two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, subject to periodic driving and noise. Especially, we find that, when the nanowire is in either the weakly chaotic or the extensively chaotic regime, an optimal level of noise can significantly enhance the regularity of the oscillations. This result is robust because it holds regardless of whether noise is white or colored, and of whether the stochastic drivings in the two independent directions transverse to the nanowire are correlated or independent of each other. Noise can thus regularize chaotic oscillations through the mechanism of coherence resonance in the nanowire system. More generally, we posit that noise can provide a practical way to harness chaos in nanoscale systems.
A Structure behind Primitive Chaos
Yoshihito Ogasawara
2015-03-25
Recently, a new concept, primitive chaos, was proposed, as a concept closely related to the fundamental problems of physics itself such as determinism, causality, free will, predictability, and irreversibility [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. {\\bf 79}, 15002 (2010)]. This letter reveals a structure hidden behind the primitive chaos; under some conditions, a new primitive chaos is constructed from the original primitive chaos, this procedure can be repeated, and the hierarchic structure of the primitive chaos is obtained. This implies such a picture that new events and causality is constructed from the old ones, with the aid of the concept of a coarse graining. As an application of this structure, interesting facts are revealed for the essential condition of the primitive chaos and for the chaotic behaviors.
Quantum chaos meets coherent control.
Gong, Jiangbin; Brumer, Paul
2005-01-01
Coherent control of atomic and molecular processes has been a rapidly developing field. Applications of coherent control to large and complex molecular systems are expected to encounter the effects of chaos in the underlying classical dynamics, i.e., quantum chaos. Hence, recent work has focused on examining control in model chaotic systems. This work is reviewed, with an emphasis on a variety of new quantum phenomena that are of interest to both areas of quantum chaos and coherent control. PMID:15796694
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H.
1976-01-01
Nonlinear equations of motion for a cantilever rotor blade are derived for the hovering flight condition. The blade is assumed to have twist, precone, droop, sweep, torque offset and blade root offset, and the elastic axis and the axes of center of mass, tension, and aerodynamic center coincident at the quarter chord. The blade is cantilevered in bending, but has a torsional root spring to simulate pitch link flexibility. Aerodynamic forces acting on the blade are derived from strip theory based on quasi-steady two-dimensional airfoil theory. The equations are hybrid, consisting of one integro-differential equation for root torsion and three integro-partial differential equations for flatwise and chordwise bending and elastic torsion. The equations are specialized for a uniform blade and reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by Galerkin's method. They are linearized for small perturbation motions about the equilibrium operating condition. Modal analysis leads to formulation of a standard eigenvalue problem where the elements of the stability matrix depend on the solution of the equilibrium equations. Two different forms of the root torsion equation are derived that yield virtually identical numerical results. This provides a reasonable check for the accuracy of the equations.
Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing
Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Ditto, William L.; Lindner, John F.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2014-12-01
We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.
Chaos and unpredictability in evolution.
Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Iaroslav
2014-05-01
The possibility of complicated dynamic behavior driven by nonlinear feedbacks in dynamical systems has revolutionized science in the latter part of the last century. Yet despite examples of complicated frequency dynamics, the possibility of long-term evolutionary chaos is rarely considered. The concept of "survival of the fittest" is central to much evolutionary thinking and embodies a perspective of evolution as a directional optimization process exhibiting simple, predictable dynamics. This perspective is adequate for simple scenarios, when frequency-independent selection acts on scalar phenotypes. However, in most organisms many phenotypic properties combine in complicated ways to determine ecological interactions, and hence frequency-dependent selection. Therefore, it is natural to consider models for evolutionary dynamics generated by frequency-dependent selection acting simultaneously on many different phenotypes. Here we show that complicated, chaotic dynamics of long-term evolutionary trajectories in phenotype space is very common in a large class of such models when the dimension of phenotype space is large, and when there are selective interactions between the phenotypic components. Our results suggest that the perspective of evolution as a process with simple, predictable dynamics covers only a small fragment of long-term evolution. PMID:24433364
Transition to Chaos in Random Neuronal Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadmon, Jonathan; Sompolinsky, Haim
2015-10-01
Firing patterns in the central nervous system often exhibit strong temporal irregularity and considerable heterogeneity in time-averaged response properties. Previous studies suggested that these properties are the outcome of the intrinsic chaotic dynamics of the neural circuits. Indeed, simplified rate-based neuronal networks with synaptic connections drawn from Gaussian distribution and sigmoidal nonlinearity are known to exhibit chaotic dynamics when the synaptic gain (i.e., connection variance) is sufficiently large. In the limit of an infinitely large network, there is a sharp transition from a fixed point to chaos, as the synaptic gain reaches a critical value. Near the onset, chaotic fluctuations are slow, analogous to the ubiquitous, slow irregular fluctuations observed in the firing rates of many cortical circuits. However, the existence of a transition from a fixed point to chaos in neuronal circuit models with more realistic architectures and firing dynamics has not been established. In this work, we investigate rate-based dynamics of neuronal circuits composed of several subpopulations with randomly diluted connections. Nonzero connections are either positive for excitatory neurons or negative for inhibitory ones, while single neuron output is strictly positive with output rates rising as a power law above threshold, in line with known constraints in many biological systems. Using dynamic mean field theory, we find the phase diagram depicting the regimes of stable fixed-point, unstable-dynamic, and chaotic-rate fluctuations. We focus on the latter and characterize the properties of systems near this transition. We show that dilute excitatory-inhibitory architectures exhibit the same onset to chaos as the single population with Gaussian connectivity. In these architectures, the large mean excitatory and inhibitory inputs dynamically balance each other, amplifying the effect of the residual fluctuations. Importantly, the existence of a transition to chaos and its critical properties depend on the shape of the single-neuron nonlinear input-output transfer function, near firing threshold. In particular, for nonlinear transfer functions with a sharp rise near threshold, the transition to chaos disappears in the limit of a large network; instead, the system exhibits chaotic fluctuations even for small synaptic gain. Finally, we investigate transition to chaos in network models with spiking dynamics. We show that when synaptic time constants are slow relative to the mean inverse firing rates, the network undergoes a transition from fast spiking fluctuations with constant rates to a state where the firing rates exhibit chaotic fluctuations, similar to the transition predicted by rate-based dynamics. Systems with finite synaptic time constants and firing rates exhibit a smooth transition from a regime dominated by stationary firing rates to a regime of slow rate fluctuations. This smooth crossover obeys scaling properties, similar to crossover phenomena in statistical mechanics. The theoretical results are supported by computer simulations of several neuronal architectures and dynamics. Consequences for cortical circuit dynamics are discussed. These results advance our understanding of the properties of intrinsic dynamics in realistic neuronal networks and their functional consequences.
Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc
2014-09-01
Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.
Pavan Hosur; Xiao-Liang Qi; Daniel A. Roberts; Beni Yoshida
2015-11-12
We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
(Released 11 June 2002) The Science This fractured surface belongs to a portion of a region called Gorgonum Chaos located in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Gorgonum Chaos is named after the Gorgons in ancient Greek mythology. The Gorgons were monstrous sisters with snakes for hair, tusks like boars and lolling tongues who lived in caves. As it turns out this is indeed a fitting name for this region of Mars because it contains a high density of gullies that 'snake' their way down the walls of the troughs located in this region of chaos. Upon closer examination one finds that these gullies and alluvial deposits, initially discovered by Mars Global Surveyor, are visible on the trough walls (best seen near the bottom of the image). These gullies appear to emanate from a specific layer in the walls. The gullies have been proposed to have formed by the subsurface release of water. The Story This fractured, almost spooky-looking surface belongs to a region called Gorgonum Chaos in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Chaos is a term used for regions of Mars with distinctive areas of broken terrain like the one seen above. This area of Martian chaos is named after the Gorgons in ancient Greek mythology. The Gorgons were monstrous sisters with snakes for hair, tusks like boars, and lolling tongues, who lived in caves. The Gorgons, including famous sister Medusa, could turn a person to stone, and their writhing, snakelike locks cause revulsion to this day. Given the afflicted nature of this contorted terrain, with all of its twisted, branching channels and hard, stony-looking hills in the top half of the image, this is indeed a fitting name for this region of Mars. The name also has great appeal, because the area contains a high density of gullies that 'snake' their way down the walls of the troughs located in this region of Martian chaos. Gullies are trenches cut into the land as accelerated streams of water (or another liquid) erode the surface. To see these, click on the above image to get a high-resolution view, and then focus on the trenches at the bottom. Running down the walls of the trough are the thin, dark lines of the gullies. Beneath the grooved, gully channels are faint, softer-looking fans of material. These are called alluvial deposits. Alluvial simply means all of the sand, gravel, and dirt that is carried and deposited by a liquid. On Earth, that liquid is typically water. As the liquid carves the gully, the eroded material from the channels get carried along and deposited below in fan-like shapes. These gully features were initially discovered by Odyssey's sister orbiter, Mars Global Surveyor, and caused quite a bit of emotional chaos in the scientific community when they were announced. Why? If you look closely, you can see that the gullies seem to form from a specific layer in the wall. That is, they all seem to begin at roughly the same point on the wall. That suggests that maybe, just maybe, there's a subsurface source of water at that layer that sometimes leaks out and runs down the walls to form both the gullies and the skirt-like fans of deposits beneath them. Other scientists, however, loudly assert that another liquid besides water could have carved the gullies. The debate sometimes gets so intense, you'd think that the opposing sides would want to turn each other's ideas to stone! But not for long. While the debate rages on, the neat thing is that everyone's really united. The goal is to find out, and the way to find out is to keep proposing different hypotheses and testing them out. That's the excitement of science, where everyone's solid research counts, and divergent views are appreciated for keeping science sound.
Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc
2014-09-01
Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period. PMID:25273218
Wigner-function nonclassicality as indicator of quantum chaos.
Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A; Kalaga, J K; Leo?ski, W
2008-12-01
We propose a Wigner-function-based parameter that can be used as an indicator of quantum chaos. This parameter is defined as "entropy" from the time dependence of "nonclassicality" proposed by A. Kenfack and K. Zyczkowski [J. Opt. B 6, 394 (2004)]. We perform our considerations for the system of damped nonlinear (Kerr-like) oscillator excited by a series of ultrashort external pulses. PMID:19256937
The Promise of Chaos... Chaos Article. . . continued from front cover
Chen, Guanrong "Ron"
and nonconventional methods such as microscopic pa- rameter perturbation, bifurcation monitoring, entropy reduc- tion systems to harmful or even catastrophic situa- tions. In these troublesome cases, chaos should be reduced feedback control gain within a simple quadratic map, period- doubling bifurcation and chaos can be created
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
23 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned rock outcrops, possibly sedimentary rocks, in the Arsinoes Chaos region east of the Valles Marineris trough system. These rocky materials were once below the martian surface. These features are located near 7.2oS, 27.9oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
ONSET OF CHAOS IN A MODEL OF QUANTUM COMPUTATION
G. BERMAN; ET AL
2001-02-01
Recently, the question of a relevance of the so-called quantum chaos has been raised in applications to quantum computation [2,3]. Indeed, according to the general approach to closed systems of finite number of interacting Fermi-particles (see, e.g. [4,5]), with an increase of an interaction between qubits a kind of chaos is expected to emerge in the energy spectra and structure of many-body states. Specifically, the fluctuations of energy levels and components of the eigenstates turn out to be very strong and described by the Random Matrix Theory. Clearly, if this happens in a quantum computer, it may lead to a destruction of the coherence of quantum computations due to internal decoherence inside many-body states. It is important to stress that quantum chaos occurs not only in the systems with random interaction, but also for purely dynamical interaction. In the latter case, the mechanism of chaos is due to a complex (non-linear) form of a two-body interaction represented in the basis of non-interacting particles. Numerical analysis [2] of a simplest model of quantum computer (2D model of 1/2-spins with a random interqubit interaction J) shows that with an increase of the number L of qubits, the chaos threshold J{sub cr} decreases as J{sub cr} {infinity} 1/L. On this ground, it was claimed that the onset of quantum chaos could be dangerous for quantum computers, since their effectiveness requires L >> 1. On the other hand, in [3] it was argued that in order to treat this problem properly, one needs to distinguish between chaotic properties of stationary states, and the dynamical process of quantum computation.
Counseling Chaos: Techniques for Practitioners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, Jim E. H.
2006-01-01
The chaos theory of careers draws together a number of themes in current theory and research. This article applies some of these themes to career counseling. The chaos theory of careers is outlined, and a conceptual framework for understanding assessment and counseling issues that focuses on convergent and emergent qualities is presented. Three…
Chaos Theory and Post Modernism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2009-01-01
Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…
Complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos
Hubert Lacoin; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas
2015-02-15
In this article, we study complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos. More precisely, we study the renormalization theory and the limit of the exponential of a complex log-correlated Gaussian field in all dimensions (including Gaussian Free Fields in dimension 2). Our main working assumption is that the real part and the imaginary part are independent. We also discuss applications in 2D string theory; in particular we give a rigorous mathematical definition of the so-called Tachyon fields, the conformally invariant operators in critical Liouville Quantum Gravity with a c=1 central charge, and derive the original KPZ formula for these fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
15 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of a small landslide off of a hillslope in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars. Mass movement occurred from right (the slope) to left (the lobate feature pointed left). Small dark dots in the landslide area are large boulders. This feature is located near 2.6oS, 24.5oW. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location.
Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
12 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, sedimentary rock outcrops in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars. On the brightest and steepest slope in this scene, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans along its base. These outcrops are located near 3.4oS, 27.5oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandomi, A. H.; Yang, X.-S.; Talatahari, S.; Alavi, A. H.
2013-01-01
A recently developed metaheuristic optimization algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA), mimics the social behavior of fireflies based on the flashing and attraction characteristics of fireflies. In the present study, we will introduce chaos into FA so as to increase its global search mobility for robust global optimization. Detailed studies are carried out on benchmark problems with different chaotic maps. Here, 12 different chaotic maps are utilized to tune the attractive movement of the fireflies in the algorithm. The results show that some chaotic FAs can clearly outperform the standard FA.
Quantifying chaos of curvilinear beams via exponents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, V. A.; Kutepov, I. E.; Vygodchikova, I. Yu.; Krysko, A. V.
2015-10-01
We propose a procedure for predicting the stability loss and transition into chaos of a network of oscillators lying on a curve, where each of the oscillators can move in two perpendicular directions. Dynamics of the coupled oscillators are governed by the sixth-order PDE, which is directly derived using the classical hypotheses of a curvilinear flexible beam movement theory. We apply FDM (Finite Difference Method) to reduce PDEs into ODEs, and the used number of spatial coordinate positions defines the number of involved oscillators approximating the dynamics of our continuous structural member (beam). Our procedure has a few advantages over the classical approaches, which has been illustrated and discussed. The proposed method has been validated for non-linear dynamical regimes by using the classical vibrational analysis (time histories, frequency power spectra and Poincaré maps).
Quantum Chaos in Compact Lattice QED
B. A. Berg; H. Markum; R. Pullirsch
1998-12-10
Complete eigenvalue spectra of the staggered Dirac operator in quenched $4d$ compact QED are studied on $8^3 \\times 4$ and $8^3 \\times 6$ lattices. We investigate the behavior of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution $P(s)$ as a measure of the fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues in the strong coupling and the Coulomb phase. In both phases we find agreement with the Wigner surmise of the unitary ensemble of random-matrix theory indicating quantum chaos. Combining this with previous results on QCD, we conjecture that quite generally the non-linear couplings of quantum field theories lead to a chaotic behavior of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
(Released 18 June 2002) Among the many varied landscapes on Mars the term chaos is applied to those places that have a jumbled, blocky appearance. Most of the better known chaotic terrain occurs in the northern hemisphere but there are other occurrences in the southern hemisphere, three of which are centered on 180 degrees west longitude. Ariadnes Colles, Atlantis, and Gorgonum Chaos all share similar features: relatively bright, irregularly shaped knobs and mesas that rise above a dark, sand-covered, hummocky floor. Close inspection of this THEMIS image shows that the darker material tends to lap up to the base of the knobs and stops where the slopes are steep. On some of the lowest knobs, the dark material appears to overtop them. The knobs themselves are highly eroded, many having a pitted appearance. Images from the camera on Mars Global Surveyor clearly show that the dark material is sand, based on its mantling appearance and the presence of dunes. It looks as though the material that composes the knobs was probably a continuous layer that was subsequently heavily eroded. While it is likely that the dark sand is responsible for some of the erosion it is also possible that the this landscape was eroded by some other process and the sand was emplaced at a later time.
Dynamical properties and chaos synchronization of improved Colpitts oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kengne, J.; Chedjou, J. C.; Kenne, G.; Kyamakya, K.
2012-07-01
In this paper, the dynamics and synchronization of improved Colpitts oscillators designed to operate in ultrahigh frequency range are considered. The model is described by a continuous time four-dimensional autonomous system with an exponential nonlinearity. The system is integrated numerically and various bifurcation diagrams and corresponding graphs of largest 1D Lyapunov exponent are plotted to summarize different scenarios leading to chaos. It is found that the oscillator moves from the state of fixed point motion to chaos via the usual paths of period-doubling, intermittency and interior crisis routes when monitoring the bias (i.e. power supply) in tiny ranges. In order to promote chaos-based synchronization designs of this type of oscillators, a synchronization strategy based upon the design of a nonlinear state observer is successfully adapted. The suggested approach enables synchronization to be achieved via a scalar transmitted signal which represents a suitable feature for communication applications. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique.
Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"
and stochastic motion in the classical phase space corresponds, from a quantum point of view, to the possibilityClassical nonlinearity and quantum decay: The effect of classical phase-space structures Yosef, in order to an- swer the fundamental question in quantum chaos: what is the signature of classical chaos
Carter, Troy
], CO2 chaotic forcing of ice ages [6], the unipolar injection hydrodynamic instability [7], turbulence of exponential spectra with determinis- tic chaos has been firmly established through detailed experiments and numerical solutions of a wide class of nonlinear models [911,14], but, surprisingly, at the present time
Bifurcations and chaos in register transitions of excised larynx experiments Isao T. Tokudaa
Tokuda, Isao
Bifurcations and chaos in register transitions of excised larynx experiments Isao T. Tokudaa School November 2007; published online 14 January 2008 Experimental data from an excised larynx are analyzed in the light of nonlinear dynamics. The excised larynx provides an experimental framework that enables
Developing Integrated Arts Curriculum in Hong Kong: Chaos Theory at Work?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Marina
2013-01-01
This article reports the development of integrated arts curriculum in two Hong Kong secondary schools over a 9-year period. Initial findings display a range of individual responses to educational change that are both non-predictable and non-linear. Chaos theory is used to explain these varied responses in terms of bifurcations. The findings of…
Gauge invariant description of chaos in 2D scalar-electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminaga, Yasuhito; Saito, Yoshio; Yahiro, Masanobu
1998-07-01
The spatially homogeneous scalar-electrodynamics in two dimensions is a finite-dimensional nonlinear system with the U(1) gauge symmetry. A gauge invariant description of the dynamics is given. The largest Lyapunov exponent calculated numerically is invariant under the gauge transformation. A chaos-order transition takes place around m = 1.6, where m is the scalar mass.
Deterministic Chaos and Noise in Three In Vitro Hippocampal Models of Epilepsy
Cvitanovc', Predrag
Deterministic Chaos and Noise in Three In Vitro Hippocampal Models of Epilepsy MARC W. SLUTZKY,1. UPOs of multiple periods were highly prevalent in experiments from all three epilepsy models: 73, Epilepsy, Nonlinear, Un- stable periodic orbit, Lyapunov exponent, Determinism, Potas- sium, GABA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A.
There are many ways that a person can encounter chaos, such as through a time series from a lab experiment, a basin of attraction with fractal boundaries, a map with a crossing of stable and unstable manifolds, a fractal attractor, or in a system for which uncertainty doubles after some time period. These encounters appear so diverse, but the chaos is the same in all of the underlying systems; it is just observed in different ways. We describe these different types of chaos. We then give two conjectures about the types of dynamical behavior that is observable if one randomly picks out a dynamical system without searching for a specific property. In particular, we conjecture that from picking a system at random, one observes (1) only three types of basic invariant sets: periodic orbits, quasiperiodic orbits, and chaotic sets; and (2) that all the definitions of chaos are in agreement.
Dynamic chaos in the solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a periodic potential
Ishkhanyan, H. A.; Krainov, V. P.
2011-09-15
We analytically and numerically investigate the solution to the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a one-dimensional potential of the optical lattice in the case of repulsive nonlinearity. From the mathematical viewpoint, this problem is similar to the well-known problem of the classical mathematical Kapitza pendulum perturbed by a weak high-frequency force. At certain values of the parameters, dynamic chaos is produced in the considered problem. It is modeled analytically by a nonlinear diffusion equation.
Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
The University of California, Irvine (UCI) Cancer Center was established in 1989 as a university-based cancer center. In 1994, it became an NCI-designated cancer center, and it achieved comprehensive cancer center status in 1997. Soon after, it was renamed in honor of the Chao family as the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (CFCCC), operating fully integrated research, prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs.
Chaotic Turing Patterns displaying the beauty of chaos
Jinghua Xiao; Junzhong Yang; Gang Hu
2005-04-08
The problem of Turing pattern formation has attracted much attention in nonlinear science as well as physics, chemistry and biology. So far all Turing patterns have been observed in stationary and oscillatory media only. In this letter we find for the first time that ordered Turing patterns exist in chaotic extended systems. And chaotic Turing patterns are strikingly rich and surprisingly beautiful with their space structures. These findings are in sharp contrast with the intuition of pseudo-randomness of chaos. The richness and beauty of the chaotic Turing patterns are attributed to a large variety of symmetry properties realized by various types of self-organizations of partial chaos synchronizations. Some statistical measurements are performed to confirm and heuristically understand these findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Britney E.
2013-10-01
A critical question for the habitability of Europa remains: how does the ice shell work? The detection of shallow subsurface lenses below Europa’s chaos implies that the ice shell is recycled rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. While this is not the first time liquid water has been implicated for Europa, the location of these features combined with new perspective on their dynamics frames the question in a new way. Melt lenses are intriguing potential habitats. Moreover, their formation requires the existence of impurities within the upper ice shell that may be sources of energy for microorganisms. Geomorphic evidence also exists for hydraulic redistribution of fluids both vertically and horizontally through pores and fractures. This process, observed in terrestrial ice shelves, may preserve liquid water within the ice matrix over many kilometers from the source. Horizontal transport of material may produce interconnectivity between distinct regions of Europa, thus preserving habitable conditions within the ice over a longer duration. At a surface age of 40-90 Myr, with 25-50% covered by chaos terrain, Europa's resurfacing rate is very high and water likely plays a significant role. Because of the vigor of overturn implied by this new work, it is likely that surface and subsurface materials are well-mixed within the largest and deepest lenses, providing a mechanism for bringing oxidants and other surface contaminants to the deeper ice shell where it can reach the ocean by convective or compositional effects. The timescales over which large lenses refreeze are large compared to the timescales for vertical transport, while the timescales for smaller lenses are comparable to or shorter than convective timescales. Moreover, marine ice accretion at the bottom of the ice shell may be contributing to a compositional buoyancy engine that would change the makeup of the ice shell. From this point of view, we evaluate the habitability of Europa’s ice and ocean in light of active processes that may form a “chaos conveyor belt” that drives material exchange on Europa.
Maria Ercsey-Ravasz; Zoltan Toroczkai
2012-08-01
The mathematical structure of the widely popular Sudoku puzzles is akin to typical hard constraint satisfaction problems that lie at the heart of many applications, including protein folding and the general problem of finding the ground state of a glassy spin system. Via an exact mapping of Sudoku into a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system, here we show that the difficulty of Sudoku translates into transient chaotic behavior exhibited by the dynamical system. In particular, we show that the escape rate $\\kappa$, an invariant characteristic of transient chaos, provides a single scalar measure of the puzzle's hardness, which correlates well with human difficulty level ratings. Accordingly, $\\eta = -\\log_{10}{\\kappa}$ can be used to define a "Richter"-type scale for puzzle hardness, with easy puzzles falling in the range $0 3$. To our best knowledge, there are no known puzzles with $\\eta > 4$.
Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán
2012-01-01
The mathematical structure of Sudoku puzzles is akin to hard constraint satisfaction problems lying at the basis of many applications, including protein folding and the ground-state problem of glassy spin systems. Via an exact mapping of Sudoku into a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system, here we show that the difficulty of Sudoku translates into transient chaotic behavior exhibited by this system. We also show that the escape rate ?, an invariant of transient chaos, provides a scalar measure of the puzzle's hardness that correlates well with human difficulty ratings. Accordingly, ? = ?log10 ? can be used to define a “Richter”-type scale for puzzle hardness, with easy puzzles having 0 < ? ? 1, medium ones 1 < ? ? 2, hard with 2 < ? ? 3 and ultra-hard with ? > 3. To our best knowledge, there are no known puzzles with ? > 4. PMID:23061008
Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán
2012-01-01
The mathematical structure of Sudoku puzzles is akin to hard constraint satisfaction problems lying at the basis of many applications, including protein folding and the ground-state problem of glassy spin systems. Via an exact mapping of Sudoku into a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system, here we show that the difficulty of Sudoku translates into transient chaotic behavior exhibited by this system. We also show that the escape rate ?, an invariant of transient chaos, provides a scalar measure of the puzzle's hardness that correlates well with human difficulty ratings. Accordingly, ? = -log??? can be used to define a "Richter"-type scale for puzzle hardness, with easy puzzles having 0 < ? ? 1, medium ones 1 < ? ? 2, hard with 2 < ? ? 3 and ultra-hard with ? > 3. To our best knowledge, there are no known puzzles with ? > 4. PMID:23061008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán
2012-10-01
The mathematical structure of Sudoku puzzles is akin to hard constraint satisfaction problems lying at the basis of many applications, including protein folding and the ground-state problem of glassy spin systems. Via an exact mapping of Sudoku into a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system, here we show that the difficulty of Sudoku translates into transient chaotic behavior exhibited by this system. We also show that the escape rate ?, an invariant of transient chaos, provides a scalar measure of the puzzle's hardness that correlates well with human difficulty ratings. Accordingly, ? = -log10 ? can be used to define a ``Richter''-type scale for puzzle hardness, with easy puzzles having 0 < ? <= 1, medium ones 1 < ? <= 2, hard with 2 < ? <= 3 and ultra-hard with ? > 3. To our best knowledge, there are no known puzzles with ? > 4.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.
Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-504, 5 October 2003
This August 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a valley near Nilus Chaos, around 25.2oN, 80.3oW. The scene has a uniform albedo, indicating that all of the landforms are probably mantled by fine, bright dust. Dark streaks on the valley walls indicate places where recent dust avalanches have occurred. The ripple-like dune features on the valley floor were formed by wind, but today they are inactive and covered with dust. A few craters, created by impacting debris, have formed on the dunes, again attesting to their inactivity in the modern martian environment. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; it is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
2 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular mesa and layered materials that are partially-exposed from beneath a thick, dark mantle in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars. The features are part of a much larger circular form (bigger than the image shown here) that marks the location of a crater that was filled with light-toned sedimentary rock, buried, and then later re-exposed when the upper crust of Mars broke apart in this region to form buttes and mesas of 'chaotic terrain.' The circular mesa in this image might also be the location of a formerly filled and buried crater. This image is located near 4.0oS, 26.9oW. It covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.
Role of chaos for the validity of statistical mechanics laws: diffusion and conduction
Massimo Cencini; Fabio Cecconi; Massimo Falcioni; Angelo Vulpiani
2008-04-04
Several years after the pioneering work by Fermi Pasta and Ulam, fundamental questions about the link between dynamical and statistical properties remain still open in modern statistical mechanics. Particularly controversial is the role of deterministic chaos for the validity and consistency of statistical approaches. This contribution reexamines such a debated issue taking inspiration from the problem of diffusion and heat conduction in deterministic systems. Is microscopic chaos a necessary ingredient to observe such macroscopic phenomena?
Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.
1988-01-01
Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.
Salman Habib; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Andrew Doherty; Benjamin Greenbaum; Asa Hopkins; Kurt Jacobs; Hideo Mabuchi; Keith Schwab; Kosuke Shizume; Daniel Steck; Bala Sundaram
2005-05-07
The vast majority of the literature dealing with quantum dynamics is concerned with linear evolution of the wave function or the density matrix. A complete dynamical description requires a full understanding of the evolution of measured quantum systems, necessary to explain actual experimental results. The dynamics of such systems is intrinsically nonlinear even at the level of distribution functions, both classically as well as quantum mechanically. Aside from being physically more complete, this treatment reveals the existence of dynamical regimes, such as chaos, that have no counterpart in the linear case. Here, we present a short introductory review of some of these aspects, with a few illustrative results and examples.
Habib, S; Doherty, A; Greenbaum, B; Hopkins, A; Jacobs, K; Mabuchi, H; Schwab, K; Shizume, K; Steck, D; Sundaram, B; Habib, Salman; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Doherty, Andrew; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Hopkins, Asa; Jacobs, Kurt; Mabuchi, Hideo; Schwab, Keith; Shizume, Kosuke; Steck, Daniel; Sundaram, Bala
2005-01-01
The vast majority of the literature dealing with quantum dynamics is concerned with linear evolution of the wave function or the density matrix. A complete dynamical description requires a full understanding of the evolution of measured quantum systems, necessary to explain actual experimental results. The dynamics of such systems is intrinsically nonlinear even at the level of distribution functions, both classically as well as quantum mechanically. Aside from being physically more complete, this treatment reveals the existence of dynamical regimes, such as chaos, that have no counterpart in the linear case. Here, we present a short introductory review of some of these aspects, with a few illustrative results and examples.
Random bit generation using polarization chaos from free-running laser diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virte, Martin; Mercier, Emeric; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir; Sciamanna, Marc
2014-05-01
During the last five years, optical chaos-based random bit generators (RBGs) attracted a lot of attention and demonstrated impressive performances with bit rates up to hundreds of Gbps. However all the suggested schemes use external injection schemes (optical injection or feedback) to turn the lasers into chaos, hence strongly increasing setup complexity. On the other hand, we reported that a laser diode can generate a chaotic output without the need for external perturbation or forcing, hence unveiling a highly simplified way to generate an optical chaos at high frequency. However the low dimension and limited number of positive Lyapunov exponent casted doubts about its direct use for chaos-based applications. Here we make a proof-of-concept demonstration for a Random Bit Generator based on polarization chaos. We therefore suggest a highly simplified RBG scheme using only a free-running laser and small-bandwidth acquisition electronics and demonstrate convincing performances with bit rates up to 100 Gbps without unusual or complex post-processing methods. We link these performances to the double-scroll structure of the chaotic attractor rather than the bandwidth of the dynamics, hence bringing new light on the importance of chaos topology for chaos-based applications. In addition our scheme exhibit a strong potential as it enables a low-cost and/or integrated in parallel on-chip scheme.
Chaos in Dynamical Systems - 2nd Edition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ott, Edward
2002-08-01
Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. One-dimensional maps; 3. Strange attractors and fractal dimensions; 4. Dynamical properties of chaotic systems; 5. Nonattracting chaotic sets; 6. Quasiperiodicity; 7. Chaos in Hamiltonian systems; 8. Chaotic transitions; 9. Multifractals; 10. Control and synchronization of chaos; 11. Quantum chaos.
Nonlinear dynamics, fractals, cardiac physiology and sudden death
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberger, Ary L.
1987-01-01
The authors propose a diametrically opposite viewpoint to the generally accepted tendency of equating healthy function with order and disease with chaos. With regard to the question of sudden cardiac death and chaos, it is suggested that certain features of dynamical chaos related to fractal structure and fractal dynamics may be important organizing principles in normal physiology and that certain pathologies, including ventricular fibrillation, represent a class of 'pathological periodicities'. Some laboratory work bearing on the relation of nonlinear analysis to physiological and pathophysiological data is briefly reviewed, with tentative theories and models described in reference to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.
Evidence for bifurcation and universal chaotic behavior in nonlinear semiconducting devices
Testa, J.; Perez, J.; Jeffries, C.
1982-01-01
Bifurcations, chaos, and extensive periodic windows in the chaotic regime are observed for a driven LRC circuit, the capacitive element being a nonlinear varactor diode. Measurements include power spectral analysis; real time amplitude data; phase portraits; and a bifurcation diagram, obtained by sampling methods. The effects of added external noise are studied. These data yield experimental determinations of several of the universal numbers predicted to characterize nonlinear systems having this route to chaos.
Nonlinear dynamics in meso and nano scales: fundamental aspects and applications.
da Luz, Marcos G E; Anteneodo, Celia
2011-01-28
This introduction to the special issue, Nonlinear dynamics in meso and nano scales: fundamental aspects and applications, gives a short overview about different contexts and current challenges posed by the emergence of nonlinearities at meso and nano characteristic sizes. It also addresses different aspects related to classical and quantum chaos. Moreover, it comments on the articles in this thematic publication, briefly summarizing their relevance in helping to understand the uprise of chaos and complex behaviour at those small scales. PMID:21149369
Low-order chaos in sympathetic nerve activity causes 1/f fluctuation of heartbeat intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osaka, Motohisa; Kumagai, Hiroo; Sakata, Katsufumi; Onami, Toshiko; Chon, Ki H.; Watanabe, Mari A.; Saruta, Takao
2004-04-01
The mechanism of 1/f scaling of heartbeat intervals remains unknown. We recorded heartbeat intervals, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure in conscious rats with normal or high blood pressure. Using nonlinear analyses, we demonstrate that the dynamics of this system of 3 variables is low-order chaos, and that sympathetic nerve activity leads to heartbeat interval and blood pressure changes. It is suggested that 1/f scaling of heartbeat intervals results from the low-order chaos of these variables and that impaired regulation of blood pressure by sympathetic nerve activity is likely to cause experimentally observable steeper scaling of heartbeat intervals in hypertensive (high blood pressure) rats.
Control of chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor by using optimal Lyapunov exponents placement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ataei, Mohammad; Kiyoumarsi, Arash; Ghorbani, Behzad
2010-09-01
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) experiences chaotic behavior for a certain range of its parameters. In this case, since the performance of the PMSM degrades, the chaos should be eliminated. In this Letter, the control of the undesirable chaos in PMSM using Lyapunov exponents (LEs) placement is proposed that is also improved by choosing optimal locations of the LEs in the sense of predefined cost function. Moreover, in order to provide the physical realization of the method, nonlinear parameter estimator for the system is suggested. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the simulation results for applying this control strategy are provided.
Magnetospheric Dynamics and Chaos Theory
G. P. Pavlos
2012-03-26
The results of this study were announced and published in Greek in the Fifth Panhellenic Conference Proceedings of the Hellenic Physical Society. It is the sequel of a previous study (Pavlos, 1988), in which it was introduced the hypothesis of magnetospheric chaos for the interpretation of magnetic substorms. In this study it is described the possibility of tracing magnetospheric chaos through Grassberger and Procassia method for the estimation of correlation dimension. In addition, it is proposed, the estimation of chaoticity through the computation of Lyapunov exponents. This study and its previous one constitute the first studies ever concerning the hypothesis of magnetospheric chaos for the interpretation and understanding the magnetospheric substorms. A series of publications of G.P.Pavlos followed the initial two studies in scientific journals and conference proceedings (www.gpavlos.gr). The publication of this study in English version has a historical importance and interest regarding the history of evolution of the concept of magnetospheric chaos. For an extended discussion concerning magnetospheric chaos, see, Pavlos 2012 ArXiv.
Bistability and chaos at low levels of quanta.
Gevorgyan, T V; Shahinyan, A R; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G Yu
2013-08-01
We study nonlinear phenomena of bistability and chaos at a level of few quanta. For this purpose, we consider a single-mode dissipative oscillator with strong Kerr nonlinearity with respect to the dissipation rate driven by a monochromatic force as well as by a train of Gaussian pulses. The quantum effects and decoherence in the oscillatory mode are investigated in the framework of the purity of states and the Wigner functions calculated from the master equation. We demonstrate the quantum chaotic regime by means of a comparison between the contour plots of the Wigner functions and the strange attractors on the classical Poincaré section. Considering bistability at a low limit of quanta, we analyze the minimal level of excitation numbers at which the bistable regime of the system is displayed. We also discuss the formation of an oscillatory chaotic regime by varying oscillatory excitation numbers at ranges of a few quanta. We demonstrate quantum-interference phenomena that are assisted hysteresis-cycle behavior and quantum chaos for the oscillator driven by a train of Gaussian pulses. We establish the border of quantum-classical correspondence for chaotic regimes in the case of strong nonlinearities. PMID:24032904
Sanders, Matthew
dynamics such as attractors, bifurcations, chaos, fractals, catastrophes, self-organization, and related- Movement Behavior, D.J. Aks Discontinuities and Catastrophes with Polynomial Regression, S.J. Guastello Nonlinear Regression and Structural Equations, S.J. Guastello Catastrophe Models with Nonlinear Regression
Hamiltonian chaos in a coupled BEC-optomechanical-cavity system
Zhang, K.; Chen, W.; Bhattacharya, M.; Meystre, P.
2010-01-15
We present a theoretical study of a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside a single-mode optical cavity with a moving end mirror. The intracavity light field has a dual role: it excites a momentum side mode of the condensate, and acts as a nonlinear spring that couples the vibrating mirror to that collective density excitation. We present the dynamics in a regime where the intracavity optical field, the mirror, and the side-mode excitation all display bistable behavior. In this regime we find that the dynamics of the system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos for appropriate initial conditions.
Chaos in a three-species food chain
Hastings, A.; Powell, T. )
1991-06-01
A continuous time model of a food chain incorporating nonlinear functional (and numerical) responses exhibits chaotic dynamics in long-term behavior when biologically reasonable parameter values are chosen. The appearance of chaos in this model suggests the chaotic dynamics may be common in natural food webs. One approach to the study of an ecological community begins with an important object: its food web. Theoretical studies of food webs must contend with the question of how to couple the large number of interacting species.
When chaos meets hyperchaos: 4D Rössler model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrio, Roberto; Angeles Martínez, M.; Serrano, Sergio; Wilczak, Daniel
2015-10-01
Chaotic behavior is a common feature of nonlinear dynamics, as well as hyperchaos in high-dimensional systems. In numerical simulations of these systems it is quite difficult to distinguish one from another behavior in some situations, as the results are frequently quite "noisy". We show that in such systems a global hyperchaotic invariant set is present giving rise to long hyperchaotic transient behaviors. This fact provides a mechanism for these noisy results. The coexistence of chaos and hyperchaos is proved via Computer-Assisted Proofs techniques.
Urban chaos and replacement dynamics in nature and society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yanguang
2014-11-01
Replacements resulting from competition are ubiquitous phenomena in both nature and society. The evolution of a self-organized system is always a physical process substituting one type of components for another type of components. A logistic model of replacement dynamics has been proposed in terms of technical innovation and urbanization, but it fails to arouse widespread attention in the academia. This paper is devoted to laying the foundations of general replacement principle by using analogy and induction. The empirical base of this study is urban replacement, including urbanization and urban growth. The sigmoid functions can be employed to model various processes of replacement. Many mathematical methods such as allometric scaling and head/tail breaks can be applied to analyzing the processes and patterns of replacement. Among varied sigmoid functions, the logistic function is the basic and the simplest model of replacement dynamics. A new finding is that replacement can be associated with chaos in a nonlinear system, e.g., urban chaos is just a part of replacement dynamics. The aim of developing replacement theory is at understanding complex interaction and conversion. This theory provides a new way of looking at urbanization, technological innovation and diffusion, Volterra-Lotka’s predator-prey interaction, man-land relation, and dynastic changes resulting from peasant uprising, and all that. Especially, the periodic oscillations and chaos of replacement dynamics can be used to explain and predict the catastrophic occurrences in the physical and human systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.
1991-01-01
The results of extensive computations are presented in order to accurately characterize transitions to chaos for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. In particular, the oscillatory dynamics in a window that supports a complete sequence of period doubling bifurcations preceding chaos is followed. As many as thirteen period doublings are followed and used to compute the Feigenbaum number for the cascade and so enable, for the first time, an accurate numerical evaluation of the theory of universal behavior of nonlinear systems, for an infinite dimensional dynamical system. Furthermore, the dynamics at the threshold of chaos exhibit a fractal behavior which is demonstrated and used to compute a universal scaling factor that enables the self-similar continuation of the solution into a chaotic regime.
Quantum Mechanics, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Correlated Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarris, Wm. C.
2007-02-01
Many of the so-called paradoxes of orthodox quantum mechanics can be shown to have parallel, more logical interpretations in the realm of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Among these are violations of Bell-type inequalities, which in comparing "classical" mechanics with quantum mechanics implicitly compare uncorrelated and correlated statistics. During the past decade research in the field of nonextensive thermodynamics (including Tsallis entropy) has demonstrated the existence of many statistical correlations in classical, nonlinear systems. When such correlations exist, the conventional classical upper limit on statistical correlations in Bell-type experiments can easily be raised to overlap with quantum mechanical predictions involving correlated states such as the Bell singlet state, a favorite for deriving Bell inequalities. Thus, arguments based on experimental violations of Bell-type inequalities, which rule out the existence of "local reality," become moot. Perhaps quantum mechanics does have a deterministic, ontological basis, albeit one based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. If so, deterministic chaos could provide Einstein's longed-for fundamental determinism, but because chaotic systems must be interpreted statistically, this also fits in quite well with the ideas of Bohr — Einstein and Bohr both could have been correct! It should be emphasized that the concept of nonlinear dynamics and chaos underpinning quantum mechanics does not involve hidden variables, nor does the fact that chaos is deterministic interlope on the existence of free will.
Meaning Finds a Way: Chaos (Theory) and Composition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kyburz, Bonnie Lenore
2004-01-01
The explanatory power provided by the chaos theory is explored. A dynamic and reciprocal relationship between culture and chaos theory indicates that the progressive cultural work may be formed by the cross-disciplinary resonance of chaos theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.
2001-01-01
The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!
Chaos Rules! Robert L. Devaney
Devaney, Robert L.
Chaos Rules! Robert L. Devaney #3; September 16, 2003 #3; Please address all correspondence to Robert L. Devaney, Department of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston MA 02215, or email bob@bu.edu. 1 of this #12;gure are all bounded by the well known Koch snow ake fractal! Figure 2: The Sierpinski hexagon
M. Lecar; F. Franklin; M. Holman; N. Murray
2001-11-30
The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: in all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its Kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new ``short-period'' comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the ``Kuiper Belt'' (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury, in 10^{12} years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 10^9 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!
Random matrices and quantum chaos
Kriecherbauer, Thomas; Marklof, Jens; Soshnikov, Alexander
2001-01-01
The theory of random matrices has far-reaching applications in many different areas of mathematics and physics. In this note, we briefly describe the state of the theory and two of the perhaps most surprising appearances of random matrices, namely in the theory of quantum chaos and in the theory of prime numbers. PMID:11553804
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.
2011-01-01
The Chaos Theory of Careers (CTC; Pryor & Bright, 2011) construes both individuals and the contexts in which they develop their careers in terms of complex dynamical systems. Such systems perpetually operate under influences of stability and change both internally and in relation to each other. The CTC introduces new concepts to account for…
BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klages, R.
2007-07-01
This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is `no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and `phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes `real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this field. I feel that occasionally the book is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ling; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Wu, Jia-Gui; Xia, Guang-Qiong
2015-01-01
Based on the polarization-resolved chaos synchronization between twin 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), a novel long-haul dual-channel bidirectional chaos communication system is proposed. In this system, a time delay signature (TDS)-suppressed chaotic signal, generated by a driving VCSEL (D-VCSEL) under double external cavity feedbacks (DECFs), simultaneously injects into twin VCSELs by variable-polarization optical injection (VPOI) to synchronize them and enhance the chaos output bandwidth of the two VCSELs. The simulated results show that, under proper injection parameters, high-quality polarization-resolved chaos synchronization between the twin VCSELs can be achieved; meanwhile the bandwidths of chaotic signals output from the twin VCSELs have been enhanced in comparison with that of the driven chaotic signal. Based on the high-quality polarization-resolved chaos synchronization, after adopting polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) and chaos masking (CM) techniques, four 10 Gb/s messages hidden respectively in four chaotic carriers can be decrypted effectively after propagating 15 km in single-mode fiber (SMF) links. After adopting dispersion-shifted fibers (DSFs) as fiber links, the dual-channel bidirectional chaos communication distance can be extended to 140 km.
Chaos in high-dimensional dissipative dynamical systems
Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Madhok, Vaibhav; Allende, Sebastian; Doebeli, Michael
2015-01-01
For dissipative dynamical systems described by a system of ordinary differential equations, we address the question of how the probability of chaotic dynamics increases with the dimensionality of the phase space. We find that for a system of d globally coupled ODE’s with quadratic and cubic non-linearities with randomly chosen coefficients and initial conditions, the probability of a trajectory to be chaotic increases universally from ~10?5???10?4 for d?=?3 to essentially one for d?~?50. In the limit of large d, the invariant measure of the dynamical systems exhibits universal scaling that depends on the degree of non-linearity, but not on the choice of coefficients, and the largest Lyapunov exponent converges to a universal scaling limit. Using statistical arguments, we provide analytical explanations for the observed scaling, universality, and for the probability of chaos. PMID:26224119
Chaos in high-dimensional dissipative dynamical systems.
Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Madhok, Vaibhav; Allende, Sebastian; Doebeli, Michael
2015-01-01
For dissipative dynamical systems described by a system of ordinary differential equations, we address the question of how the probability of chaotic dynamics increases with the dimensionality of the phase space. We find that for a system of d globally coupled ODE's with quadratic and cubic non-linearities with randomly chosen coefficients and initial conditions, the probability of a trajectory to be chaotic increases universally from ~10(-5)-?10(-4) for d?=?3 to essentially one for d?~?50. In the limit of large d, the invariant measure of the dynamical systems exhibits universal scaling that depends on the degree of non-linearity, but not on the choice of coefficients, and the largest Lyapunov exponent converges to a universal scaling limit. Using statistical arguments, we provide analytical explanations for the observed scaling, universality, and for the probability of chaos. PMID:26224119
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKay, Hannah; Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.
2005-01-01
Chaos career counseling, based on the Chaos Theory of Careers (R. G. L. Pryor & J. E. H. Bright, 2003a, 2003b), was compared with trait matching career counseling and a wait list control. Sixty university students who attended the Careers Research and Assessment Service seeking career advice were randomly assigned to the chaos intervention, the…
The Dynamics of Deterministic Chaos in Numerical Weather Prediction Models
A. Mary Selvam
2003-10-07
Atmospheric weather systems are coherent structures consisting of discrete cloud cells forming patterns of rows/streets, mesoscale clusters and spiral bands which maintain their identity for the duration of their appreciable life times in the turbulent shear flow of the planetary Atmospheric Boundary Layer. The existence of coherent structures (seemingly systematic motion) in turbulent flows has been well established during the last 20 years of research in turbulence. Numerical weather prediction models based on the inherently non-linear Navier-Stokes equations do not give realistic forecasts because of the following inherent limitations: (1) the non-linear governing equations for atmospheric flows do not have exact analytic solutions and being sensitive to initial conditions give chaotic solutions characteristic of deterministic chaos (2) the governing equations do not incorporate the dynamical interactions and co-existence of the complete spectrum of turbulent fluctuations which form an integral part of the large coherent weather systems (3) limitations of available computer capacity necessitates severe truncation of the governing equations, thereby generating errors of approximations (4) the computer precision related roundoff errors magnify the earlier mentioned uncertainties exponentially with time and the model predictions become unrealistic. The accurate modelling of weather phenomena therefore requires alternative concepts and computational techniques. In this paper a universal theory of deterministic chaos applicable to the formation of coherent weather structures in the ABL is presented.
Does chaos assist localization or delocalization?
Tan, Jintao; Luo, Yunrong; Hai, Wenhua; Lu, Gengbiao
2014-12-01
We aim at a long-standing contradiction between chaos-assisted tunneling and chaos-related localization study quantum transport of a single particle held in an amplitude-modulated and tilted optical lattice. We find some near-resonant regions crossing chaotic and regular regions in the parameter space, and demonstrate that chaos can heighten velocity of delocalization in the chaos-resonance overlapping regions, while chaos may aid localization in the other chaotic regions. The degree of localization enhances with increasing the distance between parameter points and near-resonant regions. The results could be useful for experimentally manipulating chaos-assisted transport of single particles in optical or solid-state lattices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
This false color image continues the northward trend through the Iani Chaos region. Compare this image to Monday's and Tuesday's. This image was collected during the Southern Fall season.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0.1 Longitude 342.6 East (17.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
This false color image is located in a different part of Aureum Chaos. Compare the surface textures with yesterday's image. This image was collected during the Southern Fall season.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1, Longitude 333.9 East (26.1 West). 35 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Subharmonics, Chaos, and Beyond
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adler, Laszlo; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.
2011-01-01
While studying finite amplitude ultrasonic wave resonance in a one dimensional liquid-filled cavity, which is formed by a narrow band transducer and a plane reflector, subharmonics of the driver's frequency were observed in addition to the expected harmonic structure. Subsequently it was realized that the system was one of the many examples where parametric resonance takes place and in which the observed subharmonics are parametrically generated. Parametric resonance occurs in any physical system which has a periodically modulated natural frequency. The generation mechanism also requires a sufficiently high threshold value of the driving amplitude so that the system becomes increasingly nonlinear in response. The nonlinear features were recently investigated and are the objective of this presentation. An ultrasonic interferometer with optical precision was built. The transducers were compressional undamped quartz and Lithium Niobate crystals ranging from 1-10 Mhz, and driven by a high power amplifier. Both an optical diffraction system and a receive transducer attached to an aligned reflector with lapped flat and parallel surfaces were used to observe the generated frequency components in the cavity.
Ogawa, T.
1988-06-01
The exact equivalence between a bad-cavity laser with modulated inversion and a nonlinear oscillator in a Toda potential driven by an external modulation is presented. The dynamical properties of the laser system are investigated in detail by analyzing a Toda oscillator system. The temporal characteristics of the bad-cavity laser under strong modulation are analyzed extensively by numerically investigating the simpler Toda system as a function of two control parameters: the dc component of the population inversion and the modulation amplitude. The system exhibits two kinds of optical chaos: One is the quasiperiodic chaos in the region of the intermediate modulation amplitude and the other is the intermittent kicked chaos in the region of strong modulation and large dc component of the pumping. The former is well described by a one-dimensional discrete map with a singular invariant probability measure. There are two types of onset of the chaos: quasiperiodic instability (continuous path to chaos) and catastrophic crisis (discontinuous path). The period-doubling cascade of bifurcation is also observed. The simple discrete model of the Toda system is presented to obtain analytically the one-dimensional map function and to understand the effect of the asymmetric potential curvature on yielding chaos.
Polynomial Chaos Using Transformed Sparse Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tompkins, M. J.; Prange, M.
