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Sample records for characteristic diffusion length

  1. Diffusion length and resistivity distribution characteristics of silicon wafer by photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Dohyun; Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Analytical photoluminescence efficiency calculation and PL intensity ratio method are developed. • Wafer resistivity and diffusion length characteristics are investigated by PL intensity ratio. • PL intensity is well correlated with resistivity, diffusion length or defect density on wafer measurement. - Abstract: Photoluminescence is a convenient, contactless method to characterize semiconductors. Its use for room-temperature silicon characterization has only recently been implemented. We have developed the PL efficiency theory as a function of substrate doping densities, bulk trap density, photon flux density, and reflectance and compared it with experimental data initially for bulk Si wafers. New developed PL intensity ratio method is able to predict the silicon wafer properties, such as doping densities, minority carrier diffusion length and bulk trap density.

  2. Diffusion length measurements in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.

    2016-05-01

    The results of diffusion length measurements by fitting the collected current dependence on electron beam energy are discussed. It is shown that in GaN structures, this method also allows measuring the local dopant concentration. A possibility of diffusion length mapping by this method is demonstrated. It is shown that the dislocation density is too low to explain the small diffusion lengths measured in n-GaN.

  3. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (ξ _α ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ξ _α is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ξ _α across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the α β splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of α cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  4. The Influence of Spatial Variations of Diffusion Length on Charge Collected by Diffusion from Ion Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Charge collected by diffusion from ion tracks in a semiconductor substrate may be influenced by the substrate diffusion length, which is related to recombination losses. A theoretical analysis shows that, excluding some extreme cases, charge collection is insensitive to spatial variations in the diffusion length funciton, so it is possible to define an effective diffusion length having the property that collected charge can be approximated by assuming a uniform diffusion length equal to this effective value.

  5. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(-N/NK), where the estimates of parameter NK are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius rex, i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA.

  6. Diffusion lengths in amphoteric GaAs heteroface solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, K. L.; Beal, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Minority-carrier diffusion lengths in amphoteric GaAs:Si were investigated. Electron and hole diffusion lengths in p- and n-type, respectively, were determined to be 13 microns and 7 microns. Preliminary efficiency measurements on heteroface structures based on amphoteric GaAs:Si p-n junctions indicated that these devices should make excellent solar cells.

  7. A novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length of Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-qing; Sun, Niu-yi; Che, Wen-ru; Shan, Rong; Zhu, Zhen-gang

    2016-05-01

    Spin diffusion length of Pt is evaluated via proximity effect of spin orbit coupling (SOC) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Pt/Co2FeAl bilayers. By varying the thicknesses of Pt and Co2FeAl layer, the thickness dependences of AHE parameters can be obtained, which are theoretically predicted to be proportional to the square of the SOC strength. According to the physical image of the SOC proximity effect, the spin diffusion length of Pt can easily be identified from these thickness dependences. This work provides a novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length in a material with a small value.

  8. Long Minority Carrier Diffusion Lengths in Bridged Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong; Triplett, Mark; Yang, Yiming; Leonard, Francois; Talin, Alec; Islam, Saif

    2015-03-01

    Nanowires have large surface areas which create new challenges for their optoelectronic applications. Lithographic processes involved in device fabrication and substrate interfaces can lead to surface defects and substantially reduce charge carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Here, we show that using a bridging method to suspend pristine nanowires allows for circumventing detrimental fabrication steps and interfacial effects associated with planar device architectures. We report electron diffusion lengths up to 2.7 μm in bridged silicon nanowire devices, much longer than previously reported values for silicon nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm. Strikingly, electron diffusion lengths are reduced to only 45 nm in planar devices incorporating nanowires grown under the same conditions. The highly scalable and low-cost silicon nano-bridge devices with the demonstrated long diffusion lengths may find exciting applications in photovoltaics, image sensing and photodetectors. DMR-1310678, CMMI-1235592, DEAC01-94-AL85000.

  9. Change of characteristic length with packaging for torsional MEMS switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Deepak; Anuroop, Kumar, Prem; Kaur, Maninder; Gaur, Surender; Kothari, Prateek; Singh, Arvind K.; Rangra, Kamaljit

    2016-04-01

    Fluid continuity theory is used to describe the dynamic response of open Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) devices. For a packaged device, at low pressure, the fluid continuity theory is no longer valid and a rarefication theory based on a Knudsen number is used. In an open MEMS device, the characteristic length which determines the Knudsen number is represented by the gap between the MEMS bridge and underneath actuation electrodes. On the other hand, for a packaged device, effective characteristic length is modified with the packaging cavity height. In this paper, for a packaged MEMS device, effective characteristic length with reference to the packaging height is derived.

  10. Study of minority carrier diffusion lengths in photoactive layers of multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mintairov, S. A. Andreev, V. M.; Emelyanov, V. M.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Timoshina, N. K.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Lantratov, V. M.

