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1

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-destructive method to measure the diffusion length of the cathode materials into the organic layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is demonstrated. The measurement is based on a correlation between the transition voltage in the impedance-voltage (Z-V) characteristics, the density of the accumulation charges, and the thickness of the electron transport layers (ETLs). The transition voltages in Z-V characteristics deviate from the theoretical values owing to the decrease of the effective ETL thickness caused by the diffusion of the cathode materials, which can be used to measure the diffusion length of metal ions into organic layers in OLEDs.

Wu, I.-Wen; Chuang, Chia-Lin; Wang, Po-Sheng; Tseng, Wei-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-I.

2012-04-01

2

A Characteristic Particle Length

It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

Mark D. Roberts

2014-06-14

3

An examination of flame length from vertical turbulent diffusion flames

Literature data on the length of turbulent diffusion flames is examined for the buoyancy through momentum dominated regimes. This data is interpreted through an ad hoc dimensional analysis where the length scale is the Thring-Newby theoretical lateral flame dimension. The nondimensional flame length is shown to be a function of a density weighted Froude number (inverse Richardson number) and a

T. R. Blake; M. McDonald

1993-01-01

4

An examination of flame length from vertical turbulent diffusion flames

Literature data on the length of turbulent diffusion flames is examined for the buoyancy through momentum dominated regimes. This data is interpreted through an ad hoc dimensional analysis where the length scale is the Thring-Newby theoretical lateral flame dimension. The nondimensional flame length is shown to be a function of a density weighted Froude number (inverse Richardson number) and a flame to ambient density ratio. Experimental observations on gas turbulent diffusion flames are combined with data for condensing vapor jets and jets in liquid metal combustion. The latter measurements extend the data base and offer new insights into the mechanisms affecting turbulent diffusion flames.

Blake, T.R.; McDonald, M. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

1993-09-01

5

Long minority carrier diffusion lengths in bridged silicon nanowires.

Nanowires have large surface areas that create new challenges for their optoelectronic applications. Lithographic processes involved in device fabrication and substrate interfaces can lead to surface defects and substantially reduce charge carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Here, we show that using a bridging method to suspend pristine nanowires allows for circumventing detrimental fabrication steps and interfacial effects associated with planar device architectures. We report electron diffusion lengths up to 2.7 ?m in bridged silicon nanowire devices, much longer than previously reported values for silicon nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm. Strikingly, electron diffusion lengths are reduced to only 45 nm in planar devices incorporating nanowires grown under the same conditions. The highly scalable silicon nanobridge devices with the demonstrated long diffusion lengths may find exciting applications in photovoltaics, sensing, and photodetectors. PMID:25541642

Triplett, M; Yang, Y; Léonard, F; Talin, A Alec; Islam, M Saif; Yu, D

2015-01-14

6

Universal Ratios of Characteristic Lengths in Semidilute Polymer Solutions

We use experimental and simulation data from the literature to infer five characteristic lengths, denoted $\\xi_s$, $\\xi_f$, $\\xi_\\Pi$, $\\xi_\\phi$, and $\\xi_D$ of a semidilute polymer solution. The first two of these are defined in terms of scattering from the solution, the third is defined in terms of osmotic pressure, the fourth by the spatial monomer concentration profile, and the last by co-operative diffusion. In a given solution the ratios of any of these five lengths are expected to be universal constants. Knowing these constants thus allows one to use one measured property of a solution as a means of inferring others. We calculate these ratios and estimate their uncertainties for solutions in theta as well as good-solvent conditions. The analysis is strengthened by use of scattering properties of isolated polymers inferred from computer simulations.

Jung-Ren Huang; T. A. Witten

2002-05-14

7

DIFFUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF THORIUM AND ALUMINIUM

Diffusion Characteristics were investigated between thorium and aluminum. ; The objective of the investigation was to develop information which might serve ; as a guide in the construction of asscmblies for a converter type of reactor ; utilizing aluminum-clad thorium plates. Extent of the diffusion was evaluated by ; a measurement of the thickness of the resulting diffusion layer formed

Milko

1954-01-01

8

Two length scales near the Anderson transition and the critical diffusive behavior

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of an analytical and numerical investigation of the Anderson metal-insulator transition based on a supersymmetric non-linear ?-model in effective medium approximation. In the critical metallic regime two characteristic length scales exist which diverge according to a power law but have different critical exponents. We put forward a physical picture that enables us to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of these two lengths and to explain its exponential behavior obtained previously.

Viehweger, O.; Efetov, K. B.

9

Thirty years since diffuse sound reflection by maximum length

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year celebrates the 30th anniversary of Schroeder's seminal paper on sound scattering from maximum length sequences. This paper, along with Schroeder's subsequent publication on quadratic residue diffusers, broke new ground, because they contained simple recipes for designing diffusers with known acoustic performance. So, what has happened in the intervening years? As with most areas of engineering, the room acoustic diffuser has been greatly influenced by the rise of digital computing technologies. Numerical methods have become much more powerful, and this has enabled predictions of surface scattering to greater accuracy and for larger scale surfaces than previously possible. Architecture has also gone through a revolution where the forms of buildings have become more extreme and sculptural. Acoustic diffuser designs have had to keep pace with this to produce shapes and forms that are desirable to architects. To achieve this, design methodologies have moved away from Schroeder's simple equations to brute force optimization algorithms. This paper will look back at the past development of the modern diffuser, explaining how the principles of diffuser design have been devised and revised over the decades. The paper will also look at the present state-of-the art, and dreams for the future.

Cox, Trevor J.; D'Antonio, Peter

2005-09-01

10

Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.

Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard

2015-01-01

11

Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films under above-band-gap illumination

We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO{sub 2} nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 ?m as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 ?m. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

Park, J. D.; Son, B. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Sang Yong; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y. H., E-mail: ahny@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-15

12

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a

Bernard Goldstein; Joseph Dresner; Daniel J. Szostak

1983-01-01

13

Diffusion length measurements using the scanning electron microscope. [in semiconductor devices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement technique employing the scanning electron microscope is described in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through the application of highly doped surface field layers. The influence of high injection level effects and low-high junction current generation on the resulting measurement was investigated. Close agreement is found between the diffusion lengths measured by this method and those obtained using a penetrating radiation technique.

Weizer, V. G.

1975-01-01

14

Thermal and emission characteristics of a turbulent swirling inverse diffusion flame

The thermal and emission characteristics of a swirl-stabilized turbulent inverse diffusion flame (IDF) burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were studied experimentally and the results of visible flame lengths, flame temperatures, in-flame gaseous species concentrations and global pollutant emissions were reported.The flame shape and length of the swirling IDF and a non-swirling IDF were compared. The swirling IDF is featured by

H. S. Zhen; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung

2010-01-01

15

On the scaling of the visible lengths of jet diffusion flames

Length of jet diffusion flames is of direct importance in many industrial processes (e.g., in flaring applications in the petroleum industry) and is analyzed by applying scaling method directly to the governing partial differential equations. It is shown that for jet-momentum-dominated diffusion flames, when the buoyancy effects are neglected, the flame length normalized by the burner exit diameter increases linearly with the Reynolds number at the burner exit in the laminar burning regime and decreases in inverse proportion to the Reynolds number in the transitional regime. For turbulent diffusion flames, the normalized flame lengths are independent of the burner exit flow conditions. It is further found that for vertical upward flames, the buoyancy effect increases the flame length in the laminar and transitional regime and reduces the length in the turbulent regime; while for vertical downward flames, the buoyancy effect decreases the flame length in the laminar and transitional regime and increases the length in the turbulent regime, provided that jet momentum is dominated, and there is no flame spreading out and then burning upward like a downward-facing pool fire. Hence, for turbulent flames the flame lengths depend on the Froude number, Fr, and increase (or decrease) slightly as Fr increases for upward (or downward) flames. By comparison, it is found that the foregoing theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental observations reported in literature.

Li, X. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-01

16

Estimation of minority carrier diffusion lengths in InP/GaAs solar cells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minority carrier diffusion length is one of the most important parameters affecting the solar cell performance. An attempt is made to estimate the minority carrier diffusion lengths is the emitter and base of InP/GaAs heteroepitaxial solar cells. The PC-1D computer model was used to simulate the experimental cell results measured at NASA Lewis under AMO (air mass zero) spectrum at 25 C. A 16 nm hole diffusion length in the emitter and a 0.42 micron electron diffusion length in the base gave very good agreement with the I-V curve. The effect of varying minority carrier diffusion lengths on cell short current, open circuit voltage, and efficiency was studied. It is also observed that the front surface recombination velocity has very little influence on the cell performance. The poor output of heteroepitaxial cells is caused primarily by the large number of dislocations generated at the interfaces that propagate through the bulk indium phosphide layers. Cell efficiency as a function of dislocation density was calculated and the effect of improved emitter bulk properties on cell efficiency is presented. It is found that cells with over 16 percent efficiencies should be possible, provided the dislocation density is below 10(exp 6)/sq cm.

Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

1990-01-01

17

Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.

Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.

1978-01-01

18

Determination of the Pt spin diffusion length by spin-pumping and spin Hall effect

The spin diffusion length of Pt at room temperature and at 8 K is experimentally determined via spin pumping and spin Hall effect in permalloy/Pt bilayers. Voltages generated during excitation of ferromagnetic resonance from the inverse spin Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance effect were investigated with a broadband approach. Varying the Pt layer thickness gives rise to an evolution of the voltage line shape due to the superposition of the above two effects. By studying the ratio of the two voltage components with the Pt layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of Pt can be directly extracted. We obtain a spin diffusion length of ?1.2 nm at room temperature and ?1.6 nm at 8 K.

Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vlaminck, Vincent [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenería, Universidad San Fransciso de Quito, Quito (Ecuador); Divan, Ralu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2013-12-09

19

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.

Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.

1978-01-01

20

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic and quantitative analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of the shape (point, cube, Gaussian) and size of the generation volume, the surface recombination velocity, and the diffusion length on the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and its derivative (DEIC). Thick homogeneously doped samples exhibiting diffusion lengths in the low micron and submicron range are considered. The results are presented in computed EBIC curves as a function of scanning distance and of the ratio true diffusion length/effective diffusion length. Shown using these curves are: (1) a simple and yet rigorous method for the determination of the true diffusion length, taking into consideration all of the factors cited above, (2) a method for the rapid determination of the surface recombination velocity, (3) the condition under which the source shape becomes insignificant, and (4) a new value for the lower limit of the diffusion length which can be determined by the EBOC technique.

Luke, K. L.; Von Roos, O.; Cheng, L.-J.

1985-01-01

21

Crossover length from invasion percolation to diffusion-limited aggregation in porous media

We model fluid-fluid displacement in d=2 by a diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) algorithm which takes random capillary forces into account. Interpore surface tension is neglected. The invading fluid is nonviscous. We find a crossover length Lc. On length scales much smaller (larger) than Lc, invasion percolation (DLA) patterns are obtained. We argue by scaling, and check by simulations, that Lc~(Deltap~\\/Ca)2\\/(2+Ds), Deltap~ stands

Julio F. Fernández; Rafael Rangel; Juan Rivero

1991-01-01

22

Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

1995-01-01

23

The photovoltage spectrum measured on back illuminated silicon solar cells of the (passivated emitor solar cell) (PESC) type without original bottom ohmic electrode is evaluated with the aim to find the diffusion length of minority carriers in bulk of the absorber (L). Two junctions, namely pn+ junction of the cell and that spontaneously created on the free surface generally exist

J. Toušek; D. Kindl; J. Toušková; S. Dolhov

2001-01-01

24

Characteristic Length Scale of Bicontinuous Nanoporous Structure by Fast Fourier Transform

We propose a method derived from fast Fourier transform (FFT) process to measure the characteristic length scale of bicontinuous nanoporous structures. By rotationally averaging the FFT power spectrum of a nanoporous micrograph from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or transmission electron microscope (TEM), a significant peak in the power spectrum can be obtained, which reflects the characteristic length scale of the

Takeshi Fujita; Ming Wei Chen

2008-01-01

25

Diffusion Characteristics of Upwind Schemes on Unstructured Triangulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusive characteristics of two upwind schemes, multi-dimensional fluctuation splitting and dimensionally-split finite volume, are compared for scalar advection-diffusion problems. Algorithms for the two schemes are developed for node-based data representation on median-dual meshes associated with unstructured triangulations in two spatial dimensions. Four model equations are considered: linear advection, non-linear advection, diffusion, and advection-diffusion. Modular coding is employed to isolate the effects of the two approaches for upwind flux evaluation, allowing for head-to-head accuracy and efficiency comparisons. Both the stability of compressive limiters and the amount of artificial diffusion generated by the schemes is found to be grid-orientation dependent, with the fluctuation splitting scheme producing less artificial diffusion than the dimensionally-split finite volume scheme. Convergence rates are compared for the combined advection-diffusion problem, with a speedup of 2-3 seen for fluctuation splitting versus finite volume when solved on the same mesh. However, accurate solutions to problems with small diffusion coefficients can be achieved on coarser meshes using fluctuation splitting rather than finite volume, so that when comparing convergence rates to reach a given accuracy, fluctuation splitting shows a 20-25 speedup over finite volume.

Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.

1998-01-01

26

Optical evaluation of carrier lifetime and diffusion length in synthetic diamonds

The key electronic parameters of high-pressure-high-temperature and chemical-vapor-deposition grown diamonds have been determined at interband (h?=5.82 eV) or below bandgap (h?=4.68 eV) photoexcitation, using a picosecond transient grating (TG) technique. TG kinetics directly provided the values of ambipolar diffusion coefficient (6–10 cm2\\/s) and carrier lifetime (in a range from 0.17 to 2.8 ns) for crystals grown under different conditions. The carrier diffusion length was

T. Malinauskas; K. Jarasiunas; E. Ivakin; V. Ralchenko; A. Gontar; S. Ivakhnenko

2008-01-01

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic processes. Also, we explore the variability in hillslope length scales as a function of hillslope diffusivity coefficients and critical shear stress in natural landscapes and show that we can infer signatures of dominant geomorphic processes by analyzing characteristic topographic length scales present in topography. References: Beven, K. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43-69, 1979 Howard, A. D. (1994). A detachment-limited model of drainage basin evolution.Water resources research, 30(7), 2261-2285. Passalacqua, P., Do Trung, T., Foufoula Georgiou, E., Sapiro, G., & Dietrich, W. E. (2010). A geometric framework for channel network extraction from lidar: Nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths. Journal of Geophysical. Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 115(F1). Sangireddy, H., Passalacqua, P., Stark, C.P.(2012). Multi-resolution estimation of lidar-DTM surface flow metrics to identify characteristic topographic length scales, EP13C-0859: AGU Fall meeting 2012. Stark, C. P., & Stark, G. J. (2001). A channelization model of landscape evolution. American Journal of Science, 301(4-5), 486-512. Tucker, G. E., Catani, F., Rinaldo, A., & Bras, R. L. (2001). Statistical analysis of drainage density from digital terrain data. Geomorphology, 36(3), 187-202.

Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

2013-12-01

28

A diffusion accelerated solution method for the nonlinear characteristic scheme

Recently the nonlinear characteristic scheme for spatially discretizing the discrete-ordinate equations was introduced. This scheme is accurate for both optically thin and optically thick spatial meshes and produces strictly positive angular and scalar fluxes. The nonlinear characteristic discrete-ordinate equations can be solved using the source iteration method; however, it is well known that the this method converges prohibitively slowly for optically thick problems with scattering ratios at or near unity. In this paper we describe a diffusion accelerated solution method for solving the nonlinear characteristic equations in slab geometry.

Wareing, T.A.; Walters, W.F.; Morel, J.E.

1995-02-01

29

Determination of carrier diffusion length in p- and n-type GaN

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p- GaN or 1300 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photogeneration near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be about 92 ± 7 nm and 68 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively. Cross-sectional cathodoluminescence line-scan measurement was performed on a separate sample and the diffusion length in n-type GaN was measured to be 280 nm.

Hafiz, Shopan; Metzner, Sebastian; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Karbaum, Christopher; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard; Özgür, Ümit

2014-03-01

30

Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV. A vibrating Kelvin method-type probe electrode couples the SPV to a measurement system. The operating optical wavelength of an adjustable monochromator to compensate for the wavelength dependent sensitivity of a photodetector is selected to measure the illumination intensity (photon flux) on the silicon. Measurements of the relative photon flux for a plurality of wavelengths are plotted against the reciprocal of the optical absorption coefficient of the material. A linear plot of the data points is extrapolated to zero intensity. The negative intercept value on the reciprocal optical coefficient axis of the extrapolated linear plot is the diffusion length of the minority carriers.

Goldstein, Bernard (Princeton, NJ); Dresner, Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Szostak, Daniel J. (Mercerville, NJ)

1983-07-12

31

Neutron diffusion length in reactor grade graphite is measured both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes Monte Carlo (MC) coding using 'MCNP' and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coding suing 'COMSOL Multiphysics' and Matlab. The MCNP code is adopted to simulate the thermal neutron diffusion length in a reactor moderator of 2m x 2m with slightly enriched uranium ($^{235}U$), accompanied with a model designed for thermal hydraulic analysis using point kinetic equations, based on partial and ordinary differential equation. The theoretical work includes numerical approximation methods including transcendental technique to illustrate the iteration process with the FEA method. Finally collision density of thermal neutron in graphite is measured, also specific heat relation dependability of collision density is also calculated theoretically, the thermal neutron diffusion length in graphite is evaluated at $50.85 \\pm 0.3cm$ using COMSOL Multiphysics and $50.95 \\pm 0.5cm$ using MCNP. Finally the total neutron cross-section is derived using FEA in an inverse iteration form.

S. R. Mirfayzi

2013-01-08

32

Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition

To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 ?s at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 ?m by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays. PMID:23968156

2013-01-01

33

Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

2014-12-01

34

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

1993-01-01

35

Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K[sub L], was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, R.K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D.J.

1993-04-01

36

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic techniques used was charge collection microscopy also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended generation and point generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations, or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

Leon, R. P.

1987-01-01

37

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic technique used was charge collection microscopy, also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line-scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended-generation and point-generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

Leon, R. P.

1987-01-01

38

On the determination of diffusion lengths by means of angle-lapped p-n junctions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard procedure for determining the minority carrier diffusion length by means of SEM consists of scanning an angle-lapped surface of a p-n junction and measuring the resulting short circuit current as a function of beam position. The present paper points out that the usual expression linking the short circuit current induced by the electron beam to the angle between the semiconductor surface and the junction plane is incorrect. The correct expression is discussed and it is noted that, for angles less than 10 deg, the new and the old expression are practically indistinguishable.

Von Roos, O.

1979-01-01

39

Diffusion length measurement using the scanning electron microscope. [for silicon solar cell

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work describes a measuring technique employing the scanning electron microscope in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through application of highly doped surface field layers. The effects of high injection level and low-high junction current generation are investigated. Results obtained with this technique are compared to those obtained by a penetrating radiation (X-ray) method, and a close agreement is found. The SEM technique is limited to cells that contain a back surface field layer.

Weizer, V. G.

1975-01-01

40

Gate-dependent carrier diffusion length in lead selenide quantum dot field-effect transistors.

We report a scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) study of colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dot (QD) thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). PbSe QDs are chemically treated with sodium sulfide (Na2S) and coated with amorphous alumina (a-Al2O3) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to obtain high mobility, air-stable FETs with a strongly gate-dependent conductivity. SPCM reveals a long photocurrent decay length of 1.7 ?m at moderately positive gate bias that decreases to below 0.5 ?m at large positive gate voltage and all negative gate voltages. After excluding other possible mechanisms including thermoelectric effects, a thick depletion width, and fringing electric fields, we conclude from photocurrent lifetime measurements that the diffusion of a small fraction of long-lived carriers accounts for the long photocurrent decay length. The long minority carrier lifetime is attributed to charge traps for majority carriers. PMID:23802707

Otto, Tyler; Miller, Chris; Tolentino, Jason; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Yu, Dong

2013-08-14

41

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

2014-07-01

42

In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0?cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

2014-07-15

43

length in single GaN nanowires Gilles Nogues,1, 2, a) Thomas Auzelle,3 Martien Den Hertog,1, 2 Bruno correlated studies of individual GaN nanowires in scanning electron microscopy combined to low temperature that carrier diffusion length in InGaN and GaN bidimensional (2D) layers are rather small, in the range of 50

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

44

Temperature dependence of spin diffusion length and spin Hall angle in Au and Pt

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the spin transport and the spin Hall effect as a function of temperature for platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) in lateral spin valve structures. First, by using the spin absorption technique, we extract the spin diffusion length of Pt and Au. Secondly, using the same devices, we have measured the spin Hall conductivity and analyzed its evolution with temperature to identify the dominant scattering mechanisms behind the spin Hall effect. This analysis confirms that the intrinsic mechanism dominates in Pt whereas extrinsic effects are more relevant in Au. Moreover, we identify and quantify the phonon-induced skew scattering. We show that this contribution to skew scattering becomes relevant in metals such as Au, with a low residual resistivity.

Isasa, Miren; Villamor, Estitxu; Hueso, Luis E.; Gradhand, Martin; Casanova, Fèlix

2015-01-01

45

Characteristic Length of Energy-containing Structures at the Base of a Coronal Hole

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that rely on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length ? of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (u 2 and b 2) transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale directly defines the heating rate. We use a time series analysis of solar granulation and magnetic field measurements inside two CHs obtained with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A data set for transverse magnetic fields obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter on board the Hinode spacecraft was utilized to analyze the squared transverse magnetic field fluctuations b_t^2. Local correlation tracking was applied to derive the squared transverse velocity fluctuations u 2. We find that for u 2 structures, the Batchelor integral scale ? varies in a range of 1800-2100 km, whereas the correlation length sigmav and the e-folding length L vary between 660 and 1460 km. Structures for b_t^2 yield ? ? 1600 km, sigmav ? 640 km, and L ? 620 km. An averaged (over ?, sigmav, and L) value of the characteristic length of u 2 fluctuations is 1260 ± 500 km, and that of b_t^2 is 950 ± 560 km. The characteristic length scale in the photosphere is approximately 1.5-50 times smaller than that adopted in previous models (3-30 × 103 km). Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration.

Abramenko, V. I.; Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Cao, W.

2013-08-01

46

Estimation of characteristic parameters in region-time-length algorithm and its application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of gap’s temporal-spatial characteristics in and around source area before an earthquake, we propose a method to estimate characteristic parameters (characteristic distance and time) in the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm and introduce the method of correlation coefficient developed by some authors in 2006 to determine the characteristic parameters. The anomalous seismic activities before four moderately strong earthquakes occurred in the northwestern and southwestern China in recent years are studied by the two methods. The results show that the method to estimate characteristic parameters advanced in this paper is a simple one, which possesses a physical meaning and is well applicable to the four moderately strong earthquakes studied.

Rong, Dai-Lu; Li, Ya-Rong

2007-05-01

47

The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.

Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Nandy, Dibyendu, E-mail: martens@solar.physics.montana.edu, E-mail: amunoz@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dnandi@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute for Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohampur 741252, West Bengal (India)

2011-01-20

48

Background To explore the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in healthy native kidneys. Methods Seventy-three patients without chronic kidney disease underwent DTI-MRI with spin echo-echo planar (SE-EPI) sequences accompanied by an array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET). Cortical and medullary mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD and RD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues (?1, ?2, ?3) were analysed in both kidneys and in different genders. Results Cortical MD, ?2, ?3, and RD values were higher than corresponding medullary values. The cortical FA value was lower than the medullary FA value. Medullary ?1 and RD values in the left kidney were lower than in the right kidney. Medullary ?2, and ?3 values in women were higher than those in men. Medullary FA values in women were lower than those in men. Medullary FA (r?=?0.351, P?=?0.002) and ?1 (r?=?0.277, P?=?0.018) positively correlated with eGFR. Medullary FA (r?=??0.25, P?=?0.033) negatively correlated with age. Conclusions Renal water molecular diffusion differences exist in human kidneys and genders. Age and eGFR correlate with medullary FA and primary eigenvalue. PMID:25470776

Zheng, Zhenfeng; Shi, Huilan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yunting

2014-01-01

49

Identifying local characteristic lengths governing sound wave properties in solid foams

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying microscopic geometric properties and fluid flow through opened-cell and partially closed-cell solid structures is a challenge for material science, in particular, for the design of porous media used as sound absorbers in building and transportation industries. We revisit recent literature data to identify the local characteristic lengths dominating the transport properties and sound absorbing behavior of polyurethane foam samples by performing numerical homogenization simulations. To determine the characteristic sizes of the model, we need porosity and permeability measurements in conjunction with ligament lengths estimates from available scanning electron microscope images. We demonstrate that this description of the porous material, consistent with the critical path picture following from the percolation arguments, is widely applicable. This is an important step towards tuning sound proofing properties of complex materials.

Tan Hoang, Minh; Perrot, Camille

2013-02-01

50

Flow and Transport Characteristics of Fracture Networks with Length-Aperture Correlation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions of fluid flow and solute transport in fractured rock masses typically rely on numerical simulations that incorporate uncertainty in fracture attributes such as location, orientation, length and aperture. These attributes of fracture networks are generally assumed uncorrelated. Given that the propagation of fractures is a systematic response to a stress field acting on a rock mass, it is natural to assume that correlations should exist between various fracture attributes. Of the potential correlations that may exist, a positive correlation between fracture length and aperture, supported by field observations and opening-mode fracture propagation models, most likely exerts the greatest control on fluid flow and solute transport. We test the influence of a length-aperture correlation by implementing a physically-realistic correlation model for opening-mode fractures. Results from Monte Carlo simulations of random fracture networks, generated according to power-law distributions of fracture length and varying degrees of fracture density, are used to illustrate the influence of aperture-length correlations on fluid flow and solute transport. Metrics used to compare fluid flow for length-aperture correlated and uncorrelated networks include the magnitude of global flow and scales at which a representative elementary volume is reached. Transport comparisons for correlated and uncorrelated networks are based on conservative solute breakthrough, including characteristics of fast particle arrivals and late-time tailing. Preliminary results indicate that length-aperture correlations produce a flow-focused network structure that both increases the global quantity of fluid transmitted through the networks and promotes rapid transport.

Reeves, D. M.; Parashar, R.

2009-12-01

51

Large Spin Accumulation with Long Spin Diffusion Length in Cu/MgO/Permalloy Lateral Spin Valves

Large Spin Accumulation with Long Spin Diffusion Length in Cu/MgO/Permalloy Lateral Spin Valves the effect of interface resistance on the spin injection and detection efficiency in Cu/MgO/permalloy (Py) lateral spin valve devices. Insertion of the MgO layer enhances the spin accumulation by a factor of ten

Otani, Yoshichika

52

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carrier lifetimes and bulk diffusion length are qualitatively measured as a means for qualification of a P-N junction photovoltaic solar cell. High frequency (blue) monochromatic light pulses and low-frequency (red) monochromatic light pulses were alternately applied to the cell while it was irradiated by light from a solar simulator, and synchronously displaying the derivative of the output voltage of the cell on an oscilloscope. The output voltage is a measure of the lifetimes of the minority carriers (holes) in the diffused N layer and majority carriers (electrons) in the bulk P material, and of the diffusion length of the bulk silicon. By connecting a reference cell in this manner with a test cell to be tested in reverse parallel, the display of a test cell that matches the reference cell will be a substantially zero output.

Vonroos, O. H. (inventor)

1978-01-01

53

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood. PMID:19720527

Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

2010-01-01

54

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowire structured p-type CuO semiconductor is a promising material for gas-sensing applications because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this study, we demonstrate the length and density controlled synthesis of single crystal CuO nanowires (CuO NWs) by a simple and convenient thermal oxidation of high-purity copper foils in ambient atmosphere. The density and length of the CuO NWs are controlled by varying the oxidation temperature and heating duration to investigate their growth mechanism. As-synthesized materials are characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The gas-sensing characteristics of the CuO NWs are tested using hydrogen and ethanol gases. The results show that the CuO NWs could potentially sense hydrogen and ethanol gases given a working temperature of 400 °C.

Duc, Le Duy; Le, Dang Thi Thanh; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Hieu, Nguyen Van

2014-04-01

55

We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO4 units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses. PMID:25362322

Shaw, A; Ghosh, A

2014-10-28

56

Venus' superrotation, mixing length theory and eddy diffusion - A parametric study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of the Hadley mechanism is adopted to describe the axisymmetric circulation of the Venus atmosphere. It is shown that, for the atmosphere of a slowly rotating planet such as Venus, a form of the nonliner 'closure' (self-consistent solution) of the fluid dynamics system which constrains the magnitude of the eddy diffusion coefficients can be postulated. A nonlinear one-layer spectral model of the zonally symmetric circulation was then used to establish the relationship between the heat source, the meridional circulation, and the eddy diffusion coefficients, yielding large zonal velocities. Computer experiments indicated that proportional changes in the heat source and eddy diffusion coefficients do not significantly change the zonal velocities. It was also found that, for large eddy diffusion coefficients, the meridional velocity is virtually constant; below a threshold in the diffusion rate, the meridional velocity decreases; and, for large eddy diffusion and small heating rates, the zonal velocities decrease with decreasing planetary rotation rates.

Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Schatten, K. H.; Stevens-Rayburn, D. R.; Chan, K. L.

1988-01-01

57

Characteristics of Laminar Vortex Ring - Diffusion Flame Interaction

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed to study the interaction between a laminar vortex ring and a diffusion flame. The compressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with energy and species equations. The diffusion flame is generated by a `spark' and is implemented as initial condition for the simulations. A single-step second order irreversible Arrhenius type reaction is

C. Safta; C. K. Madnia

2000-01-01

58

Pb diffuses in a Pb/Cu(111) surface alloy predominantly by exchange with surface vacancies and, much less frequently, by exchange with thermal Cu adatoms. Because the infrequent adatom exchanges transport Pb atoms much farther, both processes affect observations of Pb transport in the Pb/Cu(111) surface alloy. PMID:12688887

Anderson, M L; D'Amato, M J; Feibelman, P J; Swartzentruber, B S

2003-03-28

59

Structural inhomogeneities in biomembranes can lead to complex diffusive behavior of membrane proteins that depend on the length or time scales that are probed. This effect is well studied in eukaryotic cells, but has been explored only recently in bacteria. Here we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study diffusion of the membrane protein TetA-YFP in E. coli. We find that the diffusion constant determined from FRAP is comparable to other reports of inner membrane protein diffusion constants in E. coli. However, FCS, which probes diffusion on shorter length scales, gives a value that is almost two orders of magnitude higher and is comparable to lipid diffusion constants. These results suggest there is a population of TetA-YFP molecules in the membrane that move rapidly over short length scales (? 400 nm) but move significantly more slowly over the longer length scales probed by FRAP. PMID:23119068

Chow, David; Guo, Lin; Gai, Feng; Goulian, Mark

2012-01-01

60

We present the experimental study of the spin Hall angle (SHA) and spin diffusion length of Pd with the spin pumping and microwave photoresistance effects. The Py/Pd bilayer stripes are excited with an out-of-plane microwave magnetic field. The pure spin current is thus pumped and transforms into charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd layer, yielding an ISHE voltage. The ISHE voltage can be distinguished from the unwanted signal caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance according to their different symmetries. Together with Pd thickness dependent measurements of in and out-of-plane precessing angles and effective spin mixing conductance, the SHA and spin-diffusion length of Pd are quantified as 0.0056?±?0.0007 and 7.3?±?0.7?nm, respectively.

Tao, X. D.; Feng, Z.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Wu, D.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Ding, H. F., E-mail: hfding@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2014-05-07

61

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the nozzle length on the air-pollutant-emission and noise-radiation behaviors of a burner utilizing a multi-fuel-jet inverse diffusion flame (MIDF). Comparison of the experimental results obtained from two MIDF burners, one with a long nozzle and the other with a short nozzle, operating under the same air\\/fuel supply conditions (Reair and

H. S. Zhen; Y. S. Choy; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung

2011-01-01

62

Stability Characteristics of Turbulent Hydrogen Dilute Diffusion Flames

Diffusion flame combustion of high-hydrogen fuels in land-based gas turbine combustors may include dilution of the fuel with inert gases and high velocity fuel injection to reduce NOx emissions. Stability regimes of such combustors are investigated in this study by examining turbulent dilute diffusion flames of hydrogen\\/nitrogen mixtures, issuing into a quiescent environment from a thin-lipped tube. This study has

Nathan T. Weiland; Peter A. Strakey

2009-01-01

63

Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some cows have less milk production loss than other cows after applying no DP or a short DP. The aim of this study is to evaluate which cow characteristics are associated with the amount of milk production losses following no DP or a short DP (30d). Daily production information from the lactation before and after the DP was available from 161 dairy cows (54 cows with a 0-d DP, 51 cows with a 30-d DP, and 56 cows with a 60-d DP) from a research herd. Daily production (milk, fat, and protein) until 305d in milk was estimated for all cows. Subsequently, total fat- and protein-corrected milk yield from 60d before the expected calving date until 305d in the following lactation (FPCMtotal) was estimated. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which cow characteristics were associated with limited or no production losses following no DP or a short DP, compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Average FPCMtotal was 9,341, 10,499, and 10,795kg for cows with no DP, a 30-d DP, and a 60-d DP, respectively. The cow characteristics parity, daily milk production at 12wk before the expected calving date, and reduction in daily milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date were associated with production loss due to a short (30d) or no DP. Compared with 60d DP, multiparous cows had less production loss (987kg) following no DP than primiparous cows (2,132kg). The difference in FPCMtotal between the 3DP groups was largest for cows with a low milk production (e.g., 10kg/d) at 12wk before the expected calving date. The greater the reduction in milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date, the larger the difference in FPCMtotal between the 3DP groups. The difference in FPCMtotal between cows with no DP and 60d DP at a reduction in milk production between 16 and 12wk of 10% was 665kg, whereas this difference was 1,138kg at a reduction of 70%. The cow characteristics found can be used to select cows for specific DP lengths in a decision-support model to support the farmer on the economic optimal DP length for each individual cow. Output of such a decision-support model can be, for instance, to advise a 30-d DP for multiparous cows with high milk production (e.g., 25kg/d) at 12wk before the expected calving date. PMID:24952774

Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

2014-08-01

64

Effect on fan flow characteristics of length and axial location of a cascade thrust reverser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of static tests were conducted on a model fan with a diameter of 14.0 cm to determine the fan operating characteristics, the inlet static pressure contours, the fan-exit total and static pressure contours, and the fan-exit pressure distortion parameters associated with the installation of a partial-circumferential-emission cascade thrust reverser. The tests variables included the cascade axial length, the axial location of the reverser, and the type of fan inlet. It was shown that significant total and static pressure distortions were produced in the fan aft duct, and that some configurations induced a static pressure distortion at the fan face. The amount of flow passed by the fan and the level of the flow distortions were dependent upon all the variables tested.