2011-12-01
The topic of general polynomial chaos has received significant attention in the last few years as a means to efficiently estimate model outcomes based on known stochastic processes. The method requires numerical integrations in order to evaluate the expectation integrals that are the coefficients of the stochastic polynomial. The key concern is that these numerical integrations are very time consuming when applied to demanding computational problems such as flow simulation. Therefore, methods which can perform this integration with a minimum number of integration points are highly desirable. An obvious choice is a sparse-grid method based on a 1D Gauss-quadrature rule, because this allows highly accurate integration rules to be designed for arbitrary PDFs in the expectation integral. Unfortunately, Gauss quadrature is a very poor choice for sparse-grid integration, because the corresponding integration rules are weakly nested, and thus do not allow reuse of integration points from one sparse-grid level to the next. Alternatively, Clenshaw-Curtis integration produces very strongly nested quadrature rules, but these are designed for uniform distributions and are inefficient for many PDFs, e.g., Gaussians. In this work, we present a nonlinear transformation of Fejer type 2 quadrature rules that realizes the benefits of having both a high degree of sparsity and being tailored to specific PDFs. We demonstrate that this method has the potential to integrate arbitrary functions in high stochastic dimensions (>8) with orders of magnitude fewer integration points than are required for similar Gauss-quadrature rules.
Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos
Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; Reis, Célia A. dos; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; Rosa, Suelia de S. R. F.
2014-12-10
In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.
Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; dos Reis, Célia A.; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; de S. R. F. Rosa, Suelia
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.
Quantum chaos: An entropy approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sl/omczy?ski, Wojciech; ?yczkowski, Karol
1994-11-01
A new definition of the entropy of a given dynamical system and of an instrument describing the measurement process is proposed within the operational approach to quantum mechanics. It generalizes other definitions of entropy, in both the classical and quantum cases. The Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy is obtained for a classical system and the sharp measurement instrument. For a quantum system and a coherent states instrument, a new quantity, coherent states entropy, is defined. It may be used to measure chaos in quantum mechanics. The following correspondence principle is proved: the upper limit of the coherent states entropy of a quantum map as ??0 is less than or equal to the KS-entropy of the corresponding classical map. ``Chaos umpire sits, And by decision more imbroils the fray By which he reigns: next him high arbiter Chance governs all.'' John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book II
Route to chaos in optomechanics.
Bakemeier, L; Alvermann, A; Fehske, H
2015-01-01
We establish the emergence of chaotic motion in optomechanical systems. Chaos appears at negative detuning for experimentally accessible values of the pump power and other system parameters. We describe the sequence of period-doubling bifurcations that leads to chaos and state the experimentally observable signatures in the optical spectrum. In addition to the semiclassical dynamics, we analyze the possibility of chaotic motion in the quantum regime. We find that quantum mechanics protects the optomechanical system against irregular dynamics, such that simple periodic orbits reappear and replace the classically chaotic motion. In this way observation of the dynamical signatures makes it possible to pin down the crossover from quantum to classical mechanics. PMID:25615468
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porta, G.; Tamellini, L.; Lever, V.; Riva, M.
2014-12-01
We present an inverse modeling procedure for the estimation of model parameters of sedimentary basins subject to compaction driven by mechanical and geochemical processes. We consider a sandstone basin whose dynamics are governed by a set of unknown key quantities. These include geophysical and geochemical system attributes as well as pressure and temperature boundary conditions. We derive a reduced (or surrogate) model of the system behavior based on generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE) approximations, which are directly linked to the variance-based Sobol indices associated with the selected uncertain model parameters. Parameter estimation is then performed within a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework. We then study the way the ML inversion procedure can benefit from the adoption of anisotropic polynomial approximations (a-gPCE) in which the surrogate model is refined only with respect to selected parameters according to an analysis of the nonlinearity of the input-output mapping, as quantified through the Sobol sensitivity indices. Results are illustrated for a one-dimensional setting involving quartz cementation and mechanical compaction in sandstones. The reliability of gPCE and a-gPCE approximations in the context of the inverse modeling framework is assessed. The effects of (a) the strategy employed to build the surrogate model, leading either to a gPCE or a-gPCE representation, and (b) the type and quality of calibration data on the goodness of the parameter estimates is then explored.
Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
10 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock within Aram Chaos, an ancient, partly-filled impact crater located near 3.2oN, 19.9oW. This 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel picture is illuminated by sunlight from the left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.
Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars
Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Sasaki, S.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Kurita, K.; Komatsu, G.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.
2005-01-01
The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that plateau subsidence and chaos formation may have continued well into the Amazonian Period. The geologic and paleohydrologic histories presented here have important implications, as new mechanisms for outflow channel formation and other fluvial activity are described, and new reactivation mechanisms are proposed for the origin of chaotic terrain as contributors to flooding. Detailed geomorphic analysis indicates that subterranean caverns may have been exposed during chaos formation, and thus chaotic terrains mark prime locations for future geologic, hydrologic, and possible astrobiologic exploration. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Detailed Analysis of the Nonlinear Dynamics of the Electric Step Motor J. Reiss, F. Alin*
Reiss, Josh
within the chaotic regime. Keywords: Stepper motor, electric step motor systems, chaos, nonlinearA Detailed Analysis of the Nonlinear Dynamics of the Electric Step Motor J. Reiss, F. Alin* , M.robert@univ-reims.fr Abstract The electric step motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses
A Teaching and Learning Sequence about the Interplay of Chance and Determinism in Nonlinear Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stavrou, D.; Duit, R.; Komorek, M.
2008-01-01
A teaching and learning sequence aimed at introducing upper secondary school students to the interplay between chance and determinism in nonlinear systems is presented. Three experiments concerning nonlinear systems (deterministic chaos, self-organization and fractals) and one experiment concerning linear systems are introduced. Thirty upper…
Zeta Functions and Chaos Audrey Terras
Terras, Audrey
and their Determinant Formulas, Connections with Quantum Chaos. We de...ne two more zeta functions associated) = 1X n=1 1 ns = Y p=prime 1 1 ps 1 : In 1859 Riemann extended the de...nition of zeta to an analyticZeta Functions and Chaos Audrey Terras October 12, 2009 Abstract: The zeta functions of Riemann
Hibernation prevents chaos: A logistic case study
Banaji,. Murad
Hibernation prevents chaos: A logistic case study Christian P¨otzsche Centre for Mathematical of a species from its environment, we interpret the behavior over [n, n + h], n N0, as hibernation. Indeed = 3x - 4x2 (1.3) 2 #12;Hibernation prevents chaos with step-size 1. As an autonomous and scalar ODE
Shear-Induced Chaos Kevin K. Lin
Young, Lai-Sang
Shear-Induced Chaos Kevin K. Lin and Lai-Sang Young Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New works of Wang and Young, we carry out numerical studies of shear-induced chaos in several parallel work is motivated by a series of papers by Wang and Young [34, 35, 36, 37]. In these papers
CURRICULUM VITAE Shenn-Yu Chao
Boynton, Walter R.
current along the continental margin. J. Phys. .Oceanogr, 9, 900-910. Chao, S.Y. and L.J. Pietrafesa (1980). Instabilities of fronts over a continental margin. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 3199-3211. Chao, S.Y. (1990). Tidal Point Laboratory Research A. Area of professional expertise Continental Shelf Processes, Western
Chaos Theory and James Joyce's "ulysses": Leopold Bloom as a Human COMPLEX@SYSTEM^
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackey, Peter Francis
1995-01-01
These four ideas apply as much to our lives as to the life of Leopold Bloom: (1) A trivial decision can wholly change a life. (2) A chance encounter can dramatically alter life's course. (3) A contingent nexus exists between consciousness and environment. (4) A structure of meaning helps us interpret life's chaos. These ideas also relate to a contemporary science called by some "chaos theory." The connection between Ulysses and chaos theory enhances our understanding of Bloom's day; it also suggests that this novel may be about the real process of life itself. The first chapter explains how Joyce's own essays and comments to friends compel attention to the links between Ulysses and chaos theory. His scientific contemporaries anticipated chaos theory, and their ideas seem to have rubbed off on him. We see this in his sense of trivial things and chance, his modernistic organizational impulses, and the contingent nature of Bloom's experience. The second chapter studies what chaos theory and Joyce's ideas tell us about "Ithaca," the episode which particularly implicates our processes of interpreting this text as well as life itself as we face their chaos. The third chapter examines Bloom's close feel for the aboriginal world, a contingency that clarifies his vulnerability to trivial changes. The fourth chapter studies how Bloom's stream of consciousness unfolds--from his chance encounters with trivial things. Beneath this stream's seeming chaos, Bloom's distinct personality endures, similar to how Joyce's schemas give Ulysses an imbedded, underlying order. The fifth chapter examines how trivial perturbations, such as Lyons' misunderstanding about "Throwaway," produce small crises for Bloom, exacerbating his seeming impotence before his lonely "fate.". The final chapter analyzes Bloom's views that fate and chance dictate his life. His views provide an opportunity to explore the implications chaos theory has for our understanding of free will and determinism. Ultimately, despite ungovernable fate and chance, Bloom asserts his will with Stephen and Molly, proving that he will live on, attempting to create his own destiny, wresting hope from the "chaos" of his experience.
Class, chaos, and the construction of community.
Piff, Paul K; Stancato, Daniel M; Martinez, Andres G; Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher
2012-12-01
Chaotic conditions are a prevalent and threatening feature of social life. Five studies examined whether social class underlies divergent responses to perceptions of chaos in one's social environments and outcomes. The authors hypothesized that when coping with perceptions of chaos, lower class individuals tend to prioritize community, relative to upper class individuals, who instead tend to prioritize material wealth. Consistent with these predictions, when personally confronting chaos, lower class individuals were more communally oriented (Study 1), more connected with their community (Study 2), and more likely to volunteer for a community-building project (Study 3), compared to upper class individuals. In contrast, perceptions of chaos caused upper class individuals to express greater reliance on wealth (Study 4) and prefer financial gain over membership in a close-knit community (Study 5), relative to lower class individuals. These findings suggest that social class shapes how people respond to perceptions of chaos and cope with its threatening consequences. PMID:22889070
Random Matrices and Chaos in Nuclear Physics
H. A. Weidenmuller; G. E. Mitchell
2008-07-07
The authors review the evidence for the applicability of random--matrix theory to nuclear spectra. In analogy to systems with few degrees of freedom, one speaks of chaos (more accurately: quantum chaos) in nuclei whenever random--matrix predictions are fulfilled. An introduction into the basic concepts of random--matrix theory is followed by a survey over the extant experimental information on spectral fluctuations, including a discussion of the violation of a symmetry or invariance property. Chaos in nuclear models is discussed for the spherical shell model, for the deformed shell model, and for the interacting boson model. Evidence for chaos also comes from random--matrix ensembles patterned after the shell model such as the embedded two--body ensemble, the two--body random ensemble, and the constrained ensembles. All this evidence points to the fact that chaos is a generic property of nuclear spectra, except for the ground--state regions of strongly deformed nuclei.
Common prescriptions for psychology derived from dialectical materialism and chaos theory.
Gilgen, A R
2000-04-01
During the entire Soviet period (1917-1991), Russian psychologists labored to create a psychology which would be consonant with Marxist-Leninist assumptions derived from dialectical materialism. Some of their early prescriptions, in particular those put forward by Konstantin N. Kornilov in the 1920s and early 1930s, are identical to strategies being advanced by contemporary American psychologists who propose that chaos theory and nonlinear meta-modeling techniques in general, given advances in computer and television technologies, can be designed for research capable of dealing with the complexities, nonlinearities, self-organizational processes, and abrupt transformations characteristic of human psychological functioning. PMID:10840901
Optical limiting in a periodic materials with relaxational nonlinearity
Shahriar, Selim
-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996). 14. X. Liu, J. W. Haus and S codes: 190.3100 Instabilities and chaos; 190.4420 Nonlinear optics, transverse effects in; 190.5940 Self
Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations
Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming
2014-04-15
Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.
Analyzing Thought-related Electroencephalographic Data Using Nonlinear Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skidmore, Trent
1990-01-01
A unique method is presented for collecting, studying and interpreting thought-related electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The use of a chaos based nonlinear analysis technique is shown to be promising in providing insight into relating conscious thought to specific EEG data. A discussion of the practical limitations of this technique is also included.
Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations
Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J.; Lenhart, S.; Protopopescu, V.
1997-07-15
Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.
The route to chaos for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Smyrlis, Yiorgos
1990-01-01
The results of extensive numerical experiments of the spatially periodic initial value problem for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. This paper is concerned with the asymptotic nonlinear dynamics at the dissipation parameter decreases and spatio-temporal chaos sets in. To this end the initial condition is taken to be the same for all numerical experiments (a single sine wave is used) and the large time evolution of the system is followed numerically. Numerous computations were performed to establish the existence of windows, in parameter space, in which the solution has the following characteristics as the viscosity is decreased: a steady fully modal attractor to a steady bimodal attractor to another steady fully modal attractor to a steady trimodal attractor to a periodic attractor, to another steady fully modal attractor, to another periodic attractor, to a steady tetramodal attractor, to another periodic attractor having a full sequence of period-doublings (in parameter space) to chaos. Numerous solutions are presented which provide conclusive evidence of the period-doubling cascades which precede chaos for this infinite-dimensional dynamical system. These results permit a computation of the length of subwindows which in turn provide an estimate for their successive ratios as the cascade develops. A calculation based on the numerical results is also presented to show that the period doubling sequences found here for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, are in complete agreement with Feigenbaum's universal constant of 4,669201609... . Some preliminary work shows several other windows following the first chaotic one including periodic, chaotic, and a steady octamodal window; however, the windows shrink significantly in size to enable concrete quantitative conclusions to be made.
The route to chaos for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.
1991-01-01
The results of extensive numerical experiments of the spatially periodic initial value problem for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. This paper is concerned with the asymptotic nonlinear dynamics at the dissipation parameter decreases and spatio-temporal chaos sets in. To this end the initial condition is taken to be the same for all numerical experiments (a single sine wave is used) and the large time evolution of the system is followed numerically. Numerous computations were performed to establish the existence of windows, in parameter space, in which the solution has the following characteristics as the viscosity is decreased: a steady fully modal attractor to a steady bimodal attractor to another steady fully modal attractor to a steady trimodal attractor to a periodic attractor, to another steady fully modal attractor, to another periodic attractor, to a steady tetramodal attractor, to another periodic attractor having a full sequence of period-doublings (in parameter space) to chaos. Numerous solutions are presented which provide conclusive evidence of the period-doubling cascades which precede chaos for this infinite-dimensional dynamical system. These results permit a computation of the length of subwindows which in turn provide an estimate for their successive ratios as the cascade develops. A calculation based on the numerical results is also presented to show that the period doubling sequences found here for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, are in complete agreement with Feigenbaum's universal constant of 4,669201609 .... Some preliminary work shows several other windows following the first chaotic one including periodic, chaotic, and a steady octamodal window; however, the windows shrink significantly in size to enable concrete quantitative conclusions to be made.
Emergence of nonlinear behavior in the dynamics of ultracold bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermersch, Benoît; Garreau, Jean Claude
2015-04-01
We study the evolution of a system of interacting ultracold bosons which presents nonlinear, chaotic behaviors in the limit of a very large number of particles. Using the spectral entropy as an indicator of chaos and three different numerical approaches—exact diagonalization, the truncated Husimi method, and the mean-field (Gross-Pitaevskii) approximation—we put into evidence the destructive impact of quantum noise on the emergence of nonlinear dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Margulis, Boris A.; Pitkin, Emil; Guzhova, Irina V.
2015-08-01
Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION-Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION-Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors.
Shepelyansky, Dima
Directing transport by polarized radiation in the presence of chaos and dissipation A. D ratchet transport linked to an underlining strange attractor. The direction of transport can.60. k, 72.20.Ht A great challenge for the future technology on micro- scopic scales is the ability
Four dimensional chaos and intermittency in a mesoscopic model of the electroencephalogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dafilis, Mathew P.; Frascoli, Federico; Cadusch, Peter J.; Liley, David T. J.
2013-06-01
The occurrence of so-called four dimensional chaos in dynamical systems represented by coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations is rarely reported in the literature. In this paper, we present evidence that Liley's mesoscopic theory of the electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been used to describe brain activity in a variety of clinically relevant contexts, possesses a chaotic attractor with a Kaplan-Yorke dimension significantly larger than three. This accounts for simple, high order chaos for a physiologically admissible parameter set. Whilst the Lyapunov spectrum of the attractor has only one positive exponent, the contracting dimensions are such that the integer part of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension is three, thus giving rise to four dimensional chaos. A one-parameter bifurcation analysis with respect to the parameter corresponding to extracortical input is conducted, with results indicating that the origin of chaos is due to an inverse period doubling cascade. Hence, in the vicinity of the high order, strange attractor, the model is shown to display intermittent behavior, with random alternations between oscillatory and chaotic regimes. This phenomenon represents a possible dynamical justification of some of the typical features of clinically established EEG traces, which can arise in the case of burst suppression in anesthesia and epileptic encephalopathies in early infancy.
Driven Tunneling: Chaos and Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänggi, Peter; Kohler, Sigmund; Dittrich, Thomas
Chaotic tunneling in a driven double-well system is investigated in absence as well as in the presence of dissipation. As the constitutive mechanism of chaos-assisted tunneling, we focus on the dynamics in the vicinity of three-level crossings in the quasienergy spectrum. They are formed when a tunnel doublet, located on a pair of symmetry-related tori in the classical phase space, approaches a chaotic singlet in energy. The coherent quantum dynamics near the crossing, in particular the enhanced tunneling that involves the chaotic singlet state as a "step stone", is described satisfactorily by a three-state model. It fails, however, for the corresponding dissipative dynamics, because incoherent transitions due to the interaction with the environment indirectly couple the three states in the crossing to the remaining quasienergy states. We model dissipation by coupling the double well, the driving included, to a heat bath. The time dependence of the central system, with a quasienergy spectrum containing exponentially small tunnel splittings, requires special considerations when applying the Born-Markov and rotating-wave approximations to derive a master equation for the density operator. We discuss the effect of decoherence on the now transient chaos-assisted tunneling: While decoherence is accelerated practically independent of temperature near the center of the crossing, it can be stabilzed with increasing temperature at a chaotic-state induced exact crossing of the ground-state quasienergies. Moreover the asymptotic amount of coherence left within the vicinity of the crossing is enhanced if the temperature is below the splitting of the avoided crossing; but becomes diminished when temperature raises above the splitting (chaos-induced coherence or incoherence, respectively). The asymptotic state of the driven dissipative quantum dynamics partially resembles the, possibly strange, attractor of the corresponding damped driven classical dynamics, but also exhibits characteristic quantum effects.
Hydaspis Chaos in Nighttime Infrared
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This nighttime infrared image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system, captures a massively disrupted region on Mars called Hydaspis Chaos, which is located near the equator at two degrees north, 29 degrees west. The total vertical difference from the lowest to highest points in this region is about five kilometers (three miles.)
The steep slopes leading down into the canyon of Hydaspsis Chaos are strewn with rocks, while the plateaus and mesas above are covered in dust. This pattern indicates that processes are at work to prevent the dust from completely covering the surface of these slopes, even over the very long period since these canyons were formed.
The slopes and floor of these canyons show remarkable variability in the distribution of rocks and fine-grained material. Chaotic terrain may have been formed when subsurface ground water or ice was removed, and the overlying ground collapsed. The release of this water or ice (or both)formed the outflow channel Tiu Valles, which flowed across the Mars Pathfinder landing site.
This image captures a region of chaotic terrain about 106 kilometers (65 miles) long and 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The channel that feeds into the chaos at the bottom of the image is about 7 kilometers (4.3 miles)wide and 280 meters (930 feet) deep. The image was acquired on February 19, 2002. North is to the right of the image.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Accessing Creativity: Jungian Night Sea Journeys, Wandering Minds, and Chaos.
Rosen, Diane
2016-01-01
NDS theory has been meaningfully applied to the dynamics of creativity and psychology. These complex systems have much in common, including a broad definition of "product" as new order emerging from disorder, a new whole (etymologically, 'health') out of disintegration or destabilization. From a nonlinear dynamical systems perspective, this paper explores the far-from-equilibrium zone of creative incubation: first in the Jungian night sea journey, a primordial myth of psychological and creative transformation; then in the neuroscience of mind wandering, the wellspring of creative ideation within the larger neural matrix. Finally, chaos theory grounds the elusive subject of creativity, modeling chaotic generation of idea elements that tend toward strange attractors, combine unpredictably, and produce change by means of tension between opposites, particularly noetic consciousness (light) and the poetic unconscious (darkness). Examples from my own artwork illustrate this dialectical process. Considered together, the unconscious mythic sea journey, the unknowing wandering mind, and the generative paradigm of deterministic chaos suggest conditions that facilitate creativity across disciplines, providing fresh indications that the darkness of the unknown or irrational is, paradoxically, the illuminative source and strength of creativity. PMID:26639923
Chaos in Two-Dimensional ?3 Theory with Oscillator Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahiro, M.; Kaminaga, Y.; Saito, Y.; Ohtsubo, S.
2003-03-01
A classical scalar field in a box with a periodic boundary is approximately described as a superposition of the spatially homogeneous mode and the lowest oscillator mode. This approximation reduces the scalar field theory to a four-dimensional nonlinear system with three constants, the total energy E, the ``angular momentum'' ?, and the wave number k of the oscillator mode. In (k, ?)-space, the parameter combinations which yield chaos are those for which (i) 0.3 <˜ k <˜ 0.9 and 0 <= ? <˜ 0.1, and those in (ii) the arm-shaped region that ranges from (k, ?) ˜= (0.9, 0.0) to (0.7, 0.4). Stochasticity is most conspicuous when E takes its maximum value. As E decreases, the stochasticity is rapidly lost, and when E becomes below roughly 60% of the maximum value, the system behaves deterministically, for any choice of k,? and the initial conditions. Stochasticity is lost also in the large ?, large k and small k limits. There is no (k, ?, E) combination that yields chaos for (almost) all initial conditions. In the present paper, these results are confirmed numerically. Some of the types of behavior can be explained in terms of the curvature of the potential surface, weak coupling areas, and the shape of the kinetic region.
The Quantum Emergence of Chaos
Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs; Kosuke Shizume
2004-12-21
The dynamical status of isolated quantum systems, partly due to the linearity of the Schrodinger equation is unclear: Conventional measures fail to detect chaos in such systems. However, when quantum systems are subjected to observation -- as all experimental systems must be -- their dynamics is no longer linear and, in the appropriate limit(s), the evolution of expectation values, conditioned on the observations, closely approaches the behavior of classical trajectories. Here we show, by analyzing a specific example, that microscopic continuously observed quantum systems, even far from any classical limit, can have a positive Lyapunov exponent, and thus be truly chaotic.
The Quantum Emergence of Chaos
Habib, S; Shizume, K; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Shizume, Kosuke
2004-01-01
The dynamical status of isolated quantum systems, partly due to the linearity of the Schrodinger equation is unclear: Conventional measures fail to detect chaos in such systems. However, when quantum systems are subjected to observation -- as all experimental systems must be -- their dynamics is no longer linear and, in the appropriate limit(s), the evolution of expectation values, conditioned on the observations, closely approaches the behavior of classical trajectories. Here we show, by analyzing a specific example, that microscopic continuously observed quantum systems, even far from any classical limit, can have a positive Lyapunov exponent, and thus be truly chaotic.
Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noyes, H. P.
1994-11-01
We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L. H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes' contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.
Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
4 February 2004 Aram Chaos is a large meteor impact crater that was nearly filled with sediment. Over time, this sediment was hardened to form sedimentary rock. Today, much of the eastern half of the crater has exposures of light-toned sedimentary rock, such as the outcrops shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The picture is located near 2.0oN, 20.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.
Decoherence, determinism and chaos revisited
Noyes, H.P.
1994-11-15
We suggest that the derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations for classical electromagnetism, using a discrete ordered calculus developed by L.H. Kauffman and T. Etter, necessarily pushes the discussion of determinism in natural science down to the level of relativistic quantum mechanics and hence renders the mathematical phenomena studied in deterministic chaos research irrelevant to the question of whether the world investigated by physics is deterministic. We believe that this argument reinforces Suppes` contention that the issue of determinism versus indeterminism should be viewed as a Kantian antinomy incapable of investigation using currently available scientific tools.
Quantum chaos and effective thermalization.
Altland, Alexander; Haake, Fritz
2012-02-17
We demonstrate effective equilibration for unitary quantum dynamics under conditions of classical chaos. Focusing on the paradigmatic example of the Dicke model, we show how a constructive description of the thermalization process is facilitated by the Glauber Q or Husimi function, for which the evolution equation turns out to be of Fokker-Planck type. The equation describes a competition of classical drift and quantum diffusion in contractive and expansive directions. By this mechanism the system follows a "quantum smoothened" approach to equilibrium, which avoids the notorious singularities inherent to classical chaotic flows. PMID:22401203
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
6 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows several dark-toned mesas surrounded by light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops in Aram Chaos, a large impact basin -- over 200 km (more than 125 mi) across. These mesas are remnants of a once more extensive rock unit. The image is located near 2.0oN, 20.2oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.
Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.
Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.
The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.
The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).
The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the plateau.
CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.
Nonlinear analysis and prediction of pulsatile hormone secretion
Prank, K. |; Kloppstech, M.; Nowlan, S.J.; Harms, H.M.; Brabant, G.; Hesch, R.; Sejnowski, T.J.