    2010-08-15

    A technique for determining a minority carrier's diffusion length in photoactive III-V layers of solar cells by approximating their spectral characteristics is presented. Single-junction GaAs, Ge and multi-junction GaAs/Ge, GaInP/GaAs, and GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells fabricated by hydride metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (H-MOVPE) have been studied. The dependences of the minority carrier diffusion length on the doping level of p-Ge and n-GaAs are determined. It is shown that the parameters of solid-state diffusion of phosphorus atoms to the p-Ge substrate from the n-GaInP nucleation layer are independent of the thickness of the latter within 35-300 nm. It is found that the diffusion length of subcells of multijunction structures in Ga(In)As layers is smaller in comparison with that of single-junction structures.

  11. Length of intact plasma membrane determines the diffusion properties of cellular water

    PubMed Central

    Eida, Sato; Van Cauteren, Marc; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Katayama, Ikuo; Sasaki, Miho; Obara, Makoto; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Misa; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diffusion in a boundary-free medium depends only on the molecular size, the temperature, and medium viscosity. However, the critical determinant of the molecular diffusion property in inhomogeneous biological tissues has not been identified. Here, using an in vitro system and a high-resolution MR imaging technique, we show that the length of the intact plasma membrane is a major determinant of water diffusion in a controlled cellular environment and that the cell perimeter length (CPL) is sufficient to estimate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in any cellular environment in our experimental system (ADC = −0.21 × CPL + 1.10). We used this finding to further explain the different diffusion kinetics of cells that are dying via apoptotic or non-apoptotic cell death pathways exhibiting characteristic changes in size, nuclear and cytoplasmic architectures, and membrane integrity. These results suggest that the ADC value can be used as a potential biomarker for cell death. PMID:26750342

  12. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films under above-band-gap illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. D.; Son, B. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Sang Yong; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y. H.

    2014-06-15

    We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO{sub 2} nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  13. Scale length of mantle heterogeneities: Constraints from helium diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.; Kurz, M. D.; Wang, Z.

    2008-05-01

    A model of coupled He production/diffusion is used to constrain the question of whether Earth's peridotitic mantle contains ubiquitous mesoscale veins or slabs of other lithologies. The high diffusion rates of helium preclude survival of He isotope heterogeneities on scales smaller than a few tens of meters, especially if they represent long term in-growth of 4He in the mantle. For 1.5 Gyr residence times, and a diffusion coefficient of 10 - 10 m 2/s, 0.5 km slabs or 2 km cylinders will lose > 90% of in-grown 4He. However, substantial 3He/ 4He variations may persist in slabs or be induced in adjacent mantle, depending on initial He, U and Th contents. We have modeled three cases of 3He/ 4He equilibration between mantle domains: an ocean crust (OC) slab in depleted upper mantle (DMM) or in enriched mantle (BSE), and a BSE slab in DMM. For a 1 km OC slab in DMM (8 Ra today), the slab today will have 3He/ 4He of only 3 Ra, and will have influenced the surrounding mantle with 4He for > 7 km on either side. The average 3He/ 4He of this mixed zone will be < 7 Ra, even when sampled by melts over a total width of 20-50 km. For the case of a 1 km BSE slab in DMM (8 Ra today), the slab will be 37 Ra today, and will have infected a mantle domain > 16 km wide. Even with a 60 km melt sampling width, the average 3He/ 4He will be > 15 Ra. Slabs may lose their He signature by diffusion, but their presence will be recorded in the surrounding mantle. We have evaluated 3 along-axis N-MORB ridge-crest data sets in this context (MAR 25.7-26.5°S; EPR 19-23°S; SWIR 16-24° E), with a view to defining scale-lengths of He isotope variability. The average 3He/ 4He variability for these 3 areas is very small, and independent of spreading rate: 0.13, 0.19 and 0.21 Ra (± 1 σ). Since these ridges range from ultra-slow to very fast-spreading, the variability in size of along-axis magma chambers will lead inevitably to various scales of melt averaging. We conclude that these ridge areas are not sampling mantle that contains enriched veins or recycled oceanic crust slabs of significant size (> tens of meters). It appears difficult to sustain a view of the upper mantle as a ubiquitous mixture of veins and depleted matrix, with MORB always representing an averaging of this mixture.