Dietrich, D. A.

1975-01-01

65

On the characteristic length scales associated with plastic deformation in metallic glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomistic simulations revealed that the spatial correlations of plastic displacements in three metallic glasses, FeP, MgAl, and CuZr, follow an exponential law with a characteristic length scale ?c that governs Poisson's ratio ?, shear band thickness tSB, and fracture mode in these materials. Among the three glasses, FeP exhibits smallest ?c, thinnest tSB, lowest ?, and brittle fracture; CuZr exhibits largest ?c, thickest tSB, highest ?, and ductile fracture, while properties of MgAl lie in between those of FeP and CuZr. These findings corroborate well with existing experimental observations and suggest ?c as a fundamental measure of the shear transformation zone size in metallic glasses.

Murali, P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Gao, H. J.

2012-05-01

66

The impact of network characteristics on the diffusion of innovations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the influence of network topology on the speed and reach of new product diffusion. While previous research has focused on comparing network types, this paper explores explicitly the relationship between topology and measurements of diffusion effectiveness. We study simultaneously the effect of three network metrics: the average degree, the relative degree of social hubs (i.e., the ratio of the average degree of highly-connected individuals to the average degree of the entire population), and the clustering coefficient. A novel network-generation procedure based on random graphs with a planted partition is used to generate 160 networks with a wide range of values for these topological metrics. Using an agent-based model, we simulate diffusion on these networks and check the dependence of the net present value (NPV) of the number of adopters over time on the network metrics. We find that the average degree and the relative degree of social hubs have a positive influence on diffusion. This result emphasizes the importance of high network connectivity and strong hubs. The clustering coefficient has a negative impact on diffusion, a finding that contributes to the ongoing controversy on the benefits and disadvantages of transitivity. These results hold for both monopolistic and duopolistic markets, and were also tested on a sample of 12 real networks.

Peres, Renana

2014-05-01

67

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report values of minority carrier diffusion length in n-type 6H SiC measured using a planar Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. Values of hole diffusion length in defect free regions of n-type 6H SiC, with a doping concentration of 1.7El7 1/cu cm, ranged from 1.46 microns to 0.68 microns. We next introduce a novel variation of the planar method used above. This 'planar mapping' technique measured diffusion length along a linescan creating a map of diffusion length versus position. This map is then overlaid onto the EBIC image of the corresponding linescan, allowing direct visualization of the effect of defects on minority carrier diffusion length. Measurements of the above n-type 6H SiC resulted in values of hole diffusion length ranging from 1.2 micron in defect free regions to below 0.1 gm at the center of large defects. In addition, measurements on p-type 6H SiC resulted in electron diffusion lengths ranging from 1.42 micron to 0.8 micron.

Tabib-Azar, Massood

1997-01-01

68

Turbulence characteristics of a plane diffuser flow with inlet velocity distortion

An experimental study of turbulent characteristics of incompressible flow in a two-dimensional diffuser with inlet velocity distortion is reported. Turbulence level in the boundary layer increases marginally towards the exit of the diffuser and decreases rapidly in the wake region. The region of maximum velocity fluctuation and the maximum Reynolds shear stress shifts away from the wall in the streamwise

P. A. Aswatha Narayana; N. V. Chandrasekhara; V. K. Chithambaran

1984-01-01

69

Dynamic heterogeneity is an active field of glass-transition research. the length scale of this heterogeneity is called the characteristic length. It can be calculated from complex heat capacity curves in the equilibrium liquid or from dynamic calorimetry curves corrected with regard to nonequilibrium. No molecular parameters or microscopic models are necessary for obtaining the length. The authors report the characteristic length near glass temperature for about 30 glass formers including small-molecule liquids, polymers, silicate glasses, a metallic glass, a liquid crystal, and a plastic crystal. The lengths are between 1.0 and 3.5 nm with certain accumulations between 1.0 and 2.0 nm and between 2.5 and 3.5 nm. To try a correlation to other properties, the authors find that at least two should be included, e.g., Angell's fragility and the distance of T{sub g} from the crossover temperature, T{sub c}.

Hempel, E.; Hempel, G.; Hensel, A.; Schick, C.; Donth, E.

2000-03-23

70

Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

1993-01-01

71

Wave Characteristics of Large-Diameter, High-Density Helicon Plasma with Short Axial Length II

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated that a large-diameter, high-density (>= 10^12 cm-3) helicon plasma can be produced in a low aspect ratio (the ratio of the axial length L to the diameter R; in our case, R =73.8 cm and 5.5 cm <= L <= 35 cm) device using a flat spiral antenna (4-turn, 43 cm in diameter) installed just outside the quartz-glass window at one end of the device [1]. As a first step to understand the role of helicon waves in the discharge process, helicon wave characteristics in plasma has been investigated in detail [2]. It has been found that discrete axial eigenmodes, whose characteristics depend on the plasma density profile and the axial boundary conditions, exist in the excited helicon wave. The effects of the background magnetic field profile and the rf input power on the excited wave have also been examined in detail. [1] T. Motomura et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. Ser., in press. [2] T. Motomura et al., Bull. Ameri. Phys. Soc. 53 (14), 175 (2008).

Motomura, Taisei; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao; Shamrai, Konstantin P.

2009-11-01

72

Using the chromatographic technique (carrier-gas: N2; tracer-gases: He, Ar) the effective diffusivity in single-pellet string columns (SPSC) packed with porous slab particles was studied. Dispersion due to extra-column effects was eliminated via convolution of column responses for two lengths. The measurements were done for cordierite particles and for cordierite coated with alumina-based washcoat. The effective diffusion coefficients for two tracer–carrier

Tomáš Starı; Olga Šolcová; Petr Schneider; Miloš Marek

2006-01-01

73

We perform correlated studies of individual GaN nanowires in scanning electron microscopy combined to low temperature cathodoluminescence, microphotoluminescence, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that some nanowires exhibit well localized regions emitting light at the energy of a stacking fault bound exciton (3.42?eV) and are able to observe the presence of a single stacking fault in these regions. Precise measurements of the cathodoluminescence signal in the vicinity of the stacking fault give access to the exciton diffusion length near this location.

Nogues, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.nogues@neel.cnrs.fr; Den Hertog, Martien [Inst. NEEL, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Inst. NEEL, CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Auzelle, Thomas; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno [INAC, CEA, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

2014-03-10

74

Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).

Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

1993-01-01

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement in power conversion efficiency is a persistent pursuit for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report an experimental strategy of synthesizing I-/I3- doped 3-hydroxypropionitrile/polyaniline (HPN/PANi) solid electrolytes, aiming at expanding I3- reduction reaction from electrolyte/counter electrode interface to solid electrolyte system and shortening the charge diffusion path length. The DSSC with HPN/1.0 wt% PANi shows an efficiency of 3.70% in comparison to 1.49% from the cell with pristine HPN.

Li, Pinjiang; Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Li, Ru

2015-01-01

76

Variation of the length of gaseous fuel diffusion flames in an accompanying air flow

These authors study the effect of the relative area of the edges of the fuel nozzles or pylons on the variation of the flame length in an accompanying oxidizer flow, and seek to establish the conditions of reliable flame propagation to all the fuel jets. A diagram illustrates the experimental set-up and charts present the data gathered. Analysis of these

Yu. M. Annushkin; E. D. Sverdlov

1984-01-01

77

Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) are an intriguing class of molecular-based materials because of the designability of framework scaffolds, pore sizes and pore surface functionalities. Besides the structural designability at the molecular scale, the structuring of PCPs into mesoscopic/macroscopic morphologies has attracted much attention due to the significance for the practical applications. The structuring of PCPs at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale has been so far demonstrated by the spatial localization of coordination reactions on the surface of templates or at the phase boundaries. However, these methodologies have never been applied to the fabrication of solid-solution or multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), in which multiple components are homogeneously mixed. Herein, we demonstrate the structuring of a box-type superstructure comprising of a solid-solution PCP by integrating a bidirectional diffusion of multiple organic ligands into molecular assembly. The parent crystals of [Zn2(ndc)2(bpy)]n were placed in the DMF solution of additional organic component of H2bdc, and the temperature was rapidly elevated up to 80 °C (ndc = 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). The dissolution of the parent crystals induced the outward diffusion of components; contrariwise, the accumulation of the other organic ligand of H2bdc induced the inward diffusion toward the surface of the parent crystals. This bidirectional diffusion of multiple components spatially localized the recrystallization at the surface of cuboid parent crystals; therefore, the nanocrystals of a solid-solution PCP ([Zn2(bdc)1.5(ndc)0.5(bpy)]n) were organized into a mesoscopic box superstructure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the box superstructures enhanced the mass transfer kinetics for the separation of hydrocarbons. PMID:25254320

Hirai, Kenji; Reboul, Julien; Morone, Nobuhiro; Heuser, John E; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

2014-10-22

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoelectrochemical behavior of an n-TiO2 (rutile) single crystal under different treatments (mechanical polishing and chemical and photoelectrochemical etching) is analyzed, and the conditions under which Gaertner's model can be applied are determined. The hole diffusion length Lp obtained from the photoelectrochemical data is about 10 to the -6th cm for the etched single crystal and seems to be governed by electron-hole recombination at centers associated with impurities introduced in the lattice during the manufacturing process. This value of the hole diffusion length determines the minimum value of the donor concentration Nd for an efficient separation of carriers within the semiconductor depletion layer. This explains the existence of a maximum of the quantum efficiency for Nd of about 6 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm, which has been found to be a value common to n-TiO2 single crystals of different origin. Lattice defects introduced near the crystal surface by mechanical polishing behave as recombination centers which reduce Lp to values of the order of 10 to the -7th cm. A comparison with Lp values of n-TiO2 sintered electrodes is made.

Salvador, P.

1984-04-01

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the voltage-induced metal insulator transition (MIT) of VO2 film devices are investigated as a function of ambient temperature and length. At the onset of voltage-induced MIT, an abrupt formation of a conduction channel is observed within the insulating phase. The carrier density of the device varies with ambient temperature (TA) and device length (L) across MIT. As the device length is reduced, a statistically random appearance of the conduction channel is observed. Our results suggest that the primary operation principles of the VO2 device can be chosen between Joule heating effect and the electric field effect.

Yoon, Joonseok; Lee, Giyong; Park, Changwoo; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Ju, Honglyoul

2014-08-01

80

An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.

Placidi, E., E-mail: ernesto.placidi@ism.cnr.it; Arciprete, F. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Patella, F. [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Magri, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche (FIM), Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, and Centro S3 CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213/A, 4100 Modena (Italy); Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-09-15

81

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.

Placidi, E.; Arciprete, F.; Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Magri, R.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Patella, F.

2014-09-01

82

We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a coherently split one-dimensional Bose gas by measuring the full probability distribution functions of matter-wave interference. Observing the system on different length scales allows us to probe the dynamics of excitations on different energy scales, revealing two distinct length-scale-dependent regimes of relaxation. We measure the crossover length scale separating these two regimes and identify it with the prethermalized phase-correlation length of the system. Our approach enables a direct observation of the multimode dynamics characterizing one-dimensional quantum systems. PMID:23496695

Kuhnert, M; Geiger, R; Langen, T; Gring, M; Rauer, B; Kitagawa, T; Demler, E; Adu Smith, D; Schmiedmayer, J

2013-03-01

83

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

1948-01-01

84

Morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas

Tumors of the CNS are the second most common malignancy in children. In particular, diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and account for 10–25% of pediatric brain tumors. The majority of DIPGs are astrocytic, infiltrative and localized to the pons. Studies have shown median survival times of less than a year with 90% of children dying within 2 years. We built multi-tissue arrays with 24 post-mortem DIPG samples and analyzed the morphology and expression of several proteins (p53, EGFR, GFAP, MIB1, BMI1, B-catenin, p16, Nanog, Nestin, OCT4, OLIG2, Sox2) with the goal of identifying potential treatment targets and improving our understanding of the biology of these tumors. The majority of DIPGs were high-grade gliomas (22) with 18 cases having features of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), and 4 cases with high-grade features consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade-III). One case was low grade (WHO grade II) and one case showed intermediate features between a grade II and grade III glioma (low mitotic rate, but increased cellularity and cell atypia), being difficult to grade precisely.. The majority of the tumors were positive for GFAP (24/24), MIB1 (23/24), OLIG2 (22/24), p16 (20/24), p53 (20/24), Sox2 (19/24), EGFR (16/24) and BMI1 (9/24). Our results suggest that dysregulation of EGFR and p53 may play an important role in the development of DIPGs. The majority of DIPGs express stem cell makers such as SOX2 and OLIG2, consistent with a role for tumor stem cells in the origin and maintenance of these tumors. Targeted therapies against these proteins could be beneficial in treatment. PMID:24076776

Ballester, Leomar Y.; Wang, Zengfeng; Shandilya, Shaefali; Miettinen, Markku; Burger, Peter C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Raabe, Eric; Nazarian, Javad; Warren, Katherine; Quezado, Martha M.

2013-01-01

85

Morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

Tumors of the central nervous system are the second most common malignancy in children. In particular, diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and account for 10% to 25% of pediatric brain tumors. The majority of DIPGs are astrocytic, infiltrative, and localized to the pons. Studies have shown median survival times of less than a year, with 90% of children dying within 2 years. We built multitissue arrays with 24 postmortem DIPG samples and analyzed the morphology and expression of several proteins (p53, EGFR, GFAP, MIB1, BMI1, ?-catenin, p16, Nanog, Nestin, OCT4, OLIG2, SOX2) with the goal of identifying potential treatment targets and improving our understanding of the biology of these tumors. The majority of DIPGs were high-grade gliomas (22), with 18 cases having features of glioblastoma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV) and 4 cases with high-grade features consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). One case was low grade (WHO grade II), and 1 case showed intermediate features between a grade II and grade III glioma (low mitotic rate but increased cellularity and cell atypia), being difficult to grade precisely. The majority of the tumors were positive for GFAP (24/24), MIB1 (23/24), OLIG2 (22/24), p16 (20/24), p53 (20/24), SOX2 (19/24), EGFR (16/24), and BMI1 (9/24). Our results suggest that dysregulation of EGFR and p53 may play an important role in the development of DIPGs. The majority of DIPGs express stem cell markers such as SOX2 and OLIG2, consistent with a role for tumor stem cells in the origin and maintenance of these tumors. Targeted therapies against these proteins could be beneficial in treatment. PMID:24076776

Ballester, Leomar Y; Wang, Zengfeng; Shandilya, Shaefali; Miettinen, Markku; Burger, Peter C; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Raabe, Eric; Nazarian, Javad; Warren, Katherine; Quezado, Martha M

2013-09-01

86

Quench characteristics of a two-strand superconducting cable and the influence of its length

The quench process of a multi-strand cable was investigated using the simplest system: two twisted wires. Several properties of the quench, such as the commutation of currents, the time scale, the resistance rate, and the maximum voltage, were determined experimentally or by calculation. Particular attention was given to the role of the cable length. Several samples with lengths varying from

G. B. J. Mulder; H. J. G. Krooshoop; L. J. M. van de Klundert; V. S. Vysotsky

1992-01-01

87

Characteristics of laminar gas jet diffusion flames under the influence of elevated gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar gas jet diffusion flames of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane, stabilized on small cylindrical burners, were studied at elevated gravity in a centrifuge to investigate the role of buoyancy in such flames. Photographic observation of the hydrocarbon flames indicated that length and carbon luminosity decreased with increasing buoyancy. These flames eventually separated from the burner rim and finally extinguished as gravity increased. Hydrogen flames, however, did not separate or extinguish up to about 31 times earth normal gravity. Length data are reported and interpreted with the aid of a simplified model which describes the flame as a heated vertical cylindrical sheet to which oxygen is supplied by a free convection boundary layer.

Altenkirch, R. A.; Eichhorn, R.; Hsu, N. N.; Brancic, A. B.; Cevallos, N. E.

1977-01-01

88

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider an ion transport equation describing the source, convection, adiabatic acceleration, and quasi-linear velocity diffusion of cometary pickup ions. The equation is solved numerically along solar wind plasma flow lines for the environment of Comet Halley, to obtain distributions at positions on the Giotto spacecraft trajectory which may be compared with observations. We obtain full two-dimensional (pitch angle and velocity) numerical distributions which show pitch angle scattering about the wave scattering centers at +/- V(A), where V(A) is the Alfven wave speed in the solar wind frame. Peak ion phase-space densities approximately follow the bispherical shell geometry. The energy distributions F(v) agree well with Giotto observations at lower v, but in the high-energy tail there is evidence possibly for the first-order Fermi acceleration mechanism taking place in the Comet Halley foreshock region.

Huddleston, D. E.; Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.

1992-01-01

89

Combustion characteristics of a swirling inverse diffusion flame upon oxygen content variation

The combustion characteristics of a swirling inverse diffusion flame (IDF) upon variation of the oxygen content in the oxidizer were experimentally studied. The oxidizer jet was a mixture mainly composed of oxygen and nitrogen gases, with a volumetric oxygen fraction of 20%, 21% and 26%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as the fuel. Each set of experiment was

H. S. Zhen; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung

2011-01-01

90

In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph}???0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} ? 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A., E-mail: stuchin@isp.nsc.ru; Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Division, 13, Acad. Lavrent'ev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2014-03-03

91

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance, stability, and control tests at supersonic and hypersonic speeds have been performed on two versions of a shuttle orbiter configuration designed for reduced length. One of the test configurations had twin dorsal fins rolled out 15 deg the other a centerline single dorsal fin. Effects of elevon and body deg flap deflection, rudder flare, planform fillet, and aileron deflection were examined. The supersonic tests were over the Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number based on model length of 4,300,000. The hypersonic tests were conducted at a Mach number of 10.3 and Reynolds number of 670,000.

Stone, H. W.

1974-01-01

92

Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

2013-01-01

93

Diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of biopsy-proven demyelinating brain lesions

Objectives: To describe lesional diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics in a cohort of patients with biopsy-proven CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) and compare diffusion characteristics of ring-enhancing CNS IDD lesions vs abscesses and tumors. Methods: Forty prebiopsy apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were reviewed from 30 patients with CNS IDD. Lesions were analyzed for size, T2-weighted (T2W) hypointense rim, enhancement, and ADC pattern. ADC patterns of CNS IDD ring-enhancing lesions were compared with a published cohort of 35 patients with ring-enhancing tumors and abscesses. Results: IDD lesions displayed a spectrum of peripheral ADC patterns at the lesion edge: restricted diffusion (low ADC), 33%; increased diffusion (high ADC), 60%; and normal diffusion (homogeneously isointense), 7%. Of biopsied lesions, 93% enhanced (ring, 52%; heterogeneous, 34%; homogeneous, 7%). A hypointense T2W rim was observed in 53%. A ring pattern on ADC (isointense or dark) was associated with T2W hypointense rims (p = 0.02) but not with ring enhancement. On serial imaging, 4 of 7 (57%) patients demonstrated changes in ADC patterns. Peripheral restriction was more common in IDD (p = 0.006) than in tumors or abscesses, whereas central restriction was only observed in abscesses. Restricted lesions in the same stage were more common in the non-IDD cohort (42% vs 20%), with a uniform restricted pattern seen only in abscesses. Conclusions: In ring-enhancing lesions, peripheral diffusion restriction is more common in IDD than in tumors/abscesses, whereas central restriction is more common among abscesses. Rapid ADC pattern changes in IDD probably reflect dynamic lesion evolution and may distinguish IDD from tumors. PMID:22573639

Abou Zeid, N.; Erickson, B.; Weigand, S.D.; Thomsen, K.M.; Scheithauer, B.; Parisi, J.E.; Giannini, C.; Linbo, L.

2012-01-01

94

After implementation of a 'fast-track' rehabilitation protocol in our hospital, mean length of hospital stay for primary total hip arthroplasty decreased from 4.6 to 2.9 nights for unselected patients. However, despite this reduction there was still a wide range across the patients' hospital duration. The purpose of this study was to identify which specific patient characteristics influence length of stay after successful implementation of a 'fast-track' rehabilitation protocol. A total of 477 patients (317 female and 160 male, mean age 71.0 years; 39.3 to 92.6, mean BMI 27.0 kg/m(2);18.8 to 45.2) who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2013, were included in this retrospective cohort study. A length of stay greater than the median was considered as an increased duration. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors associated with increased durations. Median length of stay was two nights (interquartile range 1), and the mean length of stay 2.9 nights (1 to 75). In all, 266 patients had a length of stay ? two nights. Age (odds ratio (OR) 2.46; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.72 to 3.51; p < 0.001), living situation (alone vs living together with cohabitants, OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.33 to 3.30; p = 0.002) and approach (anterior approach vs lateral, OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46; p < 0.001) (posterolateral approach vs lateral, OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.55; p < 0.001) were factors that were significantly associated with increased length of stay in the multivariable logistic regression model. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:19-23. PMID:25568408

den Hartog, Y M; Mathijssen, N M C; Hannink, G; Vehmeijer, S B W

2015-01-01

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion characteristics and optical waveguiding properties of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed LiNbO _3 waveguides, prepared under a variety of diffusion conditions, are investigated experimentally and a phenomenological model describing the diffusion characteristics is derived. The study begins with an experimental investigation of the effects of finite melt volume on the PE process. It has been found that repeated use of the benzoic acid melt for performing PE in LiNbO_3, results in the dilution of the melt due to lithium outdiffusion from the LiNbO_3 crystal. An empirical model describing the effect and its consequences is developed. The concentration profiles of H and Li in PE LiNbO _3 are measured using Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). The measured rectangular (step -like) concentration profiles are modeled by considering concentration dependent self-diffusion coefficients in the ion exchange equations. The concentration profiles of H and Li in annealed PE LiNbO_3 shows that it can be modeled by the standard thermal diffusion theory. Matching the measured profiles to the calculated profiles has resulted in the derivation of the diffusion coefficient for H and Li during annealing. Channel waveguides prepared under a variety of diffusion conditions have been characterized for their mode shape/size. The near-field profiles generated from the parameter space study are compared to the profiles calculated by the effective index method using the PE phenomenological model. Results from diffusion parameter space study have been used to fabricate switched optical directional couplers in PE LiNbO_3. The proton exchange phenomenological diffusion model can be used to predict the characteristics of complicated waveguiding geometries. The parameter space study carried out on channel waveguides has demonstrated that the PE process allows easy tailoring of the mode shape/size and can be used as a tool to design novel devices. Finally, the lessons learned from this study should be applicable in fabricating proton exchanged devices in LiTaO _3.

Vohra, Sandeep Tushar

96

We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of

R. W. Mair; P. N. Sen; M. D. Hürlimann; S. Patz; D. G. Cory; R. L. Walsworth

2002-01-01

97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard procedure for the determination of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) consists in scanning across an angle-lapped surface of a P-N junction and measuring the resultant short circuit current I sub sc as a function of beam position. A detailed analysis of the I sub sc originating from this configuration is presented. It is found that, for a point source excitation, the I sub sc depends very simply on x, the variable distance between the surface and the junction edge. The expression for the I sub sc of a planar junction device is well known. If d, the constant distance between the plane of the surface of the semiconductor and the junction edge in the expression for the I of a planar junction is merely replaced by x, the variable distance of the corresponding angle-lapped junction, an expression results which is correct to within a small fraction of a percent as long as the angle between the surfaces, 2 theta sub 1, is smaller than 10 deg.

Vonroos, O.

1978-01-01

98

Consensus indicate that regional seismicity obeys the Gutenberg-Richter scaling law. However, on many individual fault systems there is a size-frequency power law dis- tribution for small events only, a scarcity of intermediate magnitude earthquakes, and a high probability of occurrence of cuasiperiodic, very large events that break the entire fault or fault segment. Such events are called characteristic, and their

J. B. Gómez; A. González; M. Vázquez-Prada; A. F. Pacheco

2002-01-01

99

Combustion and radiation characteristics of oxygen-enhanced inverse diffusion flame

The characteristics of combustion and radiation heat transfer of an oxygen-enhanced diffusion flame was experimentally analyzed.\\u000a An infrared radiation heat flux gauge was used to measure the thermal radiation of various types of flames with fuel, air\\u000a and pure oxygen. And the Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) technique was applied to characterize the soot concentrations which\\u000a mainly contribute to the continuum

Sang Soon Hwang; Jay P Gore

2002-01-01

100

In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth flat plate with zero pressure gradient, the intermediate structure between the viscous sublayer and the free stream consists of two layers: one adjacent to the viscous sublayer and one adjacent to the free stream. When the level of turbulence in the free stream is low, the boundary between the two layers is sharp, and both have a self-similar structure described by Reynolds-number-dependent scaling (power) laws. This structure introduces two length scales: one-the wall-region thickness-determined by the sharp boundary between the two intermediate layers and the second determined by the condition that the velocity distribution in the first intermediate layer be the one common to all wall-bounded flows and in particular coincide with the scaling law previously determined for pipe flows. Using recent experimental data, we determine both these length scales and show that they are close. Our results disagree with the classical model of the "wake region." PMID:10760253

Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J; Prostokishin, V M

2000-04-11

101

Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths.

Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio. PMID:25273449

Gapinski, Jacek; Nägele, Gerhard; Patkowski, Adam

2014-09-28

102

Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio.

Gapinski, Jacek; Nägele, Gerhard; Patkowski, Adam

2014-09-01

103

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of p-type 4H–SiC epilayers with aluminium concentration ranging from 2? × ?1016 to 8? × ?1019?cm?3 were investigated by time-resolved optical techniques in order to determine the effect of aluminium doping on high-injection carrier lifetime at room temperature and the diffusion coefficient at different injections (from ?3? × ?1018 to ?5? × ?1019?cm?3) and temperatures (from 78 to 730?K). We find that the defect limited carrier lifetime ?SRH decreases from 20?ns in the low-doped samples down to ?0.6?ns in the heavily doped epilayers. Accordingly, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient decreases from Da = 3.5?cm2?s?1 down to ?0.6?cm2?s?1, corresponding to the hole mobility of µh = 70?cm2?Vs?1 and 12?cm2?Vs?1, respectively. In the highly doped epilayers, the injection-induced decrease of the diffusion coefficient, due to the transition from the minority carrier diffusion to the ambipolar diffusion, provided the electron diffusion coefficient of De ? 3?cm2?s?1. The Al-doping resulted in the gradual decrease of the ambipolar diffusion length, from LD = 2.7?µm down to LD = 0.25?µm in the epilayers with the lowest and highest aluminium concentrations.

Liaugaudas, Gediminas; Dargis, Donatas; Kwasnicki, Pawel; Arvinte, Roxana; Zielinski, Marcin; Jaraši?nas, K?stutis

2015-01-01

104

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiscale approach to N-body systems is generalized to address the broad continuum of long time and length scales associated with collective behaviors. A technique is developed based on the concept of an uncountable set of time variables and of order parameters (OPs) specifying major features of the system. We adopt this perspective as a natural extension of the commonly used discrete set of time scales and OPs which is practical when only a few, widely separated scales exist. The existence of a gap in the spectrum of time scales for such a system (under quasiequilibrium conditions) is used to introduce a continuous scaling and perform a multiscale analysis of the Liouville equation. A functional-differential Smoluchowski equation is derived for the stochastic dynamics of the continuum of Fourier component OPs. A continuum of spatially nonlocal Langevin equations for the OPs is also derived. The theory is demonstrated via the analysis of structural transitions in a composite material, as occurs for viral capsids and molecular circuits.

Pankavich, S.; Ortoleva, P.

2010-06-01

105

Effects of Characteristic Length Scales on the Exciton Dynamics in Rubrene Single Crystals

As for its inorganic counterparts the future developments in organic electronics are driven by an advanced device miniaturization. Therefore, the opto-electronic behavior of up-to-date devices is progressively governed by the local structural environment. However, there is a lack of organic semiconductor materials providing access to the fundamental structure-functionality relation, either due to limitations by their inherent growth or their optical characteristics. In this work we present a systematic investigation of the optical states, so-called excitons, and their temporal evolution in the prototypical organic semiconductor rubrene by means of time and temperature dependent photoluminescence studies. This material offers the unique possibility of preparing well-defined morphologies with adjustable degree of confinement. By this approach we are able to confirm the direct influence on the temperature dependent optical processes with picosecond resolution already for a spatial localization of excitation on t...

Gieseking, Björn; Müller, Benjamin; Deibel, Carsten; Engels, Bernd; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Pflaum, Jens

2013-01-01

106

Pharmacological brain slice experiments are complicated by the need to ensure adequate drug delivery deep into the healthy layers of the tissue. Because tissue slices have no blood supply, this is achieved solely by passive drug diffusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling could be adapted to estimate drug diffusion times in neocortical brain slices. No-magnesium seizure-like event (SLE) activity was generated in 41 slices (400??m). Two anesthetic agents, etomidate (24??M, n = 14) and thiopental (250??M, n = 14), and magnesium ions (n = 13) were delivered to effect reversible reductions in SLE frequency. Concentration-effect hysteresis loops were collapsed using a first order rate constant model and equilibrium half-lives (t1/2Ke0) derived. The t1/2Ke0 values obtained were consistent with expectations. The median (range) t1/2Ke0 of 83.1 (19.4–330.1)?min for etomidate is in keeping with its known slow diffusion into brain slice tissue. Values for etomidate and thiopental (111.8 (27.8–198.0)?min) were similar, while magnesium had a significantly faster equilibration rate (t1/2Ke0 of 26.1 (8.6–77.0)?min) compared to the anesthetics, as expected for a simple ion. In conclusion, PKPD modeling is a simple and practical method that can be applied to brain slice experiments for investigating drug diffusion characteristics. PMID:24959565

Voss, Logan J.; van Kan, Claudia; Sleigh, James W.

2013-01-01

107

Nanoindentation is an experimental technique which is attracting increasing interests for the mechanical characterization of articular cartilage. In particular, time dependent mechanical responses due to fluid flow through the porous matrix can be quantitatively investigated by nanoindentation experiments at different penetration depths and/or by using different probe sizes. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for the quantitative interpretation of the poroelastic response of articular cartilage subjected to creep nanoindentation tests. To this purpose, multiload creep tests using spherical indenters have been carried out on saturated samples of mature bovine articular cartilage achieving two main quantitative results. First, the dependence of indentation modulus in the drained state (at equilibrium) on the tip radius: a value of 500 kPa has been found using the large tip (400 ?m radius) and of 1.7 MPa using the smaller one (25 ?m). Secon, the permeability at microscopic scale was estimated at values ranging from 4.5×10(-16) m(4)/N s to 0.1×10(-16) m(4)/N s, from low to high equivalent deformation. Consistently with a poroelastic behavior, the size-dependent response of the indenter displacement disappears when characteristic size and permeability are accounted for. For comparison purposes, the same protocol was applied to intrinsically viscoelastic homogeneous samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS): both indentation modulus and time response have been found size-independent. PMID:24814573

Taffetani, M; Gottardi, R; Gastaldi, D; Raiteri, R; Vena, P

2014-07-01

108

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

109

Background Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) has been used in neurosurgical practice mainly to distinguish cerebral metastases from abscess and glioma. There is evidence from other solid organ cancers and metastases that DWI may be used as a biomarker of prognosis and treatment response. We therefore investigated DWI characteristics of cerebral metastases and their peritumoral region recorded pre-operatively and related these to patient outcomes. Methods Retrospective analysis of 76 cases operated upon at a single institution with DWI performed pre-operatively at 1.5T. Maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were generated using standard protocols. Readings were taken from the tumor, peritumoral region and across the brain-tumor interface. Patient outcomes were overall survival and time to local recurrence. Results A minimum ADC greater than 919.4 × 10-6 mm2/s within a metastasis predicted longer overall survival regardless of adjuvant therapies. This was not simply due to differences between the types of primary cancer because the effect was observed even in a subgroup of 36 patients with the same primary, non-small cell lung cancer. The change in diffusion across the tumor border and into peritumoral brain was measured by the “ADC transition coefficient” or ATC and this was more strongly predictive than ADC readings alone. Metastases with a sharp change in diffusion across their border (ATC >0.279) showed shorter overall survival compared to those with a more diffuse edge. The ATC was the only imaging measurement which independently predicted overall survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.3 – 0.97, p = 0.04). Conclusions DWI demonstrates changes in the tumor, across the tumor edge and in the peritumoral region which may not be visible on conventional MRI and this may be useful in predicting patient outcomes for operated cerebral metastases. PMID:25086595

2014-01-01

110

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniaxial tensile tests conducted on a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates, containing narrow rectangular slits, square or circular holes with various aspect ratios are discussed. The techniques used to study stable crack or damage zone growth--namely, birefringence coatings, COD gages, and microscopic observations are discussed. Initial and final fracture modes are discussed as well as the effect of notch size and shape, and laminate type on the fracture process. Characteristic lengths are calculated and compared to each other using the point, average and inherent flaw theories. Fracture toughnesses are calculated by the same theories and compared to a boundary integral equation technique. Finite width K-calibration factors are also discussed.

Yeow, Y. T.; Brinson, H. F.