1996-06-01
Pulsatile hormone secretion is observed in almost every hormonal system. The frequency of episodic hormone release ranges from approximately 10 to 100 pulses in 24 hours. This temporal mode of secretion is an important feature of intercellular information transfer in addition to a dose-response dependent regulation. It has been demonstrated in a number of experiments that changes in the temporal pattern of pulsatile hormone secretion specifically regulate cellular and organ function and structure. Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease characterized by loss of bone mass and structure, to changes in the dynamics of pulsatile parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In our study we applied nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of PTH in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack periods of high predictability found in normal humans. In contrast to patients with osteoporosis patients with hyperparathyroidism, a condition which despite sometimes reduced bone mass has a preserved bone architecture, show periods of high predictability of PTH secretion. Using stochastic surrogate data sets which match certain statistical properties of the original time series significant nonlinear determinism could be found for the PTH time series of a group of healthy subjects. Using classical nonlinear analytical techniques we could demonstrate that the irregular pattern of pulsatile PTH secretion in healthy men exhibits characteristics of deterministic chaos. Pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy subjects seems to be a first example of nonlinear determinism in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Diffusing Interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duval, Walter M. B.
2001-01-01
Excitation of two miscible-viscous liquids inside a bounded enclosure in a microgravity environment has shown the evolution of quasi-stationary waves of various modes for a range of parameters. We examine computationally the nonlinear dynamics of the system as the interface breakup and bifurcates to resonance structures typified by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism. Results show that when the mean steady field is much smaller than the amplitude of the sinusoidal excitation, the system behaves linearly, and growth of quasi-stationary waves occurs through the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism. However, as the amplitude of excitation increases, nonlinearity occurs through subharmonic bifurcation prior to broadband chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kengne, J.
In this paper, the dynamics of the paradigmatic hyperchaotic oscillator with gyrators introduced by Tamasevicius and co-workers (referred to as the TCMNL oscillator hereafter) is considered. This well known hyperchaotic oscillator with active RC realization of inductors is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. Unlike previous literature based on piecewise-linear approximation methods, I derive a new (smooth) mathematical model based on the Shockley diode equation to explore the dynamics of the oscillator. Various tools for detecting chaos including bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, frequency spectra, phase portraits and Poincaré sections are exploited to establish the connection between the system parameters and various complex dynamic regimes (e.g. hyperchaos, period-3 doubling bifurcation, coexistence of attractors, transient chaos) of the hyperchaotic oscillator. One of the most interesting and striking features of this oscillator discovered/revealed in this work is the coexistence of a hyperchaotic attractor with a chaotic one over a broad range of system parameters. This phenomenon was not reported previously and therefore represents a meaningful contribution to the understanding of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems in general. A close agreement is observed between theoretical and experimental analyses.
Detection of "noisy" chaos in a time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chon, K. H.; Kanters, J. K.; Cohen, R. J.; Holstein-Rathlou, N. H.
1997-01-01
Time series from biological system often displays fluctuations in the measured variables. Much effort has been directed at determining whether this variability reflects deterministic chaos, or whether it is merely "noise". The output from most biological systems is probably the result of both the internal dynamics of the systems, and the input to the system from the surroundings. This implies that the system should be viewed as a mixed system with both stochastic and deterministic components. We present a method that appears to be useful in deciding whether determinism is present in a time series, and if this determinism has chaotic attributes. The method relies on fitting a nonlinear autoregressive model to the time series followed by an estimation of the characteristic exponents of the model over the observed probability distribution of states for the system. The method is tested by computer simulations, and applied to heart rate variability data.
Relaxation Dynamics of Spatiotemporal Chaos in the Nematic Liquid Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nugroho, Fahrudin; Ueki, Tatsuhiro; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Kai, Shoichi
2011-11-01
We are working on the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, in which a kind of spatiotemporal chaos called as a soft-mode turbulence (SMT) is observed. The SMT is caused by the nonlinear interaction between the convective modes and the Nambu--Goldstone (NG) modes. By applying an external magnetic field H, the NG mode is suppressed and an ordered pattern can be observed. By removing the suppression effect the ordered state relax to its original SMT pattern. We revealed two types of instability govern the relaxation process: the zigzag instability and the free rotation of wavevector q(r). This work is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 20111003, 21340110, and 21540391) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Quantifying chaos for ecological stoichiometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep
2010-09-01
The theory of ecological stoichiometry considers ecological interactions among species with different chemical compositions. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have shown the importance of species composition in the outcome of the population dynamics. A recent study of a theoretical three-species food chain model considering stoichiometry [B. Deng and I. Loladze, Chaos 17, 033108 (2007)] shows that coexistence between two consumers predating on the same prey is possible via chaos. In this work we study the topological and dynamical measures of the chaotic attractors found in such a model under ecological relevant parameters. By using the theory of symbolic dynamics, we first compute the topological entropy associated with unimodal Poincaré return maps obtained by Deng and Loladze from a dimension reduction. With this measure we numerically prove chaotic competitive coexistence, which is characterized by positive topological entropy and positive Lyapunov exponents, achieved when the first predator reduces its maximum growth rate, as happens at increasing ?1. However, for higher values of ?1 the dynamics become again stable due to an asymmetric bubble-like bifurcation scenario. We also show that a decrease in the efficiency of the predator sensitive to prey's quality (increasing parameter ?) stabilizes the dynamics. Finally, we estimate the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractors for the stoichiometric ecological model.
The Terrain of Margaritifer Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
The jumbled and broken terrain in the picture on the left is known as chaotic terrain. Chaotic terrain was first observed in Mariner 6 and 7 images of Mars more than 30 years ago, and is thought to result from collapse after material--perhaps water or ice--was removed from the subsurface by events such as the formation of giant flood channels. The region shown here is named 'Margaritifer Chaos'. The left picture is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle camera context frame that covers an area 115 km (71 miles) across. The small white box is centered at 10.3oS, 21.4oW and indicates the location of the high-resolution view on the right. The high resolution view (right) covers a small portion of the Margaritifer Chaos at 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 miles) across. Uplands are lumpy with small bright outcrops of bedrock. Lowlands or valleys in the chaotic terrain have floors covered by light-toned windblown d rifts. This image is typical of the very highest-resolution views of the equatorial latitudes of Mars. Both pictures are illuminated from the left/upper left, north is toward the top.
Parameter identification using experimental nonlinear dynamics and chaos
Chancellor, Roy Scott
1993-01-01
data from accelerometer signals mounted on the test specimens. Data acquisition software samples velocity and displacement signals and displays a phase portrait or Poincare map on a computer screen. Experimental data show the chaotic nature...
Chaos suppression in NEMs resonators by using nonlinear control design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tusset, Angelo Marcelo; Bueno, Atila Madureira; Nascimento, Claudinor Bitencourt; Kaster, Mauricio Dos Santos; Balthazar, José Manoel
2012-11-01
In this work the chaotic behavior of a micro-mechanical resonator with electrostatic forces on both sides is suppressed. The aim is to control the system in an orbit of the analytical solution obtained by the Method of Multiple Scales. Two control strategies are used for controlling the trajectory of the system, namely: State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) Control and Optimal Linear Feedback Control (OLFC). The controls proved effectiveness in controlling the trajectory of the system. Additionally, the robustness of each strategy is tested considering the presence of parametric errors and measurement noise in control.
Chaos and microbial systems. Progress report, July 1989--July 1990
Kot, M.
1990-07-01
A recurrent theme of much recent research is that seemingly random fluctuations often occur as the result of simple deterministic mechanisms. Hence, much of the recent work in nonlinear dynamics has centered on new techniques for identifying order in seemingly chaotic systems. To determine the robustness of these techniques, chaos must, to some extent, be brought into the laboratory. Preliminary investigations of the forced double-Monod equations, a model for a predator and a prey in a chemostat with periodic variation in inflowing substrate concentration, suggest that simple microbial systems may provide the perfect framework for determining the efficacy and relevance of the new nonlinear dynamics in dealing with complex population dynamics. This research has two main goals, that is the mathematical analysis and computer simulation of the periodically forced double-Monod equations and of related models; and experimental (chemostat) population studies that evaluate the accuracy and generality of the models, and that judge the usefulness of various new techniques of nonlinear dynamics to the study of populations.
Chomp, Recurrences and Chaos(?) DORON ZEILBERGER*,
Zeilberger, Doron
by "weird" recurrences. Keywords: Chomp; Recurrence equations; Chaos; Difference equations SABER ELAYDI When sense. In this article, we will encounter weird recurrences that in addition to using all the previous
Order and chaos : articulating support, housing transformation
Boehm, William Hollister
1990-01-01
This thesis presents an exploration on the theme of order and chaos, as a formal and social phenomenon, particularly as it relates to housing. The work stems from an attraction to the messy vitality we find in certain ...
Random Matrices and Chaos in Nuclear Spectra
T. Papenbrock; H. A. Weidenmueller
2007-01-30
We speak of chaos in quantum systems if the statistical properties of the eigenvalue spectrum coincide with predictions of random-matrix theory. Chaos is a typical feature of atomic nuclei and other self-bound Fermi systems. How can the existence of chaos be reconciled with the known dynamical features of spherical nuclei? Such nuclei are described by the shell model (a mean-field theory) plus a residual interaction. We approach the question by using a statistical approach (the two-body random ensemble): The matrix elements of the residual interaction are taken to be random variables. We show that chaos is a generic feature of the ensemble and display some of its properties, emphasizing those which differ from standard random-matrix theory. In particular, we display the existence of correlations among spectra carrying different quantum numbers. These are subject to experimental verification.
Adapted polynomial chaos expansion for failure detection
Paffrath, M. Wever, U.
2007-09-10
In this paper, we consider two methods of computation of failure probabilities by adapted polynomial chaos expansions. The performance of the two methods is demonstrated by a predator-prey model and a chemical reaction problem.
Controlling chaos in a defined trajectory using adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Maryam; Menhaj, Bagher
2012-09-01
Chaos is a nonlinear behavior of chaotic system with the extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions. Chaos control is so complicated that solutions never converge to a specific numbers and vary chaotically from one amount to the other next. A tiny perturbation in a chaotic system may result in chaotic, periodic, or stationary behavior. Modern controllers are introduced for controlling the chaotic behavior. In this research an adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller (AFLC) is proposed to control the chaotic system with two equilibrium points. This method is introduced as an adaptive progressed fashion with the full ability to control the nonlinear systems even in the undertrained conditions. Using AFLC designers are released to determine the precise mathematical model of system and satisfy the vast adaption that is needed for a rapid variation which may be caused in the dynamic of nonlinear system. Rules and system parameters are generated through the AFLC and expert knowledge is downright only in the initialization stage. So if the knowledge was not assuring the dynamic of system it could be changed through the adaption procedure of parameters values. AFLC methodology is an advanced control fashion in control yielding to both robustness and smooth motion in nonlinear system control.
Deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slemrod, M.
1983-06-01
The author spent one half of the Spring 1983 semester at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. During that time he interacted with colleagues, engaged in research, and gave two public lectures at the Institute: chaos in phase transitions, and dynamics of phase transitions. The main thrust of his research was in two areas, specifically: deterministic chaos in materials exhibiting phase transitions, and admissibility criteria for weak solutions of the non-hyperbolic conservation laws which describe dynamic phase transitions.
Wave chaos in rapidly rotating stars
F. Lignieres; B. Georgeot
2008-05-12
Effects of rapid stellar rotation on acoustic oscillation modes are poorly understood. We study the dynamics of acoustic rays in rotating polytropic stars and show using quantum chaos concepts that the eigenfrequency spectrum is a superposition of regular frequency patterns and an irregular frequency subset respectively associated with near-integrable and chaotic phase space regions. This opens new perspectives for rapidly rotating star seismology and also provides a new and potentially observable manifestation of wave chaos in a large scale natural system.
Loss of 'complexity' and aging. Potential applications of fractals and chaos theory to senescence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipsitz, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.
1992-01-01
The concept of "complexity," derived from the field of nonlinear dynamics, can be adapted to measure the output of physiologic processes that generate highly variable fluctuations resembling "chaos." We review data suggesting that physiologic aging is associated with a generalized loss of such complexity in the dynamics of healthy organ system function and hypothesize that such loss of complexity leads to an impaired ability to adapt to physiologic stress. This hypothesis is supported by observations showing an age-related loss of complex variability in multiple physiologic processes including cardiovascular control, pulsatile hormone release, and electroencephalographic potentials. If further research supports this hypothesis, measures of complexity based on chaos theory and the related geometric concept of fractals may provide new ways to monitor senescence and test the efficacy of specific interventions to modify the age-related decline in adaptive capacity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Nanrun; Wang, Yixian; Gong, Lihua; He, Hong; Wu, Jianhua
2011-06-01
A new color image encryption algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) and chaos is proposed. The colors of the original color image are converted to HSI (hue-saturation-intensity), and the S component is transformed by the random-phase encoding based on FrFT to obtain a new random phase. The I component is transformed by double random-phase encoding based on FrFT using the H component and the new random phase as two phase plates. Then chaos scrambling technology is used to encrypt the image, which makes the resulting image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain. Additionally, the ciphertext is not a color image but a combination of a gray image and a phase matrix, so the ciphertext has camouflage property to some extent. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and the security of this algorithm.
Controlling Chaos Via Knowledge of Initial Condition for a Curved Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, L.
2000-01-01
Nonlinear response of a flexible curved panel exhibiting bifurcation to fully developed chaos is demonstrated along with the sensitivity to small perturbation from the initial conditions. The response is determined from the measured time series at two fixed points. The panel is forced by an external nonharmonic multifrequency and monofrequency sound field. Using a low power time-continuous feedback control, carefully tuned at each initial condition, produces large long-term effects on the dynamics toward taming chaos. Without the knowledge of the initial conditions, control may be achieved by destructive interference. In this case, the control power is proportional to the loading power. Calculation of the correlation dimension and the estimation of positive Lyapunov exponents, in practice, are the proof of chaotic response.
Time-Reversal Invariance and the Relation between Wave Chaos and Classical Chaos
Snieder, Roel
Time-Reversal Invariance and the Relation between Wave Chaos and Classical Chaos Roel Snieder for imaging are invariant for time reversal. The physical reason for this is that in imaging one propagates the recorded waves backward in time to the place and time when the waves interacted with the medium
Control of collective network chaos
Wagemakers, Alexandre Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.
2014-06-01
Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of “reduced” ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.
Ergodic theory, randomness, and "chaos".
Ornstein, D S
1989-01-13
Ergodic theory is the theory of the long-term statistical behavior of dynamical systems. The baker's transformation is an object of ergodic theory that provides a paradigm for the possibility of deterministic chaos. It can now be shown that this connection is more than an analogy and that at some level of abstraction a large number of systems governed by Newton's laws are the same as the baker's transformation. Going to this level of abstraction helps to organize the possible kinds of random behavior. The theory also gives new concrete results. For example, one can show that the same process could be produced by a mechanism governed by Newton's laws or by a mechanism governed by coin tossing. It also gives a statistical analog of structural stability. PMID:17747421
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation of 3-dimensional model with 5x vertical exaggeration
This image of chaotic terrain in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0858UTC (3:58 a.m. EST) on January 24, 2008, near 3.66 degrees south latitude, 26.5 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.
Aureum Chaos is a 368 kilometer (229 mile) wide area of chaotic terrain in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. The chaotic terrain is thought to have formed by collapse of the surrounding Margaritifer Terra highland region. Aureum Chaos contains heavily eroded, randomly oriented mesas, plateaus, and knobs many revealing distinct layered deposits along their slopes. These deposits may be formed from remnants of the collapsed highlands, sand carried by Martian winds, dust or volcanic ash that settled out of the atmosphere, or sediments laid down on the floor of an ancient lake.
The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover a narrow plateau near the edge of the chaotic terrain, that stretches across from the southwest to the northeast.
The lower left image, an infrared false color image, reveals the plateau and several eroded knobs of varying sizes. The plateau's layer-cake structure is similar to that of other layered outcrops in Valles Marineris.
The lower right image reveals the strengths of mineral spectral features overlain on a black-and-white version of the infrared image. Areas shaded in red hold more of the mineral pyroxene, a primary component of basaltic rocks that are prevalent in the highlands. Spots of green indicate monohydrated sulfate minerals (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral), while blue indicates polyhydrated sulfate minerals (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).
Although the plateau's dark cap rock is somewhat mineralogically non-descript, the bright, white swath of underlying material cascading down the plateau's flanks appears to hold polyhydrated sulfates. Dark eolian or wind deposited sediments in the south-central part of the plateau are also rich in polyhydrated sulfates.
Surrounding the plateau are small greenish spots of monoyhydrated sulfates. These are erosional remnants of an even lower part of the layered deposits that is compositionally distinct from the main part of the plateau.
The deepest layer visible is preexisting 'basement' rock that forms the floor of Aureum Chaos around the plateau. It is comprised of basaltic rock exposed by collapse of the crust and the debris derived from that collapse.
The animation (see above) of a 3-dimensional topographic model illustrates the relationship of these materials. It was made using the lower right CRISM image, draped over MOLA topography with 5X vertical exaggeration.
CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.
Bulcsú Sándor; Ferenc Járai-Szabó; Tamás Tél; Zoltán Néda
2013-04-18
The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.
nonlinearity G-perfect nonlinearity
Poinsot, Laurent
G-perfect nonlinearity Laurent Poinsot Outline G-perfect nonlinearity Laurent Poinsot Universit´e du Sud Toulon-Var (France) Organized by Professor J. Davis University of Richmond #12;G correlation ; High algebraic degree ; Perfect nonlinearity (bentness). #12;G-perfect nonlinearity Laurent
The Nature (and Nurture) of Children's Perceptions of Family Chaos
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Jaffee, Sara R.; Plomin, Robert
2010-01-01
Chaos in the home is a key environment in cognitive and behavioural development. However, we show that children's experience of home chaos is partly genetically mediated. We assessed children's perceptions of household chaos at ages 9 and 12 in 2337 pairs of twins. Using child-specific reports allowed us to use structural equation modelling to…
REGULAR ARTICLES Food chain chaos due to Shilnikov's orbit
Deng, Bo
REGULAR ARTICLES Food chain chaos due to Shilnikov's orbit Bo Denga) and Gwendolen Hinesb of the predator over the prey is sufficiently small in a basic tri-trophic food chain model. This assumption not be properly understood without understanding the role chaos plays in food chains. Yet chaos generating
God's Stuff: The Constructive Powers of Chaos for Teaching Religion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Willhauck, Susan
2010-01-01
Order and organization are valued in the classroom, and there is a prevailing understanding that chaos should be avoided. Yet chaos can also be potent space or a source from which new things spring forth. This article investigates biblical, scientific, and cultural understandings of chaos to discover how these contribute to a revelatory metaphor…
Anlage, Steven
Microwave Effects & Chaos inMicrowave Effects & Chaos in 21st Century Analog & Digital21st Century University (BSU) AFOSR MURI 2001 Kickoff Meeting 6/14/01 #12;Microwave Effects & Chaos (UMCP/BSU)Microwave at reduced levels of microwave power density Specify innovations to reduce vulnerability (e.g. new computer
Bifurcations and chaos in register transitions of excised larynx experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokuda, Isao T.; Horá?ek, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G.; Herzel, Hanspeter
2008-03-01
Experimental data from an excised larynx are analyzed in the light of nonlinear dynamics. The excised larynx provides an experimental framework that enables artificial control and direct observation of the vocal fold vibrations. Of particular interest in this experiment is the coexistence of two distinct vibration patterns, which closely resemble chest and falsetto registers of the human voice. Abrupt transitions between the two registers are typically accompanied by irregular vibrations. Two approaches are presented for the modeling of the excised larynx experiment; one is the nonlinear predictive modeling of the experimental time series and the other is the biomechanical modeling (three-mass model) that takes into account basic mechanisms of the vocal fold vibrations. The two approaches show that the chest and falsetto vibrations correspond to two coexisting limit cycles, which jump to each other with a change in the bifurcation parameter. Irregular vibrations observed at the register jumps are due to chaos that exists near the two limit cycles. This provides an alternative mechanism to generate chaotic vibrations in excised larynx experiment, which is different from the conventionally known mechanisms such as strong asymmetry between the left and right vocal folds or excessively high subglottal pressure.
The capabilities of chaos and complexity.
Abel, David L
2009-01-01
To what degree could chaos and complexity have organized a Peptide or RNA World of crude yet necessarily integrated protometabolism? How far could such protolife evolve in the absence of a heritable linear digital symbol system that could mutate, instruct, regulate, optimize and maintain metabolic homeostasis? To address these questions, chaos, complexity, self-ordered states, and organization must all be carefully defined and distinguished. In addition their cause-and-effect relationships and mechanisms of action must be delineated. Are there any formal (non physical, abstract, conceptual, algorithmic) components to chaos, complexity, self-ordering and organization, or are they entirely physicodynamic (physical, mass/energy interaction alone)? Chaos and complexity can produce some fascinating self-ordered phenomena. But can spontaneous chaos and complexity steer events and processes toward pragmatic benefit, select function over non function, optimize algorithms, integrate circuits, produce computational halting, organize processes into formal systems, control and regulate existing systems toward greater efficiency? The question is pursued of whether there might be some yet-to-be discovered new law of biology that will elucidate the derivation of prescriptive information and control. "System" will be rigorously defined. Can a low-informational rapid succession of Prigogine's dissipative structures self-order into bona fide organization? PMID:19333445
The Capabilities of Chaos and Complexity
Abel, David L.
2009-01-01
To what degree could chaos and complexity have organized a Peptide or RNA World of crude yet necessarily integrated protometabolism? How far could such protolife evolve in the absence of a heritable linear digital symbol system that could mutate, instruct, regulate, optimize and maintain metabolic homeostasis? To address these questions, chaos, complexity, self-ordered states, and organization must all be carefully defined and distinguished. In addition their cause-and-effect relationships and mechanisms of action must be delineated. Are there any formal (non physical, abstract, conceptual, algorithmic) components to chaos, complexity, self-ordering and organization, or are they entirely physicodynamic (physical, mass/energy interaction alone)? Chaos and complexity can produce some fascinating self-ordered phenomena. But can spontaneous chaos and complexity steer events and processes toward pragmatic benefit, select function over non function, optimize algorithms, integrate circuits, produce computational halting, organize processes into formal systems, control and regulate existing systems toward greater efficiency? The question is pursued of whether there might be some yet-to-be discovered new law of biology that will elucidate the derivation of prescriptive information and control. “System” will be rigorously defined. Can a low-informational rapid succession of Prigogine’s dissipative structures self-order into bona fide organization? PMID:19333445
Gain control through divisive inhibition prevents abrupt transition to chaos in a neural mass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papasavvas, Christoforos A.; Wang, Yujiang; Trevelyan, Andrew J.; Kaiser, Marcus
2015-09-01
Experimental results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms of inhibition in cortical neuronal networks: subtractive and divisive inhibition. They modulate the input-output function of their target neurons either by increasing the input that is needed to reach maximum output or by reducing the gain and the value of maximum output itself, respectively. However, the role of these mechanisms on the dynamics of the network is poorly understood. We introduce a novel population model and numerically investigate the influence of divisive inhibition on network dynamics. Specifically, we focus on the transitions from a state of regular oscillations to a state of chaotic dynamics via period-doubling bifurcations. The model with divisive inhibition exhibits a universal transition rate to chaos (Feigenbaum behavior). In contrast, in an equivalent model without divisive inhibition, transition rates to chaos are not bounded by the universal constant (non-Feigenbaum behavior). This non-Feigenbaum behavior, when only subtractive inhibition is present, is linked to the interaction of bifurcation curves in the parameter space. Indeed, searching the parameter space showed that such interactions are impossible when divisive inhibition is included. Therefore, divisive inhibition prevents non-Feigenbaum behavior and, consequently, any abrupt transition to chaos. The results suggest that the divisive inhibition in neuronal networks could play a crucial role in keeping the states of order and chaos well separated and in preventing the onset of pathological neural dynamics.
Electronic circuits manifesting hyperbolic chaos and their simulation with software package Multisim
Sergey P. Kuznetsov
2011-11-24
We consider several electronic circuits, which represent dynamical systems with hyperbolic chaotic attractors of Smale-Williams type, and demonstrate results of their simulation using the software package NI Multisim 10. The developed approach is useful as an intermediate step of constructing real electronic devices manifesting structurally stable hyperbolic chaos applicable e.g. in systems of secure communication, noise radar, for cryptographic systems and random number generators. This is also of methodological interest for training students who specialize in radio-physics and nonlinear dynamics in the design and analysis of systems with complex dynamics using examples close to practical applications.
Low-order chaos in sympathetic nerve activity and scaling of heartbeat intervals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osaka, Motohisa; Kumagai, Hiroo; Sakata, Katsufumi; Onami, Toshiko; Chon, Ki H.; Watanabe, Mari A.; Saruta, Takao
2003-04-01
The mechanism of 1/f scaling of heartbeat intervals remains unknown. We recorded heartbeat intervals, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure in conscious rats with normal or high blood pressure. Using nonlinear analyses, we demonstrate that the dynamics of this system of three variables is low-order chaos, and that sympathetic nerve activity leads to heartbeat interval and blood pressure changes. It is suggested that impaired regulation of blood pressure by sympathetic nerve activity is likely to cause experimentally observable steeper scaling of heartbeat intervals in hypertensive (high blood pressure) rats.
How Events Come Into Being: EEQT, Particle Tracks, Quantum Chaos, and Tunneling Time
Ph. Blanchard; A. Jadczyk; A. Ruschhaupt
1999-11-26
In sections 1 and 2 we review Event Enhanced Quantum Theory (EEQT). In section 3 we discuss applications of EEQT to tunneling time, and compare its quantitative predictions with other approaches, in particular with B\\"uttiker-Larmor and Bohm trajectory approach. In section 4 we discuss quantum chaos and quantum fractals resulting from simultaneous continuous monitoring of several non-commuting observables. In particular we show self-similar, non-linear, iterated function system-type, patterns arising from quantum jumps and from the associated Markov operator. Concluding remarks pointing to possible future development of EEQT are given in section 5.