  14. Performance Characteristics of Plane-Wall Two-Dimensional Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1953-01-01

    Experiments have been made at Stanford University to determine the performance characteristics of plane-wall, two-dimensional diffusers which were so proportioned as to insure reasonable approximation of two-dimensional flow. All of the diffusers had identical entrance cross sections and discharged directly into a large plenum chamber; the test program included wide variations of divergence angle and length. During all tests a dynamic pressure of 60 pounds per square foOt was maintained at the diffuser entrance and the boundary layer there was thin and fully turbulent. The most interesting flow characteristics observed were the occasional appearance of steady, unseparated, asymmetric flow - which was correlated with the boundary-layer coalescence - and the rapid deterioration of flow steadiness - which occurred as soon as the divergence angle for maximum static pressure recovery was exceeded. Pressure efficiency was found to be controlled almost exclusively by divergence angle, whereas static pressure recovery was markedly influenced by area ratio (or length) as well as divergence angle. Volumetric efficiency. diminished as area ratio increased, and at a greater rate with small lengths than with large ones. Large values of the static-pressure-recovery coefficient were attained only with long diffusers of large area ratio; under these conditions pressure efficiency was high and. volumetric efficiency low. Auxiliary tests with asymmetric diffusers demonstrated that longitudinal pressure gradient, rather than wall divergence angle, controlled flow separation. Others showed that the addition of even a short exit duct of uniform section augmented pressure recovery. Finally, it was found that the installation of a thin, central, longitudinal partition suppressed flow separation in short diffusers and thereby improved pressure recovery

  15. Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

  16. Large diffusion lengths of excitons in perovskite and TiO2 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Gasparian, Vladimir; Lozovik, Yurii

    2016-02-01

    Solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have recently become very promising among other materials because of their cost-effective character and improvements in efficiency. Such performance is primarily associated with effective light absorption and large diffusion length of charge carriers. Our paper is devoted to the explanation of large diffusion lengths in these systems. The transport mean free path of charged carriers in a perovskite/TiO2 heterojunction that is an important constituent of the solar cells have been analyzed. Large transport length is explained by the planar diffusion of indirect excitons. Diffusion length of the coupled system increases by several orders compared to single carrier length due to the correlated character of the effective field acting on the exciton.

  17. Spin and phase coherence lengths in InAs wires with diffusive boundary scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of low-temperature magnetotransport in lithographic wires of submicron widths fabricated from high-mobility AlGaSb/InAs/AlGaSb two-dimensional electron system heterostructures are presented. The dependence of the spin and phase coherence lengths on wire width and diffusion constant is investigated by analyzing the conductance in low applied magnetic fields with antilocalization models. Predominantly diffusive boundary scattering is deduced from the magnitude and wire width dependence of the conductance. Diffusive boundary scattering leads to a diffusion constant decreasing with wire width and hence allows the dependence of spin coherence on wire width and diffusion constant to be investigated concurrently. The spin coherence lengths are experimentally found to be proportional to the ratio of the diffusion constant to wire width. The phase coherence lengths follow Nyquist decoherence for low-dimensional wires.

  18. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  19. Photoelectrochemical diffusion length measurements on p-type multicrystalline silicon for industrial quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Sarti, D.; Chareyron, B.; Le, Q.N.; Bastide, S.; Lincot, D.

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on a method based on photoelectrochemistry which allows the measurement of diffusion lengths of multicrystalline silicon before fabricating the photovoltaic device. The results obtained with this method after two years experience on a production line, by the photovoltaic manufacturer Photowatt Int. are presented. It concerns the variation of the diffusion length within the ingots and its correlation with the short-circuit current of the final cells, and the effect of industrial gettering. The authors also present diffusion length maps on a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} cell.

  20. Cloud Shading Effects on Characteristic Boundary-Layer Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, G. L.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Sikma, M.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effects of shading by shallow cumulus (shallow Cu) and the subsequent effect of inducing heterogeneous conditions at the surface on boundary-layer characteristics. We placed special emphasis on quantifying the changes in the characteristic length and time scales associated with thermals, shallow Cu and induced thermal circulation structures. A series of systematic numerical experiments, inspired by Amazonian thermodynamic conditions, was performed using a large-eddy simulation model coupled to a land-surface model. We used four different experiments to disentangle the effects of shallow Cu on the surface and the response of clouds to these surface changes. The experiments include a `clear case', `transparent clouds', `shading clouds' and a case with a prescribed uniform domain and reduced surface heat flux. We also performed a sensitivity study on the effect of introducing a weak background flow. Length and time scales were calculated using autocorrelation and two-dimensional spectral analysis, and we found that shading controlled by shallow Cu locally lowers surface temperatures and consequently reduces the sensible and latent heat fluxes, thus inducing spatial and temporal variability in these fluxes. The length scale of this surface heterogeneity is not sufficiently large to generate circulations that are superimposed on the boundary-layer scale, but the heterogeneity does disturb boundary-layer dynamics and generates a flow opposite to the normal thermal circulation. Besides this effect, shallow Cu shading reduces turbulent kinetic energy and lowers the convective velocity scale, thus reducing the mass flux. This hampers the thermal lifetime, resulting in a decrease in the shallow Cu residence time (from 11 to 7 min). This reduction in lifetime, combined with a decrease in mass flux, leads to smaller clouds. This is partially compensated for by a decrease in thermal cell size due to a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy. As a result, inter-cloud distance is reduced, leading to a larger population of smaller clouds, while maintaining cloud cover similar to the non-shading clouds experiment. Introducing a 1 m s^{-1} background wind speed increases the thermal size in the sub-cloud layer, but the diagnosed surface-cloud coupling, quantified by characteristic time and length scales, remains.