1977-01-01

111

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A theory is developed that describes the downstream movement of suspended sediment particles accounting for the time particles spend in storage given sediment budget data (by grain size fraction) and information on particle transit times through storage reservoirs. The theory is used to define a suspended sediment transport length scale that describes how far particles are carried during transport events, and to estimate a downstream particle velocity that includes time spent in storage. At 5 upland watersheds of the mid-Atlantic region, transport length scales for silt-clay range from 4 to 60 km, while those for sand range from 0.4 to 113 km. Mean sediment velocities for silt-clay range from 0.0072 km/yr to 0.12 km/yr, while those for sand range from 0.0008 km/yr to 0.20 km/yr, 4-6 orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of water in the channel. These results suggest lag times of 100-1000 years between BMP implementation and effectiveness in receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay (where BMPs are located upstream of the characteristic transport length scale). Many particles likely travel much faster than these average values, so further research is needed to determine the complete distribution of suspended sediment velocities in real watersheds.

Pizzuto, James; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg; Williamson, Elyse; Karwan, Diana L.; O'Neal, Michael; Marquard, Julia; Aalto, Rolf; Newbold, Denis

2014-02-01

112

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical characteristics of large amplitude undulations (LAU) of diffuse aurorae observed by all-sky cameras at Kola Peninsula on December 28, 2010 were examined. Both interplanetary medium conditions and characteristics of magnetic activity before and during LAU were analyzed. It was shown that the development of undulations could be activated by sharp short-living of ˜20 minutes solar wind dynamic pressure impulse and existence of the undulations during about two hours was supported by electric field of stationary magnetospheric convection originated from large smoothly changed southward IMF Bz component of about -12nT. The altitude of undulation luminosity determined by triangulation method was 120 ± 10 km. The undulations amplitude changed from about 100 to 300 km and the average wavelength was ˜250 km. The undulations were observed moving westward with the average phase velocity of ˜0.7 km/s. The pass of DMSP F16 spacecraft just along "the tongue" of undulations showed that the wave of luminosity was located in the region of the predominantly ion (proton) precipitation with the average energy of particles of ˜18 keV. Rayed auroral structures were observed continuously in the region of diffuse aurorae during time interval of LAU existence. These structures were observed moving westward with the velocity of about 2 km/s that corresponds to the northward electric field of ˜100 mV/m.

Vorobjev, V. G.; Roldugin, V. C.; Yagodkina, O. I.

2015-01-01

113

High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3?dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15??m, which accords with the simulation results.

Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-04-21

114

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3 dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15 ?m, which accords with the simulation results.

Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun

2014-04-01

115

varied in a regular manner. Our data show that, when the solvent molecules are significantly smaller than the solute, near stick- limit hydrodynamic behavior is seen, and when the length of the solvent approaches that of the probe molecule, a change to slip limit behavior is seen. Further, as the solvent molecular size is increased, perylene changes its effective rotor

Y. Jiang; G. J. Blanchard

1994-01-01

116

In this work, boundary element modeling is used to study the transport of highly charged rod-like model polyions of various length under a variety of different aqueous salt conditions. Transport properties considered include free solution electrophoretic mobility, translational diffusion, and the components of the "tether force" tensor. The model parameters are chosen to coincide with transport measurements of duplex DNA carried out under six different salt/temperature conditions. The focus of the analysis is on the length dependence of the free solution electrophoretic mobility. In a solution containing 0.04 M Tris-acetate buffer at 25 degrees C, calculated mobilities using straight rod models show a stronger dependence on fragment length than that observed experimentally. By carrying out model studies on curved rod models, it is concluded that the "leveling off" of mobility with fragment length is due, in part at least, to the finite curvature of DNA. Experimental mobilities of long duplex DNA in monovalent alkali salts are reasonably well explained once account is taken of long-range bending and the simplifying assumptions of the model studies. PMID:11606270

Allison, S; Chen, C; Stigter, D

2001-01-01

117

Microstructural Characteristics of HIP-bonded Monolithic Nuclear Fuels with a Diffusion Barrier

Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U–Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between fuel meat, cladding, and diffusion barrier, as well as U–10Mo fuel meat and Al–6061 cladding were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are • A typical Zr diffusion barrier of thickness 25 µm • Transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 µm • Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 µm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7–13 wt% • Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase • A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer of thickness 1-2 µm • A visible UZr2 bearing layer of thickness 1-2 µm • Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U–Mo matrix • No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge • Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. • Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and interaction layer between U–Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

Jan-Fong Jue; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Glenn A. Moore; Mitchell K. Meyer

2014-05-01

118

Microstructural characteristics of HIP-bonded monolithic nuclear fuels with a diffusion barrier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high-performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press (HIP) bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U-Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between the fuel meat, the cladding, and the diffusion barrier, as well as between the U-10Mo fuel meat and the Al-6061 cladding, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are:

Jue, Jan-Fong; Keiser, Dennis D.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.

2014-05-01

119

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of photoacoustic models to obtain the nonradiative relaxation time (?) and characteristic diffusion time (??) for a sample showing visible absorption bands from fluorescent ion-doped low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass. Two models allowing phase shift analyses, the thermal-expansion and thermal-diffusion models, are briefly reviewed. These models have limitations when the photoacoustic signal depends on both factors, in a coupling mechanism. An alternative model is proposed to take both thermal expansion and thermal diffusion into account with a single temperature solution for the heat-coupled differential equation. This model is simulated for absorbing samples near the thermally thick region. The model is applied to Eu-V codoped glass showing intermediate signal dependence from ?-1.0 to ?-3/2. The nonradiative time and characteristic diffusion time are derived with 33

Souza Filho, N. E.; Nogueira, A. C.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Medina, A. N.; Siqueira, A. P. L.; Sampaio, J. A.; Vargas, H.; Bento, A. C.

2009-11-01

120

Single-chained phospholipids constitute a class of membrane components found in normal cells in relatively low concentration; however, these group of compounds are known owing to their broad physiological activities. Despite that the knowledge concerning fundamental physicochemical properties of lyso-lipids is very limited and in contrast to double-chained phospholipids there is an obvious deficiency of studies focused on correlation between their amphipathic character and film-forming properties with biological activities. In the present paper we have attempted to explain the main issues regarding the characteristics of lyso-PCs in monolayers at the air/aqueous interface. Our results show that all the investigated phospholipids differing in the length of hydrophobic chain: C18lyso-PC, C22lyso-PC and C24lyso-PC form stable Langmuir monolayers of a relatively low degree of condensation. It was found that during compression the investigated monolayers significantly change their organization at the interface which is strongly connected with temperature of the subphase. The application of X-ray reflectivity confirmed that the bulky choline head-groups in molecules of lyso-PCs are strongly penetrated by water molecules, while the hydrophobic chains are significantly tilted from the surface normal. The obtained results show that the phase transitions observed in the course of the registered isotherms result from decrease in immersion of molecules in the subphase as well as from the decrease in hydrating water molecules. On the basis of GIXD experiments it turned out that in the monolayers of C22lyso-PC and C24lyso-PC at higher surface pressures (>20 mN/m) small fractions of periodically ordered phase appear at the interface. For the monolayer of C24lyso-PC in the periodically ordered fraction the untilted (U) to tilted (t) phase transition was found. PMID:24461813

Flasi?ski, Micha?; Wydro, Pawe?; Broniatowski, Marcin

2014-03-15

121

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None;)

2006-11-09

122

The report gives results of Phase I of a laboratory assessment of the permeability and diffusion characteristics of Florida concretes. (NOTE: The ability of concrete to permit air flow under pressure (permeability) and the passage of radon gas without any pressure difference (dif...

123

124

This paper is the second part of the experimental study on exploring the feasibility of inverse diffusion flame (IDF) for impingement heating. The structures and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging IDF jet have been studied. Four types of impinging flame structure have been identified and reported. The distributions of the wall static pressure are measured and presented. The influences

L. L. Dong; C. S. Cheung; C. W. Leung

2007-01-01

125

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg)-aluminium (Al) lies in the existence of formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region. However, diffusion bonding can be used to join these alloys without much difficulty. Temperature, pressure, and holding time are the three main variables which govern the integrity of a diffusion bond. This paper focuses on the effect of these parameters on diffusion layer thickness, hardness and strength of AZ31B magnesium-AA2024 aluminium dissimilar joints. The experiments were conducted based on three factors, five-level, and central composite rotatable design with full replications technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict diffusion layer thickness, hardness and strength using response surface methodology. From this investigation, it is found that bonding temperature has predominant effect on bond characteristics.

Mahendran, G.; Babu, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

2010-07-01

126

Geographic and interannual variability of the number of annuli and the radius of the first scale annulus, as well as the retrospective length of year-old walleye pollock from the western, northern, and eastern parts of the Bering Sea, was examined using data for the years 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999. The characteristics of the first scale annulus were varying. By

E. V. Gritsai

2002-01-01

127

A computer simulation of a variable stroke length, LPG fuelled, four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled spark ignition engine was done. The engine capacity was varied by varying the stroke length of the engine, which also changed its compression ratio. The simulation model developed was verified with experimental results from the literature for both constant and variable stroke engines. The

Hakan Ozcan; Jehad A. A. Yamin

2008-01-01

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the geometric effects of a lateral asymmetric channel (LAC) structure for high-voltage (HV) MOSFETs. The LAC structure was adopted to enhance the device performance by modifying the potential distribution in the channel and reducing the parasitic transistor effect. The LAC structure was realized using a p-body doping region inside the channel for the HV device. The effects of the p-body length were examined. The experiments showed that the p-body length is a key parameter for device optimization considering circuit applications. The HV LAC device with a shorter p-body length showed transconductance (gm) improvement and on-resistance (RON) reduction. The maximized output resistance (rout) was obtained when the p-body length was approximately half of the channel length.

Baek, Ki-Ju; Na, Kee-Yeol; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Yeong-Seuk

2015-01-01

129

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

130

Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. PMID:24704169

Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

2014-05-01

131

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat-transfer characteristics of a rapid hardening Al-1.1Cu-1.7Mg at. pct alloy during the early stages of age hardening have been tested, both by experiment and finite element modeling, for a typical laboratory-scale sample, and subsequently a maximum diffusion distance by random walk has been calculated for the solute atom species. It is found that due to small diffusion distances compared to the average dislocation loop interspacing, the dislocation-locking hardness mechanism is not likely, and rather, the cluster hardening model is more accurate.

Marceau, R. K. W.; Tsafnat, N.; Haley, D.; Ringer, S. P.

2010-08-01

132

A simple yet general expression characterizes the electrical properties of a steady-state positive column of arbitrary cross-sectional shape with electron production and loss rates linear or quadratic in electron density in addition to electron loss by diffusion. This equation relates effective ionization and diffusion coefficients (or applied electric field), the total number of electrons per unit column length (or electron

Gerald L. Rogoff

1979-01-01

133

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping are functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for detecting water diffusion. DWI and the ADC map were performed for intracranial lesions in two dogs. In necrotizing leukoencephalitis, cavitated lesions contained a hypointense center with a hyperintense periphery on DWI, and hyperintense signals on the ADC maps. In metastatic sarcoma, masses including a necrotic region were hypointense with DWI, and hyperintense on the ADC map with hyperintense perilesional edema on DWI and ADC map. Since DWI and ADC data reflect the altered water diffusion, they can provide additional information at the molecular level. PMID:24675836

Kim, Boeun; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Seoyeon; Choi, Mincheol

2014-01-01

134

Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity.

While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD = 0.0-2.0 °C), temporal sampling (tacq = 1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res = 0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 3 mm(3) or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies. PMID:24077026

Dillon, C R; Todd, N; Payne, A; Parker, D L; Christensen, D A; Roemer, R B

2013-10-21

135

Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity

While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD=0.0-2.0°C), temporal sampling (tacq=1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res=0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate (SAR) and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1×1×3 mm3 or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies. PMID:24077026

Dillon, C R; Todd, N; Payne, A; Parker, D L; Christensen, D A; Roemer, R B

2013-01-01

136

The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. PMID:25526672

Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

2015-01-30

137

Clinico-radiologic characteristics of long-term survivors of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the deadliest central nervous system tumor in children. The survival of affected children has remained poor despite treatment with radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all surviving patients with DIPG treated at our institution between October 1, 1992 and May 31, 2011. Blinded central radiologic review of the magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis of all surviving patients and 15 controls with DIPG was performed. All surviving patients underwent neurocognitive assessment during follow-up. Five (2.6%) of 191 patients treated during the study period were surviving at a median of 9.3 years from their diagnosis (range, 5.3 to 13.2 years). Two patients were younger than 3 years, one lacked signs of pontine cranial nerve involvement, and three had longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis. One patient had a radiologically atypical tumor and one had a tumor originating in the medulla. All five patients received RT. Chemotherapy was variable among these patients. Neurocognitive assessments were obtained after a median interval of 7.1 years. Three of four patients who underwent a detailed evaluation showed cognitive function in the borderline or mental retardation range. Two patients experienced disease progression at 8.8 and 13 years after diagnosis. A minority of children with DIPG experienced long-term survival with currently available therapies. These patients remained at high risk for tumor progression even after long follow-ups. Four of our long-term survivors had clinical and radiologic characteristics at diagnosis associated with improved outcome. PMID:23813229

Jackson, Sadhana; Patay, Zoltan; Howarth, Robyn; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto

2013-01-01

138

Clinico-radiologic characteristics of long-term survivors of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the deadliest central nervous system tumor in children. The survival of affected children has remained poor despite treatment with radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all surviving patients with DIPG treated at our institution between October 1, 1992 and May 31, 2011. Blinded central radiologic review of the magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis of all surviving patients and 15 controls with DIPG was performed. All surviving patients underwent neurocognitive assessment during follow-up. Five (2.6 %) of 191 patients treated during the study period were surviving at a median of 9.3 years from their diagnosis (range 5.3-13.2 years). Two patients were younger than 3 years, one lacked signs of pontine cranial nerve involvement, and three had longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis. One patient had a radiologically atypical tumor and one had a tumor originating in the medulla. All five patients received RT. Chemotherapy was variable among these patients. Neurocognitive assessments were obtained after a median interval of 7.1 years. Three of four patients who underwent a detailed evaluation showed cognitive function in the borderline or mental retardation range. Two patients experienced disease progression at 8.8 and 13 years after diagnosis. A minority of children with DIPG experienced long-term survival with currently available therapies. These patients remained at high risk for tumor progression even after long follow-ups. Four of our long-term survivors had clinical and radiologic characteristics at diagnosis associated with improved outcome. PMID:23813229

Jackson, Sadhana; Patay, Zoltan; Howarth, Robyn; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto

2013-09-01

139

Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD = 0.0-2.0 °C), temporal sampling (tacq = 1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res = 0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies.

Dillon, C. R.; Todd, N.; Payne, A.; Parker, D. L.; Christensen, D. A.; Roemer, R. B.

2013-10-01

140

Purpose To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating between hepatic hemangiomas, both typical and atypical, and other hypervascular liver lesions. Methods Retrospective review of 182 hypervascular liver lesions in 117 patients was performed. Diffusion and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were performed using a 1.5-T unit. Imaging protocol consisted of T2-weighted fast spin-echo images, breath-hold diffusion-weighted echo-planar images, and breath-hold unenhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3-dimensional fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo images in the arterial phase (20 seconds) and portal venous phase (60 seconds). Signal intensity changes and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were evaluated for all lesions. Unpaired t test was used to compare the mean ADC values for different lesions, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.01. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating hemangiomas from other hypervascular liver lesions. Results Lesions included typical and atypical hemangioma (n = 38), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 58), focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH; n = 22), and neuroendocrine tumor metastasis (NET; n = 64) with a mean tumor size of 5.3 cm. Mean ADC value for hemangioma, HCC, FNH, and NET was 2.29 × 10-3, 1.55 × 10-3, 1.65 × 10-3, and 1.43 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the ADC value of hemangioma compared with that of FNH (P < 0.001), HCC (P < 0.001), and NET (P < 0.001), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.91. Conclusions Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ADC maps can provide rapid quantifiable information to differentiate typical and atypical hemangiomas from other hypervascular liver lesions. PMID:18830105

Vossen, Josephina A.; Buijs, Manon; Liapi, Eleni; Eng, John; Bluemke, David A.; Kamel, Ihab R.

2009-01-01

141

The two diffusers employed in the investigation had the same overall area ratio but different prediffuser area ratios and suction slot geometries. Velocity profile and diffuser pressure recovery performance data were obtained at ambient pressure and temperature, with inlet Mach numbers ranging from 0.18 to 0.41 and suction rate varying from zero to 18% of total inlet mass flow rate.

A. J. Juhasz; J. M. Smith

1978-01-01

142

This is the first part of the experimental investigation on the feasibility of inverse diffusion flame (IDF) for impingement heating. This part is aimed to identify the favorable IDF structure for impingement heating. Seven IDF structures have been observed altogether. Among them the favorable flame structure for impingement heating is identified to comprise a short base diffusion flame and a

L. L. Dong; C. S. Cheung; C. W. Leung

2007-01-01

143

Theoretical and experimental analyses of atom diffusion characteristics on wire bonding interfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of ultrasonic bonding interface were inspected by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. Stress of ultrasonic bonding interface was analysed by the finite elements simulation. Results show that the high stress of bonding interface was caused by ultrasonic vibration, which increased the dislocation density inside the metal crystalline lattice which provides the fast diffusion channels, and provided driving force for atom inter-diffusion. 'Short-circuit diffusion' during ultrasonic bonding is more prominent than crystal diffusion. For the given ultrasonic bonding parameters, depth of atom diffusion at Au/Al interface of ultrasonic bonding was about 100-300 nm in several ten milliseconds, which forms the bonding strength of 0.65 N, and it is an inter-metallic compound of AuAl2. These will be helpful for further analysis.

Li, Junhui; Fuliang, Wang; Han, Lei; Zhong, Jue

2008-07-01

144

Scaling and Crossovers in Diffusion Limited Aggregation

We discuss the scaling of characteristic lengths in diffusion limited aggregation clusters in light of recent developments using conformal maps. We are led to the conjecture that the apparently anomalous scaling of lengths is due to one slow crossover. This is supported by an analytical argument for the scaling of the penetration depth of newly arrived random walkers, and by

E. Somfai; L. M. Sander; R. C. Ball

1999-01-01

145

Two swirl-stabilized flames, a premixed flame (PMF-s) and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF-s), were investigated experimentally in order to obtain information on their thermal, emission and heat transfer characteristics. The two flames, having different global air\\/fuel mixing mechanisms, were compared under identical air and fuel flow rates. Results showed that the two flames have similar visual features such as flame

H. S. Zhen; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung

2011-01-01

146

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a stable and diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is obtained under a needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure in air. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse discharge are investigated under mono and multi needle electrodes configuration. The peak value of discharge current, the average power, the power density, the emission intensity of N2 (C3?u ?B3?g, 0-0), and the gas temperature of the diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasmas are investigated under different needle electrode numbers based on the waveforms of pulse voltage-current and the optical emission spectra. Moreover, the plasma area is obviously enlarged in the transverse direction when the needle electrode number is increased from 1 to 13. An area approximately 65 × 45 mm2 diffuse discharge plasma region under 13 needle electrodes can be obtained and the discharge plasma still keeps good uniformity, which could be used for large-area surface processing in several fields spanning from biological sterilization and plasma medicine to surface modification of materials and synthesis of functional materials.

Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Wen-chun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen; Yang, De-zheng; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai

2014-05-01

147

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene epoch as seen in the water isotopic records of polar ice cores is described by a relatively stable climate characterized by minimal fluctuations in temperature. Arguably, the most commonly used proxy in ice core studies, the ratios of water's stable isotopes, provide an insight in past temperatures via a linear relationship with temperature, commonly referred to as the isotope slope. However, the validity of this slope has been extensively debated. Based on borehole thermometry and gas isotope fractionation studies, it has been shown that temperature changes over the Bølling - Allerød and Younger Dryas transitions as well as several interstadial events have been underestimated by the water isotope slope. Additionally, isotopic artifacts related to ice sheet elevation changes, apparent between 6 and 10 ka b2k, result in a poor or even absent representation of the Holocene climatic optimum in the ?18O record from Greenland ice cores, contrary to what other paleoclimatic records from Northern latitudes indicate. In this study we present ongoing work on the use of the firn isotopic diffusion lengths as a high resolution proxy of the snow and firn temperature. Our reconstruction is based on the high resolution ?18O dataset from NGRIP. Water isotope diffusion is a process that occurs after deposition of the precipitation and takes place in the porous space of the firn until the close off depth. Assuming a diffusivity parameterization and based on a densification and strain rate history, it is possible to investigate the effects of temperature and accumulation on the diffusion length. By inverting the model we produce a temperature reconstruction for the last 15 ka. This temperature signal is independent of factors like the water vapor source location and temperature, the intensity of the atmospheric inversion over the deposition site and the presence or not of clear sky precipitation. In order for the reconstruction to reproduce the long term climate signal, a correction for the thinning function is required. Under the assumption that the GICC05 chronology is the best available estimate for the age - depth relationship in the ice, that would require about 10 - 15% lower accumulation rates at the time of the climatic optimum. The temperature reconstruction is able to infer a Younger Dryas warming signal very close to what previous borehole thermometry and gas isotope fractionation studies indicate. A strong 8.2 ky event can be seen in the record and seems to occur in a two stage fashion and last longer than the raw ?18O signal indicates. Overall, the inferred temperature signal reveals a significant variance with climatic events that are initially not reflected in the ?18O record. Some of those events are supported by the findings of other northern hemispheric climatic or historical records (Medieval and Roman warm periods). The most profound of those events is a rapid warming occurring between 4 and 5 ky b2k, indicating a clear mid - Holocene optimum and ending with a rapid cooling at approximately 4.2 ky b2k. We will comment on the validity of those results as well as the feasibility of the magnitude of the temperature shifts and propose ways to constrain the findings further.

Gkinis, Vasileios; Simonsen, Sebastian B.; Buchardt, Susanne L.; Vinther, Bo M.; White, James W. C.

2013-04-01

148

Background Spasticity is an important complication after stroke, especially in the anti-gravity muscles, i.e. lower limb extensors. However the contribution of hyperexcitable muscle spindle reflex loops to gait impairments after stroke is often disputed. In this study a neuro-musculoskeletal model was developed to investigate the contribution of an increased length and velocity feedback and altered reflex modulation patterns to hemiparetic gait deficits. Methods A musculoskeletal model was extended with a muscle spindle model providing real-time length and velocity feedback of gastrocnemius, soleus, vasti and rectus femoris during a forward dynamic simulation (neural control model). By using a healthy subject’s base muscle excitations, in combination with increased feedback gains and altered reflex modulation patterns, the effect on kinematics was simulated. A foot-ground contact model was added to account for the interaction effect between the changed kinematics and the ground. The qualitative effect i.e. the directional effect and the specific gait phases where the effect is present, on the joint kinematics was then compared with hemiparetic gait deviations reported in the literature. Results Our results show that increased feedback in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns of soleus, vasti and rectus femoris muscle can contribute to excessive ankle plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, knee hyperextension/inadequate flexion and increased hip extension/inadequate flexion during dedicated gait cycle phases. Increased feedback of gastrocnemius can also contribute to excessive plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, however in combination with excessive knee and hip flexion. Increased length/velocity feedback can therefore contribute to two types of gait deviations, which are both in accordance with previously reported gait deviations in hemiparetic patients. Furthermore altered modulation patterns, in particular the reduced suppression of the muscle spindle feedback during swing, can contribute largely to an increased plantarflexion and knee extension during the swing phase and consequently to hampered toe clearance. Conclusions Our results support the idea that hyperexcitability of length and velocity feedback pathways, especially in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns, can contribute to deviations in hemiparetic gait. Surprisingly, our results showed only subtle temporal differences between length and velocity feedback. Therefore, we cannot attribute the effects seen in kinematics to one specific type of feedback. PMID:24885302

2014-01-01

149

Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (?r) have been measured as a function of viscosity (?) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation ?r = A(?/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight. PMID:24070127

Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

2013-10-10

150

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Mg-ion indiffusion process was applied to lithium niobate single crystal substrates with a deposited magnesium oxide thin film. By means of electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the Mg concentration distribution along the depth of the magnesium diffused layer was obtained and the activation energy for Mg-ion indiffusion was determined to be 288 KJ/mol. It was also determined that the magnesium diffused layer exhibits a crystal structure of an unknown compound from the Mg Li Nb O ternary system. It is proposed that this unknown compound and MgNb2O6, which form during a solid state reaction between the thin layer of MgO and the lithium niobate crystal in a Li2O-rich atmosphere, are the real sources for Mg-ion indiffusion into lithium niobate. The high activation energy and the appearance of this unknown compound in the magnesium diffused layer suggest that Mg-ions diffuse substitutionally into the lithium niobate crystal. Mechanisms causing a decrease in the refractive index of the Mg diffused layer are also discussed.

Que, Wenxiu; Lim, Siakpiang; Zhang, Liangying; Yao, Xi

1998-03-01

151

Restricted Diffusion in Biophysical Systems

The pulsed-gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSENMR) technique was used to measure restricted diffusion of water in three types of animal tissue: human blood plasma and red cells; rat and rabbit heart; rat and rabbit liver. Characteristic lengths (L) for restriction of diffusion are estimated from dependence on the measuring time. Limitations on the range of observable restrictive lengths (1.5-15 ?m) are discussed. The decrease in diffusivity due to 1 ?m alumina powder (volume fraction = 0.18) in glycerin/water mixtures agrees with the Wang theory assuming spherical particles and no hydration. The characteristic length (L ? 4 ?m) is larger than the particle size (1 ?m) or separation (1.8 ?m). Comparison of the diffusivities in tissues at short diffusion times with the Wang theory indicates some bound or trapped water. For packed red blood cells, a restriction (L ? 2.3 ?m) was attributed tothe red cell membrane. A permeability p ? 0.014 cm/s may be estimated from the decrease in diffusivity. Average values of diffusivity ratio in heart were: 0.36 ± 0.02 for rat; and 0.26 ± 0.03 for rabbit; and in liver: 0.25 ± 0.01 for rat; 0.25 ± .04 for 10-day old rabbit; and 0.195 ± 0.03 for 2-yr old rabbit. A restriction (L ? 2.7 ?m) in rat liver probably results from the mitochondria. PMID:4823458

Cooper, Robert L.; Chang, David B.; Young, Allan C.; Martin, Carroll J.; Ancker-Johnson, Betsy

1974-01-01

152

Study of the Interface Characteristic of Be/HR-1 Stainless Steel Following Diffusion Bonding

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface structure of Be/HR-1 stainless steel (SS) joint following diffusion bonding was investigated. Metallurgical observation, electron scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning Auger microspectroscopy were performed for basic evaluation of bonded joints. There are intermetallic compounds such as Be11Fe and Be12Cr in the interface region of Be/SS joints, which drastically reduce the mechanical strength of the joints. Cu, Ag and Al barriers can block effective inter-diffusion of Be and HR-1 stainless steel, then forming brittle phases.

Zhang, Peng-Cheng; Bai, Bin; Yang, Jiang-Rong; Zou, Jue-Sheng; Zhou, Shou-Qi

153

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental characteristics of a solid oxide redox flow battery consisting of solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOEC) and redox metal were studied by a gas-diffusion based time-dependent 1-D numerical simulation taking both the electrochemical and redox reactions into account. Close attention was paid to the distributions of the participating gas species and their effects on the charge/discharge performance. The volume expansion/reduction of the porous metal associated with the redox reaction was modeled as decrease/increase in local porosity. The numerical results for charge/discharge operation qualitatively showed the time-dependent distributions of the related physical quantities such as the gas concentrations, the active reaction region in the redox metal, and its local porosity. It was found that, to ensure effective redox reaction throughout the operation, the gas diffusion in the redox metal should be carefully designed.

Ohmori, Hiroko; Uratani, Syoichi; Iwai, Hiroshi

2012-06-01

154

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A channel length of a c-axis aligned crystal indium gallium zinc oxide (CAAC-IGZO) transistor having low off-state current at a yA/µm level was decreased to 100 nm, and the electrical characteristics and short-channel effect of the CAAC-IGZO transistor were researched. As a result, we found that, in the CAAC-IGZO transistor with L = 100 nm, even with a gate insulator film having an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) = 11 nm, an extremely small off-state current of 380 yA/µm at 85 °C is maintained, in addition channel length dependence of the electrical characteristics is hardly seen. Favorable values of characteristics of the CAAC-IGZO transistor can be obtained, such as subthreshold slope (SS) = 77 mV/dec, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 73 mV/V, threshold voltage (Vth) = 0.65 V, and on-state current (Ion) = 65 µA/µm. These results suggest the possibility that the CAAC-IGZO transistor can be applied to an LSI in a deep submicron region.

Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Shinpei; Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Suzawa, Hideomi; Sakakura, Masayuki; Hanaoka, Kazuya; Okazaki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Hondo, Suguru; Hamada, Takashi; Sasagawa, Shinya; Nagai, Masaharu; Hata, Yuki; Maruyama, Tetsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Shunpei

2014-01-01

155

Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diffusion-weighted MRI and PET characteristics.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia with a variety of neurological disorders and a fatal outcome. The authors present a case with visual disturbance as a leading symptom and rapid deterioration in global cognitive functions. The cerebrospinal fluid was positive for 14-3-3 protein, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed marked hyperintensity in the parieto-occipital cortices, where hypometabolism was clearly detected on positron emission tomography (PET). Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials showed prolonged P100 latencies and increased N/5/P100 amplitudes. All these findings supported a diagnosis of the Heidenhain variant of CJD, whereas a long clinical course, a lack of myoclonus, and an absence of periodic synchronous discharges on electroencephalography were atypical. Diffusion-weighted MRI and PE1 in combination with visual evoked potential recording and 14-3-3 protein detection may be useful for the early diagnosis of CJD. PMID:14748211

Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Gaku; Yokode, Masayuki; Mezaki, Takahiro; Doh-ura, Katsumi; Taniguchi, Ken; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

2004-01-01

156

Study of the Interface Characteristic of Be\\/HR1 Stainless Steel Following Diffusion Bonding

The interface structure of Be\\/HR-1 stainless steel (SS) joint following diffusion bonding was investigated. Metallurgical observation, electron scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning Auger microspectroscopy were performed for basic evaluation of bonded joints. There are intermetallic compounds such as Be11Fe and Be12Cr in the interface region of Be\\/SS joints, which drastically reduce the mechanical strength of the joints. Cu, Ag

Peng-Cheng Zhang; Bin Bai; Jiang-Rong Yang; Jue-Sheng Zou; Shou-Qi Zhou

2003-01-01

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high loading rate oxidation ditch (OD) system with dual dissolved oxygen (DO) control has been developed for the purpose of advanced wastewater treatment and cost saving. For the purpose of scale-up to the real scale, the clean water experiments were conducted, with the full scale oxidation ditch with diffused aeration and vertical flow boosters, to examine the effect to the dual DO control by the design and operational factors, which include a flow characteristics and a oxygen supply capability. In this study, the flow characteristics of the OD channel were analyzed using a tank number and circulation ratio as the parameters. The analysis showed the complicated flow characteristics of the OD channel, which changed from the plug flow to the completely mixing transiently. Based on the tank number N =65~100 which were obtained from the tracer tests, a model of DO mass balance was constructed, then the accurate method for estimate the overall oxygen transfer coefficients was proposed. The potential error of the conventional method in the specific conditions was indicated. In addition, the effect of the flow characteristics on the design and operational parameters of the dual DO control, which include the circulation time or the DO profile, was clarified.

Nakamachi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Taku; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Tsuno, Hiroshi

158

Interface characteristics in diffusion bonding of Fe 3Al with Cr18Ni8 stainless steel

Fe3Al and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel were diffusion-bonded in vacuum and a Fe3Al\\/Cr18-Ni8 interface with reaction layer was formed. Microstructure in the reaction layer at Fe3Al\\/Cr18-Ni8 interface was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The growth of reaction layer with heating temperature (T) and holding time (t) was researched. The results indicate that FeAl,

Juan Wang; Yajiang Li; Yansheng Yin

2005-01-01

159

Characteristics of red-emitting broad area stripe laser diodes with zinc diffused window structures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied zinc diffused window structures to 640 nm broad area stripe laser diodes (BALDs) for the first time. A solid-phase zinc diffusion technique was used for a thick single quantum well (SQW) in GaInP employing the short wavelength and disordered active layer possessed a blue shift of 58 nm in photoluminescence spectrum. We fabricated 10 mm arrays including twenty-five BALDs and each BALD consists of a 60 ?m ridge stripe and a 1000 ?m cavity. An initial catastrophic optical damage (COD) level of the window laser was increased by four times of a conventional none-window laser. A long-term reliability under automatic current control was investigated for initial output powers of 13W and 15W which overcome a previous demonstration of 7.2 W. Measured degradations within a period of 1000-hours were 5 % or less, in contrast a half-life period of our conventional none-window laser with an initial output power of 10 W was only 120-hours. Therefore the window structure improved the BALD in terms of the COD level and the long-term reliability.

Ohno, Tomoki; Takiguchi, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Naganuma, Kaori; Ohara, Maho; Ito, Satoshi; Hirata, Shoji

2010-02-01

160

Interface characteristics in diffusion bonding of Fe3Al with Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel.