Order-to-chaos transition in the model of a quantum pendulum subjected to noisy perturbation
Denis Makarov; Leonid Kon'kov
2015-02-06
Motion of randomly-driven quantum nonlinear pendulum is considered. Utilizing one-step Poincar\\'e map, we demonstrate that classical phase space corresponding to a single realization of the random perturbation involves domains of finite-time stability. Statistical analysis of the finite-time evolution operator (FTEO) is carried out in order to study influence of finite-time stability on quantum dynamics. It is shown that domains of finite-time stability give rise to ordered patterns in distributions of FTEO eigenfunctions. Transition to global chaos is accompanied by smearing of these patterns; however, some of their traces survive on relatively long timescales.
Chaos in orbits due to disk crossings.
Hunter, C
2005-06-01
We study orbits of halo stars in simple models of galaxies with disks and halos to see if the cumulative effects of the sudden changes in acceleration that occur at disk crossings can induce chaos. We find that they can, although not in all orbits and not in all potentials. Most of the orbits that become chaotic stay relatively close to the disk and range widely in the radial direction. Heavier disks and increased halo flattening both enhance the extent of the chaos. A limited range of experiments with a three-component model of the Milky Way with an added central bulge finds that many chaotic disk-crossing orbits can be expected in the central regions, and that prolateness of the halo is much more effective than oblateness in generating chaos. PMID:15980309
Regularly timed events amid chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.
2015-11-01
We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.
Irreversible evolution of quantum chaos.
Ugulava, A; Chotorlishvili, L; Nickoladze, K
2005-05-01
The pendulum is the simplest system having all the basic properties inherent in dynamic stochastic systems. In the present paper we investigate the pendulum with the aim to reveal the properties of a quantum analogue of dynamic stochasticity or, in other words, to obtain the basic properties of quantum chaos. It is shown that a periodic perturbation of the quantum pendulum (similarly to the classical one) in the neighborhood of the separatrix can bring about irreversible phenomena. As a result of recurrent passages between degenerate states, the system gets self-chaotized and passes from the pure state to the mixed one. Chaotization involves the states, the branch points of whose levels participate in a slow "drift" of the system along the Mathieu characteristics this "drift" being caused by a slowly changing variable field. Recurrent relations are obtained for populations of levels participating in the irreversible evolution process. It is shown that the entropy of the system first grows and, after reaching the equilibrium state, acquires a constant value. PMID:16089638
Chaos-induced intensification of wave scattering.
Smirnov, I P; Virovlyansky, A L; Edelman, M; Zaslavsky, G M
2005-08-01
Sound-wave propagation in a strongly idealized model of the deep-water acoustic waveguide with a periodic range dependence is considered. It is investigated how the phenomenon of ray and wave chaos affects the sound scattering at a strong mesoscale inhomogeneity of the refractive index caused by the synoptic eddy. Methods derived in the theory of dynamical and quantum chaos are applied. When studying the properties of wave chaos we decompose the wave field into a sum of Floquet modes analogous to quantum states with fixed quasi-energies. It is demonstrated numerically that the "stable islands" from the phase portrait of the ray system reveal themselves in the coarse-grained Wigner functions of individual Floquet modes. A perturbation theory has been derived which gives an insight into the role of the mode-medium resonance in the formation of Floquet modes. It is shown that the presence of a weak internal-wave-induced perturbation giving rise to ray and wave chaos strongly increases the sensitivity of the monochromatic wave field to an appearance of the eddy. To investigate the sensitivity of the transient wave field we have considered variations of the ray travel times--arrival times of sound pulses coming to the receiver through individual ray paths--caused by the eddy. It turns out that even under conditions of ray chaos these variations are relatively predictable. This result suggests that the influence of chaotic-ray motion may be partially suppressed by using pulse signals. However, the relative predictability of travel time variations caused by a large-scale inhomogeneity is not a general property of the ray chaos. This statement is illustrated numerically by considering an inhomogeneity in the form of a perfectly reflecting bar. PMID:16196683
On the evidence of deterministic chaos in ECG: Surrogate and predictability analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindan, R. B.; Narayanan, K.; Gopinathan, M. S.
1998-06-01
The question whether the human cardiac system is chaotic or not has been an open one. Recent results in chaos theory have shown that the usual methods, such as saturation of correlation dimension D2 or the existence of positive Lyapunov exponent, alone do not provide sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of deterministic chaos in an experimental system. The results of surrogate data analysis together with the short-term prediction analysis can be used to check whether a given time series is consistent with the hypothesis of deterministic chaos. In this work nonlinear dynamical tools such as surrogate data analysis, short-term prediction, saturation of D2 and positive Lyapunov exponent have been applied to measured ECG data for several normal and pathological cases. The pathology presently studied are PVC (Premature Ventricular Contraction), VTA (Ventricular Tachy Arrhythmia), AV (Atrio-Ventricular) block and VF (Ventricular Fibrillation). While these results do not prove that ECG time series is definitely chaotic, they are found to be consistent with the hypothesis of chaotic dynamics.
Chaos in an Eulerian Based Model of Sickle Cell Blood Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apori, Akwasi; Harris, Wesley
2001-11-01
A novel Eulerian model describing the manifestation of sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries has been formulated to study the apparently chaotic onset of sickle cell crises. This Eulerian model was based on extending previous models of sickle cell blood flow which were limited due to their Lagrangian formulation. Oxygen concentration, red blood cell velocity, cell stiffness, and plasma viscosity were modeled as system state variables. The governing equations of the system were expressed in canonical form. The non-linear coupling of velocity-viscosity and viscosity- stiffness proved to be the origin of chaos in the system. The system was solved with respect to a control parameter representing the unique rheology of the sickle cell erythrocytes. Results of chaos tests proved positive for various ranges of the control parameter. The results included con-tinuous patterns found in the Poincare section, spectral broadening of the Fourier power spectrum, and positive Lyapunov exponent values. The onset of chaos predicted by this sickle cell flow model as the control parameter was varied appeared to coincide with the change from a healthy state to a crisis state in a sickle cell patient. This finding that sickle cell crises may be caused from the well understood change of a solution from a steady state to chaotic could point to new ways in preventing and treating crises and should be validated in clinical trials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantrell, John H.; Adler, Laszlo; Yost, William T.
2015-02-01
Traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear acoustic wave equation are obtained for the fundamental and second harmonic resonances of a fluid-filled cavity. The solutions lead to the development of a non-autonomous toy model for cavity oscillations. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation predicts homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude at tangency is obtained in terms of the acoustic drive frequency and fluid attenuation coefficient. The model prediction of subharmonic generation leading to chaos is validated from acousto-optic diffraction measurements in a water-filled cavity using a 5 MHz acoustic drive frequency and from the measured frequency spectrum in the bifurcation cascade regime. The calculated resonant threshold amplitude of 0.2 nm for tangency is consistent with values estimated for the experimental set-up. Experimental evidence for the appearance of a stable subharmonic beyond chaos is reported.
Cantrell, John H. Yost, William T.; Adler, Laszlo
2015-02-15
Traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear acoustic wave equation are obtained for the fundamental and second harmonic resonances of a fluid-filled cavity. The solutions lead to the development of a non-autonomous toy model for cavity oscillations. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation predicts homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude at tangency is obtained in terms of the acoustic drive frequency and fluid attenuation coefficient. The model prediction of subharmonic generation leading to chaos is validated from acousto-optic diffraction measurements in a water-filled cavity using a 5?MHz acoustic drive frequency and from the measured frequency spectrum in the bifurcation cascade regime. The calculated resonant threshold amplitude of 0.2?nm for tangency is consistent with values estimated for the experimental set-up. Experimental evidence for the appearance of a stable subharmonic beyond chaos is reported.
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos
Ignacio García-Mata; Augusto J. Roncaglia; Diego A. Wisniacki
2015-01-23
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is -- to say the least -- fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.
Wave chaos in rapidly rotating stars.
Lignières, François; Georgeot, Bertrand
2008-07-01
The effects of rapid stellar rotation on acoustic oscillation modes are poorly understood. We study the dynamics of acoustic rays in rotating polytropic stars and show using quantum chaos concepts that the eigenfrequency spectrum is a superposition of regular frequency patterns and an irregular frequency subset respectively associated with near-integrable and chaotic phase space regions. This opens fresh perspectives for rapidly rotating star seismology and also provides a potentially observable manifestation of wave chaos in a large-scale natural system. PMID:18764043
Quantum Chaos Border for Quantum Computing
B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky
2000-01-17
We study a generic model of quantum computer, composed of many qubits coupled by short-range interaction. Above a critical interqubit coupling strength, quantum chaos sets in, leading to quantum ergodicity of the computer eigenstates. In this regime the noninteracting qubit structure disappears, the eigenstates become complex and the operability of the computer is destroyed. Despite the fact that the spacing between multi-qubit states drops exponentially with the number of qubits $n$, we show that the quantum chaos border decreases only linearly with $n$. This opens a broad parameter region where the efficient operation of a quantum computer remains possible.
The uncertainty principle and quantum chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chirikov, Boris V.
1993-01-01
The conception of quantum chaos is described in some detail. The most striking feature of this novel phenomenon is that all the properties of classical dynamical chaos persist here but, typically, on the finite and different time scales only. The ultimate origin of such a universal quantum stability is in the fundamental uncertainty principle which makes discrete the phase space and, hence, the spectrum of bounded quantum motion. Reformulation of the ergodic theory, as a part of the general theory of dynamical systems, is briefly discussed.
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.
2015-01-01
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen
2015-07-01
This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.
Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen
2015-07-01
This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation. PMID:26232953
Detecting and disentangling nonlinear structure from solar flux time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.
1992-01-01
Interest in solar activity has grown in the past two decades for many reasons. Most importantly for flight dynamics, solar activity changes the atmospheric density, which has important implications for spacecraft trajectory and lifetime prediction. Building upon the previously developed Rayleigh-Benard nonlinear dynamic solar model, which exhibits many dynamic behaviors observed in the Sun, this work introduces new chaotic solar forecasting techniques. Our attempt to use recently developed nonlinear chaotic techniques to model and forecast solar activity has uncovered highly entangled dynamics. Numerical techniques for decoupling additive and multiplicative white noise from deterministic dynamics and examines falloff of the power spectra at high frequencies as a possible means of distinguishing deterministic chaos from noise than spectrally white or colored are presented. The power spectral techniques presented are less cumbersome than current methods for identifying deterministic chaos, which require more computationally intensive calculations, such as those involving Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Arzeno, Natalia M. (Natalia María Arzeno Soltero)
2007-01-01
This thesis examines two challenging problems in chaos analysis: distinguishing deterministic chaos and stochastic (noise-induced) chaos, and applying chaotic heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to the prognosis of ...
Intermittency and solitons in the driven dissipative nonlinear Schroedinger equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moon, H. T.; Goldman, M. V.
1984-01-01
The cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation, in the presence of driving and Landau damping, is studied numerically. As the pump intensity is increased, the system exhibits a transition from intermittency to a two-torus to chaos. The laminar phase of the intermittency is also a two-torus motion which corresponds in physical space to two identical solitons of amplitude determined by a power-balance equation.
Study of nonlinear dynamics in magnetron by using circuitry model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daohui; Chen, Xiaodong
2012-03-01
A circuitry model is established to study the nonlinear dynamics of magnetron through solving a third order differential equation. The steady, oscillatory oscillation and even chaotic state have been observed when changing different control parameters, i.e., the anode current and the load. The observation of the anode current increase causing the magnetron to operate in chaos agrees well to that in the experiments conducted by other researchers.
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Wave Chaos in Elastodynamic Scattering
Cvitanovc', Predrag
and to the Northwestern University for hospitality and partial support; to the Niels Bohr Institute for computational of Physics by Niels S#28;ndergaard EVANSTON, ILLINOIS June 2001 #12; ABSTRACT Wave Chaos in Elastodynamic Scattering Niels S#28;ndergaard The exact scattering resonances are calculated for a system of several
Neural control: Chaos control sets the pace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöll, Eckehard
2010-03-01
Even simple creatures, such as cockroaches, are capable of complex responses to changes in their environment. But robots usually require complicated dedicated control circuits to perform just a single action. Chaos control theory could allow simpler control strategies to realize more complex behaviour.
Tachyons, Quanta and Chaos Mark Davidson
1 Tachyons, Quanta and Chaos By Mark Davidson February 15, 2001 Spectel Research Corporation 807 that classical charged tachyons have several features normally thought to be unique to quantum mechanics. Spin-like self-orbiting helical motions are shown to exist at discrete values for the velocity of the tachyon
Electronic circuit implementation of chaos synchronization
Ravi Ranjan; Shivshankar Mishra; Suneel Madhekar
2012-07-20
In this paper, an electronic circuit implementation of a robustly chaotic two-dimensional map is presented. Two such electronic circuits are realized. One of the circuits is configured as the driver and the other circuit is configured as the driven system. Synchronization of chaos between the driver and the driven system is demonstrated.
Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action
H. Kröger
2002-12-16
We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.
Chaos and order in a finite universe
John D. Barrow; Janna Levin
1999-07-21
All inhabitants of this universe, from galaxies to people, are finite. Yet the universe itself is often assumed to be infinite. If instead the universe is topologically finite, then light and matter can take chaotic paths around the compact geometry. Chaos may lead to ordered features in the distribution of matter throughout space.
Integrability and Chaos: The Classical Uncertainty
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masoliver, Jaume; Ros, Ana
2011-01-01
In recent years there has been a considerable increase in the publishing of textbooks and monographs covering what was formerly known as random or irregular deterministic motion, now referred to as deterministic chaos. There is still substantial interest in a matter that is included in many graduate and even undergraduate courses on classical…
Order, chaos and nuclear dynamics: An introduction
Swiatecki, W.J.
1990-08-01
This is an introductory lecture illustrating by simple examples the anticipated effect on collective nuclear dynamics of a transition from order to chaos in the motions of nucleons inside an idealized nucleus. The destruction of order is paralleled by a transition from a rubber-like to a honey-like behaviour of the independent-particle nuclear model. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Chaos in a double pendulum Troy Shinbrot
Maryland at College Park, University of
Chaos in a double pendulum Troy Shinbrot Institutefor Physical Science and Technology (Received 12 Aprill991; accepted 14 December 1991) A novel demonstration ofchaos in the double pendulum of the double pendulum are described. For typical initial conditions, the proposed experiment exhibits a growth
A Framework for Chaos Theory Career Counselling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryor, Robert G. L.
2010-01-01
Theory in career development counselling provides a map that counsellors can use to understand and structure the career counselling process. It also provides a means to communicate this understanding and structuring to their clients as part of the counselling intervention. The chaos theory of careers draws attention to the complexity,…
A novel 2D wavelength-time chaos code in optical CDMA system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Chongxiu; Meng, Nan; Wang, Houtian
2012-11-01
Two-dimensional wavelength-time chaos code is proposed and constructed for a synchronous optical code division multiple access system. The access performance is compared between one-dimensional chaos code, WDM/chaos code and the proposed code. Comparison shows that two-dimensional wavelength-time chaos code possesses larger capacity, better spectral efficiency and bit-error ratio than WDM/chaos combinations and one-dimensional chaos code.
Badea, Cristian; Gordon, Richard
2004-04-21
Among the iterative reconstruction algorithms for tomography, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) has two advantages that make it stand out from other algorithms: it confines the image (and therefore the projection data) to the convex hull of the patient, and it maximizes entropy. In this paper, we have undertaken a series of experiments to determine the importance of MART nonlinearity to image quality. Variants of MART were implemented aiming to exploit and exaggerate the nonlinear properties of the algorithm. We introduce the Power MART, Boxcar Averaging MART and Bouncing MART algorithms. Power MART is linked to the relaxation concept. Its behaviour is similar to that of the chaos of a logistic equation. There appears to be an antagonism between increasing nonlinearity and noise in the projection data. The experiments confirm our general observation that regularization as a means of solving simultaneous linear equations that are underdetermined is suboptimal: it does not necessarily select the correct image from the hyperplane of solutions, and so does not maximize the image quality:x-ray dose ratio. Our investigations prove that there is scope to optimize CT algorithms and thereby achieve greater dose reduction. PMID:15152685
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badea, Cristian; Gordon, Richard
2004-04-01
Among the iterative reconstruction algorithms for tomography, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) has two advantages that make it stand out from other algorithms: it confines the image (and therefore the projection data) to the convex hull of the patient, and it maximizes entropy. In this paper, we have undertaken a series of experiments to determine the importance of MART nonlinearity to image quality. Variants of MART were implemented aiming to exploit and exaggerate the nonlinear properties of the algorithm. We introduce the Power MART, Boxcar Averaging MART and Bouncing MART algorithms. Power MART is linked to the relaxation concept. Its behaviour is similar to that of the chaos of a logistic equation. There appears to be an antagonism between increasing nonlinearity and noise in the projection data. The experiments confirm our general observation that regularization as a means of solving simultaneous linear equations that are underdetermined is suboptimal: it does not necessarily select the correct image from the hyperplane of solutions, and so does not maximize the image quality:x-ray dose ratio. Our investigations prove that there is scope to optimize CT algorithms and thereby achieve greater dose reduction.
Socioeconomic Adversity and Women's Sleep: Stress and Chaos as Mediators.
El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Bagley, Erika J; Chen, Edith
2015-11-01
We examined income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, and education and their relations with European and African American women's sleep (n = 219). Sleep was examined through actigraphy and self-reports. Income-to-needs ratio was related to sleep minutes. Perceived economic well-being and education were associated with subjective sleep problems. Perceived stress mediated relations between both income-to-needs ratio and economic well-being and subjective sleep problems. Chaos emerged as a mediator linking income-to-needs ratio and subjective sleep problems. African American women had fewer sleep minutes and lower sleep efficiency than European Americans, and more robust relations between economic well-being and stress was observed for European Americans. Findings highlight the importance of economic adversity for women's sleep and explicate some pathways of risk. PMID:25115947
A new look at the response surface method for reliability analysis using chaos theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Youliang; Li, Aiqun; Deng, Yang
2008-09-01
To overcome excessive computation errors and convergence failures encountered in an iterative calculation of the reliability index using the response surface method (RSM) for some nonlinear limit state functions, this study investigates an essential factor based on chaotic dynamics theory. The bifurcation diagrams of the reliability index are presented for some typical nonlinear limit state functions, and the computation results from the mapping functions due to the RSM iterations show the complicated dynamic phenomena such as the periodic oscillation, as well as bifurcation and chaos. From the numerical examples, it is concluded that the parameter of selection range f plays an important role in the convergence of the RSM iteration, and an improved RSM iterative algorithm is proposed with regard to the incorporation of the iterative sequential function of selection range f. The proposed method is shown to be efficient and to yield accurate results.
Stabilization of stochastic cycles and control of noise-induced chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashkirtseva, Irina
2014-04-01
We consider a nonlinear control system forced by stochastic disturbances. The problem addressed is a design of the feedback regulator which stabilizes a limit cycle of the closed-loop deterministic system and synthesizes a required dispersion of random states of the forced cycle for the corresponding stochastic system. To solve this problem, we develop a method based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique. The problem of a synthesis of the required stochastic sensitivity for cycles by feedback regulators is reduced to the solution of the linear algebraic equation for the gain matrix of the regulator. For this matrix, in the general n-dimensional case, a full parametric representation is found. An attractive case of nonlinear 3D systems which exhibit both regular and chaotic regimes is studied in detail. To construct a regulator, we use a new technique based on a singular decomposition of the assigned stochastic sensitivity matrix. Explicit formulas for parameters of this regulator synthesizing the required stochastic sensitivity for 3D-cycle are obtained. The constructiveness of the developed theory is shown on the example of the stabilization of the cycle for stochastic Lorenz model which exhibits a noise-induced transition to chaos. Using our technique for this model we provide a required small sensitivity for stochastically forced cycle and suppress chaos successfully.
E. Yu. Petrov; A. V. Kudrin
2012-03-26
Many intriguing properties of driven nonlinear resonators, including the appearance of chaos, are very important for understanding the universal features of nonlinear dynamical systems and can have great practical significance. We consider a cylindrical cavity resonator driven by an alternating voltage and filled with a nonlinear nondispersive medium. It is assumed that the medium lacks a center of inversion and the dependence of the electric displacement on the electric field can be approximated by an exponential function. We show that the Maxwell equations are integrated exactly in this case and the field components in the cavity are represented in terms of implicit functions of special form. The driven electromagnetic oscillations in the cavity are found to display very interesting temporal behavior and their Fourier spectra contain singular continuous components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the existence of a singular continuous (fractal) spectrum in an exactly integrable system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Chaos and information entropy production
Bidhan Chandra Bag; Jyotipratim Ray Chaudhuri; Deb Shankar Ray
2000-10-23
We consider a general N-degree-of-freedom nonlinear Hamiltonian system which is chaotic and dissipative and show that the origin of chaotic diffusion lies in the correlation of fluctuation of linear stability matrix for the equation of motion of the dynamical system whose phase space variables behave as stochastic variables in the chaotic regime. Based on a Fokker-Planck description of the system and an information entropy balance equation a relationship between chaotic diffusion and the thermodynamically-inspired quantities like entropy production and entropy flux is established. The theoretical propositions have been verified by numerical experiments.
Deterministic chaos: An introduction (2nd revised edition)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Heinz Georg
The physics of deterministically chaotic phenomena is examined in an introduction covering both experimental and theoretical aspects. Chapters are devoted to experiments and simple models, piecewise-linear maps and deterministic chaos, the universal behavior of quadratic maps, the intermittency route to chaos, strange attractors in dissipative dynamical systems, the transition from quasi-periodicity to chaos, regular and irregular motion in conservative systems, and the possibility of chaos in quantum systems. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided, and derivations for several specific problems are included in appendices.
Classical and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, A. Douglas
2000-12-01
Deformed cylindrical and spherical dielectric optical resonators are analyzed from the perspective of non-linear dynamics and quantum chaos theory. In the short-wavelength limit such resonators behave like billiard systems with non-zero escape probability due to refraction. A ray model is introduced to predict the resonance lifetimes and emission patterns from such a cavity. A universal wavelength-independent broadening is predicted and found for large deformations of the cavity, however there are significant wave-chaotic corrections as well. Highly directional emission is predicted from chaotic “whispering gallery” modes for index of refraction less than two. The detailed nature of the emission pattern can be understood from the nature of the phase space flow in the billiard, and a dramatic variation of this pattern with index of refraction is found due to an effect called “dynamical eclipsing”. Semiconductor resonators of this type also show highly directional emission and high output power but from different modes associated with periodic orbits. A semiclassical approach to these modes is briefly reviewed. These asymmetric resonant cavities (ARCs) show promise as components in future integrated optical devices.
Periodic-orbit theory of universality in quantum chaos.
Müller, Sebastian; Heusler, Stefan; Braun, Petr; Haake, Fritz; Altland, Alexander
2005-10-01
We argue semiclassically, on the basis of Gutzwiller's periodic-orbit theory, that full classical chaos is paralleled by quantum energy spectra with universal spectral statistics, in agreement with random-matrix theory. For dynamics from all three Wigner-Dyson symmetry classes, we calculate the small-time spectral form factor K(tau) as power series in the time tau. Each term tau(n) of that series is provided by specific families of pairs of periodic orbits. The contributing pairs are classified in terms of close self-encounters in phase space. The frequency of occurrence of self-encounters is calculated by invoking ergodicity. Combinatorial rules for building pairs involve nontrivial properties of permutations. We show our series to be equivalent to perturbative implementations of the nonlinear sigma models for the Wigner-Dyson ensembles of random matrices and for disordered systems; our families of orbit pairs have a one-to-one relationship with Feynman diagrams known from the sigma model. PMID:16383512
Chaos in the heart: the interaction between body and mind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redington, Dana
1993-11-01
A number of factors influence the chaotic dynamics of heart function. Genetics, age, sex, disease, the environment, experience, and of course the mind, play roles in influencing cardiovascular dynamics. The mind is of particular interest because it is an emergent phenomenon of the body admittedly seated and co-occurrent in the brain. The brain serves as the body's controller, and commands the heart through complex multipathway feedback loops. Structures deep within the brain, the hypothalamus and other centers in the brainstem, modulate heart function, partially as a result of afferent input from the body but also a result of higher mental processes. What can chaos in the body, i.e., the nonlinear dynamics of the heart, tell of the mind? This paper presents a brief overview of the spectral structure of heart rate activity followed by a summary of experimental results based on phase space analysis of data from semi-structured interviews. This paper then describes preliminary quantification of cardiovascular dynamics during different stressor conditions in an effort to apply more quantitative methods to clinical data.
Generalized spectral decomposition for stochastic nonlinear problems
Nouy, Anthony Le Maitre, Olivier P.
2009-01-10
We present an extension of the generalized spectral decomposition method for the resolution of nonlinear stochastic problems. The method consists in the construction of a reduced basis approximation of the Galerkin solution and is independent of the stochastic discretization selected (polynomial chaos, stochastic multi-element or multi-wavelets). Two algorithms are proposed for the sequential construction of the successive generalized spectral modes. They involve decoupled resolutions of a series of deterministic and low-dimensional stochastic problems. Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the algorithms allow for significant computational savings and require minor adaptations of the deterministic codes. The methodology is detailed and tested on two model problems, the one-dimensional steady viscous Burgers equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion problem. These examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms which exhibit convergence rates with the number of modes essentially dependent on the spectrum of the stochastic solution but independent of the dimension of the stochastic approximation space.