  1. Contemplating Transport Characteristics by Augmenting the Length of Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we contemplated the transport characteristics of a single molecular device junction by augmenting the length of the molecule in the scattering region. The molecules considered here belongs to class of alkanedithiols (CnH2n+2S2). Specifically, we used a tight binding semi-empirical model to compute the transport characteristics of butanedithiol, pentanedithiol, hexanedithiol and heptanedithiol connected to semi-infinite gold electrodes through thiol anchoring elements. The exploration of transport properties of considered alkanes was completed for different bias voltages within the sphere of Keldysh's Non Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) and Extended Hückel Theory (EHT), for studying the self-consistent steady-state solution, analyzing the out-of-equilibrium electron distribution, and the behavior of the self-consistent potential. We perceived that the current and conductance retrenches with aggravation with the increase in length of the molecule with exhibition of single electron tunneling. We observed that the coupling regime shifts from strong coupling to weak for higher order alkanedithiols and the transmission is function of evenness or oddness of the carbon atoms forming an alkane.

  2. Characteristic lengths for three-carrier transport with spin-flip and electron-hole recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcmar, Maja; Saslow, Wayne M.

    2016-05-01

    The exact solution of the linearized, steady-state transport equation for three-carrier systems, such as can occur for semiconductors and ionic conductors, is constructed starting from the near-equilibrium entropy-production requirements of irreversible thermodynamics. Three characteristic modes are found, one associated with electrostatic screening (which is often neglected), and two modes associated with diffusion and "reactions." For a spintronics model with up and down electrons and unpolarized holes, the "reactions" are spin-flip and electron-hole recombination. We discuss how the variations in carrier density, diffusivity, recombination rate, and spin relaxation time affect the characteristic lengths. We apply these modes to study spin-polarized surface photoabsorption.

  3. Diffusion length damage coefficient and annealing studies in proton-irradiated InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Bailey, Sheila G.; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the diffusion length damage coefficient (K(sub L)) and the annealing characteristics of the minority carrier diffusion length (L(sub n)) in Czochralski-grown zinc-doped indium phosphide (InP), with a carrier concentration of 1 x 10(exp l8) cm(exp -3). In measuring K(sub L) irradiations were made with 0.5 MeV protons with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(exp 11) to 3 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Pre- and post-irradiation electron-beam induced current (EBIC) measurements allowed for the extraction of L(sub n) from which K(sub L) was determined. In studying the annealing characteristics of L(sub n) irradiations were made with 2 MeV protons with fluence of 5 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Post-irradiation studies of L(sub n) with time at room temperature, and with minority carrier photoinjection and forward-bias injection were carried out. The results showed that recovery under Air Mass Zero (AMO) photoinjection was complete. L(sub n) was also found to recover under forward-bias injection, where recovery was found to depend on the value of the injection current. However, no recovery of L(sub n) after proton irradiation was observed with time at room temperature, in contrast to the behavior of 1 MeV electron-irradiated InP solar cells reported previously.

  4. Tracer diffusion through F-actin: effect of filament length and cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J D; Luby-Phelps, K

    1996-01-01

    We have determined diffusion coefficients for small (50- to 70-nm diameter) fluorescein-thiocarbamoyl-labeled Ficoll tracers through F-actin as a function of filament length and cross-linking. fx45 was used to regulate filament length and avidin/biotinylated actin or ABP-280 was used to prepare cross-linked actin gels. We found that tracer diffusion was generally independent of filament length in agreement with theoretical predictions for diffusion through solutions of rods. However, in some experiments diffusion was slower through short (< or = 1.0 micron) filaments, although this result was not consistently reproducible. Measured diffusion coefficients through unregulated F-actin and filaments of lengths > 1.0 micron were more rapid than predicted by theory for tracer diffusion through rigid, random networks, which was consistent with some degree of actin bundling. Avidin-induced cross-linking of biotinylated F-actin did not affect diffusion through unregulated F-actin, but in cases where diffusion was slower through short filaments this cross-linking method resulted in enhanced tracer diffusion rates indistinguishable from unregulated F-actin. This finding, in conjunction with increased turbidity of 1.0-micron filaments upon avidin cross-linking, indicated that this cross-linking method induces F-actin bundling. By contrast, ABP-280 cross-linking retarded diffusion through unregulated F-actin and decreased turbidity. Tracer diffusion under these conditions was well approximated by the diffusion theory. Both cross-linking procedures resulted in gel formation as determined by falling ball viscometry. These results demonstrate that network microscopic geometry is dependent on the cross-linking method, although both methods markedly increase F-actin macroscopic viscosity. PMID:8913611