Fe3Al and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel were diffusion-bonded in vacuum and a Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface with reaction layer was formed. Microstructure in the reaction layer at Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The growth of reaction layer with heating temperature (T) and holding time (t) was researched. The results indicate that FeAl, Fe3Al, Ni3Al, and alpha-Fe (Al) solid solution are formed in the reaction layer. These phases are favorable to promote the element diffusion and to accelerate the formation of the reaction layer at Fe3Al/Cr18-Ni8 interface. The growth of reaction layer obeys the parabolic law and its thickness (X) is expressed by X2 = 7.5 x 10(-4)exp(-83.59/RT)(t - t0). PMID:15797414

Wang, Juan; Li, Yajiang; Yin, Yansheng

2005-05-01

161

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of striped diffusion flames, formed in the two-dimensional counterflow field by the diffusional-thermal instability with Lewis numbers sufficiently less than unity, is investigated numerically by examining the nonlinear two-dimensional transient flame-structure solutions bifurcating from the one-dimensional steady solution by various initial perturbations. The Lewis numbers for the fuel and oxidizer are assumed to be identical and an overall single-step Arrhenius-type chemical reaction rate is employed as the chemistry model. Attention is focused on two nonlinear phenomena, namely the development of the two-dimensional flame-stripe structure and the extension of the flammability limit beyond the static extinction condition of a one-dimensional flame. A time-dependent solution, carried out for a Damköhler number slightly above the static extinction Damköhler number, exhibited the developmental procedure of flame stripes with the most unstable wavelength from a long-wave initial perturbation with a small amplitude. In contrast to the chaotic cellular premixed-flame structures predicted from numerical integration of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the stripe structure in diffusion flames is found to be stationary, consequently leading to the conclusion that the nonlinear term in the corresponding nonlinear bifurcation equation would be a simple cubic term. Two-dimensional flame-stripe solutions are also found to be able to survive Damköhler numbers significantly below the static extinction Damköhler number of the one-dimensional flame structure. Extension of the flammability is found to be greatest if the imposed initial perturbation possesses the wavenumber of the fastest growing mode.

Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. S.

2000-03-01

162

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo has been conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material had been processed above the beta transus (approximately 1275 K) while the rolled form had been subjected to work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

1979-01-01

163

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo was conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material was essentially processed above the beta transus while the rolled form was subjected to considerable work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

1977-01-01

164

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-wavelength Brillouin laser is demonstrated by using a 3-m-long erbium doped fiber (EDF) in a ring cavity. The EDF is used to provide both nonlinear and linear gains to generate a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and to amplify the generated SBS, respectively. The Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) operates at 1561.5 nm, where the operating wavelength is up-shifted by 0.08nm from the Brillouin pump. The operation wavelength is also tunable within 1560.6-1562.6 nm. The BEFL also shows a self-pulsing characteristic with repetition of 66.7 kHz when the BP is set around the threshold pump power of 13mW. Compared to the conventional Brillouin fiber laser with a long cavity length, the proposed BEFL exhibits a significantly lower amplitude of pulse. This laser has many potential applications, such as in optical communication and sensors.

Zarei, A.; Z. R. R. Rosdin, R.; M. Ali, N.; H., Ahmad; W. Harun, S.

2014-05-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of interaction between martensitic stainless steel type AISI 410 with nickel in the form of coating layer and foil were investigated. Nickel was coated on AISI 410 substrate by electroplating in various thicknesses (6-16 ?m). The 300-?m-nickel with purity of 99.9% was employed as a foil layer. All specimens were annealed in the temperature range of 700-900 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 60 min. Optical microscopy, SEM and EPMA analyzer were carried out in order to characterize the interdiffusion behavior differences between nickel and AISI 410 while using nickel layer in different form. It was observed that the thickness of nickel coating had a minor effect during annealing on the interaction between Ni and substrate at faying surface. However, the results show that the interaction of nickel coating layer with base material is much faster than foil layer during annealing process. This study suggests that the coating layer diffused faster to the substrate than foil layer; moreover, in the former case, heavy outer load was omitted. The concentration profiles were plotted for two cases. Although in case of using layer in the form of coating the annealing time was relatively short (5-15 min), it was observed that the concentration profiles for main elements had shapes close to the theoretical curve. For various thicknesses (6-16 ?m) of Ni coating, the experimental results show that the interaction at faying surface caused the thickness of nickel coating growth. The diffusion zone width was plotted against the annealing temperature and time for both cases and the growth of the diffusion zones was compared.

Araee, A.; Sabetghadam, H.

2010-10-01

166

An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials. PMID:17482812

Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu

2008-04-01

167

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article focuses on young students encountering the measurement of length. The article cites examples of key concepts in recognizing length as an attribute and in proper and improper ways to measure length. Conservation and additivity of length, standard and non-standard units, iteration, and the zero point are among the topics presented.

2009-08-01

168

Scaling and Crossovers in Diffusion Limited Aggregation

We discuss the scaling of characteristic lengths in diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) clusters in light of recent developments using conformal maps. We are led to the conjecture that the apparently anomalous scaling of lengths is due to one slow crossover. This is supported by an analytical argument for the scaling of the penetration depth of newly arrived random walkers, and by numerical evidence on the Laurent coefficients which uniquely determine each cluster. We find a single crossover exponent of -0.3 for all the characteristic lengths in DLA. This gives a hint about the structure of the renormalization group for this problem.

E. Somfai; L. M. Sander; R. C. Ball

1999-09-02

169

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

2014-01-01

170

Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica by Mobil scientists in 1992, mesostructured silica has been synthesized in various forms including thin films, powders, particles, and fibers. In general, mesostructured silica has potential applications, such as in separation, catalysis, sensors, and fluidic microsystems. In respect to these potential applications, mesostructured silica in the form of thin films is perhaps one of the most promising candidates. The preparation of mesostructured silica films through preferential solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has recently received much attention in the laboratories. However, no amphiphile/silica films with reverse mesophases have ever been made through this EISA procedure. Furthermore, templates employed to date have been either surfactants or poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers, such as pluronic P-123, both of which are water-soluble and alcohol-soluble. Due to their relatively low molecular weight, the templated silica films with mesoscopic order have been limited to relatively small characteristic length scales. In the present communication, the authors report a novel synthetic method to prepare mesostructured amphiphilic/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases of large characteristic length scales. This method involves evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers. In the present study, the PS-b-PEO diblocks are denoted as, for example, PS(215)-b-PEO(100), showing that this particular sample contains 215 S repeat units and 100 EO repeat units. This PS(215)-b-PEO(100) diblock possesses high molecular weight and does not directly mix with water or alcohol. To the authors knowledge, no studies have reported the use of water-insoluble and alcohol-insoluble amphiphilic diblocks as structure-directing agents in the synthesis of mesostructured silica films through EISA. It is believed that the present system is the first to yield amphiphile/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases, as well as curved multi-bilayer mesostructures, through EISA. The ready formation of the diblock/silica films with multi-bilayer vesicular mesostructures is discussed.

YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI

2000-11-22

171

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise and flow field characteristics of internal-flow jet-augmented flap configurations (abbreviated by the term jet flap throughout the study) is presented. The first part is a parametric study of the influence of the Mach number (subsonic range only), the slot nozzle aspect ratio and the flap length on the overall radiated sound power and the spectral composition of the jet noise, as measured in a reverberation chamber. In the second part, mean and fluctuating velocity profiles, spectra of the fluctuating velocity and space correlograms were measured in the flow field of jet flaps by means of hot-wire anemometry. Using an expression derived by Lilley, an attempt was made to estimate the overall sound power radiated by the free mixing region that originates at the orifice of the slot nozzle (primary mixing region) relative to the overall sound power generated by the free mixing region that originates at the trailing edge of the flap (secondary mixing region). It is concluded that at least as much noise is generated in the secondary mixing region as in the primary mixing region. Furthermore, the noise generation of the primary mixing region appears to be unaffected by the presence of a flap.

Schrecker, G. O.; Maus, J. R.

1974-01-01

172

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hydraulic properties of the layer at the vicinity of the soil surface have significant impact on evaporation and could be harnessed to reduce water losses. The effect of the properties of the upper layer on the evolution of phase distribution during the evaporation process is first illustrated from three-dimensional pore network simulations. This effect is then studied from experiments carried out on soil columns under laboratory conditions. Comparisons between homogeneous columns packed with coarse (sand) and fine (sandy loam) materials and heterogeneous columns packed with layers of fine overlying coarse material and coarse overlying fine material of different thicknesses are performed to assess the impact of upper layer properties on evaporation. Experiments are analyzed using the classical approach based on the numerical solution of Richards equation and semianalytical theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis is based on the clear distinction between two drying regimes, namely, the capillary regime and the gravity-capillary regime, which are the prevailing regimes in our experiments. Simple relationships enabling to estimate the duration of stage 1 evaporation (S1) for both regimes are proposed. In particular, this led to defining the characteristic length for the gravity-capillary regime from the consideration of viscous effects at low water content differently from available expressions. The duration of S1, during which most of the water losses occur, for both the homogeneous and two-layer columns is presented and discussed. Finally, the impact of liquid films and its consequences on the soil hydraulic conductivity function are briefly discussed.

Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir; Gherabli, Rivka; Lefort, Philippe; Prat, Marc

2014-05-01

173

The soil of several floodplain areas along large European rivers shows increased levels of heavy metals as a relict from past sedimentation of contaminants. These levels may pose risks of accumulation in food webs and toxicologic effects on flora and fauna. However, for floodplains, data on heavy-metal concentrations in vertebrates are scarce. Moreover, these environments are characterised by periodical flooding cycles influencing ecologic processes and patterns. To investigate whether the suggested differences in accumulation risks for insectivores and carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores are reflected in the actual heavy-metal concentrations in the species, we measured the current levels of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in 199 specimens of 7 small mammal species (voles, mice, and shrews) and in their habitats in a diffusely polluted floodplain. The highest metal concentrations were found in the insectivorous and carnivorous shrew, Sorex araneus. Significant differences between the other shrew species, Crocidura russula, and the vole and mouse species was only found for Cd. The Cu concentration in Clethrionomys glareolus, however, was significantly higher than in several other vole and mouse species. To explain the metal concentrations found in the specimens, we related them to environmental variables at the trapping locations and to certain characteristics of the mammals. Variables taken into account were soil total and CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations at the trapping locations; whether locations were flooded or nonflooded; the trapping season; and the life stage; sex; and fresh weight of the specimens. Correlations between body and soil concentrations and location or specimen characteristics were weak. Therefore; we assumed that exposure of small mammals to heavy-metal contamination in floodplains is significantly influenced by exposure time, which is age related, as well as by dispersal and changes in foraging and feeding patterns under influence of periodic flooding. PMID:17387425

Leuven, R. S. E. W.; van der Velde, G.; Jungheim, G.; Koelemij, E. I.; de Vries, F. T.; Eijsackers, H. J. P.; Smits, A. J. M.

2007-01-01

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

2014-04-01

175

Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng, E-mail: swffrog@seu.edu.cn [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)

2014-04-14

176

Standard Length versus Total Length

In an effort to determine the length measurement most representative of the bulk of the fish, the standard length and the total length were each compared with the weight of the fish. This comparison was made for four species of game fish, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), wall-eyed pike (Stizostedion v. vitreum), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and lake trout (Cristivomer n.

William F. Royce

1942-01-01

177

planar technology depends on many actors. This thesis investigates the influ- enc of one o these factors, the diffusion source. In ti is case, +he source is boron (p-zype) impurity. Three dif'fusion sou. ces, i)boron nitride BN ', solid), ii) diborane... Characteristics Measurement. V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 1O BZST QF TABLES Table Page Boron deposition da. a 11 Quantitative measurement results. 35 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2. 1 Page Silicon and BN wafers on cuartz 'coat...

Huang, Kuan-Chun Andrew

2012-06-07

178

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the measurable attribute of length and provides practice in measuring length using non-standard units. The lesson is launched using the story Ladybug on the Move by Richard Fowler. Lesson objectives, teaching ideas, and handouts are included.

2012-01-01

179

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The short circuit current generated by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope in p-n junctions is reduced by enhanced recombination at grain boundaries in polycrystalline material. Frequently, grain boundaries separate the semiconductor into regions possessing different minority carrier life times. This markedly affects the short circuit current I(sc) as a function of scanning distance from the grain boundary. It will be shown theoretically that (1) the minimum of the I(sc) in crossing the grain boundary with the scanning electron beam is shifted away from the grain boundary toward the region with smaller life time (shorter diffusion length), (2) the magnitude of the minimum differs markedly from those calculated under the assumption of equal diffusion lengths on either side of the grain boundary, and (3) the minimum disappears altogether for small surface recombination velocities (s less than 10,000 cm/s). These effects become negligible, however, for large recombination velocities s at grain boundaries. For p-type silicon this happens for s not less than 100,000 cm/s.

Von Roos, O.; Luke, K. L.

1984-01-01

180

A large meteorological wind tunnel was used to simulate a suburban atmospheric boundary layer. The model-prototype scale was 1:300 and the roughness length was approximately 1.0 m full scale. The model boundary layer simulated full scale dispersion from ground-level and elevated ...

181

Boundary-layer analysis of subsonic inlet diffuser geometries for engines nacelles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical Mach number distributions and boundary-layer parameters are presented for subsonic nacelle inlet diffuser geometries with length to exit diameter ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 and diffuser exit area to throat area ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.0. The major portion of the study was done with a cubic diffuser contour with the inflection point at the midpoint of the diffuser, a diffuser throat Mach number of 0.6, and a free-stream Mach number of 0.12. Calculations were performed at both model (diffuser exit diameter, 30.5 cm) and full-scale (diffuser exit diameter, 183 cm) sizes. Separation limits were defined by establishing a separation boundary on plots of diffuser area ratio as a function of diffuser length to diameter ratio. The effects of diffuser contour, inlet lip geometry, and throat Mach number on the boundary-layer characteristics are illustrated. The major results of the study indicate that the separation boundary is shifted to greater area ratios by (1) increasing the diffuser length, (2) increasing the scale of the diffuser and, (3) moving the inflection point of the diffuser contour to or ahead of the midpoint of the diffuser.

Albers, J. A.; Felderman, E. J.

1974-01-01

182

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice measuring length. Play this fun game to work on length. Measure the teddy Next, practice measuring to the nearest 1/2 inch. Measure to 1/2 inches If your ready for a challenge, practice this next game: Measure to 1/4 inches Play the Fish Tales game! *Once you have played all the games, have an adult sign your planner that you practiced these games! You'll ...

Miss Lerdahl

2010-01-26

183

Diffusive Transport in Hydroxypropylcellulose:Water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic analysis of mode structure of diffusive relaxations in solutions of neutral polymer of 1MDa hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) is presented. Experimental techniques that have been applied in our studies include static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, optical probe diffusion, and viscometry. In the optical probe diffusion method we monitor the translational diffusion of dilute monodisperse spheres through aqueous polymer solutions over a range of temperatures, distances, and time scales. Based on the data from these extensive studies we conclude that: 1) HPC solutions have a characteristic length of 50-70nm that matches the polymer’s hydrodynamic radius; 2) the diffusion rate of optical probes through aqueous polymer solutions is not determined by the macroscopic viscosity of the solutions; 3) probe and polymer relaxations are not generally the same; 4) the apparent viscometric crossover near 6g/L is confirmed by the optical probe behavior.

Streletzky, Kiril A.; Phillies, George D. J.; O'Connell, Robert; Whitford, Paul; Hanson, Helen

2005-03-01

184

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the observation of the pore structure and mercury intruding porosimetry (MIP) experiments of some typical porous building materials, we found that the diffusion coefficient of the material can be expressed by that of a representative elementary volume (REV) in which the pore structure can be simplified as a connection in series of macro and meso pores. Based upon that, a macro-meso two-scale model for predicting the diffusion coefficient of porous building materials is proposed. In contrast to the traditional porous mass transfer model for determining the diffusion coefficient described in the literature [Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, A.L., Damian, A., Amiri, O., Molina, J.L., 2003. Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air 13, 302-310; Seo, J., Kato, S., Ataka, Y., Zhu, Q., 2005. Evaluation of effective diffusion coefficient in various building materials and absorbents by mercury intrusion porosimetry. In Proceedings of the Indoor Air, Beijing, China, pp. 1854-1859], the proposed model relates the volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion coefficient of building material not only to the porosity of the building material, but also to the pore size distribution and pore connection modes. To verify the model, a series of experiments of VOC emissions of three types of medium-density board were conducted. The comparison of the model and experimental results shows that the proposed model agrees much better with the experimental results than the traditional models in the literature. More validation for other building materials is needed. The proposed model is useful for predicting the VOC diffusion coefficient of porous building materials and for developing low VOC emission building materials.

Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Xinke; Chang, Dongwu

185

Diblock/silica films with multi-bilayer vesicular mesostructures of large characteristic length scales were synthesized through evaporation-induced self-assembly of PS-b-PEO. The present system is believed to be the first to yield diblock/silica films with multi-bilayer vesicular mesostructures through solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). The ready formation in the present system is argued to be the polydispersity of polymer chains.

YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI

2000-11-22

186

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

187

The report gives results of a study to: (1) establish the capability of measuring concrete's permeability and diffusivity, (2) measure these parameters in a small sampling of the typical types of Florida concrete, and (3) if possible, correlate the physical parameters of the conc...

188

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1988-06-28

189

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo\\u000a has been conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material had been essentially processed\\u000a above the beta transus (?1275 K) while the rolled form had been subjected to work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and\\u000a 1250 K, the

J. Daniel Whittenberger; Thomas J. Moore

1979-01-01

190

Background Continuous glucose monitoring is crucial to developing a successful artificial pancreas. However, biofouling and host response make in vivo sensor performance difficult to predict. We investigated changes in glucose diffusivity and sensor response of optical enzymatic glucose sensors due to biological exposure. Method Three hydrogel materials, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), poly(acrylamide) (pAM), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) (p(HEMA-co-AM)), were tested for glucose diffusivity before and after exposure to serum or implantation in rats for 1 month. Luminescent sensors based on these materials were measured to compare the response to glucose before and after serum exposure. Results Glucose diffusivity through the pHEMA [(8.1 ± 0.38) × 10-8 cm2/s] slabs was much lower than diffusivity through pAM [(2.7 ± 0.15) × 10-6 cm2/s] and p(HEMA-co-AM) [(2.5 ± 0.08) × 10-6]. As expected from these differences, sensor response was highly dependent on material type. The pHEMA sensors had a maximum sensitivity of 2.5%/(mg/dl) and an analytical range of 4.2–356 mg/dl, while the p(HEMA-co-AM) sensors had a higher sensitivity [14.9%/(mg/dl)] and a narrower analytical range (17.6–70.5 mg/dl). After serum exposure, the pHEMA sensors were unaffected, whereas the p(HEMA-co-AM) sensors exhibited significantly decreased sensitivity and increased analytical range. Conclusions Decreases in glucose diffusivity in the polymers resulting from in vitro serum exposure and residence in vivo were shown to be similar, suggesting that serum incubation was a reasonable approximation of in vivo fouling. While biofouling is expected to affect the response of flux-based sensors, we have shown that this depended on the type of sensor and matrix used. Therefore, proper design and materials selection may minimize response alterations occurring upon implantation. PMID:23294771

Roberts, Jason R.; Park, Jaebum; Helton, Kristen; Wisniewski, Natalie; McShane, Michael J.

2012-01-01

191

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ta-Si-C film was prepared by magnetron sputtering, and the thermal stability of the plasma-treated film as a copper diffusion barrier was evaluated. The barrier properties and failure behaviors of the studied films were elucidated using a four-point probe, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The as-deposited Ta-Si-C film had an amorphous structure, and the structure remained stable at an elevated temperature, allowing the film to be adopted as a barrier to inhibit Cu diffusion. The Cu/Ta26Si41C32/Si stacked structure had a failure temperature of 750°C/1 min when the 5-nm-thick Ta26Si41C32 film was treated by exposure to Ar/H2 plasma mixture, while the stacked film failed at 800°C/1 min when treated by exposure to Ar/N2 plasma mixture. Using the Ar/N2 plasma treatment favorably enhanced the thermal stability of the Ta26Si41C32 thin film as a barrier for Cu interconnections. When the Ta-Si-C film thickness was further reduced to 2 nm, the film retained the barrier effect at 650°C, 700°C, and 750°C for Ta34Si47C18, Ta30Si44C25, and Ta26Si41C32 compositions, respectively.

Fang, Jau-Shiung; Su, Wu-Jia; Huang, Meng-Shuo; Chiu, Chin-Fu; Chin, Tsung-Shune

2014-01-01

192

The effect of diffusion induced lattice stress on the open-circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated that diffusion induced stresses in low resistivity silicon solar cells can significantly reduce both the open-circuit voltage and collection efficiency. The degradation mechanism involves stress induced changes in both the minority carrier mobility and the diffusion length. Thermal recovery characteristics indicate that the stresses are relieved at higher temperatures by divacancy flow (silicon self diffusion). The level of residual stress in as-fabricated cells was found to be negligible in the cells tested.

Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

1984-01-01

193

Scaling and Crossovers in Diffusion Limited Aggregation

We discuss the scaling of characteristic lengths in diffusion limited aggregation clusters in light of recent developments using conformal maps. We are led to the conjecture that the apparently anomalous scaling of lengths is due to one slow crossover. This is supported by an analytical argument for the scaling of the penetration depth of newly arrived random walkers, and by numerical evidence on the Laurent coefficients which uniquely determine each cluster. We find common crossover behavior for the squares of the characteristic lengths and the penetration depth of the form N{sup 2/D}({alpha}+{beta}N{sup -{phi}} ) with {phi} in the range -0.3{+-}0.1 suggesting that there is a single dominant correction to scaling. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Somfai, E. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States); Sander, L. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States); Ball, R. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, (United Kingdom)

1999-12-27

194

Experimental study of vortex diffusers

This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-11-01

195

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/porous stainless steel (PSS) composite membranes in comparison with Pd/PSS membranes. While Pd/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.1 ?m nominal pore size PSS supports, Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.5 and 0.1 ?m nominal pore size PSS supports. Both Ni and Pd films were deposited using an identified novel electroless plating process that characterizes the optimal utilization of surfactant, sonication and reducing agent contacting pattern in Pd electroless plating baths. It was observed that the combinatorial plating characteristics for Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were significantly different and poorer in comparison with those obtained for the Pd/PSS membranes. In summary, it has been inferred that the introduction of nickel interdiffusion barrier was not fruitful to reduce the critical thickness of dense Pd film without jeopardizing upon the pore densification.

Pujari, Murali; Agarwal, Amrita; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

2014-06-01

196

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodological evaluation for two-finite differencing schemes for computer-aided gas turbine design is presented. The two computational schemes include; a Bounded Skewed Finite Differencing Scheme (BSUDS); and a Quadratic Upwind Differencing Scheme (QSDS). In the evaluation, the derivations of the schemes were incorporated into two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Teaching Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically (TEACH) computer code. Assessments were made according to performance criteria for the solution of problems of turbulent, laminar, and coannular turbulent flow. The specific performance criteria used in the evaluation were simplicity, accuracy, and computational economy. It is found that the BSUDS scheme performed better with respect to the criteria than the QUDS. Some of the reasons for the more successful performance BSUDS are discussed.

Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.

1985-01-01

197

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform ? mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.

Sun, Wen-Ting; Liang, Tian-Ran; Wang, Hua-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu

2007-05-01

198

ESTIMATION OF TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY WITH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF STELLAR CONVECTION

We investigate the value of horizontal turbulent diffusivity {eta} by numerical calculation of thermal convection. In this study, we introduce a new method whereby the turbulent diffusivity is estimated by monitoring the time development of the passive scalar, which is initially distributed in a given Gaussian function with a spatial scale d{sub 0}. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) assuming the relation {eta} = L{sub c} v{sub rms}/3, where v{sub rms} is the root-mean-square (rms) velocity, the characteristic length L{sub c} is restricted by the shortest one among the pressure (density) scale height and the region depth. (2) The value of turbulent diffusivity becomes greater with the larger initial distribution scale d{sub 0}. (3) The approximation of turbulent diffusion holds better when the ratio of the initial distribution scale d{sub 0} to the characteristic length L{sub c} is larger.

Hotta, H.; Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta.h@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-05-20

199

Activation and diffusion characteristics of implanted Si and Be in Al0.5In0.5P

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical activation characteristics of implanted Si and Be in Al0.5In0.5P grown lattice matched to GaAs by either organometallic vapor phase epitaxy or gas-source molecular beam epitaxy were investigated as a function of ion dose (1013-1015 cm-2), annealing time (3-60 s) and annealing temperature (600-950 °C). Limiting sheet electron densities of 9×1012 cm-2 for 100 keV Si implants and sheet hole densities of 7×1012 cm-2 for 40 keV Be implants were obtained for optimum 10 s anneals at 850 or 800 °C, respectively. Co-implantation of P with Be failed to substantially improve the Be activation. Apparent activation energies for electrical activation of Si of 0.74±0.05 eV and 0.68±0.05 eV for Be were obtained from the temperature dependence of the saturated carrier density. The implanted Be displayed extensive redistribution upon annealing at 800 °C for 10 s, whereas implanted Si showed no measurable motion under any of our conditions.

Pearton, S. J.; Hobson, W. S.; Kuo, J. M.; Luftman, H. S.; Katz, A.; Ren, F.

1992-03-01

200

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion barrier characteristics for eutectic SnBi solder/electroless Co(W,P) couples were investigated via liquid-state aging at 250°C and solid-state aging at 120°C. At the couple interface, CoSn3 intermetallic compound (IMC) spallation was observed for the SnBi/amorphous Co(W,P) couple subjected to liquid-state aging. In contrast, no spallation of IMCs was observed for the SnBi/amorphous Co(W,P) couples subjected to solid-state aging. For the SnBi/polycrystalline Co(W,P) couple, a thick IMC layer was observed adjacent to a tungsten-enriched amorphous interfacial layer regardless of aging conditions. IMC formation in all samples indicated that Co(W,P) is essentially a sacrificial barrier to SnBi solder. However, amorphous Co(W,P) might also exhibit stuffed-type barrier behavior due to its relatively high phosphorus (P) content. Analytical results indicated that the P content in Co(W,P) is a crucial factor affecting the structural evolution at the SnBi/electroless Co(W,P) interface.

Pan, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

2011-03-01

201

A nonlinear equation for ionic diffusion in a strong binary electrolyte.

The problem of the one dimensional electro-diffusion of ions in a strong binary electrolyte is considered. The mathematical description, known as the Poisson-Nerst-Planck (PNP) system, consists of a diffusion equation for each species augmented by transport due to a self consistent electrostatic field determined by the Poisson equation. This description is also relevant to other important problems in physics such as electron and hole diffusion across semi-conductor junctions and the diffusion of ions in plasmas. If concentrations do not vary appreciably over distances of the order of the Debye length, the Poisson equation can be replaced by the condition of local charge neutrality first introduced by Planck. It can then be shown that both species diffuse at the same rate with a common diffusivity that is intermediate between that of the slow and fast species (ambipolar diffusion). Here we derive a more general theory by exploiting the ratio of Debye length to a characteristic length scale as a small asymptotic parameter. It is shown that the concentration of either species may be described by a nonlinear partial differential equation which provides a better approximation than the classical linear equation for ambipolar diffusion but reduces to it in the appropriate limit. PMID:21818176

Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

2010-07-01

202

Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2)?cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13?cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5?cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a subjective loss of penile length. PMID:24430278

Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

2014-01-01

203

A microscopic model of ballistic-diffusive crossover

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several low-dimensional systems show a crossover from diffusive to ballistic heat transport when system size is decreased. Although there is some phenomenological understanding of this crossover phenomenon at the coarse-grained level, a microscopic picture that consistently describes both the ballistic and the diffusive transport regimes has been lacking. In this work we derive a scaling form for the thermal current in a class of one dimensional systems attached to heat baths at boundaries and rigorously show that the crossover occurs when the characteristic length scale of the system competes with the system size.

Bagchi, Debarshee; Mohanty, P. K.

2014-11-01

204

Character and rapidity of protein diffusion in intracellular fluids are key determinants of the dynamics and steady state of a plethora of biochemical reactions. So far, an anomalous diffusion in cytoplasmic fluids with viscoelastic and even glassy characteristics has been reported in a variety of organisms on several length scales and timescales. Here, we show that the contiguous fluid of former cytoplasm and nucleoplasm features an anisotropically varying diffusion of macromolecules during eukaryotic cell division. In metaphase, diffusion in the contiguous nucleocytoplasmic fluid appears less anomalous along the spindle axis as compared to perpendicular directions. As a consequence, the long-time diffusion of macromolecules preferentially points along the spindle axis, leading to prolonged residence of macromolecules in the spindle region. Based on our experimental data, we suggest that anisotropic diffusion facilitates the encounter and interaction of spindle-associated proteins, e.g., during the formation of a dynamic spindle matrix. PMID:25127218

Pawar, Nisha; Donth, Claudia; Weiss, Matthias

2014-08-18

205

Diffused junction p(+)-n solar cells in bulk GaAs. II - Device characterization and modelling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photovoltaic characteristics of p(+)-n junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are presented in detail. Quantum efficiency measurements were analyzed and compared to computer simulations of the cell structure in order to determine material parameters such as diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and junction depth. From the results obtained it is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells to close to 20 percent.

Keeney, R.; Sundaram, L. M. G.; Rode, H.; Bhat, I.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

1984-01-01

206

Pivoted document length normalization

Automatic information retrieval systems have to deal with documents of varying lengths in a text collection. Document length normalization is used to fairly retrieve documents of all lengths. In this study, we ohserve that a normalization scheme that retrieves documents of all lengths with similar chances as their likelihood of relevance will outperform another scheme which retrieves documents with chances

Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Manclar Mitra

1996-01-01

207

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of base p-dopant diffusion at junction interfaces of InGaAs/InAlAs HBTs with thin base thicknesses and high base dopings are reported. It is shown that HBTs with compositionally graded emitter-base (E-B) junctions are very tolerant to base dopant outdiffusion into the E-B graded region. The RF performance is nearly unaffected by the diffusion, and the dc current gain and E-B junction breakdown voltages are improved with finite Be diffusion into the E-B graded region.

Hafizi, M.; Metzger, Robert A.; Stanchina, William E.; Rensch, David B.; Jensen, Joseph F.; Hooper, William W.

1992-03-01

208

Length Conversions and Length-Weight Relations for Pallid Sturgeon

We developed conversion formulas for standard length to fork length, fork length to total length, and standard length to total length for 30 pallid sturgeons Scaphirhynchus albus from the upper Missouri River. Formulas for converting length to weight were also developed for each of the length measurements. We add our length and weight data on 30 specimens of this rare

K. D. Keenlyne; S. J. Maxwell

1993-01-01

209

Recent theoretical and experimental evaluations of diffusive samplers are considered to show that two important factors affect sampler performance. First, the geometry of the device, principally the ratio of area to length, controls the uptake rate, the response-time and the effect of variations in the face velocity. Second, the physical and chemical nature of the sorbent determines the efficiency of

MARTIN HARPER; COLIN J. PURNELL

1987-01-01

210

Measuring Thermodynamic Length

Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

Crooks, Gavin E

2007-09-07

211

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the admittance spectroscopy studies show that doping cesium fluoride (CsF) into 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) can greatly decrease the resistance of MADN and raises the Fermi level from deep level to only 0.1 eV below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, resulting in enhancing the electron injection. In addition, the diffusion width of CsF from doped MADN layer into tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminium is clearly observed by capacitance-frequency measurement and is about 9.4 nm. Moreover, the diffusion width is significant to be affected by external thermal.

Hsieh, Ming-Ta; Ho, Meng-Huan; Lin, Kuan-Heng; Chen, Jenn-Fang; Chen, Teng-Ming; Chen, Chin H.

2010-03-01

212

Multi-port co-annular burners are widely used in practice to achieve low NOx and soot emissions from combustion devices. However, there is lack of fundamental studies on the structure and flame regime under different flow conditions. A conventional laminar axisymmetric coflow diffusion flame burner was modified by introducing a central air jet inside the fuel tube to investigate how the central

F. Liu; G. J. Smallwood

2011-01-01

213

Numerical investigations of gaseous spherical diffusion flames

Spherical diffusion flames have several unique characteristics that make them attractive from experimental and theoretical perspectives. They can be modeled with one spatial dimension, which frees computational resources for detailed chemistry, transport, and radiative loss models. This dissertation is a numerical study of two classes of spherical diffusion flames: hydrogen micro-diffusion flames, emphasizing kinetic extinction, and ethylene diffusion flames, emphasizing

Vivien R. Lecoustre

2009-01-01

214

The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser

Y. Senoo

1984-01-01

215

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will introduce you to circumference of a circle, and how to find the measurement of the edge of a piece of pizza! (Arc length!) Ok. Let's make sure you remember circumference of a circle, you know, the distance around a circle? Click on the following link and take notes! Circle Circumference Now we can use that to find the arc length, or the length of the crust part of the edge of a pizza! Take notes: Arcs in Circles Now, let's ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-24

216

Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.

Rashidnia, Nasser

2001-01-01

217

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is use to review the concepts of diffusion and osmosis 1. Watch the tutorials on diffusion and osmosis. Take the online quiz at the end of each one. Diffusion Animation Osmosis Animation 2. Do the interactive lab on diffusion. Stop when you get to the calculating water potential section. Diffusion/Osmosis Interactive Demo 3. Play the Quia review games. Quia Games- matching/concetration Quia Jeopardy 4. Check out the Elodea leaf cells. Be able to ...

Jensen

2007-11-26

218

Welding arc length control system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

219

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Force and pressure-recovery characteristics of a nacelle-type conical-spike inlet with a fixed-area bypass located in the top or bottom of the diffuser are presented for flight Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 for angles of attack from 0 degrees to 9 degrees. Top or bottom location of the bypass did not have significant effects on diffuser pressure-recovery, bypass mass-flow ratio, or drag coefficient over the range of angles of attack, flight Mach numbers, and stable engine mass-flow ratios investigated. A larger stable subcritical operating range was obtained with the bypass on the bottom at angles of attack from 3 degrees to 9 degrees at a flight Mach number of 2.0. At a flight Mach number of 2.0, the discharge of 14 percent of the critical mass flow of the inlet by means of a bypass increased the drag only one-fifth of the additive drag that would result for equivalent spillage behind an inlet normal shock without significant reductions in diffuser pressure recovery.