Comments on microcausality, chaos, and gravitational observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald
2015-12-01
Observables in gravitational systems must be non-local so as to be invariant under diffeomorphism gauge transformations. But at the classical level some such observables can nevertheless satisfy an exact form of microcausality. This property is conjectured to remain true at all orders in the semiclassical expansion, though with limitations at finite ? or {{\\ell }}{Planck}. We also discuss related issues concerning observables in black hole spacetimes and comment on the senses in which they do and do not experience the form of chaos identified by Shenker and Stanford. In particular, in contrast to the situation in a reflecting cavity, this chaos does not afflict observables naturally associated with Hawking radiation for evaporating black holes.
Chaos metrics for testing lagrangian particle models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, R. F.
1993-01-01
The Lorenz and Henon attractors and two atmospheric Lagrangian particle models were tested using self-affine fractal dimension, D(A), Shannon information entropy, S, and the Lyapunov exponent, lambda, along with turbulent kinetic energy, vertical variance, and Brunt-Vaisala Frequency. Results show that (1) chaos metrics are a new set of tools to assess the micro behavior of Lagrangian particle models. (2) that periodicity in bifurcatory systems differs from wave behavior in fluids, since wave states are not limited to amplitude extrema. (3) Non-spectral particle models lead to unrealistic variations in 'the chaos metrics with changes in buoyant stability. (4) S and D(A) behave oppositely at times, implying that diffusion and dispersion are not equivalent, even in the absence of mean windflow.
Neutral line chaos and phase space structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkhart, Grant R.; Speiser, Theodore W.; Martin, Richard F., Jr.; Dusenbery, Paul B.
1991-01-01
Phase space structure and chaos near a neutral line are studied with numerical surface-of-section (SOS) techniques and analytic methods. Results are presented for a linear neutral line model with zero crosstail electric field. It was found that particle motion can be divided into three regimes dependening on the value of the conserved canonical momentum, Py, and the conserved Hamiltonian, h. The phase space structure, using Poincare SOS plots, is highly sensitive to bn = Bn/B0 variations, but not to h variations. It is verified that the slow motion preserves the action, Jz, as evaluated by Sonnerup (1971), when the period of the fast motion is smaller than the time scale of the slow motion. Results show that the phase space structure and particle chaos depend sensitively upon Py and bn, but are independent of h.
Chaos synchronization in networks of semiconductor superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wen; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Song, Helun; Huang, Yuyang; Biermann, Klaus; Rosenbluh, Michael; Zhang, Yaohui; Grahn, Holger T.; Kanter, Ido
2015-11-01
Chaos synchronization has been demonstrated as a useful building block for various tasks in secure communications, including a source of all-electronic ultrafast physical random number generators based on room temperature spontaneous chaotic oscillations in a DC-biased weakly coupled GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As semiconductor superlattice (SSL). Here, we experimentally demonstrate the emergence of several types of chaos synchronization, e.g. leader-laggard, face-to-face and zero-lag synchronization in network motifs of coupled SSLs consisting of unidirectional and mutual coupling as well as self-feedback coupling. Each type of synchronization clearly reflects the symmetry of the topology of its network motif. The emergence of a chaotic SSL without external feedback and synchronization among different structured SSLs open up the possibility for advanced secure multi-user communication methods based on large networks of coupled SSLs.
Chaos: Understanding and Controlling Laser Instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blass, William E.
1997-01-01
In order to characterize the behavior of tunable diode lasers (TDL), the first step in the project involved the redesign of the TDL system here at the University of Tennessee Molecular Systems Laboratory (UTMSL). Having made these changes it was next necessary to optimize the new optical system. This involved the fine adjustments to the optical components, particularly in the monochromator, to minimize the aberrations of coma and astigmatism and to assure that the energy from the beam is focused properly on the detector element. The next step involved the taking of preliminary data. We were then ready for the analysis of the preliminary data. This required the development of computer programs that use mathematical techniques to look for signatures of chaos. Commercial programs were also employed. We discovered some indication of high dimensional chaos, but were hampered by the low sample rate of 200 KSPS (kilosamples/sec) and even more by our sample size of 1024 (1K) data points. These limitations were expected and we added a high speed data acquisition board. We incorporated into the system a computer with a 40 MSPS (million samples/sec) data acquisition board. This board can also capture 64K of data points so that were then able to perform the more accurate tests for chaos. The results were dramatic and compelling, we had demonstrated that the lead salt diode laser had a chaotic frequency output. Having identified the chaotic character in our TDL data, we proceeded to stage two as outlined in our original proposal. This required the use of an Occasional Proportional Feedback (OPF) controller to facilitate the control and stabilization of the TDL system output. The controller was designed and fabricated at GSFC and debugged in our laboratories. After some trial and error efforts, we achieved chaos control of the frequency emissions of the laser. The two publications appended to this introduction detail the entire project and its results.
Nuclear Level Density, Quantum Chaos and Thermalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelevinsky, Vladimir; Sen'kov, Roman
An algorithm for calculating the level density for a given shell-model Hamiltonian without diagonalzation of a huge matrix is presented and explained. The level density is expressed in terms of the moments (traces) of the Hamiltonian over the restricted orbital space. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in closed systems of interacting particles. We show the examples of the approach and briefly discuss the dependence of the level density on the interaction parameters.
Signatures of homoclinic motion in quantum chaos.
Wisniacki, D A; Vergini, E; Benito, R M; Borondo, F
2005-02-11
Homoclinic motion plays a key role in the organization of classical chaos in Hamiltonian systems. In this Letter, we show that it also imprints a clear signature in the corresponding quantum spectra. By numerically studying the fluctuations of the widths of wave functions localized along periodic orbits we reveal the existence of an oscillatory behavior that is explained solely in terms of the primary homoclinic motion. Furthermore, our results indicate that it survives the semiclassical limit. PMID:15783643
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jian; Liu, Long; Ma, Da-wei
2014-12-01
The permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, will demonstrate a variety of chaotic phenomena when its parameters or external inputs fall into a certain area, which will lead to a deterioration of its performance. Thus, chaos should be suppressed or eliminated. In this paper, the property of equilibrium points is analyzed, and the condition for the occurrence of a Hopf bifurcation in a PMSM system is given based on a mathematical model of the PMSM system with a bifurcation diagram, a Lyapunov exponent map and phase plane diagrams given. After the drawbacks of the existing control methods have been analyzed, a robust nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the chaos in the PMSM system with a load torque disturbance. The object is to eliminate the chaos and to drive the system speed to a desired value, Numerical simulation proves the validity of this control method.
Detecting chaos in irregularly sampled time series.
Kulp, C W
2013-09-01
Recently, Wiebe and Virgin [Chaos 22, 013136 (2012)] developed an algorithm which detects chaos by analyzing a time series' power spectrum which is computed using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Their algorithm, like other time series characterization algorithms, requires that the time series be regularly sampled. Real-world data, however, are often irregularly sampled, thus, making the detection of chaotic behavior difficult or impossible with those methods. In this paper, a characterization algorithm is presented, which effectively detects chaos in irregularly sampled time series. The work presented here is a modification of Wiebe and Virgin's algorithm and uses the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to compute a series' power spectrum instead of the DFT. The DFT is not appropriate for irregularly sampled time series. However, the LSP is capable of computing the frequency content of irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, a new method of analyzing the power spectrum is developed, which can be useful for differentiating between chaotic and non-chaotic behavior. The new characterization algorithm is successfully applied to irregularly sampled data generated by a model as well as data consisting of observations of variable stars. PMID:24089946
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuang; Wang, Jin-Jin; Liu, Jin-Jie; Li, Ya-Qian
2015-10-01
In the present work, we investigate the nonlinear parametrically excited vibration and active control of a gear pair system involving backlash, time-varying meshing stiffness and static transmission error. Firstly, a gear pair model is established in a strongly nonlinear form, and its nonlinear vibration characteristics are systematically investigated through different approaches. Several complicated phenomena such as period doubling bifurcation, anti period doubling bifurcation and chaos can be observed under the internal parametric excitation. Then, an active compensation controller is designed to suppress the vibration, including the chaos. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified numerically. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).
Simple Process Equations, Fixed-Point Methods, and Chaos
Lucia, Angelo
substitution follows a classical period-doubling route to chaos. On the other hand, the chaotic behavior give the appearance that no organized route to chaos is followed. For example, for the dew point process model equations. Accordingly, this paper is organized in the following way. First a brief survey
Adaptive chaos: Mild disorder may help contain major disease
Umantsev, Alexander
Adaptive chaos: Mild disorder may help contain major disease Alexander Golbin a , Alexander to serious diseases or even death. The principle of compensation was applied to different physiological of adaptive chaos for sleep diseases, e.g., enuresis, and other potentially life threatening disorders
Exponential Gain in Quantum Computing of Quantum Chaos and Localization
B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky
2001-03-26
We present a quantum algorithm which simulates the quantum kicked rotator model exponentially faster than classical algorithms. This shows that important physical problems of quantum chaos, localization and Anderson transition can be modelled efficiently on a quantum computer. We also show that a similar algorithm simulates efficiently classical chaos in certain area-preserving maps.
Analysis of Discovery of Chaos: Social and Cognitive Aspects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, J. B.
The purpose of this study was to examine Edward Lorenz's psychological processes and other environmental aspects in the discovery of chaos at that time. The general concept of chaos is discussed based on relations with previous scientific theories such as Newtonian physics and quantum mechanics. The constraints of discovery in terms of available…
Maxwell on Chaos Brian R. Hunt and James A. Yorke*
Maryland at College Park, University of
. I Maxwell on Chaos Brian R. Hunt and James A. Yorke* James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is perhaps. They can be reached by eleclronic mail aliwIII@ipSI.umd.edu. James Clerk'Maxwell. Courtesy of American Articles in this issue... Scientific Article Maxwell on Chaos Brian R. Hunt and James A. Yorke Feature
Modeling the cytotoxic T cell response Dennis Lai Chao
New Mexico, University of
Modeling the cytotoxic T cell response by Dennis Lai Chao B.S.E., Princeton University, 1994-99-1-0417) and the Defense Ad- vanced Research Projects Agency (AGR F30602-00-2-0584). iv #12;Modeling the cytotoxic T cell December 2004 #12;Modeling the cytotoxic T cell response by Dennis Lai Chao B.S.E., Princeton University
Master Teachers: Making a Difference on the Edge of Chaos
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapin, Dexter
2008-01-01
The No Child Left Behind legislation, by legitimizing a stark, one-size-fits-all, industrial model of education, has denied the inherent complexity and richness of what teachers do. Discussing teaching in terms of Chaos Theory, Chapin explains that while excellent teaching may occur at the edge of chaos, it is not chaotic. There are patterns…
Home Chaos: Sociodemographic, Parenting, Interactional, and Child Correlates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dumas, Jean E.; Nissley, Jenelle; Nordstrom, Alicia; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Prinz, Ronald J.; Levine, Douglas W.
2005-01-01
We conducted 2 studies to (a) establish the usefulness of the construct of home chaos, (b) investigate its correlates, and (c) determine the validity of the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS) used to measure the construct in each study. Study 1 relied on a sample of European American preschoolers and their mothers and Study 2 on a sample…
The Chaos Theory of Careers: A User's Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this article is to set out the key elements of the Chaos Theory of Careers. The complexity of influences on career development presents a significant challenge to traditional predictive models of career counseling. Chaos theory can provide a more appropriate description of career behavior, and the theory can be applied with clients…
Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bae, Saebyok
2009-01-01
Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…
Developing Quality Preschool Movement Programs: CHAOS and KinderPlay
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robert, Darren L.; Yongue, Bill
2004-01-01
This article presents two models for creating new developmentally appropriate preschool movement programs: CHAOS (Children Helping Adults Open Senses) at Eastern Connecticut State University and "KinderPlay" at Florida International University. CHAOS and KinderPlay utilize skill themes and movement concepts as their focus and incorporate parents…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Mary
1975-01-01
At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoho, Steve
Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.
Continuous weak measurement and nonlinear dynamics in a cold spin ensemble.
Smith, Greg A; Chaudhury, Souma; Silberfarb, Andrew; Deutsch, Ivan H; Jessen, Poul S
2004-10-15
A weak continuous quantum measurement of an atomic spin ensemble can be implemented via Faraday rotation of an off-resonance probe beam, and may be used to create and probe nonclassical spin states and dynamics. We show that the probe light shift leads to nonlinearity in the spin dynamics and limits the useful Faraday measurement window. Removing the nonlinearity allows a nonperturbing measurement on the much longer time scale set by decoherence. The nonlinear spin Hamiltonian is of interest for studies of quantum chaos and real-time quantum state estimation. PMID:15524989
Science of Chaos or Chaos in Science? \\Lambda Physique Th'eorique, UCL,
laNeuve, Belgium Abstract I try to clarify several confusions in the popular literature concerning chaos to Prigogine, are criticized. 1 Introduction We might characterize today's breakdown of industrial or ``Second of them, and to try to clarify the situation. In particular, I will make a critical evaluation
PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.
2010-09-01
The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.
Nonlinear Phenomena in Physics of Fluids and Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maino, Giuseppe; Fronzoni, Leone; Pettini, Marco
1991-03-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Pattern Formation and Tkansition to Spatiotemporal Chaos in Thermal Convection * Numerical Simulation of the Statistical Properties of Fluid Flow: a Comparison of Dynamical Systems and Stochastically Perturbed Systems * Fractal Fluid Parcel Trajectories and Chaos in 2D Turbulence * Multifractal Aspects of Three Dimensional Fully Developed Turbulence * Solitons in Stratified Shear Flow * Intuitive Phenomenological Models with Pathology: the Navier-Stokes Model * Stability of Global Modes in High Temperature Plasmas * Nonlinear Interaction of a Plasma with a Radiation Beam * On the Application of the Theory of Dynamical Systems to Magnetic Confinement Fusion Problems * Coherent Structures and Anomalous Energy Transport in Ion Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence * Cross Field Particle Diffusion in Regular and Chaotic Electric Fields * Chaotic Transitions and Anomalous Diffusion in a RFP-Confined Plasma: Dependence from the Spectral Data * Existence of Analytic Invariant Curves for a Generalized Complex Standard Map * List of Participants * Author index
The Induction of Chaos in Electronic Circuits Final Report-October 1, 2001
R.M.Wheat, Jr.
2003-04-01
This project, now known by the name ''Chaos in Electronic Circuits,'' was originally tasked as a two-year project to examine various ''fault'' or ''non-normal'' operational states of common electronic circuits with some focus on determining the feasibility of exploiting these states. Efforts over the two-year duration of this project have been dominated by the study of the chaotic behavior of electronic circuits. These efforts have included setting up laboratory space and hardware for conducting laboratory tests and experiments, acquiring and developing computer simulation and analysis capabilities, conducting literature surveys, developing test circuitry and computer models to exercise and test our capabilities, and experimenting with and studying the use of RF injection as a means of inducing chaotic behavior in electronics. An extensive array of nonlinear time series analysis tools have been developed and integrated into a package named ''After Acquisition'' (AA), including capabilities such as Delayed Coordinate Embedding Mapping (DCEM), Time Resolved (3-D) Fourier Transform, and several other phase space re-creation methods. Many computer models have been developed for Spice and for the ATP (Alternative Transients Program), modeling the several working circuits that have been developed for use in the laboratory. And finally, methods of induction of chaos in electronic circuits have been explored.
Chaos in a semiclassical model of multiphoton excitation of spherical top molecules
Galbraith, H.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Milonni, P.W.
1983-01-01
We study the dynamical effects of vibration-rotation coupling in multiple photon excitation at lowest order. Our molecular model is the simplest possible: that of an oscillator (triply degenerate) and uncoupled rigid rotor. The molecule-field interactions introduce a vibration-rotation nonlinearity which gives rise to nonconservation of the molecular angular momentum and in some instances consequent chaotic dynamics. The chaos leads to incoherence (widely seen in experiments) in the time dependence of the photon absorption and is not treatable in an additive way as inhomogeneous broadening. The nonconservation of the molecular angular momentum is due to the development with time of the molecular vibrational angular momentum. The degree of chaotic behavior is found to depend upon the relative size of the vibrational to pure rotational angular momenta as the excitation progresses, i.e., when vibrational angular momentum exceeds the pure rotational angular momentum we find chaos, conversely when J/sub 0/ is quite large the motion is gyroscopically stabilized and quasiperiodic. Therefore the suggested cold experiments are perhaps not so desirable.
Chaos and microbial systems. Final project report, July 1989--July 1992
Kot, M.
1992-10-01
The field of nonlinear dynamics has generated a variety of new techniques for identifying order in seemingly chaotic systems. These techniques have led to new insights for several ecological and epidemiological systems, most notably childhood disease epidemics. To better test the efficacy and relevance of these new techniques to population biology research with two components namely a mathematical analysis of some simple microbial models with chaotic dynamics; and experimental (chemostat) population studies to evaluate the accuracy of these models. I have completed a thorough analysis of the forced double-Monod model and of the phase-locking route to chaos that it exhibits. I have also analyzed a simpler pulsed system with mass action kinetics and a period-doubling route to chaos. This research also motivated detailed analyses of discrete-time predator-prey and dispersal models, and a fast new method for computing fractal dimension. My colleagues and I have assembled a complete laboratory system to determine the appropriateness of the forced double-Monod model. We have tested assays for concentration and density and have performed a variety of diagnostic tests on this system. We have measured growth parameters for bacteria and for protozoa in chemostat.
Basic properties of critical lognormal multiplicative chaos
Julien Barral; Antti Kupiainen; Miika Nikula; Eero Saksman; Christian Webb
2015-10-27
We study one-dimensional exact scaling lognormal multiplicative chaos measures at criticality. Our main results are the determination of the exact asymptotics of the right tail of the distribution of the total mass of the measure, and an almost sure upper bound for the modulus of continuity of the cumulative distribution function of the measure. We also find an almost sure lower bound for the increments of the measure almost everywhere with respect to the measure itself, strong enough to show that the measure is supported on a set of Hausdorff dimension $0$.
Topological organization of (low-dimensional) chaos
Tufillaro, N.B.
1992-12-01
Recent progress toward classifying low-dimensional chaos measured from time series data is described. This classification theory assigns a template to the time series once the time series is embedded in three dimensions. The template describes the primary folding and stretching mechanisms of phase space responsible for the chaotic motion. Topological invariants of the unstable periodic orbits in the closure of the strange set are calculated from the (reconstructed) template. These topological invariants must be consistent with &ny model put forth to describe the time series data, and are useful in invalidating (or gaining confidence in) any model intended to describe the dynamical system generating the time series.
Topological organization of (low-dimensional) chaos
Tufillaro, N.B.
1992-01-01
Recent progress toward classifying low-dimensional chaos measured from time series data is described. This classification theory assigns a template to the time series once the time series is embedded in three dimensions. The template describes the primary folding and stretching mechanisms of phase space responsible for the chaotic motion. Topological invariants of the unstable periodic orbits in the closure of the strange set are calculated from the (reconstructed) template. These topological invariants must be consistent with ny model put forth to describe the time series data, and are useful in invalidating (or gaining confidence in) any model intended to describe the dynamical system generating the time series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, Yuhma; Kawai, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2015-06-01
We study classical chaotic motions in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase (BMN) matrix model. For this purpose, it is convenient to focus upon a reduced system composed of two-coupled anharmonic oscillators by supposing an ansatz. We examine three ansätze: 1) two pulsating fuzzy spheres, 2) a single Coulomb-type potential, and 3) integrable fuzzy spheres. For the first two cases, we show the existence of chaos by computing Poincaré sections and a Lyapunov spectrum. The third case leads to an integrable system. As a result, the BMN matrix model is not integrable in the sense of Liouville, though there may be some integrable subsectors.
Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos
Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming
2015-01-01
Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809
Self-Organized Chaos through Polyhomeostatic Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markovic, D.; Gros, Claudius
2010-08-01
The goal of polyhomeostatic control is to achieve a certain target distribution of behaviors, in contrast to homeostatic regulation, which aims at stabilizing a steady-state dynamical state. We consider polyhomeostasis for individual and networks of firing-rate neurons, adapting to achieve target distributions of firing rates maximizing information entropy. We show that any finite polyhomeostatic adaption rate destroys all attractors in Hopfield-like network setups, leading to intermittently bursting behavior and self-organized chaos. The importance of polyhomeostasis to adapting behavior in general is discussed.
Self-organized chaos through polyhomeostatic optimization.
Markovic, D; Gros, Claudius
2010-08-01
The goal of polyhomeostatic control is to achieve a certain target distribution of behaviors, in contrast to homeostatic regulation, which aims at stabilizing a steady-state dynamical state. We consider polyhomeostasis for individual and networks of firing-rate neurons, adapting to achieve target distributions of firing rates maximizing information entropy. We show that any finite polyhomeostatic adaption rate destroys all attractors in Hopfield-like network setups, leading to intermittently bursting behavior and self-organized chaos. The importance of polyhomeostasis to adapting behavior in general is discussed. PMID:20868020
Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics
Farhan Saif
2006-04-10
The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits dynamical localization and quantum recurrences.
Chaos in Classical D0-Brane Mechanics
Gur-Ari, Guy; Shenker, Stephen H
2015-01-01
We study chaos in the classical limit of the matrix quantum mechanical system describing D0-brane dynamics. We determine a precise value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, and with less precision, calculate the entire spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. We verify that these approach a smooth limit as $N \\rightarrow \\infty$. We show that a classical analog of scrambling occurs with fast scrambling scaling, $t_* \\sim \\log S$. These results confirm the k-locality property of matrix mechanics discussed by Sekino and Susskind.
The Curious Shorelines of Gorgonum Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.
2003-01-01
Level, bench-like platforms in the interior of the Gorgonum Chaos basin appear to be shorelines associated with an ancient lake. These shorelines, however, seem to lack the typical features of shorelines associated with wave and current transport and erosion, such as crescentic embayments, spits, barrier islands, and wave-cut cliffs. Rather, the lakefacing platform edges are commonly rounded and cumulate in planform, often evenly encircling presumed islands. We interpret these shorelines to have been formed by outward growth in a quiescent environment, possibly in ice-covered bodies of water and possibly, in part, as chemical precipitates.
Wave Dynamical Chaos in Superconducting Microwave Cavities
H. Rehfeld; H. Alt; C. Dembowski; H. -D. Graef; R. Hofferbert; A. Richter; H. Lengeler
1997-01-13
During the last few years we have studied the chaotic behavior of special Euclidian geometries, so-called billiards, from the quantum or in more general sense "wave dynamical" point of view. Due to the equivalence between the stationary Schroedinger equation and the classical Helmholtz equation in the two-dimensional case (plain billiards), it is possible to simulate "quantum chaos" with the help of macroscopic, superconducting microwave cavities. Using this technique we investigated spectra of three billiards from the family of Pascal's Snails (Robnik-Billiards) with a different chaoticity in each case in order to test predictions of standard stochastical models for classical chaotic systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.
Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…
Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured-porous media: Status and perspectives
Faybishenko, Boris
2002-11-27
The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences.
Field theoretic approach to statistical dynamics and chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz, Gerardo Andres
Classical statistical dynamics, the theory of classical (usually nonlinear) systems, in which randomness is introduced by means of stochastic external driving terms and/or random initial conditions, is studied from a field theoretic point of view. The physically relevant quantities are averages over these random variables, and can be calculated from a path integral representation of a generating functional, in close analogy with quantum field theory. After reviewing the functional approach an unsatisfactory feature of the traditional formulation is discussed, namely the ill-defined manipulations performed on a determinant that arises due to the constrained nature of the theory. Exponentiation of this determinant is shown using anticommuting variables. This leads to an extended action possessing a Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry, and the induced Ward identities permit a clean resolution of the problem mentioned above. The potential applications of the formalism are certainly many, but few are as challenging as systems exhibiting chaotic behavior. A very concise introduction to the necessary concepts in chaos is presented. A perturbative investigation of the effects of stochasticity on such systems in general, and on their Lyapunov exponents in particular is also presented. Finally, the transition from regular to chaotic behavior is analyzed using renormalization group (RG) equations. The presence of initial conditions and nonvanishing average fields requires a revision of the translation invariant approach followed in quantum field theory. The RG equations that emerge after taking into account the necessary modifications lead to a relation for Lyapunov exponents that can be used to compute them in specific cases. They also imply a result describing how the critical stress scales with the amplitude of the external noise.
Field Theoretic Approach to Statistical Dynamics and Chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz, Gerardo Andres
1990-01-01
Classical statistical dynamics, the theory of classical (usually nonlinear) systems, in which randomness is introduced by means of stochastic external driving terms and/or random initial conditions, is studied from a field theoretic point of view. The physically relevant quantities are averages over these random variables, and can be calculated from a path integral representation of a generating functional, in close analogy with quantum field theory. After reviewing the functional approach we discuss an unsatisfactory feature of the traditional formulation, namely the ill-defined manipulations performed on a determinant that arises due to the constrained nature of the theory. We show that exponentiation of this determinant using anticommuting variables leads to an extended action possessing a Becchi -Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry, and the induced Ward identities permit a clean resolution of the problem mentioned above. The potential applications of the formalism are certainly many, but few are as challenging as systems exhibiting chaotic behavior. We present a very concise introduction to the necessary concepts in chaos followed by a perturbative investigation of the effects of stochasticity on such systems in general, and on their Lyapunov exponents in particular. Finally, the transition from regular to chaotic behavior is analyzed using renormalization group (RG) equations. The presence of initial conditions as well as nonvanishing average fields requires a revision of the translation invariant approach followed in quantum field theory, where the vacuum expectation value of the field can at most be a constant, and where a discussion in terms of vertex functions suffices. The RG equations that emerge after taking into account the necessary modifications lead to a relation for Lyapunov exponents that can be used to compute them in specific cases. They also imply a result describing how the critical stress scales with the amplitude of the external noise.