  5. Estimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wel, G.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Meyer, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Palaeoclimatic information can be retrieved from the diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow. The diffusion length, a measure for the amount of diffusion a layer has experienced, depends on the firn temperature and the accumulation rate. We show that the estimation of the diffusion length using power spectral densities (PSDs) of the record of a single isotope species can be biased by uncertainties in spectral properties of the isotope signal prior to diffusion. By using a second water isotope and calculating the difference in diffusion lengths between the two isotopes, this problem is circumvented. We study the PSD method applied to two isotopes in detail and additionally present a new forward diffusion method for retrieving the differential diffusion length based on the Pearson correlation between the two isotope signals. The two methods are discussed and extensively tested on synthetic data which are generated in a Monte Carlo manner. We show that calibration of the PSD method with this synthetic data is necessary to be able to objectively determine the differential diffusion length. The correlation-based method proves to be a good alternative for the PSD method as it yields precision equal to or somewhat higher than the PSD method. The use of synthetic data also allows us to estimate the accuracy and precision of the two methods and to choose the best sampling strategy to obtain past temperatures with the required precision. In addition to application to synthetic data the two methods are tested on stable-isotope records from the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, showing that reliable firn temperatures can be reconstructed with a typical uncertainty of 1.5 and 2 °C for the Holocene period and 2 and 2.5 °C for the last glacial period for the correlation and PSD method, respectively.

  6. Estimation of minority carrier diffusion lengths in InP/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier diffusion length is one of the most important parameters affecting the solar cell performance. An attempt is made to estimate the minority carrier diffusion lengths is the emitter and base of InP/GaAs heteroepitaxial solar cells. The PC-1D computer model was used to simulate the experimental cell results measured at NASA Lewis under AMO (air mass zero) spectrum at 25 C. A 16 nm hole diffusion length in the emitter and a 0.42 micron electron diffusion length in the base gave very good agreement with the I-V curve. The effect of varying minority carrier diffusion lengths on cell short current, open circuit voltage, and efficiency was studied. It is also observed that the front surface recombination velocity has very little influence on the cell performance. The poor output of heteroepitaxial cells is caused primarily by the large number of dislocations generated at the interfaces that propagate through the bulk indium phosphide layers. Cell efficiency as a function of dislocation density was calculated and the effect of improved emitter bulk properties on cell efficiency is presented. It is found that cells with over 16 percent efficiencies should be possible, provided the dislocation density is below 10(exp 6)/sq cm.

  7. Estimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wel, G.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Meyer, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Paleoclimatic information can be retrieved from the diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow. The diffusion length, a measure for the amount of diffusion a layer has experienced, depends on the firn temperature and the accumulation rate. We show that the estimation of the diffusion length using Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the record of a single isotope species can be biased and is therefore not a reliable proxy for past temperature reconstruction. Using a second water isotope and calculating the difference in diffusion lengths between the two isotopes this problem is circumvented. We study the PSD method applied to two isotopes in detail and additionally present a new forward diffusion method for retrieving the differential diffusion length based on the Pearson correlation between the two isotope signals. The two methods are discussed and extensively tested on synthetic data which are generated in a Monte Carlo manner. We show that calibration of the PSD method with this synthetic data is necessary to be able to objectively determine the differential diffusion length. The correlation based method proofs to be a good alternative for the PSD method as it yields equal or somewhat higher precision than the PSD method. The use of synthetic data also allows us to estimate the accuracy and precision of the two methods and to choose the best sampling strategy to obtain past temperatures with the required precision. Additional to application to synthetic data the two methods are tested on stable isotope records from the EPICA ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, showing that reliable firn temperatures can be reconstructed with a typical uncertainty of 1.5 and 2 °C for the Holocene period and 2 and 2.5 °C for the last glacial period for the correlation and PSD method, respectively.

  8. Laser interferometric method for determining the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Manukhov, V. V.; Fedortsov, A. B.; Ivanov, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    A new laser interferometric method for measuring the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is proposed. The method is based on the interference–absorption interaction of two laser radiations in a semiconductor. Injected radiation generates additional carriers in a semiconductor, which causes a change in the material’s optical constants and modulation of the probing radiation passed through the sample. When changing the distance between carrier generation and probing points, a decrease in the carrier concentration, which depends on the diffusion length, is recorded. The diffusion length is determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical dependences of the probe signal on the divergence of the injector and probe beams. The method is successfully tested on semiconductor samples with different thicknesses and surface states and can be used in scientific research and the electronics industry.

  9. Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.

  10. Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length of SnS using electro-optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.; Nwofe, P. A.; Miles, R. W.