Allen, J L; Beke, Andrew

1953-01-01

220

The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M

2014-03-25

221

A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, Juan; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Ron L.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Radford, Davis; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

2013-02-11

222

On collisional diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field

The effect of particle collisions on the transport in a stochastic magnetic field in tokamaks is investigated. The model of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils at the plasma edge is used for the stochastic magnetic field. The particle collisions are simulated by a random walk process along the magnetic field lines and the jumps across the field lines at the collision instants. The dependencies of the local diffusion coefficients on the mean free path ?{sub mfp}, the diffusion coefficients of field lines D{sub FL}, and the collisional diffusion coefficients, ?{sub ?} are studied. Based on these numerical data and the heuristic arguments, the empirical formula, D{sub r}=?{sub ?}+v{sub ||}D{sub FL}/(1+L{sub c}/?{sub mfp}), for the local diffusion coefficient is proposed, where L{sub c} is the characteristic length of order of the connection length l{sub c}=?qR{sub 0}, q is the safety factor, R{sub 0} is the major radius. The formula quite well describes the results of numerical simulations. In the limiting cases, the formula describes the Rechester-Rosenbluth and Laval scalings.

Abdullaev, S. S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

2013-08-15

223

The spatial length, time, and propagation characteristics of the ocean mesoscale variability are examined throughout the globe. Sea surface height (SSH) variations from a combination of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission, ERS-1, ERS-2, and TOPEX\\/Poseidon altimeter satellites are used to compute the observed covariance of the mesoscale. The mesoscale is defined as the residual SSH after removing a filtered large-scale

G. A. Jacobs; C. N. Barron; R. C. Rhodes

2001-01-01

224

Length-Dependent Resistance of Thin Wires

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of wires with cross-sectional areas of order 1 × 10-11 cm2 and lengths as small as 0.2 ?m have been studied. At temperatures below about 10 K, the resistance of the wires increases with decreasing temperature, as found in previous studies of much longer wires. For wires shorter than about 5 ?m, the resistance rise decreases as the length of the wire is decreased. From these results a characteristic length scale of approximately 0.2 ?m at 1.5 K is found, in good agreement with the current theory.

Masden, J. T.; Giordano, N.

1982-09-01

225

The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion

Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.

Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romick, Christopher [NOTRE DAME; Powers, Joseph [NOTRE DAME

2010-01-01

226

Myofilament length dependent activation

The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

2010-05-25

227

Two-dimensional network simulation of diffusion-driven coarsening of foam inside a porous medium

In order to use foams in subsurface applications, it is necessary to understand their stability in porous media. Diffusion-driven coarsening of a stationary or nonflowing foam in a porous medium results in changing gas pressures and a coarsening of the foam texture. A two-dimensional network simulation has been created that predicts the behavior of foam in a porous medium by physically specifying the locations of all the lamellae in the system and by solving the complete set of Young-Laplace and diffusion equations. An hourglass approximates the shape of the pores, and the pore walls are considered to be highly water wet. A singularity arises in the system of differential algebraic equations due to the curvature of the pore walls. This singularity is a signal that the system must undergo oscillations or sudden lamellar rearrangements before the diffusion process can continue. Newton-Raphson iteration is used along with Keller`s method of arc-length continuation and a new jump resolution technique to locate and resolve bifurcations in the system of coupled lamellae. Gas bubbles in pore throats are regions of encapsulated pressure. As gas is released from these bubbles during diffusion, the pressure of the bubbles in the pore bodies increases. When the pressure increase is scaled by the characteristic Young-Laplace pressure, the equilibrium time for the diffusion process is scaled by the ratio of the square of the characteristic length to the gas diffusivity and two dimensionless groups. One describes the ease with which gas can diffuse through a lamella, and the second represents the amount of gas encapsulated within the pore throats initially. Given this scaling, the resulting plots of pressure versus time and normalized lamellae positions versus time are universal for all system sizes and characteristics. This is true as long as the initial lamella distribution is the same in each case.

Cohen, D.; Radke, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Patzek, T.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-05-10

228

Two-dimensional network simulation of diffusion driven coarsening of foam inside a porous medium

In order to use foams in subsurface applications, it is necessary to understand their stability in porous media. Diffusion driven coarsening of a stationary or nonflowing foam in a porous medium results in changing gas pressures and a coarsening of the foam texture. A two-dimensional network simulation has been created that predicts the behavior of foam in a porous medium by physically specifying the locations of all the lamellae in the system and by solving the complete set of Young-Laplace and diffusion equations. An hourglass approximates the shape of the pores, and the pore walls are considered to be highly water wet. A singularity arises in the system of differential algebraic equations due to the curvature of the pore walls. This singularity is a signal that the system must undergo oscillations or sudden lamellar rearrangements before the diffusion process can continue. Newton-Raphson iteration is used along with Keller`s method of arc-length continuation and a new jump resolution technique to locate and resolve bifurcations in the system of coupled lamellae. Gas bubbles in pore throats are regions of encapsulated pressure. As gas is released from these bubbles during diffusion, the pressure of the bubbles in the pore bodies increases. When the pressure increase is scaled by the characteristic Young-Laplace pressure, the equilibrium time for the diffusion process is scaled by the ratio of the square of the characteristic length to the gas diffusivity and two dimensionless groups. One describes the ease with which gas can diffuse through a lamella, the second represents the amount of gas encapsulated within the pore throats initially. Given this scaling, the resulting plots of pressure versus time and normalized lamellae positions versus time are universal for all system sizes and characteristics. This is true as long as the initial lamella distribution is the same in each case.

Cohen, D.; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.

1996-04-01

229

Compressor and fan wake characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

1978-01-01

230

Diffusion of Ni, Ga, and As in the surface layer of GaAs and characteristics of the Ni/GaAs contact

The authors investigate the low-temperature codiffusion of Ni, Ga, and As in the surface layer of gallium arsenide and study its effect on the current-voltage characteristics of a Ni/GaAs rectifier contact. The concentration distribution of atoms in the function layer of a Ni-GaAs system was investigated by the methods of layerwise radiometric and neutron-activation analyses. It was found that interdiffusion of components takes place in the Ni-GaAs system in an elastic stress field, generated by the differences in the lattice parameters and thermal-expansion coefficients of Ni, GaAs, and the intermetallic compound which form. The form and parameters of the current-voltage characteristics of a Ni/GaAs contact are determined by the phase composition and the structure of the junction layer.

Uskov, V.A.; Fedotov, A.B.; Erofeeva, E.A.; Rodionov, A.I.; Dzhumakulov, D.T.

1987-07-01

231

Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform alpha mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted

Wen-Ting Sun; Tian-Ran Liang; Hua-Bo Wang; He-Ping Li; Cheng-Yu Bao

2007-01-01

232

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependences of the mode noise where determined for a fiber-optic communication line of length 20 km subjected to modulation at a subcarrier frequency of 70 MHz. The communication line consisted of multimode graded-index fiber waveguides. The spectral width of the emission line of the radiation source (? = 1.3 ?m) employed in this study was determined. It was found that a change in the frequency modulation depth of a signal by 2 dB could reduce the mode noise level by 10 dB.

Bessonov, Yu L.; Dianov, Evgenii M.; Duraev, V. P.; Kirik, Yu M.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Shcherbakov, E. A.

1988-10-01

233

Relativistic Length Agony Continued

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

Redzic, D. V.

2014-06-01

234

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effect of nitrogen admixture on the electric field in positive column of diffuse glow discharge in various rare gases at intermediate pressures is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The discharge is maintained in a cylindrical glass tube. Earlier it was observed and reproduced in calculations that addition of N2 (1%) to Ar at pressure 40 Torr led to noticeable decrease in the electric field strength at a fixed discharge current. In the present work there are results for pure Ne and Ne + 1%N2 gas mixtures at pressure 40 Torr. It is found that the addition of N2 to Ne leads to the increase in the electric field strength; the observed effect is reproduced in calculations. The explanation of differences in the impact of N2 addition on the electric field strength in Ar and Ne discharges is given. On the basis of the performed analysis it is predicted that the addition of N2 to He leads to the increase in the electric field in the discharge and the addition of N2 to Xe leads to the decrease in the electric field. For the case of He, the prediction is experimentally confirmed in this work, while for the case of Xe, it is corroborated by literature data.

Dyatko, N. A.; Ionikh, Y. Z.; Meshchanov, A. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

2013-09-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly built static vacuum water vapor diffusion chamber was built to measure the concentration of ice nuclei (INs) at the top of Huangshan (the Yellow Mountains) in Southeast China. The experiments were conducted under temperatures between - 15 °C and - 23 °C and supersaturations with respect to ice between 4% and 25%. The results show that the average IN concentration was in the range of 0.27 to 7.02 L- 1, when the temperature was varied from - 15 °C to - 23 °C. The changes in IN concentrations with time were correlated with the change of number concentration of the aerosol particles of 0.5-20 ?m in diameter. The square correlation coefficients (R2) between IN and coarse aerosol particles (0.5-20 ?m in diameter) were all higher than 0.60, much higher than that (0.10) between IN and smaller particles (0.01-0.5 ?m). The concentration of ice nuclei at 14:00 LST was significantly higher than that at 08:00 LST, which is correlated with the diurnal variation of the concentration of aerosol particles. A parametric equation was developed based on measurements to represent the variations of IN concentration with temperature and supersaturation.

Jiang, Hui; Yin, Yan; Su, Hang; Shan, Yunpeng; Gao, Renjie

2015-02-01

236

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the concepts of length, perimeter, and area. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to perimeter and area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about perimeter and area.

2010-01-01

237

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore the concept of using units to measure length. Learners first read "Ladybug on the Move" by Richard Fowler and measure the distance the ladybug travels on each page using yarn. Next, learners make their own "Go Ladybug Go!" books and use lima beans and a ladybug ruler to make and record measurements.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-09-18

238

Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

2014-01-01

239

Identifying anomalous diffusion and melting in dusty plasmas

Anomalous diffusion in liquids and the solid-liquid phase transition (melting) are studied in two-dimensional Yukawa systems. The self-intermediate scattering function (self-ISF), calculated from simulation data, exhibits a temporal decay, or relaxation, with a characteristic relaxation time. This decay is found to be useful for distinguishing normal and anomalous diffusion in a liquid, and for identifying the solid-liquid phase transition. For liquids, a scaling of the relaxation time with length scale is found. For the solid-liquid phase transition, the shape of the self-ISF curve is found to be a sensitive indicator of phase. Friction has a significant effect on the timing of relaxation, but not the melting point.

Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2010-09-15

240

Rotational diffusion of magnetic nickel nanorods in colloidal dispersions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal dispersions of Ni nanorods were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into nanoporous aluminum oxide layers followed by dissolution of the templates. Geometrical characterization of the nanorods by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allowed us to determine the average length (100-250 nm) and diameter (20-40 nm) of the rods and to estimate the thickness of the polyvinylpyrrolidone surfactant layer. Due to their acicular shape, nanorods of the given size are uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain particles and exhibit a distinct anisotropic polarizability. These two characteristic properties are the physical basis for magnetic field-dependent optical transmission and allow us to investigate the rotational diffusion of the nanorods in liquid dispersion. In the present study, we employed AC magnetization measurements, dynamical light scattering and optical transmission measurements in a rotating magnetic field to determine the rotational diffusion coefficient. The results from all three methods were consistent and agree with theory within a factor of 2.

Günther, A.; Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

2011-08-01

241

Interrelationships of Watershed Characteristics

The application of the principles of dimensional analysis to obtain the relationships between characteristics of the unit hydrograph and topographic and morphometric properties of a watershed is not possible unless careful consideration is given to the selection of variables. Evidence is presented which shows that, in small watersheds, drainage-area size A, length of the main stream L, and length to

Don M. Gray

1961-01-01

242

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics of InP-based In(x)Ga(1-x)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As (0.53 is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 0.70) pseudomorphic modulation-doped field-effect transistors (MODFET's) as a function of strain in the channel, gate, length, and temperature were investigated analytically and experimentally. The strain in the channel was varied by varying the In composition x. The temperature was varied in the range of 40-300 K and the devices have gate lengths L(sub g) of 0.8 and 0.2 microns. Analysis of the device was done using a one-dimensional self consistent solution of the Poisson and Schroedinger equations in the channel, a two-dimensional Poisson solver to obtain the channel electric field, and a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the carrier transit times in the channel. An increase in the value of the cutoff frequency is predicted for an increase in In composition, a decrease in temperature, and a decrease in gate length. The improvements seen with decreasing temperature, decreasing gate length, and increased In composition were smaller than those predicted by analysis. The experimental results on pseudomorphic InGaAs/InAlAs MODFET's showed that there is a 15-30 percent improvement in cutoff frequency in both the 0.8- and 0.2-micron gate length devices when the temperature is lowered from 300 to 40 K.

Lai, Richard; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Yang, David; Brock, Timothy L.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.

1993-01-01

243

Diffusion Times of the Geomagnetic Secular Variation Through the Electrically Conducting Mantle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mantle of the Earth acts as a low-pass filter for a geomagnetic signal diffusing from the CMB upwards, such that an original delta function signal arrives at the surface smoothed and delayed. In general the transmission characteristics of the mantle are studied only for the magnetic radial component. In this contribution the point is made that the quite different transmission characteristics of the tangential components also require consideration. The following two statements express that tangential magnetic components are stronger affected by mantle conductivity than radial components. (a) Looking downwards: If the radial and tangential magnetic components associated with the secular variation of a Gauss coefficient, observed at the surface of the Earth, are continued to the CMB, the tangential component shows greater dynamics than the radial component, e.g. if the tangential component behaves as ? (t), the radial component shows a smoother 1/? {t} variation. (b) Looking upwards: The diffusion or delay time, with which an original delta function signal arrives at the surface, is a linear functional of the mantle conductivity [Backus, G.E., Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc, 74, 713-746, 1983], with weights depending on the spherical degree. Significantly greater weights are attributed to the tangential diffusion times. Moreover, in this case the conductivity close to the CMB is weighted most, whereas for radial diffusion the smallest weights are assigned to the conductivity near the CMB. For degree n=1 and a diffusion time of one year, weighted mantle conductivity averages of 3 S/m and 8.6 S/m are required for tangential and radial diffusion, respectively. The width of the diffused delta function signal is broader for tangential diffusion. The consideration of tangential diffusion alleviates the problem of the exceedingly high mantle conductivities required so far to explain the 1969 geomagnetic jerk by the 1956 elbow in the length-of-day variations, but does not yet solve it.

Stadelmann, J.; Weidelt, P.

2001-12-01

244

Adaptive smoothing lengths in SPH

Context: There is a need to improve the fidelity of SPH simulations of self-gravitating gas dynamics. Aims: We remind users of SPH that, if smoothing lengths are adjusted so as to keep the number of neighbours, ${\\cal N}$, in the range ${\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}\\pm\\Delta{\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}$, the tolerance, $\\Delta{\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}$, should be set to zero, as first noted by Nelson & Papaloizou. We point out that this is a very straightforward and computationally inexpensive constraint to implement. Methods: We demonstrate this by simulating acoustic oscillations of a self-gravitating isentropic monatomic gas-sphere (cf. Lucy), using ${\\cal N}_{_{\\rm TOT}}\\sim6,000$ particles and ${\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}=50$. Results: We show that there is a marked reduction in the rates of numerical dissipation and diffusion as $\\Delta{\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}$ is reduced from 10 to zero. Moreover this reduction incurs a very small computational overhead. Conclusions: We propose that this should become a standard test for codes used in simulating star formation. It is a highly relevant test, because pressure waves generated by the switch from approximate isothermality to approximate adiabaticity play a critical role in the fragmentation of collapsing prestellar cores. Since many SPH simulations in the literature use ${\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}=50$ and $\\Delta{\\cal N}_{_{\\rm NEIB}}\\geq10$, their results must be viewed with caution.

R. E. Attwood; S. P. Goodwin; A. P. Whitworth

2007-01-31

245

Telomere length in reproduction.

Telomeres, noncoding hexameric tandem repeats located at the ends of chromosomes, maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity. These guanine-rich repeats are highly conserved during evolution, and their role is dependent on their length and structure. They have multiple functions, including regulating the reproductive lifespan by mediating synapsis and homologous recombination of the chromosomes. Short telomeres result in meiotic arrest, segregation abnormalities and dysjunction, which lead to an increased incidence of aneuploid germ cells. In addition, shortened telomeres in men result in apoptosis of germ cells, whereas, in women, they result in meiotic arrest. In somatic cells, telomere shortening occurs at each consecutive round of replication, which induces senescence in vitro and in vivo. However there is a 2-fold elongation of telomeres during spermatogenesis. Spermatozoa, are terminally differentiated cells, have longer telomeres than spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes. In addition to genetic factors, lifestyle factors and psychological stress also play crucial role in modulating telomere length. Because not much is known about its role in reproduction, we focused this review on the function, structure and length dynamics of the telomere in the reproductive process. PMID:22928904

Thilagavathi, J; Venkatesh, S; Dada, R

2013-10-01

246

This author's recent proposal of interferometric tests of Planck-scale-related properties of space-time is here revisited from a strictly phenomenological viewpoint. The results announced previously are rederived using elementary dimensional considerations. The dimensional analysis is then extended to the other two classes of experiments (observations of neutral kaons at particle accelerators and observations of the gamma rays we detect from distant astrophysical sources) which have been recently considered as opportunities to explore "foamy" properties of space-time. The emerging picture suggests that there is an objective and intuitive way to connect the sensitivities of these three experiments with the Planck length. While in previous studies the emphasis was always on some quantum-gravity scenario and the analysis was always primarily aimed at showing that the chosen scenario would leave a trace in a certain class of doable experiments, the analysis here reported takes as starting point the experiments and, by relating in a direct quantitative way the sensitivities to the Planck length, provides a model-independent description of the status of Planck-length phenomenology.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2000-08-04

247

Lengthy Relationships: Foot Length, Stride, Leg Length, Height

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleontologists occasionally find ancient tracks and footprints preserved in the rocks. This lesson opens the door to analysing those footprints, and gleaning information about body size and activities of the extinct animals that made the tracks. Students will learn that patterns can reveal much about the past, in light of the present; and that bipedalism has appeared several times. Relationships will be found between foot length and leg length; foot length and height; leg length and height; stride length and leg length; and stride length and speed.

Johnson, Jennifer

248

Tracer diffusion in silica inverse opals.

We employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study the diffusion of small fluorescence tracers in liquid filled silica inverse opals. The inverse opals consisted of a nanoporous silica scaffold spanning a hexagonal crystal of spherical voids of 360 nm diameter connected by circular pores of 70 nm diameter. The diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488 in water and of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) in toluene was studied. Three diffusion modes could be distinguished: (1) Free diffusion limited by the geometric constraints given by the inverse opal, where, as compared to the free solution, this diffusion is slowed down by a factor of 3-4, (2) slow diffusion inside the nanoporous matrix of the silica scaffold, and (3) diffusion limited by adsorption. On the length scale of the focus of a confocal microscope of roughly 400 nm diffusion was non-Fickian in all cases. PMID:20232884

Cherdhirankorn, Thipphaya; Retsch, Markus; Jonas, Ulrich; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Koynov, Kaloian

2010-06-15

249

Approximate sample sizes required to estimate length distributions

The sample sizes required to estimate fish length were determined by bootstrapping from reference length distributions. Depending on population characteristics and species-specific maximum lengths, 1-cm length-frequency histograms required 375-1,200 fish to estimate within 10% with 80% confidence, 2.5-cm histograms required 150-425 fish, proportional stock density required 75-140 fish, and mean length required 75-160 fish. In general, smaller species, smaller populations, populations with higher mortality, and simpler length statistics required fewer samples. Indices that require low sample sizes may be suitable for monitoring population status, and when large changes in length are evident, additional sampling effort may be allocated to more precisely define length status with more informative estimators. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Miranda, L.E.

2007-01-01

250

Diffusing acoustic wave spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusing Acoustic Wave Spectroscopy (DAWS) is an ultrasonic technique that has been developed to measure the dynamics of heterogeneous media from the temporal fluctuations of multiply scattered waves. This technique is similar to more recent developments in field fluctuation spectroscopy, called coda wave interferometry, that use variations in the seismic coda to infer changes in the medium with time. After reviewing the basic principles on which Diffusing Acoustic Wave Spectroscopy is based [M. L. Cowan, J. H. Page, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 453 (2000); Phys. Rev. E 65, 066605 (2002)], its potential as a sensitive method for probing the dynamics of strongly scattering materials will be illustrated with recent experiments on fluidized suspensions of particles. In this type of system, DAWS measures the local relative motion of the scatterers (or strain rate) on a length scale determined by the transport mean free path of the multiply scattered waves. When combined with the complementary technique of Dynamic Sound Scattering using singly scattered waves, DAWS can also determine the instantaneous velocity correlation length of the moving scatterers, thus giving a quite complete picture of the system dynamics over a wide range of length and time scales.

Page, John H.; Cowan, Michael L.; Weitz, David A.

2002-11-01

251

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion tube was designed to operate below about 0.25 percent of water supersaturation. It is simply a long tube lined on the inside with a damp chamois cloth, and heated isothermally to a few degrees centigrade above the incoming air. The diffusion coefficient for water vapor is slightly larger than that for heat, making it possible to supersaturate the airflow. This is the same principle by which transient supersaturations may occur in parallel plate cloud chambers. Only the diffusion of vapor and heat from the walls into the moving air are considered.

Leaitch, R.; Megaw, W. J.

1981-01-01

252

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper treats the issue of the length of a rotating circumference as seen from on board the moving disk and from an inertial reference frame. It is shown that, properly defining a measuring process, the result is in both cases 2?R thus dissolving the Ehrenfest paradox. The same holds good when considering that, for the rotating observer, the perceived radius coincides with the curvature radius of a space-time helix and a complete round trip corresponds to an angle which differs from the one seen by the inertial observer. The apparent contradiction with the Lorentz contraction is discussed.

Tartaglia, A.

1999-02-01

253

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students measure the length of the day using the rotation of the Earth, and discover that the Sun is not exactly in the same place at the same clock time every day, understand that the changes are due to motions of the Earth, and lead to differences in solar, star, and sidereal time. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

254

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameterizations of the vertical eddy diffusivity over homogeneous terrain in neutral, stable and unstable conditions for the entire atmospheric boundary layer are proposed using the mixing length theory. The formulation utilizes the theoretically derived local mixing length scale that is composed of three component length scales. Proposed profiles of the eddy diffusivity in various stability conditions are compared to those reported in the literature. The proposed profiles of the eddy diffusivity are used in a generalized analytical model for dispersion of pollutants released from a continuous source in the atmospheric boundary layer. The dispersion model describing the crosswind integrated concentrations is briefly presented. By considering the proposed and other commonly applied parameterizations of eddy diffusivity, the dispersion model is evaluated with the tracer observations obtained from Copenhagen diffusion experiment in unstable conditions, Prairie Grass experiment in both unstable and stable conditions and Hanford experiment in stable conditions. The dispersion model with proposed parameterizations of the eddy diffusivity is performing reasonably well with the observations and demonstrates throughout a consistent and good performance in the concentration estimation for elevated and surface releases from a continuous point source in various stability conditions. Though the magnitudes of the various eddy diffusivities are different from the proposed one, the profiles of all parameterizations in terms of the shape have almost similar characteristics. The differences in the magnitudes of diffusion produced by various parameterizations cause minor but noticeable changes in the simulation of ground level concentrations from the dispersion model. In very stable conditions, the agreement of the model evaluations with measurements is less satisfactory and none of the parameterizations used here including proposed one is adequate to describe the atmospheric dispersion process in these conditions.

Kumar, Pramod; Sharan, Maithili

2012-03-01

255

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

1981-01-01

256

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

Lueck, Dale E. (inventor)

1994-01-01

257

Many length scales surface fractality in monomolecular films of whole myelin lipids and proteins.

Monomolecular films prepared with all the lipid and protein components of myelin were spread at the air/aqueous buffer interface from isolated bovine spinal cord myelin fully dissolved in chloroform:methanol (2:1) or by surface free energy shock of myelin membrane microvesicles. These monolayers show indistinguishable surface behavior, with similar compositional phase coexistence through all the compression isotherm on several subphase conditions. The domains were observed through epifluorescence and Brewster angle microscopy on the air/water interface and on Langmuir-Blodgett films. Their thickness was measured ellipsometrically. Under molecular packing conditions resembling those found in the natural membrane, the morphology and size of the domains are highly self-similar, displaying no characteristic length scale. These properties are the hallmark of fractal objects. The fractality extends at least three orders of magnitudes, from the micrometer to the millimeter range, the fractal dimension being about 1.7. A possible implication of fractality in membrane structure and/or function is demonstrated through the high fluctuation of the propagation of signals through constrained diffusion in corrals formed by domains in the plane of the monolayer, which restricts the diffusion of a fluorescent probe over many length scale domains. PMID:15681232

Oliveira, Rafael G; Tanaka, Motomu; Maggio, Bruno

2005-02-01

258

The long and short of food-chain length

Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that has attracted considerable attention for over 75 years because it strongly affects community structure, ecosystem processes and contaminant concentrations. Conventional wisdom holds that either resource availability or dynamical stability limit food-chain length; however, new studies and new techniques challenge the conventional wisdom and broaden the discourse on food-chain length. Recent

David M. Post

2002-01-01

259

Lorentz ordering (causality) implies the following rule: for any given energy p0 of a system there is a certain interval c0 on x0 so that their product is the Lorentz ordering constant L It means p0c0 = L. The constant L=hc. Hence Planck constant h in a similar way as c are both consequences of Lorentz metric. The basic ideas are: 1. Lorentz metric implies that x0 must represent a length like the other components of x in X 2. The dual metric space X* is well defined since the Lorentz metric tensor is not singular. The components of the vectors p in X*are interpreted as representing energy. The properties of the physical systems that are direct consequences of the detailed structure of X and X*, and so expressed through the Lorentz Limit L are presented.

Alexandru C Mihul; Eleonora A Mihul

2006-08-25

260

Metagenomics: read length matters.

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (approximately 100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (approximately 750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72% of the COG hits found using long reads. Noting the current limitation in computational approaches for the analysis of short sequences, the use of short-read-length libraries does not appear to be an appropriate tool for the metagenomic characterization of microbial communities. PMID:18192407

Wommack, K Eric; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ravel, Jacques

2008-03-01

261

Metagenomics: Read Length Matters? †

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (?100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (?750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72% of the COG hits found using long reads. Noting the current limitation in computational approaches for the analysis of short sequences, the use of short-read-length libraries does not appear to be an appropriate tool for the metagenomic characterization of microbial communities. PMID:18192407

Wommack, K. Eric; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ravel, Jacques

2008-01-01

262

Symmetry distribution between hook length and part length for partitions

2009/04/09 Symmetry distribution between hook length and part length for partitions Christine Bessenrodt and Guo-Niu Han ABSTRACT. -- It is known that the two statistics on integer partitions "hook and to the left of v, in the same column as v and under v). See Fig.1. We define the hook length (resp. part

Bessenrodt, Christine

263

Revealing mesoscopic structural universality with diffusion

Measuring molecular diffusion is widely used for characterizing materials and living organisms noninvasively. This characterization relies on relations between macroscopic diffusion metrics and structure at the mesoscopic scale commensurate with the diffusion length. Establishing such relations remains a fundamental challenge, hindering progress in materials science, porous media, and biomedical imaging. Here we show that the dynamical exponent in the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient distinguishes between the universality classes of the mesoscopic structural complexity. Our approach enables the interpretation of diffusion measurements by objectively selecting and modeling the most relevant structural features. As an example, the specific values of the dynamical exponent allow us to identify the relevant mesoscopic structure affecting MRI-measured water diffusion in muscles and in brain, and to elucidate the structural changes behind the decrease of diffusion coefficient in ischemic stroke. PMID:24706873

Novikov, Dmitry S.; Jensen, Jens H.; Helpern, Joseph A.; Fieremans, Els

2014-01-01

264

Particle diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an elementary introduction to particle diffusion in a medium where the coefficient of diffusion varies with position. The introduction is aimed at third-year university courses. We start from a simple model of particles hopping on a discrete lattice, in one or more dimensions, and then take the continuous-space limit so as to obtain the differential equation of diffusion. The discrete-step model is next adapted to investigate diffusion by continuous-length steps; the coefficient of diffusion is related to the mean free path. In both the discrete- and continuous-step models, the diffusion law has the Fokker-Planck (instead of Fick) pattern if the jumps are not biased and occur equally likely in all directions. Lastly, three experimental examples of diffusion in inhomogeneous media are examined; the observed law can be of a Fokker-Planck, Fick or hybrid type.

Bringuier, E.

2011-07-01

265

Chromosome-length polymorphism in fungi.

The examination of fungal chromosomes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed that length polymorphism is widespread in both sexual and asexual species. This review summarizes characteristics of fungal chromosome-length polymorphism and possible mitotic and meiotic mechanisms of chromosome length change. Most fungal chromosome-length polymorphisms are currently uncharacterized with respect to content and origin. However, it is clear that long tandem repeats, such as tracts of rRNA genes, are frequently variable in length and that other chromosomal rearrangements are suppressed during normal mitotic growth. Dispensable chromosomes and dispensable chromosome regions, which have been well documented for some fungi, also contribute to the variability of the fungal karyotype. For sexual species, meiotic recombination increases the overall karyotypic variability in a population while suppressing genetic translocations. The range of karyotypes observed in fungi indicates that many karyotypic changes may be genetically neutral, at least under some conditions. In addition, new linkage combinations of genes may also be advantageous in allowing adaptation of fungi to new environments. PMID:8531892

Zolan, M E

1995-01-01

266

We present our studies on the physicochemical properties of water confined in Dibutylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide) ([C4C4im][NTf2]) reverse micelles through the NMR relaxation measurements that provide us an understanding of microviscosity and pH in the confined condition. We present experimental results on phase behavior, diffusion, structural characteristics and pH in aqueous ionic liquid-confined media. The ternary phase diagram was constructed by the cloud point measurements and the microheterogeneous regions were detected by the measurement of bulk viscosity and diffusion coefficients of K4[Fe(CN)6] inside the homogeneous microemulsion systems through the cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. The size of the microemulsion systems was characterized by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. The (1)H NMR spectra of homogeneous microemulsion systems were taken which indicates the presence of bound and free water molecules inside the microemulsion system. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured and the reorientational correlation time (?c) of water molecules obtained from it indicates that the fluidity of homogeneous confined media decreases with the decrease in the composition of water. Microviscosity of the aqueous confined media was calculated from the measured T1 relaxation time values by applying the Debye-Stokes equation and correlated with the bulk viscosity of the samples. It was observed that both the microviscosity and bulk viscosity show inverse relationship. The fraction of bound and free water molecules were calculated from the measured T1 values. NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured with the varying pH of the aqueous core. A change in the T2 relaxation time of the water proton was observed proposing an exchange of proton between the H2O and -OH group of the TX-100 molecules. Finally, methyl orange (MO) was used as a UV-vis spectrophotometric molecular probe and the measured ?max values of the probe were used for the detection of micropolarity of the homogeneous aqueous confined media and was found to be increase with the increase in the size of the confined media. PMID:25555212

Nanda, Raju; Kumar, Anil

2015-01-29

267

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical characteristics of absorption and scattering of irradiated tissue determine light spatial distribution and the subsequent biological effects, which could decide the dosimetry for laser medical applications. Studys have shown that the optical properties of bio-tissue could be determined through some fitting algorithms with spatially resolved diffuse reflectance theory based on the measurement of diffuse reflectance. The regression of reflectance data with by diffusion theory model was important for optical properties estimation. In the paper, the reflectance versus distance data acquired from Monte Carlo method was by fit to diffusion theory model by the nonliear least-squares fitting algorithm to study the produre and mothod of determination of optical properties. And attention was especially paid to the influence of the radial step width ?r, length of radial distance rL and start value of radial distance r0 on the regression results. Preliminary results indicated that the radial step width and length of radial distance rL both have little influence on the fitting. Nevertheless, the start value of radial distance r0 of reflectance data has great influence on the fitting. Fitting deviation would become little while the start value of radial distance r0 grow greater. and an appropriate r0 was important for data fitting. Study also showd a more accurate light diffuse reflectance theoretical model was need for estimate the optical parameters by fitting the diffuse reflectance data accurately. Our work maybe be helpful to the experiment measurement of light diffuse reflectance data for noninvasive optical properties determination.

Peng, Dong-qing; Li, Hui

2012-12-01

268

Metagenomics: Read length matters

Obtaining an unbiased view of the phylogenetic composition and functional diversity within a microbial community is one central objective of metagenomic analysis. New technologies, such as 454 pyrosequencing, have dramatically reduced sequencing costs, to a level where metagenomic analysis may become a viable alternative to more-focused assessments of the phylogenetic (e.g., 16S rRNA genes) and functional diversity of microbial communities. To determine whether the short (?100 to 200 bp) sequence reads obtained from pyrosequencing are appropriate for the phylogenetic and functional characterization of microbial communities, the results of BLAST and COG analyses were compared for long (?750 bp) and randomly derived short reads from each of two microbial and one virioplankton metagenome libraries. Overall, BLASTX searches against the GenBank nr database found far fewer homologs within the short-sequence libraries. This was especially pronounced for a Chesapeake Bay virioplankton metagenome library. Increasing the short-read sampling depth or the length of derived short reads (up to 400 bp) did not completely resolve the discrepancy in BLASTX homolog detection. Only in cases where the long-read sequence had a close homolog (low BLAST E-score) did the derived short-read sequence also find a significant homolog. Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences. Among COG hits, derived short reads sampled at a depth of two short reads per long read missed up to 72 % of the COG hits found using long reads.