Joint Entropy Coding and Encryption using Robust Chaos
Nithin Nagaraj; Prabhakar G Vaidya; Kishor G Bhat
2006-08-22
We propose a framework for joint entropy coding and encryption using Chaotic maps. We begin by observing that the message symbols can be treated as the symbolic sequence of a discrete dynamical system. For an appropriate choice of the dynamical system, we could back-iterate and encode the message as the initial condition of the dynamical system. We show that such an encoding achieves Shannon's entropy and hence optimal for compression. It turns out that the appropriate discrete dynamical system to achieve optimality is the piecewise-linear Generalized Luroth Series (GLS) and further that such an entropy coding technique is exactly equivalent to the popular Arithmetic Coding algorithm. GLS is a generalization of Arithmetic Coding with different modes of operation. GLS preserves the Lebesgue measure and is ergodic. We show that these properties of GLS enable a framework for joint compression and encryption and thus give a justification of the recent work of Grangetto et al. and Wen et al. Both these methods have the obvious disadvantage of the key length being equal to the message length for strong security. We derive measure preserving piece-wise non-linear GLS (nGLS) and their skewed cousins, which exhibit Robust Chaos. We propose a joint entropy coding and encryption framework using skewed-nGLS and demonstrate Shannon's desired sensitivity to the key parameter. Potentially, our method could improve the security and key efficiency over Grangetto's method while still maintaining the total compression ratio. This is a new area of research with promising applications in communications.
Chaos, Fractal and Quantum Poincare Recurrences in Diamagnetic Kepler Problem
A. Ugulava; L. Chotorlishvili; T. Kereselidze; V. Skrinnikov
2006-08-01
The statistics of quantum Poincare recurrences in Hilbert space for diamagnetic hydrogen atom in strong magnetic field has been investigated. It has been shown that quantities characterizing classical chaos are in a good agreement with the ones that are used to describe quantum chaos. The equality of classical and quantum Poincare recurrences has been shown. It has been proved that one of the signs of the emergence of quantum chaos is the irreversible transition from a pure quantum mechanical state to the mixed one.
Geometric criterion for chaos in collective dynamics of nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stránský, Pavel; Cejnar, Pavel
2015-11-01
A local geometrical criterion for chaos, based on an embedding of a Hamiltonian system into an appropriately chosen curved space, is applied in the classical version of the Geometric Collective Model of nuclei. The criterion is shown to be equivalent with a simpler indicator of chaos based on the convex–concave change of equipotential curves. It is tested by comparing its predictions with a detailed numerical analysis of global dynamics. The results indicate a capacity of the method to estimate the energy of the onset of chaos, but also demonstrate convincing counterexamples that disprove its general applicability.
Chaos control: The problem of a bouncing ball revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, M. Cristina; Huerta, D. A.; Sosa, Victor
2009-09-01
The problem of a body bouncing on a periodically oscillating surface is revisited to demonstrate chaos control. When the bouncing body is magnetic, it is possible to modify its behavior by adding a magnetic driving force. The mechanism of chaos control may be understood by means of a mechanical analysis which shows that the main result of applying the driving force is to shift the bifurcation diagram in such a way that chaotic behavior is replaced by periodic behavior and vice versa. A simple experiment is presented, along with a numerical simulation, that provides insight into chaos control.
Theory of the nucleus as applied to quantum chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunakov, V. E.
2014-12-01
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a quantum signature of chaos in classical mechanics is given. It is proposed to specify a regular versus a chaotic behavior on the basis of symmetries of the system being considered and global integrals of motion that are associated with these symmetries in accordance with the Liouville-Arnold theorem rather than on the basis of the concept of Lyapunov's instability of trajectories. Numerical criteria of quantum chaos that follow from the proposed concept are analyzed.
Theory of the nucleus as applied to quantum chaos
Bunakov, V. E.
2014-12-15
A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a quantum signature of chaos in classical mechanics is given. It is proposed to specify a regular versus a chaotic behavior on the basis of symmetries of the system being considered and global integrals of motion that are associated with these symmetries in accordance with the Liouville-Arnold theorem rather than on the basis of the concept of Lyapunov’s instability of trajectories. Numerical criteria of quantum chaos that follow from the proposed concept are analyzed.
Exact invariant measures: How the strength of measure settles the intensity of chaos
Roberto Venegeroles
2015-06-23
The aim of this paper is to show how extracting dynamical behavior and ergodic properties from deterministic chaos with the assistance of exact invariant measures. On the one hand, we provide an approach to deal with the inverse problem of finding nonlinear interval maps from a given invariant measure. Then, we show how to identify ergodic properties by means of transitions along the phase space via exact measures. On the other hand, we discuss quantitatively how infinite measures imply maps having subexponential Lyapunov instability (weakly chaotic), as opposed to finite measure ergodic maps, that are fully chaotic. In addition, we provide general solutions of maps for which infinite invariant measures are exactly known throughout the interval (a demand from this field). Finally, we give a simple proof that infinite measure implies universal Mittag-Leffler statistics of observables, rather than narrow distributions typically observed in finite measure ergodic maps.
De, Sudipto K; Aluru, N R
2005-05-27
In this Letter, the formation of complex oscillations of the type 2n M oscillations per period at the Mth superharmonic excitation is reported for electrostatic microelectromechanical systems. A dc bias (beyond "dc symmetry breaking") and an ac signal (at the Mth superharmonic frequency) with an amplitude around "ac symmetry breaking" gives rise to M oscillations per period or period M response. On increasing the ac voltage, a cascade of period doubling bifurcations take place giving rise to 2n M oscillations per period. An interesting chaotic transition (1-band and 2-band chaos) is observed during the first period doubling bifurcation. The nonlinear nature of the electrostatic force is shown to be responsible for the reported observations. PMID:16090253
Development of error criteria for adaptive multi-element polynomial chaos approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouvion, B.; Sarrouy, E.
2016-01-01
This paper presents and compares different methodologies to create an adaptive stochastic space partitioning in polynomial chaos applications which use a multi-element approach. To implement adaptive partitioning, Wan and Karniadakis first developed a criterion based on the relative error in local variance. We propose here two different error criteria: one based on the residual error and the other on the local variance discontinuity created by partitioning. The methods are applied to classical differential equations with long-term integration difficulties, including the Kraichnan-Orszag three-mode problem, and to simple linear and nonlinear mechanical systems whose stochastic dynamic responses are investigated. The efficiency and robustness of the approaches are investigated by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. For the different examples considered, they show significantly better convergence characteristics than the original error criterion used.
A convergence study for SPDEs using combined Polynomial Chaos and Dynamically-Orthogonal schemes
Choi, Minseok; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-07-15
We study the convergence properties of the recently developed Dynamically Orthogonal (DO) field equations [1] in comparison with the Polynomial Chaos (PC) method. To this end, we consider a series of one-dimensional prototype SPDEs, whose solution can be expressed analytically, and which are associated with both linear (advection equation) and nonlinear (Burgers equation) problems with excitations that lead to unimodal and strongly bi-modal distributions. We also propose a hybrid approach to tackle the singular limit of the DO equations for the case of deterministic initial conditions. The results reveal that the DO method converges exponentially fast with respect to the number of modes (for the problems considered) giving same levels of computational accuracy comparable with the PC method but (in many cases) with substantially smaller computational cost compared to stochastic collocation, especially when the involved parametric space is high-dimensional.
Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy modeling and chaos control of partial differential systems.
Vasegh, Nastaran; Khellat, Farhad
2013-12-01
In this paper a unified approach is presented for controlling chaos in nonlinear partial differential systems by a fuzzy control design. First almost all known chaotic partial differential equation systems are represented by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. For investigating design procedure, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (K-S) equation is selected. Then, all linear subsystems of K-S equation are transformed to ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems by truncated Fourier series of sine-cosine functions. By solving Riccati equation for each ODE systems, parallel stabilizing feedback controllers are determined. Finally, a distributed fuzzy feedback for K-S equation is designed. Numerical simulations are given to show that the distributed fuzzy controller is very easy to design, efficient, and capable to extend. PMID:24387539
Characterization of the chaos-hyperchaos transition based on return times.
Pavlov, A N; Pavlova, O N; Mohammad, Y K; Kurths, J
2015-02-01
We discuss the problem of the detection of hyperchaotic oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems when the available information about this complex dynamical regime is very limited. We demonstrate the ability of diagnosing the chaos-hyperchaos transition from return times into a Poincaré section and show that an appropriate selection of the secant plane allows a correct estimation of two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) from even a single sequence of return times. We propose a generalized approach for extracting dynamics from point processes that allows avoiding spurious identification of the dynamical regime caused by artifacts. The estimated LEs are nearly close to their expected values if the second positive LE is essentially different from the largest one. If both exponents become nearly close, an underestimation of the second LE may be obtained. Nevertheless, distinctions between chaotic and hyperchaotic regimes are clearly possible. PMID:25768583
Experimental Observation of Bohr's Nonlinear Fluidic Surface Oscillation
Moon, Songky; Kwak, Hojeong; Yang, Juhee; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Soyun; An, Kyungwon
2015-01-01
Niels Bohr in the early stage of his career developed a nonlinear theory of fluidic surface oscillation in order to study surface tension of liquids. His theory includes the nonlinear interaction between multipolar surface oscillation modes, surpassing the linear theory of Rayleigh and Lamb. It predicts a specific normalized magnitude of $0.41\\dot{6}\\eta^2$ for an octapolar component, nonlinearly induced by a quadrupolar one with a magnitude of $\\eta$ much less than unity. No experimental confirmation on this prediction has been reported. Nonetheless, accurate determination of multipolar components is important as in optical fiber spinning, film blowing and recently in optofluidic microcavities for ray and wave chaos studies and photonics applications. Here, we report experimental verification of his theory. By using optical forward diffraction, we measured the cross-sectional boundary profiles at extreme positions of a surface-oscillating liquid column ejected from a deformed microscopic orifice. We obtained...
Nonlinear dynamics of fluid-structure systems. Annual technical report
Moon, F.C.; Muntean, G.
1994-01-01
We are investigating the nonlinear dynamics of a row of cylindrical tubes excited by the cross flow of fluid. Both experimental and analytical/numerical studies have been conducted. The goal of this research is to look for low dimensional dynamic models in flow- induced vibrations using modern methods of dynamical systems and chaos theory. The experimental study uses a 25 cm {times} 25 cm wind tunnel with flow velocity in the range of 15 m/sec. The use of a wind tunnel to explore dynamic phenomenon compliments the work of Chen at Argonne National Laboratory who also is conducting experiments with a water tunnel. The principal nonlinearities studies are impact constraints due to gaps in the cylinder supports and nonlinear fluid forces.
Canyons and Mesas of Aureum Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
(Released 17 June 2002) This image contains a portion of Aureum Chaos located just south of the Martian equator. This fractured landscape contains canyons and mesas with two large impact craters in the upper left. The largest crater is older than the one above it. This is readily evident because a landslide deposit created by the smaller crater's impact is seen on the larger crater's floor. The overall scene has a rather muted appearance due to mantling by dust. Some small dark streaks can also be seen in this scene. These small dark streaks suggest that the materials covering this area occasionally become unstable and slide. Ridges of resistant material also can be observed in the walls of the canyons. The wall rock seen in the upper part of the cliffs appears to be layered. Classic spur and gully topography created by differing amounts of erosion and possibly different rock types is also visible here. One important observation to be made in this region is that there are no gullies apparent on the slopes such as those seen in Gorgonum Chaos (June 11th daily image). Latitude appears to play a major role in gully occurrence and distribution, with the gullies being predominately found pole ward of 30o.
Chaos and scaling in daily river flow
M. De Domenico; M. Ali Ghorbani
2011-04-07
Adequate knowledge of the nature of river flow process is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources and environment. This study attempts to detect the salient characteristics of flow dynamics of the Karoon River in Iran. Daily discharge series observed over a period of six years (1999-2004) is analyzed to examine the chaotic and scaling characteristics of the flow dynamics. The presence of chaos is investigated through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods, while the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses are performed to explore the scaling characteristics. The low correlation dimension ($2.60 \\pm 0.07$) and the positive largest Lyapunov exponent ($0.014 \\pm 0.001$) suggest the presence of low-dimensional chaos; they also imply that the flow dynamics are dominantly governed by three variables and can be reliably predicted up to 48 days (i.e. prediction horizon). Results from the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses reveal the multifractal character of the flow dynamics, with persistent and anti-persistent behaviors observed at different time scales.
RAPID DYNAMICAL CHAOS IN AN EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM
Deck, Katherine M.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Agol, Eric; Lissauer, Jack J.
2012-08-10
We report on the long-term dynamical evolution of the two-planet Kepler-36 system, which consists of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune in a tightly packed orbital configuration. The orbits of the planets, which we studied through numerical integrations of initial conditions that are consistent with observations of the system, are chaotic with a Lyapunov time of only {approx}10 years. The chaos is a consequence of a particular set of orbital resonances, with the inner planet orbiting 34 times for every 29 orbits of the outer planet. The rapidity of the chaos is due to the interaction of the 29:34 resonance with the nearby first-order 6:7 resonance, in contrast to the usual case in which secular terms in the Hamiltonian play a dominant role. Only one contiguous region of phase space, accounting for {approx}4.5% of the sample of initial conditions studied, corresponds to planetary orbits that do not show large-scale orbital instabilities on the timescale of our integrations ({approx}200 million years). Restricting the orbits to this long-lived region allows a refinement of estimates of the masses and radii of the planets. We find that the long-lived region consists of the initial conditions that satisfy the Hill stability criterion by the largest margin. Any successful theory for the formation of this system will need to account for why its current state is so close to unstable regions of phase space.
Responses of spatiotemporal chaos to oscillating forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iino, Misato; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Nugroho, Fahrudin; Anugraha, Rinto; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro
2015-07-01
The responses of soft-mode turbulence, a kind of spatiotemporal chaos seen in electroconvection of a nematic liquid crystal, to alternating-current magnetic fields is investigated to uncover the dynamical properties of spatiotemporal chaos. The dynamical responses can be measured by an order parameter, Mp(t ) , which indicates ordering in the convective roll pattern induced by the magnetic field. Determined by properties of the liquid crystal in a magnetic field, Mp(t ) oscillates in accordance with the square of the magnetic field. The relaxation time of the system was obtained by fitting the frequency dependence of the complex susceptibility for the pattern obtained from the oscillation of Mp(t ) to the Debye-type relaxation spectra. However, for the high-frequency regime, the susceptibility deviates from the spectra because slow and large fluctuations of Mp(t ) contribute to the oscillation. The properties of this type of fluctuation were investigated by introducing a dynamic ordering parameter defined as the period average of Mp(t ) .
Fuzzy chaos control for vehicle lateral dynamics based on active suspension system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Yuan, Chaochun; Xia, Tian
2014-07-01
The existing research of the active suspension system (ASS) mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategies. Among the different components, the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems and control are usually not considered for vehicle lateral dynamics. But the vehicle model has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic model of lateral system is considered and also the adaptive neural network of tire is introduced. By nonlinear analysis methods, such as the bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent, it has shown that the lateral dynamics exhibits complicated motions with the forward speed. Then, a fuzzy control method is applied to the lateral system aiming to convert chaos into periodic motion using the linear-state feedback of an available lateral force with changing tire load. Finally, the rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. By comparison of time response diagram, phase portraits and Lyapunov exponents at different work conditions, the results on step input and S-shaped road indicate that the slip angle and yaw velocity of lateral dynamics enter into stable domain and the results of test are consistent to the simulation and verified the correctness of simulation. And the Lyapunov exponents of the closed-loop system are becoming from positive to negative. This research proposes a fuzzy control method which has sufficient suppress chaotic motions as an effective active suspension system.
Calculating topological entropy for transient chaos with an application to communicating with chaos
Jacobs, J.; Ott, E.; Hunt, B.R.
1998-06-01
Recent work on communicating with chaos provides a practical motivation for being able to determine numerically the topological entropy for chaotic invariant sets. In this paper we discuss numerical methods for evaluating topological entropy. To assess the accuracy and convergence of the methods, we test them in situations where the topological entropy is known independently. We also discuss the entropy of invariant chaotic saddles formed by those points in a given attractor that never visit some forbidden {open_quotes}gap{close_quotes} region. Such gaps have been proposed as a means of providing noise immunity in schemes for communication with chaos, and we discuss the dependence of the topological entropy on the size of the gap. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Filtering with Marked Point Process Observations via Poisson Chaos Expansion
Sun Wei; Zeng Yong; Zhang Shu
2013-06-15
We study a general filtering problem with marked point process observations. The motivation comes from modeling financial ultra-high frequency data. First, we rigorously derive the unnormalized filtering equation with marked point process observations under mild assumptions, especially relaxing the bounded condition of stochastic intensity. Then, we derive the Poisson chaos expansion for the unnormalized filter. Based on the chaos expansion, we establish the uniqueness of solutions of the unnormalized filtering equation. Moreover, we derive the Poisson chaos expansion for the unnormalized filter density under additional conditions. To explore the computational advantage, we further construct a new consistent recursive numerical scheme based on the truncation of the chaos density expansion for a simple case. The new algorithm divides the computations into those containing solely system coefficients and those including the observations, and assign the former off-line.
Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems
Akhmet, Marat Fen, Mehmet Onur; Rafatov, Ismail
2014-12-15
Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4528–4535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. Šija?i? U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).].
Boris Chirikov -Sputnik of Chaos D.L.Shepelyansky
Shepelyansky, Dima
Boris Chirikov - Sputnik of Chaos D.L.Shepelyansky CNRS, Toulouse, France (Dated: December 12, 2008) In Russian, the word Sputnik means companion. But after the very first artificial satellite Sputnik, launched
Boris Chirikov (6-6-1998) A pioneer of chaos
Shepelyansky, Dima
selected proceedings of the Sputnik Conference of STATPHYS 20 `Classical Chaos and its Quantum in Toulouse, France on 16-18 July 1998. Sputnik is the name of the very first artificial satellite, launched
Transient chaos in a closed chemical system Stephen K. Scott*)
Showalter, Kenneth
Transient chaos in a closed chemical system Stephen K. Scott*) School of Chemistry, University.14.151.181. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://ojps.aip.org/jcpo/jcpcr.jsp #12;Scott eta
Chaos anti-synchronization in multiple time delay power systems
Elman Shahverdiev
2015-09-20
We elucidate conditions for chaos anti-synchronization between two uni-directionally coupled multiple time delay power systems. The results are of some importance to prevent power black-out in the entire power grid.
Low-temperature physics: Chaos in the cold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julienne, Paul S.
2014-03-01
A marriage between theory and experiment has shown that ultracold erbium atoms trapped with laser light and subjected to a magnetic field undergo collisions that are characterized by quantum chaos. See Letter p.475
Competing nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays
structure [8] we show that nonlinear phase cancellation is possible in both re- gimes of normal by quadratic nonlinear interactions. The presence of several SH modes is crucial for observation of com- petingCompeting nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays Frank Setzpfandt,1, * Dragomir N
Zeeman catastrophe machines as a toolkit for teaching chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, Péter; Tasnádi, Péter
2014-01-01
The investigation of chaotic motions and cooperative systems offers a magnificent opportunity to involve modern physics in the basic course of mechanics taught to engineering students. In this paper, it will be demonstrated that the Zeeman machine can be a versatile and motivating tool for students to acquire introductory knowledge about chaotic motion via interactive simulations. The Zeeman catastrophe machine is a typical example of a quasi-static system with hysteresis. It works in a relatively simple way and its properties can be understood very easily. Since the machine can be built easily and the simulation of its movement is also simple, the experimental investigation and the theoretical description can be connected intuitively. Although the Zeeman machine is known mainly for its quasi-static and catastrophic behaviour, its dynamic properties are also of interest with its typical chaotic features. By means of a periodically driven Zeeman machine, a wide range of chaotic properties of the simple systems can be demonstrated, such as bifurcation diagrams, chaotic attractors, transient chaos, Lyapunov exponents and so on. This paper is organically linked to our website (http://csodafizika.hu/zeeman) where the discussed simulation programs can be downloaded. In a second paper, the novel construction of a network of Zeeman machines will be presented to study the properties of cooperative systems.
EEG and chaos: Description of underlying dynamics and its relation to dissociative states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, William J.
1994-01-01
The goal of this work is the identification of states especially as related to the process of error production and lapses of awareness as might be experienced during aviation. Given the need for further articulation of the characteristics of 'error prone state' or 'hazardous state of awareness,' this NASA grant focused on basic ground work for the study of the psychophysiology of these states. In specific, the purpose of this grant was to establish the necessary methodology for addressing three broad questions. The first is how the error prone state should be conceptualized, and whether it is similar to a dissociative state, a hypnotic state, or absent mindedness. Over 1200 subjects completed a variety of psychometric measures reflecting internal states and proneness to mental lapses and absent mindedness; the study suggests that there exists a consistency of patterns displayed by individuals who self-report dissociative experiences such that those individuals who score high on measures of dissociation also score high on measures of absent mindedness, errors, and absorption, but not on scales of hypnotizability. The second broad question is whether some individuals are more prone to enter these states than others. A study of 14 young adults who scored either high or low on the dissociation experiences scale performed a series of six tasks. This study suggests that high and low dissociative individuals arrive at the experiment in similar electrocortical states and perform cognitive tasks (e.g., mental math) in a similar manner; it is in the processing of internal emotional states that differences begin to emerge. The third question to be answered is whether recent research in nonlinear dynamics, i.e., chaos, offer an addition and/or alternative to traditional signal processing methods, i.e., fast Fourier transforms, and whether chaos procedures can be modified to offer additional information useful in identifying brain states. A preliminary review suggests that current nonlinear dynamical techniques such as dimensional analysis can be successfully applied to electrocortical activity. Using the data set developed in the study of the young adults, chaos analyses using the Farmer algorithm were performed; it is concluded that dimensionality measures reflect information not contained in traditional EEG Fourier analysis.
Nonlinear Dynamics, Magnitude-Period Formula and Forecasts on Earthquake
Yi-Fang Chang
2008-02-02
Based on the geodynamics, an earthquake does not take place until the momentum-energy excess a faulting threshold value of rock due to the movement of the fluid layer under the rock layer and the transport and accumulation of the momentum. From the nonlinear equations of fluid mechanics, a simplified nonlinear solution of momentum corresponding the accumulation of the energy could be derived. Otherwise, a chaos equation could be obtained, in which chaos corresponds to the earthquake, which shows complexity on seismology, and impossibility of exact prediction of earthquakes. But, combining the Carlson-Langer model and the Gutenberg-Richter relation, the magnitude-period formula of the earthquake may be derived approximately, and some results can be calculated quantitatively. For example, we forecast a series of earthquakes of 2004, 2009 and 2014, especially in 2019 in California. Combining the Lorenz model, we discuss the earthquake migration to and fro. Moreover, many external causes for earthquake are merely the initial conditions of this nonlinear system.
New chaos indicators for systems with extremely small Lyapunov exponents
Ken-ichi Okubo; Ken Umeno
2015-03-18
We propose new chaos indicators for systems with extremely small positive Lyapunov exponents. These chaos indicators can firstly detect a sharp transition between the Arnold diffusion regime and the Chirikov diffusion regime of the Froeschl\\'e map and secondly detect chaoticity in systems with zero Lyapunov exponent such as the Boole transformation and the $S$-unimodal function to characterize sub-exponential diffusions.
Different routes from a matter wavepacket to spatiotemporal chaos
Rong Shiguang; Hai Wenhua; Xie Qiongtao; Zhong Honghua
2012-09-15
We investigate the dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well potential with spatiotemporally modulated interaction. A variety of phenomena is identified in different frequency regimes, including the self-compression, splitting, breathing-like, and near-fidelity of the matter wavepacket, which are associated with different routes for the onset of spatiotemporal chaos. The results also reveal that chaos can retain space-inversion symmetry of the system.
Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokulich, Alisa Nicole
2001-09-01
The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and theoretical pluralism, are inadequate. The fruitful ways in which models have been used in quantum chaos research point to the need for a new framework for addressing intertheoretic relations that focuses on models rather than laws.
Chaos in axially symmetric potentials with octupole deformation
Heiss, W.D.; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Radu, S. Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid )
1994-04-11
Classical and quantum mechanical results are reported for the single particle motion in a harmonic oscillator potential which is characterized by a quadrupole deformation and an additional octupole deformation. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the quadrupole deformation in that for a prolate deformation virtually no chaos is discernible while for the oblate case the motion shows strong chaos when the octupole term is turned on.
Suppression of quantum chaos in a quantum computer hardware.
Lages, J; Shepelyansky, D L
2006-08-01
We present numerical and analytical studies of a quantum computer proposed by the Yamamoto group in Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017901 (2002). The stable and quantum chaos regimes in the quantum computer hardware are identified as a function of magnetic field gradient and dipole-dipole couplings between qubits on a square lattice. It is shown that a strong magnetic field gradient leads to suppression of quantum chaos. PMID:17025526
Mono- & Polyhydrated Sulfates in Aureum Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This image of layered deposits in Aureum Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on June 6, 2007 at 0347 UTC (11:47 p.m. EDT on June 5, 2007), near 3.5 degrees south latitude, 333.25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.
Aureum Chaos lies in the eastern part of the Valles Marineris canyon system, southwest of a 280 kilometer (174 mile) diameter, highly modified impact crater called Aram Chaos. Both regions hold examples of chaotic terrain that is characterized by randomly oriented, large-scale mesas and knobs. In this region of Mars, these features range in size from a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide and tend to be heavily eroded. As its name implies, chaotic terrain is extremely irregular. It is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice, water, or magma was released.