    2013-05-01

    The minority carrier diffusion length of the "absorber layer" in a solar cell is generally accepted to be one of the most important parameters that govern the performance of a solar cell device. In this work, thin films of SnS have been thermally evaporated onto cadmium sulphide/indium tin oxide/glass substrates, to fabricate heterojunction solar cell devices. The minority carrier diffusion length was determined for the first time for SnS layers using spectral response measurements in conjunction with optical absorption coefficient versus wavelength measurements. The minority carrier diffusion length was determined to be in the range 0.18-0.23 µm for the SnS/CdS devices investigated in this work.

  11. Determination of the Pt spin diffusion length by spin-pumping and spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel; Vlaminck, Vincent; Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenería, Universidad San Fransciso de Quito, Quito ; Divan, Ralu; Bader, Samuel D.; Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439

    2013-12-09

    The spin diffusion length of Pt at room temperature and at 8 K is experimentally determined via spin pumping and spin Hall effect in permalloy/Pt bilayers. Voltages generated during excitation of ferromagnetic resonance from the inverse spin Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance effect were investigated with a broadband approach. Varying the Pt layer thickness gives rise to an evolution of the voltage line shape due to the superposition of the above two effects. By studying the ratio of the two voltage components with the Pt layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of Pt can be directly extracted. We obtain a spin diffusion length of ∼1.2 nm at room temperature and ∼1.6 nm at 8 K.

  12. Probing sub-alveolar length scales with hyperpolarized-gas diffusion NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Wilson; Carl, Michael; Mooney, Karen; Mugler, John; Cates, Gordon

    2009-05-01

    Diffusion MRI of the lung is a promising technique for detecting alterations of normal lung microstructure in diseases such as emphysema. The length scale being probed using this technique is related to the time scale over which the helium-3 or xenon-129 diffusion is observed. We have developed new MR pulse sequence methods for making diffusivity measurements at sub-millisecond diffusion times, allowing one to probe smaller length scales than previously possible in-vivo, and opening the possibility of making quantitative measurements of the ratio of surface area to volume (S/V) in the lung airspaces. The quantitative accuracy of simulated and experimental measurements in microstructure phantoms will be discussed, and preliminary in-vivo results will be presented.

  13. Electron-Hole Diffusion Lengths Exceeding 1 Micrometer in an Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranks, Samuel; Eperon, Giles; Grancini, Giulia; Menelaou, Christopher; Alcocer, Marcelo; Leijtens, Tomas; Herz, Laura; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry

    2014-03-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites have shown promise as high-performance absorbers in solar cells, first as a coating on a mesoporous metal oxide scaffold and more recently as a solid layer in planar heterojunction architectures. Here, we report transient absorption and photoluminescence-quenching measurements to determine the electron-hole diffusion lengths, diffusion constants, and lifetimes in mixed halide (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) and triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite absorbers. We found that the diffusion lengths are greater than 1 micrometer in the mixed halide perovskite, which is an order of magnitude greater than the absorption depth. In contrast, the triiodide absorber has electron-hole diffusion lengths of order 100 nanometers. Finally, we fabricated solution-processed thin-film planar heterojunction devices, achieving power conversion efficiencies of over 12% using the mixed halide absorber but only 4% with the triiodide perovskite. Our results show that the long diffusion lengths justify the high efficiency of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells, and identify a critical parameter to optimize for future perovskite absorber development.

  14. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, K.A.; Swimm, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    One of the indicators which determine a material's potential for use as a solar cell is the minority carrier diffusion length (L/sub D/) of the material. To determine L/sub D/ a surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is used. This method is dependent upon an accurate knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient as function of wavelength. The results for the absorption coefficients for various types of silicon sheet material are compared to those previously used in the two models. The resultant effect upon the diffusion length is also discussed in detail. 7 refs.

  15. Interpretation of scanning electron microscope measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths in semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.

  16. Quantification of the effects of generation volume, surface recombination velocity, and diffusion length on the electron-beam-induced current and its derivative Determination of diffusion lengths in the low micron and submicron ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, K. L.; Von Roos, O.; Cheng, L.-J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic and quantitative analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of the shape (point, cube, Gaussian) and size of the generation volume, the surface recombination velocity, and the diffusion length on the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and its derivative (DEIC). Thick homogeneously doped samples exhibiting diffusion lengths in the low micron and submicron range are considered. The results are presented in computed EBIC curves as a function of scanning distance and of the ratio true diffusion length/effective diffusion length. Shown using these curves are: (1) a simple and yet rigorous method for the determination of the true diffusion length, taking into consideration all of the factors cited above, (2) a method for the rapid determination of the surface recombination velocity, (3) the condition under which the source shape becomes insignificant, and (4) a new value for the lower limit of the diffusion length which can be determined by the EBOC technique.