K. Eric Wommack; Jaysheel Bhavsar; Jacques Ravel

2008-01-01

269

We analyzed a diffusion model based on the assumption that the sufficient condition for the mass flux at point x+L to be different from zero is a nonzero value of the impurity gradient and of impurity concentration at point x. In our model, the length of the jump of diffusing particles from one equilibrium position to another has a defined

A. J. Janavicius; A. Poskus

2005-01-01

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the statistics underlying cloudy sky radiative transfer (RT) by inspection of the distribution of the path lengths of solar photons. Recent studies indicate that this approach is promising, since it might reveal characteristics about the diffusion process underlying atmospheric radiative transfer (Pfeilsticker, 1999). Moreover, it uses an observable that is directly related to the atmospheric absorption and, therefore, of climatic relevance. However, these studies are based largely on the accuracy of the measurement of the photon path length distribution (PPD). This paper presents a refined analysis method based on high resolution spectroscopy of the oxygen A-band. The method is validated by Monte Carlo simulation atmospheric spectra. Additionally, a new method to measure the effective optical thickness of cloud layers, based on fitting the measured differential transmissions with a 1-dimensional (discrete ordinate) RT model, is presented. These methods are applied to measurements conducted during the cloud radar inter-comparison campaign CLARE’98, which supplied detailed cloud structure information, required for the further analysis. For some exemplary cases, measured path length distributions and optical thicknesses are presented and backed by detailed RT model calculations. For all cases, reasonable PPDs can be retrieved and the effects of the vertical cloud structure are found. The inferred cloud optical thicknesses are in agreement with liquid water path measurements.

Funk, O.; Pfeilsticker, K.

2003-03-01

271

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have extended the utility of NMR as a technique to probe porous media structure over length scales of approximately 100-2000 microm by using the spin 1/2 noble gas 129Xe imbibed into the system's pore space. Such length scales are much greater than can be probed with NMR diffusion studies of water-saturated porous media. We utilized Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the xenon gas filling the pore space to study further the measurements of both the pore surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V(p), and the tortuosity (pore connectivity) of the medium. In uniform-size glass bead packs, we observed D(t) decreasing with increasing t, reaching an observed asymptote of approximately 0.62-0.65D(0), that could be measured over diffusion distances extending over multiple bead diameters. Measurements of D(t)/D(0) at differing gas pressures showed this tortuosity limit was not affected by changing the characteristic diffusion length of the spins during the diffusion encoding gradient pulse. This was not the case at the short time limit, where D(t)/D(0) was noticeably affected by the gas pressure in the sample. Increasing the gas pressure, and hence reducing D(0) and the diffusion during the gradient pulse served to reduce the previously observed deviation of D(t)/D(0) from the S/V(p) relation. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate between the long and short time limits in D(t). While the short time D(t) points lay above the interpolation line in the case of small beads, due to diffusion during the gradient pulse on the order of the pore size, it was also noted that the experimental D(t) data fell below the Pade line in the case of large beads, most likely due to finite size effects.

Mair, R. W.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Sen, P. N.; Schwartz, L. M.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

2001-01-01

272

ACCELERATING DATA ACQUISITION FOR REVERSED-GRADIENT DISTORTION CORRECTION IN DIFFUSION MRI to estimate diffusion characteristics in highly-distorted regions. Geometric distortions can be accurately to different PEOs). We use the acquired distorted diffusion images ( ) to estimate undistorted images

Leahy, Richard M.

273

Coaxial atomizer liquid intact lengths

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Average intact lengths of round liquid jets generated by airblast coaxial atomizer were measured from over 1500 photographs. The intact lengths were studied over a jet Reynolds number range of 18,000 and Weber number range of 260. Results are presented for two different nozzle geometries. The intact lengths were found to be strongly dependent on Re and We numbers. An empirical equation was derived as a function of these parameters. A comparison of the intact lengths for round jets and flat sheets shows that round jets generate shorter intact lengths.

Eroglu, Hasan; Chigier, Norman; Farago, Zoltan

1991-01-01

274

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

2013-01-01

275

Mode structure of diffusive transport in hydroxypropylcellulose:water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic analysis of the mode structure of diffusive relaxations in 1 MDa hydroxypropylcellulose(HPC):water is presented. New methods and data include (1) use of integral spectral moments to characterize nonexponential decays, (2) spectra of small probes in concentrated HPC solutions, (3) temperature dependence of the mode structure, and (4) comparison of optical probe spectra and spectra of probe-free polymer solutions. We find that (1) probe and polymer relaxations are in general not the same; (2) the apparent viscometric crossover near ct?6 g/l is echoed by probe behavior; (3) our HPC solutions have a characteristic dynamic length, namely the 50 nm length that matches the polymer's hydrodynamic radius; (4) characterization of spectral modes with their mean relaxation time affords simplifications relative to other characterizations; and (5) contrary to some expectations, Stokes-Einsteinian behavior (diffusion rate determined by the macroscopic viscosity) is not observed, even for large probes in relatively concentrated solutions. We propose that the viscometric and light scattering effects found in HPC solutions at elevated concentrations reflect the incipient formation of a generalized Kivelson [S. A. Kivelson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 2391 (1994)] glass.

Phillies, George D. J.; O'Connell, Robert; Whitford, Paul; Streletzky, Kiril A.

2003-11-01

276

Relations between some characteristic lengths in a triangle

Keywords: Pythagorean Theorem, Altitude Theorem, Cathetus Theorems, Groebner basis, poly- nomial The Pythagorean group of theorems We start by noting the Pythagorean group of theorems. Assume a right triangle sections. Of course by construction the equation c p q= + is valid. The Pythagorean theorem is given

Koepf, Wolfram

277

THE THEORY OF DIFFUSION IN CELL MODELS

The differential equations which describe the simultaneous diffusion of water and a salt in a cell model have been formulated and solved. The equations have been derived from the general laws which describe diffusion processes, thereby furnishing a physical interpretation for the constants which enter into the theory. The theoretical time curves for the two diffusing substances are in good agreement with the experimentally determined curves and accurately reproduce all of the essential characteristics of the experiment. PMID:19872775

Longsworth, Lewis G.

1933-01-01

278

IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

2005-05-15

279

Photothermal radiometry measurement of thermal diffusivity.

A method of measuring the thermal diffusivity of solid material at room temperature with photothermal radiometry is described. By measuring the amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of the photothermal signal, the thermal diffusivity is calculated and compared with the value obtained by the pulsed laser conductometer method. PMID:20577370

Qian, L; Li, P

1990-10-01

280

Linear study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a diffusive quantum plasma

The linear Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an incompressible quantum plasma is investigated on the basis of quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the occurrence of RT instability depends on density-temperature inhomogeneity (characteristic lengths) on one hand, and the system layer size on the other. It is also observed that the combined effects of external magnetic field, diffusivity, and quantum pressure significantly modify the dispersion properties of system in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. For any case, the imaginary and real parts of dispersion relation are presented and the possibility and conditions for the instability growth rate are discussed.

Momeni, Mahdi [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-08-15

281

Flux saturation length of sediment transport.

Sediment transport along the surface drives geophysical phenomena as diverse as wind erosion and dune formation. The main length scale controlling the dynamics of sediment erosion and deposition is the saturation length Ls, which characterizes the flux response to a change in transport conditions. Here we derive, for the first time, an expression predicting Ls as a function of the average sediment velocity under different physical environments. Our expression accounts for both the characteristics of sediment entrainment and the saturation of particle and fluid velocities, and has only two physical parameters which can be estimated directly from independent experiments. We show that our expression is consistent with measurements of Ls in both aeolian and subaqueous transport regimes over at least 5 orders of magnitude in the ratio of fluid and particle density, including on Mars. PMID:24313529

Pähtz, Thomas; Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

2013-11-22

282

Diffusion of an alkane molecule in siliceous zeolite beta Matthew Aronson

1 Diffusion of an alkane molecule in siliceous zeolite beta Matthew was performed to study the diffusion of an alkane molecule in siliceous zeolite beta, as a function of chain length and temperature. The alkane was modeled

Shell, M. Scott

283

Vortex/Flame Interactions in Microgravity Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of vortex/flame interaction is of fundamental importance to turbulent combustion. These interactions have been studied in normal gravity. It was found that due to the interactions between the imposed disturbances and buoyancy induced instabilities, several overall length scales dominated the flame. The problem of multiple scales does not exist in microgravity for a pulsed laminar flame, since there are no buoyancy induced instabilities. The absence of buoyant convection therefore provides an environment to study the role of vortices interacting with flames in a controlled manner. There are strong similarities between imposed and naturally occurring perturbations, since both can be described by the same spatial instability theory. Hence, imposing a harmonic disturbance on a microgravity laminar flame creates effects similar to those occurring naturally in transitional/turbulent diffusion flames observed in microgravity. In this study, controlled, large-scale, axisymmetric vortices are imposed on a microgravity laminar diffusion flame. The experimental results and predictions from a numerical model of transient jet diffusion flames are presented and the characteristics of pulsed flame are described.

Bahadori, M. Y.; Hegde, U.; Stocker, D. P.

1999-01-01

284

Exciton annihilation and diffusion in semiconducting polymers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that time-resolved luminescence measurements at high excitation densities can be used to study exciton annihilation and diffusion, and report the results of such measurements on films of P3HT and MEH-PPV. The results fit to an exciton-exciton annihilation model with a time independent annihilation rate ?, which was measured to be ? = (2.8+/-0.5)×10 -8 cm 3s -1 in MEH-PPV and ? = (5.2+/-1)×10 -10 cm 3s -1 in P3HT. This implies much faster diffusion in MEHPPV. Assuming a value of 1 nm for the annihilation radius we evaluated the diffusion length for pristine P3HT in one direction to be 3.2 nm. Annealing of P3HT was found to increase the annihilation rate to (1.1+/-0.2)×10 -9 cm 3s -1 and the diffusion length to 4.7 nm.

Shaw, P. E.; Lewis, A. J.; Ruseckas, A.; Samuel, I. D. W.

2006-08-01

285

Incarceration Length, Employment, and Earnings

This paper estimates effects of increases in incarceration length on employment and earnings prospects of individuals after their release from prison. I utilize a variety of research designs including controlling for observable factors and using instrumental variables for incarceration length based on randomly assigned judges with different sentencing propensities. The results show no consistent evidence of adverse labor market consequences

Jeffrey R. Kling

2006-01-01

286

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is Lesson 1 of a five lesson unit. "This lesson focuses students' attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement, their feet. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length." (from NCTM Illuminations)

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-28

287

Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

Moriarty, Sandra E.

1986-01-01

288

Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research. PMID:21755691

Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

2010-01-01

289

Multiport Diffuser as Line Source of Momentum in Shallow Water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiport diffusers are linear structures consisting of many closely spaced nozzles which inject a series of high-velocity jets into an ambient fluid. The discharge of heated water into the shallow coastal zone is considered herein as a typical practice for cooling water disposal from steam electric power generation. The flow and temperature fields, induced in the otherwise stagnant and homogeneous fluid layer, are analyzed by representing the diffuser as a line source of fluid momentum in a two-dimensional coordinate system, thus neglecting the initial momentum transfer zone in which the three-dimensional jets merge to produce a vertically fully mixed flow. A scaling argument which considers the effect of pressure deviations, turbulent bottom friction, and lateral turbulent diffusion shows that the flow field can be divided into the near field, of order of the diffuser length, and into the far field, at longer distances. The near field is characterized by a predominantly inviscid behavior and gives rise to a contracting slipstream motion, qualitatively similar to the slipstream produced by an airscrew. The shape of the slip streamline is found by mapping the complex potential of the flow into the log hodograph plane. The boundary conditions at the diffuser line are assumed to be a uniform normal velocity and a uniform longitudinal acceleration. The interior velocity and pressure distribution are determined through a finite difference solution using the known geometry of the slipstream. Results indicate a strong separation angle (60°) of the slipstream at the diffuser and a rapid approach to the asymptotic contraction value (½). An integral model is developed for the depth-averaged temperature and velocity in the far field of the `diffuser plume' (i.e., a localized current with elevated temperatures with weaker velocities and a uniform temperature outside). The model includes the effect of turbulent friction at the plume bottom, described by a quadratic friction law, and of lateral turbulent entrainment, described by the entrainment hypothesis of Morton et al. (1956). The far-field model is combined with the inviscid near-field solution, thus superimposing the real fluid effects onto the properties of the contracting slipstream. Two distinctive features characterize the diffuser plume. First, it experiences an exponential loss of fluid momentum through turbulent bottom friction which leads to an ultimate plume stagnation at a characteristic distance ƒ0LD/(16H), where ƒ0 is a quadratic friction coefficient, LD the diffuser length, and H the water depth, and also puts a limit on the total lateral entrainment flow. Second, the initial plume characteristics, and thus its rate of entrainment, are controlled by the accelerating high-velocity slipstream in the vicinity of the line source. Experiments in a shallow laboratory basin corroborate the theoretical results, both as regards the qualitative features of the contracting slipstream and the quantitative observations of induced velocities and flow rates.

Lee, Joseph H.; Jirka, Gerhard H.

1980-08-01

290

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magnetic forces are present in a partially ionized medium, the plasma drifts with respect to the neutrals. This plasma—neutral drift, which is known as ambipolar diffusion, occurs in all partially ionized astrophysical systems, including portions of the interstellar medium, protostellar accretion disks, and the chromosphere of the Sun and other cool stars. Ambipolar drift redistributes magnetic flux, which can trigger star formation. It affects short wavelength interstellar turbulence, the structure of interstellar shocks, flow driven instabilities, and the nature of magnetic reconnection. Energy dissipated by ion-neutral friction can be an important source of heat. This chapter reviews ambipolar drift as a process and discusses some of the implications.

Zweibel, Ellen G.

291

Channel Length Scaling Effects in Graphene Field-Effect Transistor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurement and analysis of the current-voltage characteristics in the high-bias regime of graphene field-effect transistors of different channel lengths. The devices are fabricated with a gate dielectric process based on a polyvinyl alcohol adsorption layer, enabling reliable top-gates with the highest reported efficiency. Device characteristics are strongly determined by velocity saturation of the carriers, the zero-bandgap density-of states, contact doping, and tunneling. Contact doping strongly reduces the effective channel length in the absence of ``spacer'' between the gated channel region and the contacts. Surface polar optical phonon scattering determines saturation velocities down to short channel lengths. At the shortest channel lengths, band-to-band tunneling degrades device output conductance and transconductance.

Meric, Inanc; Chauhan, Jyotsna; Han, Melinda; Kim, Philip; Guo, Jing; Shepard, Kenneth L.

2010-03-01

292

Electron heating effects in diffusive metal wires

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the electron heating in metallic diffusive wires of varying length at liquid-helium temperature by measuring the electric noise. The local increase of the electron temperature can be essential already for small currents and is well described by a heat-diffusion equation for the electrons. Depending on the electron thermal conductance and the electron-phonon coupling in the wire, different length regimes are identified. The quantitative knowledge of the electron temperature is important for analysis of nonequilibrium effects involving current heating in mesoscopic wires.

Henny, M.; Birk, H.; Huber, R.; Strunk, C.; Bachtold, A.; Krüger, M.; Schönenberger, C.

1997-08-01

293

Recent theoretical and experimental evaluations of diffusive samplers are considered to show that two important factors affect sampler performance. First, the geometry of the device, principally the ratio of area to length, controls the uptake rate, the response-time and the effect of variations in the face velocity. Second, the physical and chemical nature of the sorbent determines the efficiency of sampling and desorption and the magnitude of the effects of sample retention and interferences. Combined, these factors control the maximum permissible sampling range in terms of exposure time and concentration. Careful consideration of geometry and sorbent enables selection of the most appropriate device for any situation. It is not felt that these devices offer a lower level of precision and accuracy compared to presently available dynamic sampling methods. Their enormous potential both in terms of cost and simplicity must be an important factor in any decision concerning their future role in industrial hygiene monitoring.

Harper, M.; Purnell, C.J.

1987-03-01

294

SLOW DIFFUSIVE GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY BEFORE DECOUPLING

Radiative diffusion damps acoustic modes at large comoving wavenumber (k) before decoupling ('Silk damping'). In a simple WKB analysis, neglecting moments of the temperature distribution beyond the quadrupole (the tight-coupling limit), damping appears in the acoustic mode as a term of order ik{sup 2}tau-dot{sup -1}, where tau-dot is the scattering rate per unit conformal time. Although the Jeans instability is stabilized on scales smaller than the adiabatic Jeans length, I show that the medium is linearly unstable to first order in tau-dot{sup -1} to a slow diffusive mode. At large comoving wavenumber, the characteristic growth rate becomes independent of spatial scale and constant: (t{sub KH} a){sup -1} approx (128piG/9kappa{sub T} c)(rho{sub m}/rho{sub b}), where a is the scale factor, rho{sub m} and rho{sub b} are the matter and baryon energy density, respectively, and kappa{sub T} is the Thomson opacity. This is the characteristic timescale for a fluid parcel to radiate away its total thermal energy content at the Eddington limit, analogous to the Kelvin-Helmholz (KH) timescale for a radiation pressure-dominated massive star or the Salpeter timescale for black hole growth. Although this mode grows at all times prior to decoupling and on scales smaller than roughly the horizon, the growth time is long, about 100 times the age of the universe at decoupling. Thus, it modifies the density and temperature perturbations on small scales only at the percent level. The physics of this mode in the tight-coupling limit is already accounted for in the popular codes CMBFAST and CAMB, but is typically neglected in analytic studies of the growth of primordial perturbations. The goal of this work is to clarify the physics of this diffusive instability in the epoch before decoupling, and to emphasize that the universe is formally unstable on scales below the horizon, even in the limit of very large tau-dot. Analogous instabilities that might operate at yet earlier epochs are also mentioned.

Thompson, Todd A., E-mail: thompson@astronomy.ohio-state.ed [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2010-02-01

295

Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station facilities, cannot involve soot emitting flames in order to ensure that test chamber windows used for experimental observations are not blocked by soot deposits, thereby compromising unusually valuable experimental results. Another important motivation to define conditions where soot is present in diffusion flames is that flame chemistry, transport and radiation properties are vastly simplified when soot is absent, making such flames far more tractable for detailed numerical simulations than corresponding soot-containing flames. Motivated by these observations, the objectives of this phase of the investigation were as follows: (1) Observe flame-sheet shapes (the location of the reaction zone near phi=1) of nonluminous (soot free) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of flame-sheet shapes for these conditions; (2) Observe luminous flame boundaries of luminous (soot-containing) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of luminous flame boundaries for these conditions. In order to fix ideas here, maximum luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point conditions were sought, i.e., luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point; (3) Observe effects of coflow on laminar soot- and smoke-point conditions because coflow has been proposed as a means to control soot emissions and minimize the presence of soot in diffusion flames.

Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

296

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

Baring, Matthew

2003-04-01

297

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 ParanaÂ´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

Hoeinghaus, David J.

298

Hand-ginned cotton length distributions

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Instrumentation such as the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS™) analyzes cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber length distributions because variations in fiber length distribution impacts spinning performance. AFIS provides mean length, upper quartile length, fineness, and maturity for fibers ...

299

The Diffusion of Process Innovations: A Selective Review

This paper surveys some of the most noteworthy literature on the diffusion of process technologies from the point of view of economics. It examines the main theoretical approaches to the diffusion phenomenon: epidemic and learning effects, equilibrium models associated with firm characteristics and strategic interaction. It also discusses the role of the supply side. Empirical work modelling inter-firm diffusion is

Rui Baptista

1999-01-01

300

Fisher equation for anisotropic diffusion: Simulating South American human dispersals

The Fisher equation is commonly used to model population dynamics. This equation allows describing reaction-diffusion processes, considering both population growth and diffusion mechanism. Some results have been reported about modeling human dispersion, always assuming isotropic diffusion. Nevertheless, it is well-known that dispersion depends not only on the characteristics of the habitats where individuals are but also on the properties of

Luis A. Martino; Ana Osella; Claudio Dorso; José L. Lanata

2007-01-01

301

Numerical analysis of a vortex controlled diffuser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study of a prototypical vortex controlled diffuser is performed. The basic diffuser geometry consists of a step expansion in a pipe of area ratio 2.25:1. The incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, employing the K-epsilon turbulence model, are solved. Results are presented for bleed rates ranging from 1 to 7 percent. Diffuser efficiencies in excess of 80 percent are obtained. Reattachment lengths are reduced by a factor of up to 3. These results are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental work. However, differences in some basic details of experimentally observed and the present numerically generated flowfields exist. The effect of swirl is also investigated.

Spall, Robert E.

1993-01-01

302

Optimal Patent Length and Breadth

In providing rewards to innovators, there is a tradeoff between patent length and breadth. This article provides conditions under which the optimal patent policy involves infinitely-lived patents, with patent breadth adjusting to provide the required reward for innovation.

Richard Gilbert; Carl Shapiro

1990-01-01

303

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a Euro-VO research initiative, we have undertaken a programme aimed at studying the scale length of 54909 Sa-Sd spiral galaxies from the SDSS DR6 catalogue. We have retrieved u, g, r, i, z-band images for all galaxies in order to derive the light profiles. We also calculate asymmetry parameters to select non-disturbed disks for which we will derive exponential disk scale lengths. As images in different bands probe different optical depths and stellar populations, it is likely that a derived scale length value should depend on waveband, and our goal is to use the scale length variations with band pass, inclination, galaxy type, redshift, and surface brightness, in order to better understand the nature of spiral galaxies.

Fathi, K.; Allen, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Peletier, R.

2009-07-01

304

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum simulations are used to assess the effects of shear-induced diffusion and secondary flow kinematics on the enhancement of mixing and adsorption during flow of suspensions in microfluidic channels. Unidirectional flow in rectangular channels is considered, as well as flow in channels with a topographically patterned wall that generates transverse flow. Patterns that lead both to chaotic and nonchaotic kinematics are considered. Effects of shear-induced diffusion due to the presence of suspended particles are incorporated via an empirical shear-rate dependent diffusivity. It is observed that for the bulk mixing case the most significant enhancement is due to convection. Channels with chaotic flow have the best mixing characteristics, followed by channels with swirling, nonchaotic flow. Only a small increase in mixing due to shear-induced diffusion is observed. For the case of adsorption from the bulk to a channel wall, on the other hand, it is observed that the most significant enhancement is due to shear-induced diffusion. Channels with secondary flows, both chaotic and nonchaotic, circulate solute-depleted fluid away from the adsorbing boundary but this is not sufficient to guarantee high fluxes toward the surface when the diffusivities are small. The most effective way to enhance adsorption is through the combination of both secondary flow and shear-induced diffusion. Secondary flow circulates fluid between bulk and boundary layer, while shear-induced diffusion enhances transport across the boundary layer. Nevertheless, under the large Peclet number conditions considered here, only a maximum of 30% of the solute is adsorbed to the surface for channels with length of 300 channel heights; for smooth channels without shear-induced diffusion this fraction is only 3%.

Lopez, Mauricio; Graham, Michael D.

2008-05-01

305

Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Quenching

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For about a half century, the stabilization of a steady planar deflagration on a heat-sink-type flat-flame burner has been of extraordinary service for the theoretical modeling and diagnostic probing of combusting gaseous mixtures. However, most engineering devices and most unwanted fire involve the burning of initially unmixed reactants. The most vigorous burning of initially separated gaseous fuel and oxidizer is the diffusion flame. In this useful idealization (limiting case), the reactants are converted to product at a mathematically thin interface, so no interpenetration of fuel and oxidizer occurs. This limit is of practical importance because it often characterizes the condition of optimal performance (and sometimes environmentally objectionable operation) of a combustor. A steady planar diffusion flame is most closely approached in the laboratory in the counterflow apparatus. The utility of this simple-strain-rate flow for the modeling and probing of diffusion flames was noted by Pandya and Weinberg 35 years ago, though only in the last decade or so has its use become internationally common place. However, typically, as the strain rate a is reduced below about 20 cm(exp -1), and the diffusion-flame limit (reaction rate much faster than the flow rate) is approached, the burning is observed to become unstable in earth gravity. The advantageous steady planar flow is not available in the diffusion-flame limit in earth gravity. This is unfortunate because the typical spatial scale in a counterflow is (k/a)(sup 1/2), where k denotes a characteristic diffusion coefficient; thus, the length scale becomes large, and the reacting flow is particularly amenable to diagnostic probing, as the diffusion-flame limit is approached. The disruption of planar symmetry is owing the fact that, as the strain rate a decreases, the residence time (l/a) of the throughput in the counterflow burner increases. Observationally, when the residence time exceeds about 50 msec, the inevitably present convective (Rayleigh-Benard) instabilities, associated with hot-under-cold (flame-under-fresh-reactant) stratification of fluid in a gravitational field, have time to grow to finite amplitude during transit of the burner.

Fendell, Francis; Rungaldier, Harald; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Schultz, Donald

1997-01-01

306

The influence of a voltage ramp on the measurement of I-V characteristics of a solar cell

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For efficiency and convenience the voltage applied to a Si solar cell is often fairly rapidly driven from zero to the open circuit value typically at a common rate of 1 V per millisecond. During this time the values of current are determined as a function of the instantaneous voltage thus producing an I-V characteristic. The present paper shows that the customary expressions for the current as a function of cell parameters still remain valid provided that the diffusion length in the expression for the dark current is changed from its steady state value L to the effective diffusion length L1 given by L1 = L(1 + qV/kT.tau) to the -1/2, where V is the ramp rate considered constant and tau is the lifetime of minority carriers. This result is true to a very good approximation provided that low level injection prevails.

Von Roos, O.

1980-01-01

307

Is Arnold diffusion relevant to global diffusion?

Global diffusion of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is investigated by using a coupled standard maps. Arnold web is visualized in the frequency space, using local rotation numbers, while Arnold diffusion and resonance overlaps are distinguished by the residence time distributions at resonance layers. Global diffusion in the phase space is shown to be accelerated by diffusion across overlapped resonances generated by the coupling term, rather than Arnold diffusion along the lower-order resonances. The former plays roles of hubs for transport in the phase space, and accelerate the diffusion.

Seiichiro Honjo; Kunihiko Kaneko

2003-07-27

308

Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species from the Aegean Sea (Greece)

Summary We present the relationships between total (TL), fork(FL) and standard (SL) length for 37 fish species and the relationships between TL and wet weight for 40 fish species from the Aegean Sea (Cyclades; Greece). The relationships between TL, FL and SL were all linear (for all cases: r2 > 0.928). The values of the exponent b of the length-weight

D. K. Moutopoulos; K. I. Stergiou

2002-01-01

309

The effect of cavitation on the hydrofoil dynamic characteristics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation in hydraulic machinery usually causes a change of fluid dynamic characteristics. In order to predict the effect of cavitation on hydrofoil characteristics, the cavitation around a hydrofoil was studied numerically. The full cavitation model and a modified RNG k ?-turbulence model were used. The finite volume method with the SIMPLEC scheme was used to discretize the time-dependent equations. The second-order upwind scheme was used for the convection terms with the central difference scheme used for the diffusion terms. Fluid dynamic characteristics including cavity's length, shedding frequency, pressure coefficient and lift and drag force coefficients features in a range of cavitation number were analyzed. Computations were made on the three-dimensional flow field around a NACA66 hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack. The recording force signals exhibit periodic behaviours with the time. And the cavity shedding frequency increases with the cavitation number, however the length of cavity decreases with the cavitation number, which result in changing of lift-drag ratio. Especially for larger cavitation numbers, the lift drag ratio of cavitation field is getting closer and closer to that of non-cavitation field.

Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhi, F. L.

2013-12-01

310

Cylindrical diffuser performance using a truncated plug nozzle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cylindrical diffuser performance for a truncated plug nozzle without external flow was tested in a blowdown wind tunnel. The nozzle was designed for an exit Mach number of 1.9 and the plug was conical in shape from the throat and converged to the axis of symmetry at an angle of 10 degrees. The diffuser section was fashioned into two 13.97 cm lengths to facilitate boring of the duct diameter and to allow for testing of two different duct lengths. A slotted hypotube was installed in the base of the diffuser to measure pressure distribution down the centerline of the diffuser. The data obtained included: the typical centerline and sidewall pressure ratio variation along the diffuser, cell pressure ratio vs overall pressure ratio for long and short diffusers and a comparison of minimum experimental cell pressure ratio vs area ratio.

Galanga, F. L.; Mueller, T. J.

1976-01-01

311

Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some "stable" microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility.

Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Selcuk Yasar, M.; Ross, Jennifer

2011-03-01

312

Diffusion of Singlet Excitons in Tetracene Crystals

The diffusion length ls of singlet excitons in crystalline tetracene was measured in the temperature range 293 to 160 °K utilizing the quenching effect exerted on the crystal fluorescence by exciton traps located at the crystal surface. It is found that ls = 120 ± 10 Å at room temperature. It increases exponentially with decreasing temperature until it approaches a

G. Vaubel; H. Baessler

1970-01-01

313

Parallel flow diffusion battery

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01

314

Slip Diffusion and Lévy Flights of an Adsorbed Gold Nanocluster

Anomalous diffusion of a gold nanocrystal Au140, adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite, exhibiting Lévy-type power-law flight-length and sticking-time distributions, is predicted through extensive molecular dynamics simulations. An atomistic collective slip-diffusion mechanism is proposed and analyzed.

W. D. Luedtke; Uzi Landman

1999-01-01

315

IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

1999-01-01

316

Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

2013-01-01

317

Screening length in plasma winds

We study the screening length L_s of a heavy quark-antiquark pair in strongly coupled gauge theory plasmas flowing at velocity v. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we investigate, analytically, the screening length in the ultra-relativistic limit. We develop a procedure that allows us to find the scaling exponent for a large class of backgrounds. We find that for conformal theories the screening length is (boosted energy density)^{-1/d}. As examples of conformal backgrounds we study R-charged black holes and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black holes in (d+1)-dimensions. For non-conformal theories, we find that the exponent deviates from -1/d and as examples we study the non-extremal Klebanov-Tseytlin and Dp-brane geometries. We find an interesting relation between the deviation of the scaling exponent from the conformal value and the speed of sound.

Elena Caceres; Makoto Natsuume; Takashi Okamura

2006-07-28

318

Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

Thumm, Manfred

2014-12-01

319

Overview of bunch length measurements.

An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

Lumpkin, A. H.

1999-02-19

320

Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederick A. (Andersonville, TN)

2000-01-01

321

Cooperative Length Scale and Fragility of Polystyrene under Confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While thin films are an attractive model system to investigate the impact of confinement on glassy behavior, extending studies beyond thin films to geometries of higher dimensionalities is vital from both scientific and technological viewpoints. In this talk, we present the impact of confinement on the characteristic length at the glass transition as well as the fragility for confined polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles under isochoric conditions. We measure the glass transition temperature (Tg), fictive temperature (Tf) and isochoric heat capacity of silica-capped PS nanoparticles as a function of diameter via differential scanning calorimetry. From the measurement of Tf, we obtain the isochoric fragility, and via the fluctuation formula, the characteristic length at the glass transition. We illustrate that confinement under isochoric conditions for PS nanoparticles leads to a significant increase in the isochoric fragility while the characteristic length is reduced with size. At the minimum the results demonstrate a relationship between fragility and the characteristics length of isochorically-confined polymer that is not intuitive from the Adam-Gibbs theory.

Zhang, Chuan; Guo, Yunlong; Priestley, Rodney

2012-02-01

322

Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Finite Length Rough Gas Journal Bearings

Surface roughness effects on the hydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of finite length gas journal bearings has been studied by numerically solving the ensemble averaged compressible Reynolds equation. Analysis is based on the premise that the ensemble averaged Reynolds equation with film thickness averages using incompressible lubrication assumptions is valid for compressible lubrication at moderate compressibility numbers (??100). Film thickness averages are

Nagaraj K. Arakere; H. D. Nelson; R. L. Rankin

1990-01-01

323

Robustness of compound Dirichlet priors for Bayesian inference of branch lengths.

We modified the phylogenetic program MrBayes 3.1.2 to incorporate the compound Dirichlet priors for branch lengths proposed recently by Rannala, Zhu, and Yang (2012. Tail paradox, partial identifiability and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29:325-335.) as a solution to the problem of branch-length overestimation in Bayesian phylogenetic inference. The compound Dirichlet prior specifies a fairly diffuse prior on the tree length (the sum of branch lengths) and uses a Dirichlet distribution to partition the tree length into branch lengths. Six problematic data sets originally analyzed by Brown, Hedtke, Lemmon, and Lemmon (2010. When trees grow too long: investigating the causes of highly inaccurate Bayesian branch-length estimates. Syst. Biol. 59:145-161) are reanalyzed using the modified version of MrBayes to investigate properties of Bayesian branch-length estimation using the new priors. While the default exponential priors for branch lengths produced extremely long trees, the compound Dirichlet priors produced posterior estimates that are much closer to the maximum likelihood estimates. Furthermore, the posterior tree lengths were quite robust to changes in the parameter values in the compound Dirichlet priors, for example, when the prior mean of tree length changed over several orders of magnitude. Our results suggest that the compound Dirichlet priors may be useful for correcting branch-length overestimation in phylogenetic analyses of empirical data sets. PMID:22328570

Zhang, Chi; Rannala, Bruce; Yang, Ziheng

2012-10-01

324

Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.

Marsh, B. D.

2004-05-01

325

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffuse radiation field in the UV (900-3,000 A) affects the structure of galactic molecular clouds and conveys important information concerning the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of gas and dust in the universe. Continuum emission in this range is probably dominated by interstellar dust scattering in our galaxy. For view directions and angular resolutions allowing observations in the rifts between galactic dust clouds, the background due to the integrated light of spiral galaxies may be detected, providing important information on their structure and evolution. The redshifted emission from an intergalactic medium may be observable in the regions between nearby bright galaxies. Present observations provide weak constraints on the radiation field required to ionize the intergalactic medium at the level required by the Gunn-Peterson test.

Paresce, F.; Jakobsen, P.