The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover an area riddled with knobs. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate the region's topography. The upper right is an infrared, false color image that reveals layered deposits of a light-colored material along the flanks of several knobs. The lower-left image reveals the mineralogical composition of these layers, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and blue polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule). There are two possible explanations for the compositional banding. The first is deposition of mono- and polyhydrated sulfates in alternating layers. The second is deposition of just one sulfate type, and subsequently its alteration by weathering at the exposed, eroded surface. Further observations will better determine the origin of these complex banded sulfate deposits.
CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.
Linear and non-linear dynamic models of a geared rotor-bearing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kahraman, Ahmet; Singh, Rajendra
1990-01-01
A three degree of freedom non-linear model of a geared rotor-bearing system with gear backlash and radial clearances in rolling element bearings is proposed here. This reduced order model can be used to describe the transverse-torsional motion of the system. It is justified by comparing the eigen solutions yielded by corresponding linear model with the finite element method results. Nature of nonlinearities in bearings is examined and two approximate nonlinear stiffness functions are proposed. These approximate bearing models are verified by comparing their frequency responses with the results given by the exact form of nonlinearity. The proposed nonlinear dynamic model of the geared rotor-bearing system can be used to investigate the dynamic behavior and chaos.
California at Davis, University of
, the present paper lays out a constructive approach to modeling nonlinear processes based on computation theory can support semantic information processing. * Internet: chaos@gojira.berkeley.edu. #12;J. P to the Emperor, (b) embalmed ones, (c) those that are trained, (d) suckling pigs, (e) mermaids, (f) fabulous ones
Geomedium as a nonlinear dynamic system. An evolutionary concept of earthquake development
Makarov, Pavel V.
2014-11-14
An evolutionary approach to earthquake development is proposed. A medium under loading is treated as a multiscale nonlinear dynamic system. Its failure involves a number of stages typical of any dynamic system: dynamic chaos, self-organized criticality, and global stability loss in the final stage of its evolution. In the latter stage, the system evolves in a blow-up mode accompanied by catastrophic superfast movements of the elements of this geomedium.
Nonlinear dynamics in a surface-electrode multipole ion trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Robert; Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan
2015-05-01
The surface electrode multipole ion trap allows one to realize a highly symmetric, yet anharmonic, confining potential for a single charged particle. We present a detailed model of such a trap, and measurements demonstrating the nonlinear character of the trap through the observation of frequency upconversion in the (classical) motion of a single trapped sugar particle. We will discuss extending these measurements to atomic-scale systems, as well as possible applications to mass spectrometry, quantum chaos, and quantum information science. Funded by a Research Corporation Cottrell College Science Award, and by The Citadel Foundation.
Fallacies of composition in nonlinear marketing models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischi, Gian Italo; Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider some nonlinear discrete-time dynamic models proposed in the literature to represent marketing competition, and we use these models to critically discuss the statement, often made in economic literature, that identical agents behave identically and quasi-identical ones behave in a similar way. We show, through examples and some general mathematical statements, that the one-dimensional model of a representative agent, whose dynamics summarize the common behavior of identical interacting agents, may be misleading. In order to discuss these topics some simple methods for the study of local stability and bifurcations are employed, as well as numerical examples where some results taken from the literature on chaos synchronization are applied to two-dimensional marketing models that exhibit riddling, blowout and other global phenomena related to the existence of measure-theoretic attractors.
Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis of Fibrillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerin, John A.; Sporrer, Justin M.; Egolf, David A.
2013-03-01
The development of spatiotemporal chaotic behavior in heart tissue, termed fibrillation, is a devastating, life-threatening condition. The chaotic behavior of electrochemical signals, in the form of spiral waves, causes the muscles of the heart to contract in an incoherent manner, hindering the heart's ability to pump blood. We have applied the mathematical tools of nonlinear dynamics to large-scale simulations of a model of fibrillating heart tissue to uncover the dynamical modes driving this chaos. By studying the evolution of Lyapunov vectors and exponents over short times, we have found that the fibrillating tissue is sensitive to electrical perturbations only in narrow regions immediately in front of the leading edges of spiral waves, especially when these waves collide, break apart, or hit the edges of the tissue sample. Using this knowledge, we have applied small stimuli to areas of varying sensitivity. By studying the evolution of the effects of these perturbations, we have made progress toward controlling the electrochemical patterns associated with heart fibrillation. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (DMR-0094178) and Research Corporation.
Route to chaos in generalized logistic map
Rafa? Rak; Ewa Rak
2015-02-01
Motivated by a possibility to optimize modelling of the population evolution we postulate a generalization of the well-know logistic map. Generalized difference equation reads: \\begin{equation} x_{n+1}=rx^p_n(1-x^q_n), \\end{equation} $x\\in[0,1],\\;(p,q)>0,\\;n=0,1,2,...$, where the two new parameters $p$ and $q$ may assume any positive values. The standard logistic map thus corresponds to the case $p=q=1$. For such a generalized equation we illustrate the character of the transition from regularity to chaos as a function of $r$ for the whole spectrum of $p$ and $q$ parameters. As an example we consider the case for $p=1$ and $q=2$ both in the periodic and chaotic regime. We focus on the character of the corresponding bifurcation sequence and on the quantitative nature of the resulting attractor as well as its universal attribute (Feigenbaum constant).
Control of neural chaos by synaptic noise.
Cortes, J M; Torres, J J; Marro, J
2007-02-01
We study neural automata - or neurobiologically inspired cellular automata - which exhibits chaotic itinerancy among the different stored patterns or memories. This is a consequence of activity-dependent synaptic fluctuations, which continuously destabilize the attractor and induce irregular hopping to other possible attractors. The nature of these irregularities depends on the dynamic details, namely, on the intensity of the synaptic noise and the number of sites of the network, which are synchronously updated at each time step. Varying these factors, different regimes occur, ranging from regular to chaotic dynamics. As a result, and in absence of external agents, the chaotic behavior may turn regular after tuning the noise intensity. It is argued that a similar mechanism might be on the basis of self-controlling chaos in natural systems. PMID:17084962
A simple guide to chaos and complexity.
Rickles, Dean; Hawe, Penelope; Shiell, Alan
2007-11-01
The concepts of complexity and chaos are being invoked with increasing frequency in the health sciences literature. However, the concepts underpinning these concepts are foreign to many health scientists and there is some looseness in how they have been translated from their origins in mathematics and physics, which is leading to confusion and error in their application. Nonetheless, used carefully, "complexity science" has the potential to invigorate many areas of health science and may lead to important practical outcomes; but if it is to do so, we need the discipline that comes from a proper and responsible usage of its concepts. Hopefully, this glossary will go some way towards achieving that objective. PMID:17933949
Secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Hai-Peng; Bai, Chao
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos. At the transmitter end, the state variables of the coupled map lattice system are divided into two groups: one is used as the key to encrypt the plaintext in the N-shift encryption function, and the other is used to mix with the output of the N-shift function to further confuse the information to transmit. At the receiver end, the receiver lattices are driven by the received signal to synchronize with the transmitter lattices and an inverse procedure of the encoding is conducted to decode the information. Numerical simulation and experiment based on the TI TMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172070) and the Funds from the Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013CKT-04).
Emergence of chaos in interacting communities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostilli, M.; Figueiredo, W.
2014-10-01
We introduce a simple dynamical model of two interacting communities whose elements are subject to stochastic discrete-time updates governed by only bilinear interactions. When the intra- and inter-couplings are cooperative, the two communities reach asymptotically an equilibrium state. However, when the intra- or inter-couplings are anti-cooperative, the system may remain in perpetual oscillations and, when the coupling values belong to certain intervals, two possible scenarios arise, characterized either by erratic aperiodic trajectories and high sensitiveness to small changes of the couplings, or by chaotic trajectories and bifurcation cascades. Quite interestingly, we find out that even a moderate consensus in one single community can remove the chaos. Connections of the model with interacting stock markets are discussed.
Rocks Exposed on Slope in Aram Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-550, 20 November 2003
This spectacular vista of sedimentary rocks outcropping on a slope in Aram Chaos was acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on 14 November 2003. Dark piles of coarse talus have come down the slopes as these materials continue to erode over time. Note that there are no small meteor impact craters in this image, indicating that erosion of these outcrops has been recent, if not on-going. This area is located near 2.8oS, 20.5oW. The 200 meter scale bar is about 656 feet across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower right.
Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.
2009-12-01
Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and discriminative training algorithms for these new models to improve noise robustness.
Particle chaos and pitch angle scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkhart, G. R.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Speiser, T. W.
1995-01-01
Pitch angle scattering is a factor that helps determine the dawn-to-dusk current, controls particle energization, and it has also been used as a remote probe of the current sheet structure. Previous studies have interpreted their results under the exception that randomization will be greatest when the ratio of the two timescales of motion (gyration parallel to and perpendicular to the current sheet) is closet to one. Recently, the average expotential divergence rate (AEDR) has been calculated for particle motion in a hyperbolic current sheet (Chen, 1992). It is claimed that this AEDR measures the degree of chaos and therefore may be thought to measure the randomization. In contrast to previous expectations, the AEDR is not maximized when Kappa is approximately equal to 1 but instead increases with decreasing Kappa. Also contrary to previous expectations, the AEDR is dependent upon the parameter b(sub z). In response to the challenge to previous expectations that has been raised by this calculation of the AEDR, we have investigated the dependence of a measure of particle pitch angle scattering on both the parameters Kappa and b(sub z). We find that, as was previously expected, particle pitch angle scattering is maximized near Kappa = 1 provided that Kappa/b(sub z) greater than 1. In the opposite regime, Kappa/b(sub z) less than 1, we find that particle pitch angle scattering is still largest when the two timescales are equal, but the ratio of the timescales is proportional to b(sub z). In this second regime, particle pitch angle scattering is not due to randomization, but is instead due to a systematic pitch angle change. This result shows that particle pitch angle scattering need not be due to randomization and indicates how a measure of pitch angle scattering can exhibit a different behavior than a measure of chaos.
Comparison Between Terrestrial Explosion Crater Morphology in Floating Ice and Europan Chaos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Billings, S. E.; Kattenhorn, S. A.
2003-01-01
Craters created by explosives have been found to serve as valuable analogs to impact craters, within limits. Explosion craters have been created in floating terrestrial ice in experiments related to clearing ice from waterways. Features called chaos occur on the surface of Europa s floating ice shell. Chaos is defined as a region in which the background plains have been disrupted. Common features of chaos include rafted blocks of pre-existing terrain suspended in a matrix of smooth or hummocky material; low surface albedo; and structural control on chaos outline shape by pre-existing lineaments. All published models of chaos formation call on endogenic processes whereby chaos forms through thermal processes. Nonetheless, we note morphological similarities between terrestrial explosion craters and Europan chaos at a range of scales and consider whether some chaos may have formed by impact. We explore these similarities through geologic and morphologic mapping.
An area and power efficient discrete-time chaos generator and V.D. Juncu**
Dudek, Piotr
An area and power efficient discrete-time chaos generator circuit P. Dudek* and V.D. Juncu** Abstract -- A discrete-time chaos generator circuit suitable for low power applications is presented in this paper. The generator is based on a three- transistor circuit which creates an easily adjustable chaos
Geologic and mineralogic mapping of Aram Chaos: Evidence for a water-rich history
Glotch, Timothy D.
) and the MGS Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) instruments to investigate the nature of the hematite deposits in Aram Chaos. Superposition relationships indicate that the layered sediments in Aram Chaos were deposited release of water provided a temporary environment for deposition of the Aram Chaos hematite unit similar
FOOD CHAIN CHAOS DUE TO SHILNIKOV'S ORBIT BO DENG AND GWENDOLEN HINES
Deng, Bo
FOOD CHAIN CHAOS DUE TO SHILNIKOV'S ORBIT BO DENG AND GWENDOLEN HINES Abstract. Assume that the reproduction rate ratio # of the predator over the prey is su#ciently small in a basic tritrophic food chain understood without understanding the role chaos plays in food chains. Yet chaos generating mechanisms have
Towards a computer-assisted proof for chaos in a forced damped pendulum equation
Csendes, Tibor
Towards a computer-assisted proof for chaos in a forced damped pendulum equation Tibor Csendes the computational proof of the chaotic behavior of the forced damped pendulum. Although, chaos for this pendulum properties necessary for complicate chaotic behaviour. Key words: Differential equations, Chaos, Pendulum
Chaos Theory and Its Application to Education: Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Case
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akmansoy, Vesile; Kartal, Sadik
2014-01-01
Discussions have arisen regarding the application of the new paradigms of chaos theory to social sciences as compared to physical sciences. This study examines what role chaos theory has within the education process and what effect it has by describing the views of university faculty regarding chaos and education. The participants in this study…
New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Dexuan
1996-01-01
The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.
Quantum signatures of chaos in a kicked top.
Chaudhury, S; Smith, A; Anderson, B E; Ghose, S; Jessen, P S
2009-10-01
Chaotic behaviour is ubiquitous and plays an important part in most fields of science. In classical physics, chaos is characterized by hypersensitivity of the time evolution of a system to initial conditions. Quantum mechanics does not permit a similar definition owing in part to the uncertainty principle, and in part to the Schrödinger equation, which preserves the overlap between quantum states. This fundamental disconnect poses a challenge to quantum-classical correspondence, and has motivated a long-standing search for quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we present the experimental realization of a common paradigm for quantum chaos-the quantum kicked top- and the observation directly in quantum phase space of dynamics that have a chaotic classical counterpart. Our system is based on the combined electronic and nuclear spin of a single atom and is therefore deep in the quantum regime; nevertheless, we find good correspondence between the quantum dynamics and classical phase space structures. Because chaos is inherently a dynamical phenomenon, special significance attaches to dynamical signatures such as sensitivity to perturbation or the generation of entropy and entanglement, for which only indirect evidence has been available. We observe clear differences in the sensitivity to perturbation in chaotic versus regular, non-chaotic regimes, and present experimental evidence for dynamical entanglement as a signature of chaos. PMID:19812668
Chaos: a bridge from microscopic uncertainty to macroscopic randomness
S. J. Liao
2012-01-09
It is traditionally believed that the macroscopic randomness has nothing to do with the micro-level uncertainty. Besides, the sensitive dependence on initial condition (SDIC) of Lorenz chaos has never been considered together with the so-called continuum-assumption of fluid (on which Lorenz equations are based), from physical and statistic viewpoints. A very fine numerical technique (Liao, 2009) with negligible truncation and round-off errors, called here the "clean numerical simulation" (CNS), is applied to investigate the propagation of the micro-level unavoidable uncertain fluctuation (caused by the continuum-assumption of fluid) of initial conditions for Lorenz equation with chaotic solutions. Our statistic analysis based on CNS computation of 10,000 samples shows that, due to the SDIC, the uncertainty of the micro-level statistic fluctuation of initial conditions transfers into the macroscopic randomness of chaos. This suggests that chaos might be a bridge from micro-level uncertainty to macroscopic randomness, and thus would be an origin of macroscopic randomness. We reveal in this article that, due to the SDIC of chaos and the inherent uncertainty of initial data, accurate long-term prediction of chaotic solution is not only impossible in mathematics but also has no physical meanings. This might provide us a new, different viewpoint to deepen and enrich our understandings about the SDIC of chaos.
Topographic variations in chaos on Europa: Implications for diapiric formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schenk, Paul M.; Pappalardo, Robert T.
2004-01-01
Disrupted terrain, or chaos, on Europa, might have formed through melting of a floating ice shell from a subsurface ocean [Cam et al., 1998; Greenberg et al., 19991, or breakup by diapirs rising from the warm lower portion of the ice shell [Head and Pappalardo, 1999; Collins et al., 20001. Each model makes specific and testable predictions for topographic expression within chaos and relative to surrounding terrains on local and regional scales. High-resolution stereo-controlled photoclinometric topography indicates that chaos topography, including the archetypal Conamara Chaos region, is uneven and commonly higher than surrounding plains by up to 250 m. Elevated and undulating topography is more consistent with diapiric uplift of deep material in a relatively thick ice shell, rather than melt-through and refreezing of regionally or globally thin ice by a subsurface ocean. Vertical and horizontal scales of topographic doming in Conamara Chaos are consistent with a total ice shell thickness >15 km. Contact between Europa's ocean and surface may most likely be indirectly via diapirism or convection.
Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubink, Emiel; Aldershoff, Frank; Lotens, Wouter; Woering, Arend
2008-04-01
One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external (climate, terrain, threat, equipment, etc.) state. Modeling the behavioral effects of all these factors in a centralized manner would lead to a complex rule-base that is difficult to maintain or expand. To better cope with this complexity we have developed the Capability-based Human-performance Architecture for Operational Simulation (CHAOS). CHAOS is a multi-agent system for human behavior modeling that is based on pandemonium theory. Every agent in CHAOS represents a specific part of behavior, such as 'reaction to threat' or 'performing a patrol task'. These agents are competing over a limited set of resources that represent human capabilities. By combining the element of competition with multiple limited resources, CHAOS allows us to model stress, strain and multi-tasking in an intuitive manner. The CHAOS architecture is currently used in firefighter and dismounted soldier simulations and has shown itself to be suitable for human behavior and performance modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Dan; Xu, Min; Dai, Honghua; Dowell, Earl H.
2015-02-01
The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method for analysis of nonlinear panel flutter subjected to supersonic flow is presented. Optimal POD modes are extracted from a chaotic Galerkin mode responses. The aeroelastic equations of motion are constructed using von Karman plate theory, first-order piston theory and quasi-steady thermal stress theory. A simply-supported plate with thermal loads from a uniformly distributed temperature is considered. Many types of panel behaviors, including stable flat, dynamically stable buckled, limit cycle oscillation, nonharmonic periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion are observed. Our primary focus is on chaos and the route to chaos. It is found that a sudden transition from the buckled state to chaos occurs. Time history, phase portrait, Poincaré map, bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent are employed to study chaos. The POD chaotic results obtained are compared with the traditional Galerkin solutions. It is shown that the POD method can obtain accurate chaotic solutions, using fewer modes and less computational effort than the Galerkin mode approach; additionally, the POD method converges faster in the analysis of chaotic transients. Effects of length-to-width ratios and thermal loads are presented. It is found that a smaller width for fixed length will produce more stable flutter response, while the thermal loads degrade the flutter boundary and result in a more complex evolution of dynamic motions. The numerical simulations show that the robustness of the POD modes depends on the dynamic pressure but not on temperature.
Dynamical Chaos in the Wisdom-Holman Integrator: Origins and Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rauch, Kevin P.; Holman, Matthew
1999-01-01
We examine the nonlinear stability of the Wisdom-Holman (WH) symplectic mapping applied to the integration of perturbed, highly eccentric (e-0.9) two-body orbits. We find that the method is unstable and introduces artificial chaos into the computed trajectories for this class of problems, unless the step size chosen 1s small enough that PeriaPse is always resolved, in which case the method is generically stable. This 'radial orbit instability' persists even for weakly perturbed systems. Using the Stark problem as a fiducial test case, we investigate the dynamical origin of this instability and argue that the numerical chaos results from the overlap of step-size resonances; interestingly, for the Stark-problem many of these resonances appear to be absolutely stable. We similarly examine the robustness of several alternative integration methods: a time-regularized version of the WH mapping suggested by Mikkola; the potential-splitting (PS) method of Duncan, Levison, Lee; and two original methods incorporating approximations based on Stark motion instead of Keplerian motion. The two fixed point problem and a related, more general problem are used to conduct a comparative test of the various methods for several types of motion. Among the algorithms tested, the time-transformed WH mapping is clearly the most efficient and stable method of integrating eccentric, nearly Keplerian orbits in the absence of close encounters. For test particles subject to both high eccentricities and very close encounters, we find an enhanced version of the PS method-incorporating time regularization, force-center switching, and an improved kernel function-to be both economical and highly versatile. We conclude that Stark-based methods are of marginal utility in N-body type integrations. Additional implications for the symplectic integration of N-body systems are discussed.
Genealogical tree of Russian schools on Nonlinear Dynamics
Prants, S V
2015-01-01
One of the most prominent feature of research in Russia and the former Soviet Union is so-called scientific schools. It is a collaboration of researchers with a common scientific background working, as a rule, together in a specific city or even at an institution. The genealogical tree of scientific schools on nonlinear dynamics in Russia and the former Soviet Union is grown. We use these terminology in a broad sense including theory of dynamical systems and chaos and its applications in nonlinear physics. In most cases we connect two persons if one was an advisor of the Doctoral thesis of another one. It is an analogue of the Candidate of Science thesis in Russia. If the person had no official advisor or we don't know exactly who was an advisor, we fix that person who was known to be an informal teacher and has influenced on him/her very much.
Control of Cardiac Arrhythmia by Nonlinear Spatiotemporal Delayed Feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boroujeni, Forough Rezaei; Vasegh, Nastaran; Sedigh, Ali Khaki
The dynamic feedback control of the cardiac pacing interval has been widely used to suppress alternans. In this paper, temporally and spatially suppressing the alternans for cardiac tissue consisting of a one-dimensional chain of cardiac units is investigated. The model employed is a nonlinear partial difference equation. The model's fixed points and their stability conditions are determined, and bifurcations and chaos phenomenon have been studied by numerical simulations. The main objective of this paper is to stabilize the unstable fixed point of the model. The proposed approach is nonlinear spatiotemporal delayed feedback, and the appropriate interval for controller feedback gain is calculated using the linear stability analysis. It is proven that the proposed approach is robust with respect to all bifurcation parameter variations. Also, set point tracking is achieved by employing delayed feedback with an integrator. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guallini, Luca; Gilmore, Martha; Marinangeli, Lucia; Thomas, Nicolas
2015-04-01
Iani Chaos is a ~30,000 square kilometers region that lies at the head of the Ares Vallis outflow channel system. Mapping of Ares Vallis reveals multiple episodes of erosion, probably linked to several discharge events from the Iani Chaos aquifer. We present the first detailed geomorphological map of the Iani region. Five chaos units have been distinguished with varying degrees of modification (primarily by erosion and fracturing), starting from a common terrain (Noachian highlands). We observe a general progressive decrease of their mean elevation from the Mesas, Mesas & Knobs and Hummocky (Hy) terrains to the Knobs and Knobby morphologies. This trend is consistent with an initial collapse of the original surface with an increase of the fracturing and/or of the erosion. Light-toned Layered Deposits (LLD) have been also mapped and described in Iani Chaos. These terrains are clearly distinguished by a marked light-toned albedo, high thermal inertia and a pervasively fractured morphology. LLD both fill the basins made by the collapsed chaotic terrains and are found to be partially modified by the chaos formation. LLD also overlap chaos mounds or are themselves eroded into mounds after deposition. These stratigraphic relationships demonstrate that LLD deposition occurred episodically in the Iani region and throughout the history of the development of the chaos. Water seems to have had an active role in the geological history of Iani. The composition and morphologies of the LLD are consistent with deposition in an evaporitic environment and with erosion by outflows, requiring stable water on the surface. For the first time, we have also mapped and analyzed potential fluvial features (i.e., channels, streamlined islands, terraces, grooved surfaces) on the surface of the LLD. These landforms describe a fluvial system that can be traced from central Iani and linked northward to Ares Vallis. Using topographic data, we have compared the elevation of the LLD and channel units and find that their altitudes are remarkably similar to the altitude of the floors of the major Ares Vallis channels. This is decisive evidence of 1) a possible fluvial system within Iani linked to the Ares Vallis outflow system, characterized by five episodes of outflow at least (S1 to S5), and 2) of the existence of the LLD within Iani during the occurrence of the outflows (i.e., the LLD are coeval with or postdate the Ares Vallis outflow channels). On the basis of our analysis, we propose the following formation model for Iani Chaos: 1) Initial fracturing and tectonic subsidence of the pristine Noachian materials and subsequent outflow erosion of the bedrock (Ares Vallis S1 channel origin); 2) Evaporitic deposition of older LLD units on top and between chaotic terrains. Layering suggests cyclic wetting and drying; 3) Tectonic subsidence and fluvial erosion of chaos and LLD (Ares Vallis S2 to S3 channels); 4) Deposition of younger LLD units in central and northern Iani; 5) Tectonic subsidence and outflows, erosion of chaos and LLD (Ares Vallis S4 to S5 channel origin and subsequent downdropping of NW and N(e) Iani).
Frequency assortativity can induce chaos in oscillator networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skardal, Per Sebastian; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward
2015-06-01
We investigate the effect of preferentially connecting oscillators with similar frequency to each other in networks of coupled phase oscillators (i.e., frequency assortativity). Using the network Kuramoto model as an example, we find that frequency assortativity can induce chaos in the macroscopic dynamics. By applying a mean-field approximation in combination with the dimension reduction method of Ott and Antonsen, we show that the dynamics can be described by a low dimensional system of equations. We use the reduced system to characterize the macroscopic chaos using Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagrams, and time-delay embeddings. Finally, we show that the emergence of chaos stems from the formation of multiple groups of synchronized oscillators, i.e., meta-oscillators.
Evidence of Low Dimensional Chaos in Glow Curves of Thermoluminescence
Elio Conte; Joseph P. Zbilut
2008-12-04
Electron trapping following exposition to ionising radiations and consequent electron release during variation of temperature in solids represent processes happening at the quantum microphysical level. The interesting feature of the thermally stimulated process, that in fact deserves further investigation, is that the dynamic of electrons release during, variation of the temperature, here examined through the so called thermoluminescent Glow Curve, evidences chaotic and fractal regimes. Phase space reconstruction, Correlation Dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent, Recurrence Quantification Analysis(RQA) and fractal dimension analysis, developed by calculation of Hurst exponent, are performed on three samples. The results unequivocally fix that Glow Curves respond to a chaotic regime. RQA supports such results revealing the inner structure of Glow Curve signals in relation to their properties of recurrence, determinism and intermittency signed from laminarity as well as chaos-chaos and chaos order transitions.