  17. Effective defect diffusion lengths in Ar-ion bombarded 3C-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayu Aji, L. B.; Wallace, J. B.; Shao, L.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2016-05-01

    Above room temperature, SiC exhibits pronounced processes of diffusion and interaction of radiation-generated point defects. Here, we use the recently developed pulsed ion beam method to measure effective defect diffusion lengths in 3C-SiC bombarded in the temperature range of 25–200 °C with 500 keV Ar ions. Results reveal a diffusion length of  ∼10 nm, which exhibits a weak temperature dependence, changing from 9 to 13 nm with increasing temperature. These results have important implications for understanding and predicting radiation damage in SiC and for the development of radiation-resistant materials via interface-mediated defect reactions.

  18. Water diffusion within hydrated model grafted polymeric membranes with bimodal side chain length distributions.

    PubMed

    Dorenbos, G

    2015-04-14

    The effect of bimodal side chain length distributions on pore morphology and solvent diffusion within hydrated amphiphilic polymeric membranes is predicted. Seven polymeric architectures are constructed from hydrophobic backbones from which at regular intervals side chains branch off that are alternatingly short (composed of p hydrophobic A fragments or beads) and long (q A fragments, q > p). The side chains are end-linked with a hydrophilic C fragment. Pore morphologies at a water volume fraction of 0.16 are calculated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Water diffusion through the water containing pores is calculated by tracer diffusion calculations through 140 selected snapshots and from the water bead motions. Diffusion constants decrease with difference in side chain lengths, q - p. Overall, the distance between pores also decreases with q - p. The results are explained by counting for every architecture the average number of bonds 〈N(bond)〉 between an A and the nearest C fragment. These results are in line with a database that contains more than 60 architectures. Diffusion constants tend to increase linearly with 〈N(bond)〉|C|(-1)|A|, where |C| and |A| are the C and A bead fractions within the architecture. 〈N(bond)〉 is therefore expected to be an interesting design parameter for obtaining low percolation thresholds for solvent and/or proton diffusion. PMID:25703230

  19. Effect of rib length on characteristics of separation and reattachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kindere, Jacques W.; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    Ribs reproduce key elements in engineering. Their aerodynamics can be detrimental to vehicles, or harnessed favorably in motors, and heat exchangers. The flow around such obstacle includes separation upstream of the obstacle, separation and reattachment on the top surface, and separation downstream. The interaction between these different recirculation regions is affected by the obstacle's length. This study examines experimentally how the interaction between different recirculation regions evolves with rib length. The rib is submerged in a fully turbulent boundary layer (δ / H = 1 . 37 , where δ and H are respectively incoming boundary layer thickness and rib height), and the Reynolds number based on rib height is ReH = 20 , 000 . Particle Image Velocimetry synchronized with pressure measurements was carried out on the flow past ribs of different lengths. The length of the rib (distance between the two vertical faces) varied between L = 0 . 1 H and L = 8 H . Results from this experiment will be used to compare the mean recirculation lengths of the different separation regions. Pressure distribution within the separation regions will also be examined and compared. Finally, the interaction between the different shear layers will be examined and contrasted across all cases.

  20. Magnetic field dependence of the magnon spin diffusion length in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, L. J.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an external magnetic field on the diffusive spin transport by magnons in the magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 , using a nonlocal magnon transport measurement geometry. We observed a decrease in magnon spin diffusion length λm for increasing field strengths, where λm is reduced from 9.6 ±1.2 μ m at 10 mT to 4.2 ±0.6 μ m at 3.5 T at room temperature. In addition, we find that there must be at least one additional transport parameter that depends on the external magnetic field. Our results do not allow us to unambiguously determine whether this is the magnon equilibrium density or the magnon diffusion constant. These results are significant for experiments in the more conventional longitudinal spin Seebeck geometry, since the magnon spin diffusion length sets the length scale for the spin Seebeck effect as well and is relevant for its understanding.

  1. Surface preparation for determining diffusion length by the surface photovoltage method

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.M.

    1985-03-26

    A method of treating the surface of a sample of n-type silicon material in preparation for measurements for determining the minority carrier diffusion length of the material by the surface photovoltage method comprises applying a strong oxidizing agent to an appropriately prepared surface of a semiconductor material such as silicon. The oxidizing agent is taken from the group consisting of potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/), and ammonium dichromate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/). The surface preparation assures a consistently large surface photovoltage that is stable during the surface photovoltage measurement for minority carrier diffusion length.