1980-01-01

326

Calibration of the Mixing-length Theory for Convective White Dwarf Envelopes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calibration of the mixing-length parameter in the local mixing-length theory (MLT) is presented for the lower part of the convection zone in pure-hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. The parameterization is performed from a comparison of three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD simulations with a grid of one-dimensional (1D) envelopes with a varying mixing-length parameter. In many instances, the 3D simulations are restricted to the upper part of the convection zone. The hydrodynamical calculations suggest, in those cases, that the entropy of the upflows does not change significantly from the bottom of the convection zone to regions immediately below the photosphere. We rely on this asymptotic entropy value, characteristic of the deep and adiabatically stratified layers, to calibrate 1D envelopes. The calibration encompasses the convective hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the effective temperature range 6000 <= T eff (K) <=15, 000 and the surface gravity range 7.0 <= log g <= 9.0. It is established that the local MLT is unable to reproduce simultaneously the thermodynamical, flux, and dynamical properties of the 3D simulations. We therefore propose three different parameterizations for these quantities. The resulting calibration can be applied to structure and envelope calculations, in particular for pulsation, chemical diffusion, and convective mixing studies. On the other hand, convection has no effect on the white dwarf cooling rates until there is a convective coupling with the degenerate core below T eff ~ 5000 K. In this regime, the 1D structures are insensitive to the MLT parameterization and converge to the mean 3D results, hence they remain fully appropriate for age determinations.

Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Fontaine, G.; Steffen, M.; Brassard, P.

2015-02-01

327

Positron diffusion in solid and liquid metals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We made a systematic study of the diffusion of positrons in several liquid and solid metals with a vertical positron beam. Several interesting effects have been observed by studying the line shape parameter S, the fraction of positronium formed at the surface, and the diffusion length of positrons in liquids. The S parameter and the fraction of positronium created and released at the surface (F parameter) were measured as a function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases of Ga, Bi, Na, Sn, In, and Pb. An appreciable change just below or across the melting point in the S parameter was measured in metals where positron trapping has not been observed (Ga, Bi, and Sn). In metals where positron trapping occurs in the solid phase, there is a small change or none in the S parameter (Pb and In), which indicates that there is only a small change in the nature of the traps. Positron trapping was seen in all the liquid metals, indicating that they have a high density of defectlike sites that trap positrons. The diffusion length of positrons in the liquid was extracted from the experimental data. In Ga, Bi, and Sn, there is a large drop in the diffusion length upon melting; in Pb and In, only a small change or none is seen. In all liquid metals the diffusion length increases as the temperature increases, suggesting that diffusion is related to trapping in temporary fluctuations in the liquid's structure. The positron moves from fluctuation to fluctuation. The size of the traps strongly depends on temperature, and so when it increases, the positron's hopping motion increases. We also measured the reemitted energy spectra of positrons from liquid and solid surfaces. No appreciable change was seen with increasing temperature or when the metals melted.

Gramsch, E.; Lynn, K. G.; Throwe, J.; Kanazawa, I.

1999-06-01

328

To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to pumped-sampling methods in a long-term monitoring program, such as at the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2005-01-01

329

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were to use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the oxygen-reduction reaction under lower humidification conditions than previously studied. The EIS technique permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction, mass transport of O2 in the membrane, and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Electrode-kinetic parameters for the oxygen-reduction reaction, corrosion current densities for Pt, and double-layer capacitances were calculated. The production of water due to electrochemical reduction of oxygen greatly influenced the EIS response and the electrode kinetics at the Pt/Nafion interface. From the finite-length Warburg behavior, a measure of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion and diffusion-layer thickness was obtained. An analysis of the EIS data in the high-frequency domain yielded membrane and interfacial characteristics such as ionic conductivity of the membrane, membrane grain-boundary capacitance and resistance, and uncompensated resistance.

Parthasarathy, Arvind; Dave, Bhasker; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, John A.; Martin, Charles R.

1992-01-01

330

Telomere length in human blastocysts.

This is a retrospective study aiming to assess telomere length in human embryos 4 days post fertilization and to determine whether it is correlated to chromosomal ploidy, embryo developmental rate and patient age. Embryos were donated from patients undergoing treatment in the assisted conception unit. Seven couples took part, generating 35 embryos consisting of 1130 cells. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) measured the telomere length of every cell using a pan-telomeric probe. Conventional FISH on six chromosomes was used to assess aneuploidy in the same cells. Maternal and paternal age, referral reason, embryo developmental rate and type of chromosomal error were taken into account. Chromosomally abnormal cells were associated with shorter telomeres than normal cells for embryos that were developmentally slow. Cells produced by women of advanced maternal age and those with a history of repeated miscarriage tended to have substantially shorter telomeres. There was no significant difference in telomere length with respect to the rate of embryo development 5 days post fertilization. Telomeres play an important role in cell division and shorter telomeres may affect embryonic ploidy. Reduced telomere length was associated with aneuploid cells and embryos from women of advanced maternal age. PMID:24581987

Mania, Anastasia; Mantzouratou, Anna; Delhanty, Joy D A; Baio, Gianluca; Serhal, Paul; Sengupta, Sioban B

2014-05-01

331

Telomere Length Wildlife Aging Technique

2/22/2009 1 Telomere Length as a Wildlife Aging Technique Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries GraduateNon-invasive genetic sampling Telomeres: Â· Form Â· Function Â· Methods of measuring Â· Telomeres in wildlife aging #12;2/22/2009 4 Telomere Form: Â·Short repeated sequences of DNA Â·Found at the ends of linear eukaryotic

Gray, Matthew

332

Persistent Criminality and Career Length

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

2007-01-01

333

Seismic Hazard and Fault Length

If mx is the largest earthquake magnitude that can occur on a fault, then what is mp, the largest magnitude that should be expected during the planned lifetime of a particular structure? Most approaches to these questions rely on an estimate of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, obtained by regression (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) of fault length (or area) and

N. M. Black; D. D. Jackson; L. Mualchin

2005-01-01

334

Significance of tumor length as prognostic factor for esophageal cancer.

Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length 3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length 3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

Zeybek, Arife; Erdo?an, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

2013-01-01

335

Significance of Tumor Length as Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Cancer

Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length ?3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length ?3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

Zeybek, Arife; Erdo?an, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

2013-01-01

336

Length dependence of carbon nanotube thermal conductivity and the "problem of long waves"

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first calculations of finite length carbon nanotube thermal conductivity that extend from the ballistic to the diffusive regime, throughout a very wide range of lengths and temperatures. The long standing problem of vanishing scattering of the "long wavelength phonf dramatically here, making the thermal conductivity diverge as the nanotube length increases. We show that the divergence disappears if 3-phonon scattering processes are considered to second or higher order. Nevertheless, for defect free nanotubes, the thermal conductivity keeps increasing up to very large lengths (10 gm at 300 K). Defects in the nanotube are also able to remove the long wavelength divergence.

Mingo, N.; Broido, D. A.

2005-01-01

337

Aeolian sand transport: Length and height distributions of saltation trajectories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report wind-tunnel measurements on aeolian sand transport aiming at characterizing the distribution of the length and height of trajectories of the saltating particles. We employ a simple horizontal sand trap device to assess the distribution of saltation length while the distribution of saltation height is inferred from the measurements of the particle lift-off velocity by means of particle velocimetry tracking techniques. Our measurements reveal that the saltation length and height present a continuum distribution which decreases monotonously and exhibits a long tail that can be well described by a lognormal law. Interestingly, these distributions are found almost invariant with the flow strength. As a consequence, the mean saltation length (l¯) and height (h¯) are independent of the flow strength confirming previous indirect measurements. The influence of the flow strength is only seen through the tail of the saltation length distribution: the higher the Shields number, the flatter the distribution tail. Finally, experiments carried out with sand of different sizes show that the mean saltation length and height are not related to the sand grain size through a simple manner but depend instead linearly with the height zf of the Bagnold focus point: l??6zf and h??0.6zf. This last result emphasizes that the focus height is an important characteristic length scale of the saltation transport.

Ho, T. D.; Valance, A.; Dupont, P.; Ould El Moctar, A.

2014-03-01

338

FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS

FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS Peter Philip Campbell Ph.D. Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Introduction to Fibonacci length and generalizations 19 1 Introduction and apology considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.1 Fibonacci length

St Andrews, University of

339

Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; /SLAC; Kirby, Neil; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; /UCLA; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

2005-06-24

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length Ne which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for Ne from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

Hoy, Robert S.; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

2009-09-01

341

Diffusion tensor MRI phantom exhibits anomalous diffusion.

This paper reports diffusion weighted MRI measurements of cyclohexane in a novel diffusion tensor MRI phantom composed of hollow coaxial electrospun fibers (average diameter 10.2 ?m). Recent studies of the phantom demonstrated its potential as a calibration standard at low b values (less than 1000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>) for mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. In this paper, we extend the characterization of cyclohexane diffusion in this heterogeneous, anisotropic material to high b values (up to 5000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>), where the apparent diffusive motion of the cyclohexane exhibits anomalous behavior (i.e., the molecular mean squared displacement increases with time raised to the fractional power 2?/?). Diffusion tensor MRI was performed at 9.4 T using an Agilent imaging scanner and the data fit to a fractional order Mittag-Leffler (generalized exponential) decay model. Diffusion along the fibers was found to be Gaussian (2?/?=l), while diffusion across the fibers was sub-diffusive (2?/?<;l). Fiber tract reconstruction of the data was consistent with scanning electron micrograph images of the material. These studies suggest that this phantom material may be used to calibrate MR systems in both the normal (Gaussian) and anomalous diffusion regimes. PMID:25570066

Ye, Allen Q; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Feng-Lei Zhou; Ziying Yin; Parker, Geoff J M; Magin, Richard L

2014-08-01

342

Enhancing phosphorylation cascades by anomalous diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key event in many cellular signaling cascades is the multiple phosphorylation of proteins by specialized kinases. A prototypical example is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that alters the cell's gene transcription after having been phosphorylated twice by the same kinase. Here, we show that anomalous diffusion, induced, for example, by cytoplasmic crowding, can significantly improve the activation of MAPK. Our results on anomalous diffusion with the characteristics of fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion compare favorably to very recent biochemical data on MAPK activation at varying degrees of cytoplasmic crowding. Our results predict any Michaelis-Menten scheme in which a substrate is modified by the same enzyme several times to show an increased performance due to anomalous diffusion when dissociation rates of the intermediate enzyme-substrate complexes are high while the irreversible catalytic step is slow. Thus, crowding-induced anomalous diffusion can strongly alter the behavior of many cellular signaling pathways.

Hellmann, M.; Heermann, D. W.; Weiss, M.

2012-03-01

343

Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanographene Ribbons Junichiro Shiomi-3-5800-6983 Abstract Investigations of diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of finite-length single-walled carbon of the balance between ballistic and diffusive heat conduction. For both systems, the profile indicates

Maruyama, Shigeo

344

Molecular Dynamics of Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Molecular Dynamics of Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-8656, Japan Diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of finite-length single. A gradual transition from nearly pure ballistic to diffusive-ballistic heat conduction was identified from

Maruyama, Shigeo

345

Variable focal length deformable mirror

A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12

346

Diffusive Logistic Model Towards Predicting Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks

Online social networks have recently become an effective and innovative channel for spreading information and influence among hundreds of millions of end users. Many prior work have carried out empirical studies and proposed diffusion models to understand the information diffusion process in online social networks. However, most of these studies focus on the information diffusion in temporal dimension, that is, how the information propagates over time. Little attempt has been given on understanding information diffusion over both temporal and spatial dimensions. In this paper, we propose a Partial Differential Equation (PDE), specifically, a Diffusive Logistic (DL) equation to model the temporal and spatial characteristics of information diffusion in online social networks. To be more specific, we develop a PDE-based theoretical framework to measure and predict the density of influenced users at a given distance from the original information source after a time period. The density of influenced users over tim...

Wang, Feng; Xu, Kuai

2011-01-01

347

Anomalous diffusion producing normal relaxation and transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Arrhenius law a probability distribution of timescales is derived by treating both the prefactor and the activation energy as random variables. In the defect-diffusion model this probability distribution is used to calculate the properties of the anomalous diffusion of defects. The timescales represent the pausing time distribution between movements of a defect. The conditions are determined for these mobile defects to produce stretched exponential relaxation. The diffusion of a single defect is anomalous, but the collective effect of all defects produces a characteristic relaxation timescale. The temperature and pressure dependence of this timescale is used to determine conductivity, dielectric relaxation, and viscosity.

Bendler, John T.; Fontanella, John J.; Shlesinger, Michael F.

2007-02-01

348

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse plate boundaries are often viewed as a characteristic only of continental lithosphere and as a consequence of its rheology, while narrow boundaries and plate rigidity are viewed as characteristic of oceanic lithosphere. Here we review some of the evidence that shows that deformation in the ocean basins is in many places just as diffuse as deformation in the continents. Moreover, we argue that the best description of these oceanic deforming zones is the un-plate tectonic-like representation as a fluid. Diffuse oceanic plate boundaries are deforming zones that are typically thousands of kilometers long (along strike) and hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide (across strike). These plate boundaries also appear to have deformation that is broadly distributed with no single fault or system of faults taking up most of the relative plate motion. Consequently the spatially averaged strain rates across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries are orders of magnitude lower than in narrow plate boundaries. One of Earth's best examples of a diffuse oceanic plate boundary is located in the equatorial Indian Ocean. A fluid-like representation of deformation in this diffuse boundary explains many observations, including the steadiness of the deformation process, the characteristic across-strike width of deformation relative to the along-strike length of the deforming zone, and the change of style in deformation across the 86°E fracture zone. In addition, poles of relative rotation between adjacent component plates tend to lie within the diffuse plate boundary that separates them; this is also predicted by models of diffuse plate boundaries that assume a power-law fluid approximation, irrespective of rheology (for power-law rheologies between Newtonian and plastic end-members). A change in behavior of the lithosphere from elastic or visco-elastic to that of a fluid may be interpreted as a phase change, not in microscopic but in megascopic properties, above a certain threshold of force per unit length applied to the lithosphere. There remain many outstanding fundamental kinematic, dynamical, and rheological questions, the answers to which would enhance our understanding of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries. These questions include the timing of initiation and acceleration of motion across various diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, the relative and absolute strengths of the upper and lower oceanic lithosphere, changes in torques across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries and their role in causing rapid changes in plate motion. Of particular interest is the role of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries in the widespread re-organization of plate motion and tectonic regime that occurred at ~8 Ma in the Tibetan Plateau, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and western North America. Diffuse plate boundaries, especially in the oceans, are excellent natural laboratories, not only as windows on the mechanical and rheological properties of the lithosphere, but also--at least in the oceans--for investigating a variety of styles of widely distributed deformation that is ignored by traditional plate tectonics.

Gordon, R. G.; Royer, J.

2005-12-01

349

Height prediction from ulna length.

Height is fundamental to assessing growth and nutrition, calculating body surface area, and predicting pulmonary function in childhood. Its measurement is hindered by muscle weakness, joint, or spinal deformity. Arm span has been used as a substitute, but is inaccurate. The objective of the study was to identify a limb measurement that precisely and reproducibly predicts height in childhood. Males (n=1144) and females (n=1199), aged 5 years 4 months to 19 years 7 months, without disability were recruited from Melbourne schools. Height, arm span, ulna, forearm, tibia, and lower leg lengths were measured with a Harpenden stadiometer and anthropometer. Prediction equations for height based on ulna length (U) and age in years (A) were developed using linear regression. Ulna centile charts were developed by the LMS method. For males, height (cm)=4.605U+1.308A+28.003 (R2=0.96); for females, height (cm)=4.459U+1.315A+31.485 (R2=0.94). Intra- and inter-observer variability was 0.41% and 0.61% relative to the mean, respectively. Height prediction equations from tibia, forearm, and lower leg length were calculated. We show that ulna measurement is reproducible and precisely predicts height in school-age children. It appears to be superior to arm span measurement when neuromuscular weakness, joint, or spinal deformity exists. Ulna growth charts should facilitate growth assessment. PMID:15230461

Gauld, Leanne M; Kappers, Johanna; Carlin, John B; Robertson, Colin F

2004-07-01

350

Applicability of Mixing Length Theory to a Turbulent Vortex System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of mixing length theory to correlate vortex data is evaluated. Expressions are derived for eddy diffusivity by applying the techniques of von Karman and Prandtl which have been established for pipe flow. Total and static pressures were measured from the outer radius to the exhaust-nozzle radius of a vortex generator for a range of mass flows. These data are combined with Navier-Stokes solutions for this region of a compressible vortex to determine turbulent Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds number is related to Prandtl and Karman functions for various assumed boundary conditions, and the experimental data are used to determine the usefulness of these expressions. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Mixing length functions developed by applying von Karman's similarity hypothesis to vortex motion correlate the data better than do Prandtl functions obtained with the assumption that mixing length is proportional to radius. (2) Some of the expressions developed do not adequately represent the experimental data. (3) The data are correlated with acceptable scatter by evaluating the fluid radial inertia at the outer boundary and the shear stress at the inner boundary. The universal constant K was found to be 0.04 to 0.08, rather than the value of 0.4 which is accepted for rectilinear flow. (4) The data are best correlated by a modified Karman expression which includes an effect of radial inertia, as well as shear stress, on eddy diffusivity.

Ragsdale, Robert G.

1961-01-01

351

Ambipolar diffusion theory of the hot-cathode negative glow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambipolar diffusion theory of the negative glow (NG) and Faraday dark space (FDS) of a cylindrical gas discharge maintained by thermionic emission from a hot cathode is discussed. Electrons are divided into two groups: thermionic beam electrons and plasma electrons. Radial diffusion losses are handled by introducing the usual diffusion length. Inputs to the model include probabilities of excitation and ionization by thermionic beam electrons and by plasma electrons, electron and ion temperatures and mobilities, and discharge tube radius. The model predicts the following measured quantities with good qualitative agreement: (a) combined length of NG plus FDS, (b) axial distribution of plasma electron density, and (c) ion current to cathode. The model also predicts two reversals in axial electric field: one in the NG near the cathode where axial current is supported by ambipolar diffusion, and one near the end of the FDS at the beginning of the positive column where axial current can no longer be supported by ambipolar diffusion.

Ingold, J. H.

1991-03-01

352

Tau Protein Diffuses along the Microtubule Lattice*

Current models for the intracellular transport of Tau protein suggest motor protein-dependent co-transport with microtubule fragments and diffusion of Tau in the cytoplasm, whereas Tau is believed to be stationary while bound to microtubules and in equilibrium with free diffusion in the cytosol. Observations that members of the microtubule-dependent kinesin family show Brownian motion along microtubules led us to hypothesize that diffusion along microtubules could also be relevant in the case of Tau. We used single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to probe for diffusion of individual fluorescently labeled Tau molecules along microtubules. This allowed us to avoid the problem that microtubule-dependent diffusion could be masked by excess of labeled Tau in solution that might occur in in vivo overexpression experiments. We found that approximately half of the individually detected Tau molecules moved bidirectionally along microtubules over distances up to several micrometers. Diffusion parameters such as diffusion coefficient, interaction time, and scanned microtubule length did not change with Tau concentration. Tau binding and diffusion along the microtubule lattice, however, were sensitive to ionic strength and pH and drastically reduced upon enzymatic removal of the negatively charged C termini of tubulin. We propose one-dimensional Tau diffusion guided by the microtubule lattice as one possible additional mechanism for Tau distribution. By such one-dimensional microtubule lattice diffusion, Tau could be guided to both microtubule ends, i.e. the sites where Tau is needed during microtubule polymerization, independently of directed motor-dependent transport. This could be important in conditions where active transport along microtubules might be compromised. PMID:23019339

Hinrichs, Maike H.; Jalal, Avesta; Brenner, Bernhard; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Kumar, Satish; Scholz, Tim

2012-01-01

353

Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

Rau, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, Queen's University Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2011-04-27

354

Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

1991-01-01

355

Scaling of Avian Primary Feather Length

The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather () contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus). The scaling exponent varied slightly, although

Robert L. Nudds; Gary W. Kaiser; Gareth J. Dyke; Andrew Farke

2011-01-01

356

Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.

Yadav, Vandana; Mukherji, Sutapa

2011-12-01

357

Testable scenario for relativity with minimum length

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I propose a general class of spacetimes whose structure is governed by observer-independent scales of both velocity (/c) and length (Planck length), and I observe that these spacetimes can naturally host a modification of FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction such that lengths which in their inertial rest frame are bigger than a ``minimum length'' are also bigger than the minimum length in all other inertial frames. With an analysis in leading order in the minimum length, I show that this is the case in a specific illustrative example of postulates for relativity with velocity and length observer-independent scales.

Amelino-Camelia, G.

2001-06-01

358

Real-Valued Semigroups and (Causal) Diffusion

It can be shown that a process modeled by a strongly continuous real-valued semigroup (that has a space convolution operator as infinitesimal generator) cannot satisfy causality. By causality we mean that a characteristic feature of a process like an interface or a front must propagate with a finite speed. We present and discuss a causal model of diffusion that satisfies the semigroup property at a discrete set of time instants M:={l_brace}m{tau}|m is an element of N{sub 0}{r_brace} and that in contrast to the classical diffusion model is not smooth. More precisely, if v denotes the concentration of a substance diffusing with constant speed, then v is continuous but its time derivative is discontinuous at the discrete set M of time instants. It is this property of (causal) diffusion that forbids the classical limit procedure {tau}{yields}0 that leads to the noncausal diffusion model in Stochastics. Finally, we give two explanations why in some cases the discretization of the noncausal diffusion model can be considered as an approximation of the causal diffusion model. In particular, we present an inhomogeneous wave equation with a time dependent coefficient that is satisfied by causal diffusion.

Kowar, Richard [Department of Mathematics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 21a/2, A-6020, Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-09-22

359

An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergencebetween trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time's arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.

Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

2008-08-21

360

AMLT - Anisotropic mixing length theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard mixing length theory (MLT) assumes that the largest eddies are the only ones that contribute to convection and that they are isotropic. These two requirements are internally inconsistent since it is experimentally known that only small eddies are isotropic while large ones exhibit large degrees of anisotropy. A new model called anisotropic MLT (AMLT) is presented here, together with a model that relates the anisotropy to other quantities of the problem. The new AMLT equations are solved for two cases of stellar structure calculations.

Canuto, V. M.

1989-01-01

361

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore the concept of using units to measure length. Learners first read "How Big is a Foot" by Rolf Myller and learn about units. Then, learners visit four measurement centers. In each center, learners will measure items with various kinds of units. Learners use non-standard units to measure their shoes, the distance between beanbags and a bullâs-eye target, their body parts (arms, legs, etc.), and some everyday objects. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to set up a "Shoe Store" dramatic play area that can be used to introduce learners to measurement prior to this activity.

Lyman, Nichol

2012-09-26

362

Microfabricated diffusion source

A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-15

363

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCIs) in a nuclear reactor occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials. This can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and the formation of low melting point eutectic compounds. Deposition of thin diffusion barrier coatings in the inner surface of the cladding can potentially reduce or delay the onset of FCCI. This study examines the feasibility of using nanofluid-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process to deposit coatings of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) as the diffusion barrier coating. The deposition parameters, including the nanofluid solvent, additive, particle size, current, and voltage were optimized using test flat substrates of T91 ferritic-martensitic steel. A post deposition sintering step was also conducted and optimized to improve the bonding and mechanical integrity of the coating. Diffusion characteristics of the coatings were investigated by diffusion couple experiments using cerium as a fuel fission product responsible for solid state FCCI. These diffusion couple studies performed at 575 °C for 100 h showed that the YSZ coatings significantly reduced the solid state inter-diffusion between cerium and steel. A heat transfer model was developed to simulate the changes in temperature profile inside the fuel cladding by addition of YSZ coating. It was found that even though the temperature can increase in the coated cladding, the temperature falls below the melting point of uranium and eutectic temperature in Fe-U phase diagram. Using a co-axial configuration in conjunction with the EPD process, YSZ was successfully deposited uniformly on the inner surfaces of 12? length sections of cladding with 4 mm inner diameter. Such a coating is extremely hard to make by conventional coating technologies like thermal spray or vapor deposition.

Firouzdor, Vahid; Brechtl, Jamieson; Wilson, Lucas; Semerau, Brandon; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.

2013-07-01

364

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene field-effect transistors with source/drain contacts made of metals that can be easily oxidized such as ferromagnetic metals often display a double dip structure in the transfer characteristics because of charge density depinning at the contacts. Generally, transfer characteristics of field-effect transistors show no dependence on the length of the source/drain contacts because charge carrier injection occurs mainly at the edges of the contact. However, the shape of the transfer characteristics of devices fabricated using Ni contacts is found to be dependent on the length of the contact. This peculiar behavior was attributed to charge carrier injection from near the center of the contacts. This is because of oxygen diffusion and the resultant formation of an interfacial oxide layer of non-uniform thickness. The observed contact length dependent transfer characteristics were reproduced using a model calculation that includes charge carrier injection from the center of the electrode and subsequent charge transport underneath the metal contact.

Nouchi, Ryo; Tanigaki, Katsumi

2014-07-01

365

Turbulence generation and diffusion in coastal breaking waves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence in the surf zone is a complex topic of study, of importance for both hydromorphodynamic and environmental studies. In this paper experimental results of turbulent flows for field tests in the Spanish Mediterranean coast are presented. The spatail and temporal resolution of measurements were limited by the ElectroMagnetic Sensors wich result in "filtering" out the small scales and observing; thus only macroturbulence due to breaking waves has been measured. The experimental field-results have been obtained during DELTA`93 and DELTA`96 largescale surf zone experiments in the Ebro Delta, (Spain), under Spilling/plungeing breaking waves (Rodriguez, 1997, PhD Thesis UPC, Barcelona). The field works include several measurements as topo-bathymetric surveys, water levels, 2DH and 2DV velocities, suspended sediment concentrations, sediment properties, meteorological conditions, etc. Several test across the surf zone with high vertical resolution were obtained, covering low, medium and high energy levels. Macroturbulence has been splitted from oscillatory für irregular waves with a recent technique and then turbulent characteristics have been obtained. This turbulent properties are compared with state-of-art macroturbulence characteristics and a new semi-empirical length-scale formulation is proposed. Further measurements on structure functions of the velocity turbulent fluctuations are compared with the distributions of effective surface diffusivity.

Rodriguez, A.; Mosso, C.; Serra, P.; Diez, M.

2009-04-01

366

Diffusion measurements in the human central nervous system are complex to characterize and a broad spectrum of methods have been proposed. In this study, a comprehensive diffusion encoding and analysis approach, Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI), is described. The HYDI encoding scheme is composed of multiple concentric “shells” of constant diffusion-weighting, which may be used to characterize the signal behavior with low, moderate and high diffusion-weighting. HYDI facilitates the application of multiple data-analyses strategies including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multi-exponential diffusion measurements, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and q-ball imaging (QBI). These different analysis strategies may provide complementary information. DTI measures (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) may be estimated from either data in the inner shells or the entire HYDI data. Fast and slow diffusivities were estimated using a nonlinear least-squares bi-exponential fit on geometric means of the HYDI shells. DSI measurements from the entire HYDI data yield empirical model-independent diffusion information and are well-suited for characterizing tissue regions with complex diffusion behavior. DSI measurements were characterized using the zero displacement probability and the mean squared displacement. The outermost HYDI shell was analyzed using QBI analysis to estimate the orientation distribution function (ODF), which is useful for characterizing the directions of multiple fiber groups within a voxel. In this study, a HYDI encoding scheme with 102 diffusion-weighted measurements was obtained over most of the human cerebrum in under 30 minutes. PMID:17481920

Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

2007-01-01

367

Evidence of a dynamical length scale in a 2D glassy colloid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use holographic video microscopy to study the dynamics of glassy bidisperse colloidal monolayers within circular regions defined by holographic optical traps. Establishing a pinned boundary condition affects the free particles' diffusion by an amount that depends on distance from the boundary. Both the effective diffusion coefficient and the diffusivity exponent are suppressed by pinning at the boundary, and the degree of suppression diminishes as the boundary's radius increases. These observations suggest the presence of a length scale over which dynamical information is transmitted through the glassy system.

Dixon, Lisa; Grier, David

2010-03-01

368

Rumor diffusion in an interests-based dynamic social network.

To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

2013-01-01

369

Rumor Diffusion in an Interests-Based Dynamic Social Network

To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

2013-01-01

370

Nanoscale prismatic loops are modeled via a partial stochastic differential equation that describes an overdamped continuum elastic string, with a view to describing both the internal and collective dynamics of the loop as a function of temperature. Within the framework of the Langevin equation, expressions are derived that relate the empirical parameters of the model, the friction per unit length, and the elastic stiffness per unit length, to observables that can be obtained directly via molecular-dynamics simulations of interstitial or vacancy prismatic loop mobility. The resulting expressions naturally exhibit the properties that the collective diffusion coefficient of the loop (i) scales inversely with the square root of the number of interstitials, a feature that has been observed in both atomistic simulation and in situ TEM investigations of loop mobility, and (ii) the collective diffusion coefficient is not at all dependent on the internal interactions within the loop, thus qualitatively rationalizing past simulation results showing that the characteristic migration energy barrier is comparable to that of a single interstitial, and cluster migration is a result of individual (but correlated) interstitial activity.

Derlet, P. M.; Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-01

371

Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

1982-01-01

372

Control of exit velocity profile of an asymmetric annular diffuser using wall suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asymmetric annular diffuser equipped with wall bleed (suction) capability was tested for controllability of exit velocity profile. The diffuser area ratio was 3.2, and the length to inlet height ratio was 1.6. Results show that the diffuser radial exit velocity profile could be controlled from a hub peaked to a tip peaked form by selective use of bleed on the outer wall or on both diffuser walls. Based on these results, application of the diffuser bleed technique to gas turbine combustors may be possible. Diffuser bleed could be used to tailor the airflow distribution for optimizing combustor performance at a variety of operating conditions.

Juhasz, A. J.

1973-01-01

373

Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

Rooney, Stephen J.

2000-02-04

374

Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

Rooney, Stephen J. (East Berne, NY)

2001-01-01

375

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters.

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-01

376

Dynamics of desorption with lateral diffusion.

The dynamics of desorption from a submonolayer of adsorbed atoms or ions are significantly influenced by the absence or presence of lateral diffusion of the adsorbed particles. When diffusion is present, the adsorbate configuration is simultaneously changed by two distinct processes, proceeding in parallel: adsorption/desorption, which changes the total adsorbate coverage, and lateral diffusion, which is coverage conserving. Inspired by experimental results, we here study the effects of these competing processes by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice-gas model. In order to untangle the various effects, we perform large-scale simulations, in which we monitor coverage, correlation length, and cluster-size distributions, as well as the behavior of representative individual clusters, during desorption. For each initial adsorbate configuration, we perform multiple, independent simulations, without and with diffusion, respectively. We find that, compared to desorption without diffusion, the coverage-conserving diffusion process produces two competing effects: a retardation of the desorption rate, which is associated with a coarsening of the adsorbate configuration, and an acceleration due to desorption of monomers "evaporated" from the cluster perimeters. The balance between these two effects is governed by the structure of the adsorbate layer at the beginning of the desorption process. Deceleration and coarsening are predominant for configurations dominated by monomers and small clusters, while acceleration is predominant for configurations dominated by large clusters. PMID:24089794

Juwono, Tjipto; Rikvold, Per Arne

2013-09-28

377

Development of Diffuser/Nozzle Based Valveless Micropump

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A valveless micropump was realized with a diffuser/nozzle shaped channel and a variable volume actuator which produces an oscillating flow. One-way flow may be realized in the nozzle direction since the pressure loss in a nozzle channel is lower than that in a diffuser channel. Pump characteristics were measured for various angles of a diffuser/nozzle element and positions of the actuator to investigate the effect of pump geometry on characteristics. The experimental results showed an optimal diffuser/nozzle angle for pump efficiency, and the optimal actuator position. The frequency characteristics and the pump characteristics were measured. Dimensionless variables were introduced to rearrange the measured data and to understand the physical mechanisms of the micropump.

Tanaka, Seiichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Koji

378

Sexual harassment: Organizational context and diffuse status

Data from a large survey of federal employees is utilized to compare three broad competing perspectives that suggest effects on sexual harassment within organizations. Three different viewpoints stress power differentials, minority status, and diffuse master status characteristics. Results of the study indicate that intraorganizational theories emphasizing either power inequalities or work group compositional heterogeneities are unable to account for the

Terri C. Fain; Douglas L. Anderton

1987-01-01

379

Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

1990-01-01

380

Sub-persistence-length complex scaling behavior in lysozyme amyloid fibrils.

We combine atomic force microscopy single-molecule analysis with polymer physics concepts to study molecular conformations of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. We resolve a wavy structure of the fibrils in which the scaling behavior varies at multiple length scales. Bond and pair correlation functions, end-to-end distribution, and wormlike chain model identify three characteristic length scales. At short length scales (?150 nm), there is a first bending transition of the fibrils corresponding to a bending length L(b). At larger length scales (>2L(b)), fibrils become pseudoperiodic and start to undulate. Finally, at length scales larger than the persistence length (~ ?m), the fibrils become flexible and follow a 2D self-avoiding random walk. We interpret these results in terms of the twisting of the fibrils and the impact this has on the area moment of inertia and the propensity of the fibril to bend. PMID:22182128

Lara, Cécile; Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

2011-12-01

381

Sub-Persistence-Length Complex Scaling Behavior in Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine atomic force microscopy single-molecule analysis with polymer physics concepts to study molecular conformations of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. We resolve a wavy structure of the fibrils in which the scaling behavior varies at multiple length scales. Bond and pair correlation functions, end-to-end distribution, and wormlike chain model identify three characteristic length scales. At short length scales (?150nm), there is a first bending transition of the fibrils corresponding to a bending length Lb. At larger length scales (>2Lb), fibrils become pseudoperiodic and start to undulate. Finally, at length scales larger than the persistence length (˜?m), the fibrils become flexible and follow a 2D self-avoiding random walk. We interpret these results in terms of the twisting of the fibrils and the impact this has on the area moment of inertia and the propensity of the fibril to bend.

Lara, Cécile; Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

2011-12-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of Ti has been characterized in natural olivine and synthetic forsterite. Experiments on the natural olivines were run under buffered conditions (IW and NNO), and those on synthetic forsterite were run in air. Titanium diffusion appears relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation and oxygen fugacity under the range of investigated conditions, and diffusivities are similar for Fe-bearing olivine and forsterite. For Ti diffusion in synthetic forsterite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for diffusion over the temperature range 900-1400 °C:

Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

2014-12-01

383

Propagation modes in metal-clad diffused optical waveguides

The characteristics of propagating modes in metal-clad diffused optical waveguides are analyzed with particular reference to the mode attenuation, in order to design electro-optical mode conversion modulators and cut-off polarizers. The study is carried by means of the WKB solution in the diffused region and then by matching this solution to the one in the metal region. The main characteristics

A. Dangio; R. de Leo

1978-01-01

384

Reaction-diffusion processes with nonlinear diffusion.

We study reaction-diffusion processes with concentration-dependent diffusivity. First, the decay of the concentration in the single-species and two-species diffusion-controlled annihilation processes is determined. We then consider two natural inhomogeneous realizations. The two-species annihilation process is investigated in the situation when the reactants are initially separated, namely each species occupies a half space. In particular, we establish the growth law of the width of the reaction zone. The single-species annihilation process is studied in the situation when the spatially localized source drives the system toward the nonequilibrium steady state. Finally, we investigate a dissolution process with a localized source of diffusing atoms which react with the initially present immobile atoms forming immobile molecules. PMID:23214535

Krapivsky, P L

2012-10-01

385

Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis: MR Characteristics

PURPOSE: To describe the MR characteristics that can distinguish idiopathic transverse myelitis from other intramedullary lesions. METHODS: A total of 32 initial and follow-up MR studies in 17 patients with clinically proved transverse myelitis were reviewed retrospectively. The location, size, pattern, and segmental length of areas of hyperintensity were estimated on T2-weighted axial and sagittal images. In 15 of the

Kyu Ho Choi; Kwang Soo Lee; Sun Ok Chung; Jung Mee Park; Young Joo Kim; Hyun Sook Kim; Kyung Sub Shinn

386

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of disorder in controlling diffusivity and mobility of charge-carriers in the hopping regime of transport within a potential landscape has become especially significant for organic semiconductors. The temperature and field dependence of diffusivity (D) and mobility (?) of injected charge-carriers have been simultaneously measured using electroluminescence transients for representative organic thin-films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (III) (Alq3) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO). Significantly, the field dependence of diffusivity at different temperatures is similar except for a shift of a critical field beyond which it shows a sharp increase. The critical field is shown to be linearly decreasing with temperature ultimately vanishing at a characteristic limit T?, and the slope is a measure of the localization length. The normalization of diffusivity is used to demonstrate the role of field in controlling temperature dependence. The scheme has been used to neatly decouple contributions from energetic (diagonal) and positional (off-diagonal) disorder thus enabling independent experimental determination of all the parameters of standard and correlated versions of Gaussian disorder model. The results demonstrate the validity of Gaussian disorder model even for non-equilibrium carriers, and that the parameters can be obtained with appropriate scaling of the field in such cases.

Tripathi, Durgesh C.; Sinha, Dhirendra K.; Mohapatra, Y. N.

2013-10-01

387

Dinosaur Skull and Body Length Predictions

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 2 of PDF), learners will look for a relationship between skull size and body length among various dinosaurs. Starting from a list of dinosaur measurements, learners will compare dinosaur sizes to common objects and create a chart that plots body length against skull length to see if the data predicts other dinosaurs' length from skull size. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Baby Dinosaurs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

388

Fission track length distributions in multi-system thermochronology (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission track length distributions contain a unique record of past temperature variations and therefore play a key role in low-temperature thermochronology, for which there is no exact equivalent in any other method. Confined track lengths closely approximate the true etchable ranges of latent fission tracks [1] and are therefore favoured for fission track studies, but they still have a number of practical limitations. These include small numbers of suitable tracks, especially when only horizontal confined tracks are measured. Using only track-in-track events for measurement further limits the sample size. These restrictions become acute for low track-density samples, where length measurements may be impossible. Irradiating the surface with 252Cf tracks [2] can substantially increase the number of confined tracks, but many researchers do not have access to a Cf source. An even more significant issue has emerged from inter-laboratory comparison experiments that demonstrate a disturbingly poor reproducibility of length measurements between observers [3], a problem compounded by a lack of standardisation in measurement techniques. As a result, individual observers may measure different positions for the end of a track, contributing significantly to variability, and consequently blurring the thermal histories obtained. New digital microscopes open up important opportunities for improved track length measurements by reducing restrictions on sample size, and eliminating some sources of inter-observer bias. We have developed a track length measurement system that enables precise determination of vertical as well as horizontal track dimensions, allowing 3D lengths to be obtained. Lengths are measured on captured image stacks that can be analysed easily and may also be shared, for greater standardisation between laboratories. Length measurements are highly reproducible between different observers using this system, suggesting that at least one source of variability can be eliminated. The selection of lengths for imaging, however, still remains a source of potential bias between observers. The new measurement system also enables measurement of 3D lengths of surface-intersecting ';semi-tracks', the distributions of which have been well understood theoretically [1,4], but have not been used in practice because of difficulties of measuring vertical dimensions on older microscopes. Semi-track lengths are, of course, a degraded measure compared to confined tracks because they are randomly truncated. However, this is more than compensated by their very much greater abundance, by a factor of >60, compared to confined tracks. They are also more amenable to semi- or fully-automated measurement techniques than confined tracks. Moreover the distribution characteristics of semi-track lengths relative to confined track lengths are well understood so that in principle the two types could be used together in modelling thermal histories. The implementation of these new approaches for track length measurement should significantly improve the precision and standardisation of track length measurements at every stage of their utilisation, from annealing studies to thermal history modelling of unknowns. [1] Galbraith (2003) Statistics for FT Analysis, Chapman & Hall [2] Donelick et al. (2005) Rev Min Geochem 58, 49-94 [3] Ketcham et al. (2009) Ear Planet Sci Lett 284, 504-515 [4] Jonckheere & Van den haute (1999) Rad Meas 30, 155-179

Gleadow, A. J.; Seiler, C.

2013-12-01

389

Coherence Length for a Trapped Bose Gas

Matter waves can be assigned a coherence length analogous to the corresponding quantity in optics. We show that there is a dramatic increase in coherence length associated with the appearance of Bose-Einstein condensation in a trapped ideal Bose gas. The large increase in coherence length occurs even for temperatures just below the critical temperature at which only a small proportion

Stephen M. Barnett; Sonja Franke-Arnold; Aidan S. Arnold; Colin Baxter

390

Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centropolyhedral groups

Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centroÂpolyhedral groups C. M. Campbell and P. P. Campbell the Fibonacci orbit of G with respect to the generating set A, denoted FA (G). If FA (G) is periodic, we call the length of the period of the sequence the Fibonacci length of G with respect to A, written LENA (G). We

St Andrews, University of

391

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS Igor Pak Department of Mathematics Massachusetts here a transparent proof of the hook length formula. The formula is reduced to an equality between mysterious hook length formula for this dimension. Ever since, a quest for a simple combinatorial proof has

Pak, Igor

392

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2014-07-01

393

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

394

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2012-07-01

395

Classical momentum diffusion in double- ? -kicked particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the classical chaotic diffusion of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced pulses (“kicks”) from standing waves of light (the 2?-KP ). Recent experimental studies with cold atoms implied an underlying classical diffusion of a type very different from the well-known paradigm of Hamiltonian chaos, the standard map. The kicks in each pair are separated by a small time interval ??1 , which together with the kick strength K , characterizes the transport. Phase space for the 2?-KP is partitioned into momentum “cells” partially separated by momentum-trapping regions where diffusion is slow. We present here an analytical derivation of the classical diffusion for a 2?-KP including all important correlations which were used to analyze the experimental data. We find an asymptotic (t??) regime of “hindered” diffusion: while for the standard map the diffusion rate, for K?1 , D˜K2/2[1-2J2(K)⋯] oscillates about the uncorrelated rate D0=K2/2 , we find analytically, that the 2?-KP can equal, but never diffuses faster than, a random walk rate. We argue this is due to the destruction of the important classical “accelerator modes” of the standard map. We analyze the experimental regime 0.1?K??1 , where quantum localization lengths L˜?-0.75 are affected by fractal cell boundaries. We find an approximate asymptotic diffusion rate D?K3? , in correspondence to a D?K3 regime in the standard map associated with the “golden-ratio” cantori.

Stocklin, M. M. A.; Monteiro, T. S.

2006-08-01

396

Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.

Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers. PMID:25478850

Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

2015-01-01

397

The computer program DIFF, in Fortran for the IBM 7090, for calculating ; the neutron diffusion coefficients and attenuation areas (LÂ²) necessary for ; multigroup diffusion calculations for reactor shielding is described. Diffusion ; coefficients and values of the inverse attenuation length are given for a six ; group calculation for several interesting shielding materials. (D.C.W.);

Plelnevaux

1962-01-01

398

Exact transport equation for eddy diffusivity in turbulent shear flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-equation models that treat the transport equations for two variables are typical models for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Compared to the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy, the equation for the second variable such as the dissipation rate does not have a theoretical analogue. In this work, the exact transport equation for the eddy diffusivity was derived and examined for better understanding turbulence and improving two-equation models. A new length scale was first introduced, which involves the response function for the scalar fluctuation. It was shown that the eddy diffusivity can be expressed as the correlation between the velocity fluctuation and the new length scale. The transport equations for the eddy diffusivity and the length-scale variance were derived theoretically. Statistics such as terms in the transport equations were evaluated using the direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. It was shown that the streamwise component of the eddy diffusivity is greater than the other two components in the whole region. In the transport equation for the eddy diffusivity, the production term due to the Reynolds stress is a main positive term, whereas the pressure-length-gradient correlation term plays a role of destruction. It is expected that the analysis of the transport equations is helpful in developing better turbulence models.

Hamba, Fujihiro

2013-09-01

399

Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion

I2 0. ")2 0 0. 92 1. 08 1. 00 1. 0t 1'. 08 1. 0 ' 1. 08 1. 08 1. 18 0. 84. 0 op 2 , ). cj2 Q, 92 0. $2 1. 00 I -' 1 1 1, ) "~i ois I Qtnte (h) . ft=r 1st ffnslon . (c) lfter 1st convection (d) ' i"ter I nd diffusion cole..., the length of the column, is 200 cm. , K = 3. 73 x 10 gm. , Kd = 1. 35 x 10 gm. and H = (9. 29 x 10 )s gm. /cm. Here the value of H is given in Cerms of Che Soret coefficienC s. Using a value of s as -2 10, which is consistent with the findings of several...

Reyna, Eddie

2012-06-07

400

Noninvasive measurements of microstructure in materials, cells, and in biological tissues, constitute a unique capability of gradient-assisted NMR. Diffusion-diffraction MR approaches pioneered by Callaghan demonstrated this ability; Oscillating-Gradient Spin-Echo (OGSE) methodologies tackle the demanding gradient amplitudes required for observing diffraction patterns by utilizing constant-frequency oscillating gradient pairs that probe the diffusion spectrum, D(?). Here we present a new class of diffusion MR experiments, termed Non-uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin-Echo (NOGSE), which dynamically probe multiple frequencies of the diffusion spectral density at once, thus affording direct microstructural information on the compartment's dimension. The NOGSE methodology applies N constant-amplitude gradient oscillations; N-1 of these oscillations are spaced by a characteristic time x, followed by a single gradient oscillation characterized by a time y, such that the diffusion dynamics is probed while keeping (N-1)x+y?TNOGSE constant. These constant-time, fixed-gradient-amplitude, multi-frequency attributes render NOGSE particularly useful for probing small compartment dimensions with relatively weak gradients - alleviating difficulties associated with probing D(?) frequency-by-frequency or with varying relaxation weightings, as in other diffusion-monitoring experiments. Analytical descriptions of the NOGSE signal are given, and the sequence's ability to extract small compartment sizes with a sensitivity towards length to the sixth power, is demonstrated using a microstructural phantom. Excellent agreement between theory and experiments was evidenced even upon applying weak gradient amplitudes. An MR imaging version of NOGSE was also implemented in ex vivo pig spinal cords and mouse brains, affording maps based on compartment sizes. The effects of size distributions on NOGSE are also briefly analyzed. PMID:24140623

Shemesh, Noam; Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Frydman, Lucio

2013-12-01

401

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive measurements of microstructure in materials, cells, and in biological tissues, constitute a unique capability of gradient-assisted NMR. Diffusion-diffraction MR approaches pioneered by Callaghan demonstrated this ability; Oscillating-Gradient Spin-Echo (OGSE) methodologies tackle the demanding gradient amplitudes required for observing diffraction patterns by utilizing constant-frequency oscillating gradient pairs that probe the diffusion spectrum, D(?). Here we present a new class of diffusion MR experiments, termed Non-uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin-Echo (NOGSE), which dynamically probe multiple frequencies of the diffusion spectral density at once, thus affording direct microstructural information on the compartment's dimension. The NOGSE methodology applies N constant-amplitude gradient oscillations; N - 1 of these oscillations are spaced by a characteristic time x, followed by a single gradient oscillation characterized by a time y, such that the diffusion dynamics is probed while keeping (N - 1)x + y ? TNOGSE constant. These constant-time, fixed-gradient-amplitude, multi-frequency attributes render NOGSE particularly useful for probing small compartment dimensions with relatively weak gradients - alleviating difficulties associated with probing D(?) frequency-by-frequency or with varying relaxation weightings, as in other diffusion-monitoring experiments. Analytical descriptions of the NOGSE signal are given, and the sequence's ability to extract small compartment sizes with a sensitivity towards length to the sixth power, is demonstrated using a microstructural phantom. Excellent agreement between theory and experiments was evidenced even upon applying weak gradient amplitudes. An MR imaging version of NOGSE was also implemented in ex vivo pig spinal cords and mouse brains, affording maps based on compartment sizes. The effects of size distributions on NOGSE are also briefly analyzed.

Shemesh, Noam; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Frydman, Lucio

2013-12-01

402

Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals

Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals X June 2006 Editor: P. Deines Abstract Oxygen diffusion in natural and synthetic single-crystal titanite be recognized as responsible for oxygen diffusion. The diffusion profiles showed two segments: a steep one close

Watson, E. Bruce

403

Translational displacement of molecules within cells is a key process in cellular biology. Molecular motion potentially depends on many factors, including active transport, cytosol viscosity and molecular crowding, tortuosity resulting from cytoskeleton and organelles, and restriction barriers. However, the relative contribution of these factors to molecular motion in the cytoplasm remains poorly understood. In this work, we designed an original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy strategy to probe molecular motion at subcellular scales in vivo. This led to the first observation of anomalous diffusion, that is, dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on the diffusion time, for endogenous intracellular metabolites in the brain. The observed increase of the ADC at short diffusion time yields evidence that metabolite motion is characteristic of hindered random diffusion rather than active transport, for time scales up to the dozen milliseconds. Armed with this knowledge, data modeling based on geometrically constrained diffusion was performed. Results suggest that metabolite diffusion occurs in a low-viscosity cytosol hindered by ?2-?m structures, which is consistent with known intracellular organization. PMID:22929443

Marchadour, Charlotte; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Hantraye, Philippe; Lebon, Vincent; Valette, Julien

2012-01-01

404

Time and length scales within a fire and implications for numerical simulation

A partial non-dimensionalization of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the rate-controlling transport processes in the reacting portion of a fire plume as a function of length scale. Over continuum length scales, buoyant times scales vary as the square root of the length scale; advection time scales vary as the length scale, and diffusion time scales vary as the square of the length scale. Due to the variation with length scale, each process is dominant over a given range. The relationship of buoyancy and baroclinc vorticity generation is highlighted. For numerical simulation, first principles solution for fire problems is not possible with foreseeable computational hardware in the near future. Filtered transport equations with subgrid modeling will be required as two to three decades of length scale are captured by solution of discretized conservation equations. By whatever filtering process one employs, one must have humble expectations for the accuracy obtainable by numerical simulation for practical fire problems that contain important multi-physics/multi-length-scale coupling with up to 10 orders of magnitude in length scale.

TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

2000-02-02

405

A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

2014-05-06

406

The diffuse interstellar lines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the diffuse interstellar absorption lines will be briefly reviewed. The existence of the unidentified carriers of the diffuse line absorption indicates that there may be an important component of the interstellar medium which has not been recognised. A review of a recent ULO survey of the diffuse features at 5780, 5797, 6283 and 6614 A° will be described and the bearing of the results of the survey on suggestions for carriers will be discussed.

McNally, D.

407

Multicomponent diffusion revisited

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.

Lam, S. H.

2006-07-01

408

Diffusion of rural innovations: Some analytical issues and the case of wood-burning stoves

Summary. - The literature on the diffusion of rural innovations in Third World countries reveals a spectrum of approaches to the diffusion process. It is argued here that the effectiveness of a particular approach in the diffusion of particular innovations would depend on the technical, the economic and the social characteristics of the innovations. A typology of innovations in terms

Bina Agarwal

1983-01-01

409

Clustering method for estimating principal diffusion directions

Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is a non-invasive tool for the investigation of white matter structure within the brain. However, the traditional tensor model is unable to characterize anisotropies of orders higher than two in heterogeneous areas containing more than one fiber population. To resolve this issue, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) with a large number of diffusion encoding gradients is used along with reconstruction methods such as Q-ball. Using HARDI data, the fiber orientation distribution function (ODF) on the unit sphere is calculated and used to extract the principal diffusion directions (PDDs). Fast and accurate estimation of PDDs is a prerequisite for tracking algorithms that deal with fiber crossings. In this paper, the PDDs are defined as the directions around which the ODF data is concentrated. Estimates of the PDDs based on this definition are less sensitive to noise in comparison with the previous approaches. A clustering approach to estimate the PDDs is proposed which is an extension of fuzzy c-means clustering developed for orientation of points on a sphere. MDL (Minimum description length) principle is proposed to estimate the number of PDDs. Using both simulated and real diffusion data, the proposed method has been evaluated and compared with some previous protocols. Experimental results show that the proposed clustering algorithm is more accurate, more resistant to noise, and faster than some of techniques currently being utilized. PMID:21642005

Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Jiang, Quan; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

2012-01-01

410

Original article Morphometric characteristics

, Tibia length; 13, Metatarsus length; 14, Metatarsus width; 15, Third sternite length; 16, Wax mirror length; 17, Wax mirror width; 18, Distance bet- #12;ween wax mirrors; 19, Tergite colour patterns were

Boyer, Edmond

411

Inheritance of Telomere Length in a Bird

Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW) and males are the homogametic (ZZ) sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length. PMID:21364951

Horn, Thorsten; Robertson, Bruce C.; Will, Margaret; Eason, Daryl K.; Elliott, Graeme P.; Gemmell, Neil J.

2011-01-01

412

Germanium nanowire growth controlled by surface diffusion effects

Germanium nanowires (NWs) were grown onto Ge(111) substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid process using gold droplets. The growth was carried out in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber at substrate temperatures between 370 Degree-Sign C and 510 Degree-Sign C. The resulting nanowire growth rate turns out to be highly dependent on the substrate temperature exhibiting the maximum at T = 430 Degree-Sign C. The temperature dependence of growth rate can be attributed to surface diffusion both along the substrate and nanowire sidewalls. Analyzing the diffusive material transport yields a diffusion length of 126 nm at a substrate temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C.

Schmidtbauer, Jan; Bansen, Roman; Heimburger, Robert; Teubner, Thomas; Boeck, Torsten; Fornari, Roberto [Leibniz-Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung, Max-Born-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-23

413

Mathematical modeling of molecular diffusion through mucus

The rate of molecular transport through the mucus gel can be an important determinant of efficacy for therapeutic agents delivered by oral, intranasal, intravaginal/rectal, and intraocular routes. Transport through mucus can be described by mathematical models based on principles of physical chemistry and known characteristics of the mucus gel, its constituents, and of the drug itself. In this paper, we review mathematical models of molecular diffusion in mucus, as well as the techniques commonly used to measure diffusion of solutes in the mucus gel, mucus gel mimics, and mucosal epithelia. PMID:19135488

Cu, Yen; Saltzman, W. Mark

2008-01-01

414

Modeling of diffusion of injected electron spins in spin-orbit coupled microchannels

-diffusion lengths on the strengths of spin-orbit interaction and external magnetic fields, microchannel width, and orientation. Our results are based on numerical Monte Carlo simulations and on approximate analytical formulas both treating the spin-dynamics quantum...

Zarbo, Liviu P.; Sinova, Jairo; Knezevic, I.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, T.

2010-01-01

415

Experimental Evidence of Non-Diffusive Thermal Transport in Si and GaAs

The length-scales at which thermal transport crosses from the diffusive to ballistic regime are of much interest particularly in the design and improvement of nano-structured materials. In this work, we demonstrate that ...

Johnson, Jeremy A.

416

Tail paradox, partial identifiability, and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference.

Recent studies have observed that Bayesian analyses of sequence data sets using the program MrBayes sometimes generate extremely large branch lengths, with posterior credibility intervals for the tree length (sum of branch lengths) excluding the maximum likelihood estimates. Suggested explanations for this phenomenon include the existence of multiple local peaks in the posterior, lack of convergence of the chain in the tail of the posterior, mixing problems, and misspecified priors on branch lengths. Here, we analyze the behavior of Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms when the chain is in the tail of the posterior distribution and note that all these phenomena can occur. In Bayesian phylogenetics, the likelihood function approaches a constant instead of zero when the branch lengths increase to infinity. The flat tail of the likelihood can cause poor mixing and undue influence of the prior. We suggest that the main cause of the extreme branch length estimates produced in many Bayesian analyses is the poor choice of a default prior on branch lengths in current Bayesian phylogenetic programs. The default prior in MrBayes assigns independent and identical distributions to branch lengths, imposing strong (and unreasonable) assumptions about the tree length. The problem is exacerbated by the strong correlation between the branch lengths and parameters in models of variable rates among sites or among site partitions. To resolve the problem, we suggest two multivariate priors for the branch lengths (called compound Dirichlet priors) that are fairly diffuse and demonstrate their utility in the special case of branch length estimation on a star phylogeny. Our analysis highlights the need for careful thought in the specification of high-dimensional priors in Bayesian analyses. PMID:21890479

Rannala, Bruce; Zhu, Tianqi; Yang, Ziheng

2012-01-01

417

Length-displacement scaling and fault growth

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following an earthquake in a fault zone, commonly the co-seismic rupture length and the slip are measured. Similarly, in a structural analysis of major faults, the total fault length and displacement are measured when possible. It is well known that typical rupture length-slip ratios are generally orders of magnitude larger than typical fault length-displacement ratios. So far, however, most of the measured co-seismic ruptures and faults have been from different areas and commonly hosted by rocks of widely different mechanical properties (which have strong effects on these ratios). Here we present new results on length-displacement ratios from 7 fault zones in Holocene lava flows on the flanks of the volcano Etna (Italy), as well as 10 co-seismic rupture length-slips, and compare them with fault data from Iceland. The displacement and slip data from Etna are mostly from the same fault zones and hosted by rocks with largely the same mechanical properties. For the co-seismic ruptures, the average length is 3657 m, the average slip 0.31 m, and the average length-slip ratio 19,595. For the faults, the average length is 6341 m, the average displacement 73 m, and the average length-displacement ratio 130. Thus, the average rupture-slip ratio is about 150-times larger than the average length-displacement ratio. We propose a model where the differences between the length-slip and the length-displacement ratios can be partly explained by the dynamic Young's modulus of a fault zone being 101-2-times greater than its static modulus. In this model, the dynamic modulus controls the length-slip ratios whereas the static modulus controls the length-displacement ratio. We suggest that the common aseismic slip in fault zones is partly related to adjustment of the short-term seismogenic length-slip ratios to the long-term length-displacement ratios. Fault displacement is here regarded as analogous to plastic flow, in which case the long-term displacement can be very large so long as sufficient shear stress concentrates in the fault.

Gudmundsson, Agust; De Guidi, Giorgio; Scudero, Salvatore

2013-11-01

418

Quasiparticle diffusion in tantalum using superconducting tunnel junctions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A specially designed device based on superconducting tunnel junctions was used to measure the diffusion of excess electronic quasiparticles generated in a superconducting film of tantalum by the absorption of x-ray photons. The device was made out of a thin film of epitaxial tantalum. At both ends, a microfabricated Al-AlOx-Al-Nb tunneling junction was placed onto the film. Both tunneling junctions were operated in a current-biased mode in a small magnetic field and were used to monitor the diffusion of excess quasiparticles generated in the Ta. For the data analysis, the Ta absorber has been modeled as a chain of cells, and the time evolution and diffusion of the distribution of energy carried by quasiparticles has been calculated using the Chang-Scalapino equations. In this way, we determined the values of the quasiparticle diffusion length ?=Dabs?eff, the diffusion rate Dabs, and the effective lifetime ?eff.

Nussbaumer, Th.; Lerch, Ph.; Kirk, E.; Zehnder, A.; Füchslin, R.; Meier, P. F.; Ott, H. R.

2000-04-01

419

Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2010-01-01

420

Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

Iceland, W. F.

1986-01-01

421

Diffusion of He atoms in fullerite C 60

In situ X-ray powder diffraction has been utilized to study the He diffusion kinetics in C60 by monitoring the time dependence of the structure characteristics (lattice parameter, reflection intensities and widths). Based on the time variations of the structure characteristics the intercalation is shown to occur in two stages: octahedral voids are filled during the faster stage 1, while during

K. A. Yagotintsev; M. A. Strzhemechny; Yu. E. Stetsenko; I. V. Legchenkova; A. I. Prokhvatilov

2006-01-01

422

Diffusion of He atoms in fullerite C60

In situ X-ray powder diffraction has been utilized to study the He diffusion kinetics in C60 by monitoring the time dependence of the structure characteristics (lattice parameter, reflection intensities and widths). Based on the time variations of the structure characteristics the intercalation is shown to occur in two stages: octahedral voids are filled during the faster stage 1, while during

K. A. Yagotintsev; M. A. Strzhemechny; Yu. E. Stetsenko; I. V. Legchenkova; A. I. Prokhvatilov

2006-01-01

423

Recent developments in the study of intracrystalline diffusion in zeolites by novel macroscopic methods and the results obtained by some of these methods are reviewed. For many systems there is a significant discrepancy between the macroscopic and microscopic (QENS, PFG NMR) diffusivity values. A possible explanation is suggested.

Douglas M. Ruthven

1995-01-01

424

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New ideas encounter obstacles on way to becoming products. Report examines process by which new ideas become products, processes, or accepted standards. Sequence of events called "the diffusion of innovation." Focuses on development of material processing in low gravity as case study in diffusion of innovation.

Earabino, Gerard J.; Heyl, G. Christopher; Percorini, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

425

Diffusion of preventive innovations

The present paper draws on the diffusion of innovations model to derive a series of strategies for speeding up the spread and implementation of new ideas in preventing addiction. Preventive innovations usually require an action at one point in time in order to avoid an unwanted future condition. Hence, preventive innovations diffuse rather slowly, in part due to delayed rewards

Everett M Rogers

2002-01-01

426

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

Bringuier, E.

2009-01-01

427

Flame height measurement of laminar inverse diffusion flames

Flame heights of co-flowing cylindrical ethylene-air and methane-air laminar inverse diffusion flames were measured. The luminous flame height was found to be greater than the height of the reaction zone determined by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of hydroxyl radicals (OH) because of luminous soot above the reaction zone. However, the location of the peak luminous signals along the centerline agreed very well with the OH flame height. Flame height predictions using Roper's analysis for circular port burners agreed with measured reaction zone heights when using values for the characteristic diffusion coefficient and/or diffusion temperature somewhat different from those recommended by Roper. The fact that Roper's analysis applies to inverse diffusion flames is evidence that inverse diffusion flames are similar in structure to normal diffusion flames. (author)

Mikofski, Mark A. [Microgravity Combustion Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Blevins, Linda G. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2006-07-15

428

Flame height measurement of laminar inverse diffusion flames.

Flame heights of co-flowing cylindrical ethylene-air and methane-air laminar inverse diffusion flames were measured. The luminous flame height was found to be greater than the height of the reaction zone determined by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of hydroxyl radicals (OH) because of luminous soot above the reaction zone. However, the location of the peak luminous signals along the centerline agreed very well with the OH flame height. Flame height predictions using Roper's analysis for circular port burners agreed with measured reaction zone heights when using values for the characteristic diffusion coefficient and/or diffusion temperature somewhat different from those recommended by Roper. The fact that Roper's analysis applies to inverse diffusion flames is evidence that inverse diffusion flames are similar in structure to normal diffusion flames.

Shaddix, Christopher R.; Williams, Timothy C.; Blevins, Linda Gail; Mikofski, Mark A. (University of California Berkeley)

2005-09-01

429

Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter ?=175 to Coulomb parameters up to ?=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous. PMID:21867316

Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

2011-07-01

430

Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions ''hop'' in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter {Gamma}=175 to Coulomb parameters up to {Gamma}=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

Hughto, J.; Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); University Information Technology Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

2011-07-15

431

Buoyancy Effects in Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The objective of this experiment (PuFF, for Pulsed-Fully Flames) is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully-modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This gives rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing compared to acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. Normal-gravity experiments suggest that the fully-modulated technique also has the potential for producing turbulent jet flames significantly more compact than steady flames with no increase in exhaust emissions. The technique also simplifies the combustion process by avoiding the acoustic forcing generally present in pulsed combustors. Fundamental issues addressed in this experiment include the impact of buoyancy on the structure and flame length, temperatures, radiation, and emissions of fully-modulated flames.

Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Ghaem-Maghami, E.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.; Page, K. L.

2003-01-01

432

Forced and natural convection in laminar-jet diffusion flames

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on methane, laminar-jet, diffusion flames with coaxial, forced-air flow to examine flame shapes in zero-gravity and in situations where buoyancy aids (normal-gravity flames) or hinders (inverted-gravity flames) the flow velocities. Fuel nozzles ranged in size from 0.051 to 0.305 cm inside radius, while the coaxial, convergent, air nozzle had a 1.4 cm inside radius at the fuel exit plane. Fuel flows ranged from 1.55 to 10.3 cu cm/sec and air flows from 0 to 597 cu cm/sec. A computer program developed under a previous government contract was used to calculate the characteristic dimensions of normal and zero-gravity flames only. The results include a comparison between the experimental data and the computed axial flame lengths for normal gravity and zero gravity which showed good agreement. Inverted-gravity flame width was correlated with the ratio of fuel nozzle radius to average fuel velocity. Flame extinguishment upon entry into weightlessness was studied, and it was found that relatively low forced-air velocities (approximately 10 cm/sec) are sufficient to sustain methane flame combustion in zero gravity. Flame color is also discussed.

Haggard, J. B., Jr.

1981-06-01

433

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of helium has been characterized in natural Fe-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Polished, oriented slabs of olivine were implanted with 3He, at 100 keV at a dose of 5x1015/cm2 or at 3.0 MeV at a dose of 1x1016/cm2. A set of experiments on the implanted olivine were run in 1-atm furnaces. In addition to the one-atm experiments, experiments on implanted samples were also run at higher pressures (2.6 and 2.7 GPa) to assess the potential effects of pressure on He diffusion and the applicability of the measured diffusivities in describing He transport in the mantle. The high-pressure experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus using an "ultra-soft" pressure cell, with the diffusion sample directly surrounded by AgCl. 3He distributions following experiments were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. This direct profiling method permits us to evaluate anisotropy of diffusion, which cannot be easily assessed using bulk-release methods. For diffusion in forsterite parallel to c we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperatures 250-950°C: D = 3.91x10-6exp(-159 ± 4 kJ mol-1/RT) m2/sec. The data define a single Arrhenius line spanning more than 7 orders of magnitude in D and 700°C in temperature. Diffusion parallel to a appears slightly slower, yielding an activation energy for diffusion of 135 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 3.73x10-8 m2/sec. Diffusion parallel to b is slower than diffusion parallel to a (by about two-thirds of a log unit); for this orientation an activation energy of 138 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 1.34x10-8 m2/sec are obtained. This anisotropy is broadly consistent with observations for diffusion of Ni and Fe-Mg in olivine. Diffusion in Fe-bearing olivine (transport parallel to b) agrees within uncertainty with findings for He diffusion in forsterite. The higher-pressure experiments yield diffusivities in agreement with those from the 1-atm experiments, indicating that the results reported here can be reasonably applied to modeling He transport in the upper mantle. The insensitivity of He diffusion to pressure over the investigated range of conditions suggests that compression of the mineral lattice is not sufficient to significantly influence migration of the relatively small helium atoms, which likely diffuse via crystal interstices. The He diffusivities in this work are generally consistent with results from the study of Futagami et al. (1993), who measured He diffusion in natural olivine by outgassing 4He implanted samples, and with the diffusivities measured by bulk-release of 4He and 3He by Shuster et al. (2003), but are about 2 orders of magnitude slower than the recent findings of Tolstikhin et al. (2010) and Blard et al. (2008) . An up-temperature extrapolation of our data also show reasonable agreement with the higher-temperature measurements of Hart (1984). Blard et al. (2008) GCA 72, 3788-3803; Futagami et al. (1993) GCA 57, 3177-3194; Hart (1984) EPSL 70, 297-302; Shuster et al.( 2003) EPSL 217, 19-32; Tolstikhin et al. (2010) GCA 74, 1436-1447

Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

2011-12-01

434

Magnetoplasticity and diffusion in silicon single crystals

The effect of static magnetic fields on the dynamics of surface dislocation segments, as well as the diffusion mobility of a dopant in silicon single crystals, has been analyzed. It has been experimentally found that the preliminary treatment of p-type silicon plates (the dopant is boron with a concentration of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) in the static magnetic field (B = 1 T, a treatment time of 30 min) leads to an increase in the mobility of surface dislocation segments. The characteristic times of observed changes (about 80 h) and the threshold dopant concentration (10{sub 15} cm{sup -3}) below which the magneto-optical effect in silicon is not fixed have been determined. It has been found that diffusion processes in dislocation-free silicon are magnetically sensitive: the phosphorus diffusion depth in p-type silicon that is preliminarily aged in the static magnetic field increases (by approximately 20%) compared to the reference samples.

Skvortsov, A. A., E-mail: SkvortsovAA2009@yandex.ru; Karizin, A. V. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI' (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15