  2. Measurements of spin diffusion length in gold with point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiz, Muhammad; Panguluri, Raghava; Balke, Benjamin; Wurmehl, Sabine; Felser, Claudia; Petukhov, Andre; Nadgorny, Boris

    2008-03-01

    Spin diffusion length, Ls, is of fundamental importance for spin dependent transport and spintronic devices. So far, most of the measurements of Ls in non-magnetic metals have been done in the lateral non-local geometry, with the chemical potential difference characterizing the spin imbalance. In our approach the spin diffusion length was measured directly with point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. A spin polarized current was injected from a ferromagnetic electrode, Co2Mn0.5Fe0.5Si Heulser alloy, into Au films of variable thickness. The spin current, which gradually decays with the increased thickness of the film, was measured with a superconducting Nb tip. We developed a phenomenological theory which allowed us to determine the values of Ls in such a system. We found Ls to be on the order of 250 nm at 4 K, comparable to the results obtained by other techniques. Similar results were obtained with a Gd single crystal.

  3. Minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1993-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles in InP specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure the edge surface-recombination velocity. These values were used in a fit of the experimental EBIC data with a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC (Donolato, 1982) to obtain the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length.

  4. Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Akira; Ohta, Yoshimi; Niwa, Yusuke; Hirota, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 μs at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 μm by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays. PMID:23968156

  5. Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Akira; Ohta, Yoshimi; Niwa, Yusuke; Hirota, Masaki

    2013-08-01

    To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 μs at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 μm by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays.

  6. Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Bernard; Dresner, Joseph; Szostak, Daniel J.

    1983-07-12

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV. A vibrating Kelvin method-type probe electrode couples the SPV to a measurement system. The operating optical wavelength of an adjustable monochromator to compensate for the wavelength dependent sensitivity of a photodetector is selected to measure the illumination intensity (photon flux) on the silicon. Measurements of the relative photon flux for a plurality of wavelengths are plotted against the reciprocal of the optical absorption coefficient of the material. A linear plot of the data points is extrapolated to zero intensity. The negative intercept value on the reciprocal optical coefficient axis of the extrapolated linear plot is the diffusion length of the minority carriers.

  7. Study of the spatial distribution of minority carrier diffusion length in epiplanar detector structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, T.; Węgrzecki, M.; Stolarski, M.; Krajewski, T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key parameters determining detection properties of silicon PIN detector structures (p+-ν-n+ or n+-ν-p+) is minority carrier diffusion length in p-n junction regions p-n (p+-ν or n+-ν). The parameter concerned strongly depends on quality of the starting material and technological processes conducted and has a significant impact on detector parameters, in particular dark current intensity. Thus, the parameter must be determined in order to optimise the design and technology of detectors. The paper presents a method for measuring the spatial distribution of effective carrier diffusion length in silicon detector structures, based on the measurement of photoelectric current of a non-polarised structure illuminated (spot diameter of 250 μm) with monochromatic radiation of two wavelengths λ1 = 500 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 0.9 μm) and λ2 = 900 nm (silicon penetration depth of around 33 μm). The value of diffusion length was determined by analysing the spatial distribution of optical carrier generation and values of photoelectric currents.

  8. Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

  9. Characterizing acid diffusion lengths in chemically amplified resists from measurements of deprotection kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Abhijit A.; Pandey, Yogendra Narayan; Doxastakis, Manolis; Stein, Gila E.

    2014-10-01

    The acid-catalyzed deprotection of glassy poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-tertbutyl acrylate) films was studied with infrared absorbance spectroscopy and stochastic simulations. Experimental data were interpreted with a simple description of subdiffusive acid transport coupled to second-order acid loss. This model predicts key attributes of observed deprotection rates, such as fast reaction at short times, slow reaction at long times, and a nonlinear dependence on acid loading. Fickian diffusion is approached by increasing the postexposure bake temperature or adding plasticizing agents to the polymer resin. These findings demonstrate that acid mobility and overall deprotection kinetics are coupled to glassy matrix dynamics. To complement the analysis of bulk kinetics, acid diffusion lengths were calculated from the anomalous transport model and compared with nanopattern line widths. The consistent scaling between experiments and simulations suggests that the anomalous diffusion model could be further developed into a predictive lithography tool.

  10. A diffusion-based neurite length-sensing mechanism involved in neuronal symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Toriyama, Michinori; Sakumura, Yuichi; Shimada, Tadayuki; Ishii, Shin; Inagaki, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been significant progress in understanding the molecular signals that change cell morphology, mechanisms that cells use to monitor their size and length to regulate their morphology remain elusive. Previous studies suggest that polarizing cultured hippocampal neurons can sense neurite length, identify the longest neurite, and induce its subsequent outgrowth for axonogenesis. We observed that shootin1, a key regulator of axon outgrowth and neuronal polarization, accumulates in neurite tips in a neurite length-dependent manner; here, the property of cell length is translated into shootin1 signals. Quantitative live cell imaging combined with modeling analyses revealed that intraneuritic anterograde transport and retrograde diffusion of shootin1 account for its neurite length-dependent accumulation. Our quantitative model further explains that the length-dependent shootin1 accumulation, together with shootin1-dependent neurite outgrowth, constitutes a positive feedback loop that amplifies stochastic fluctuations of shootin1 signals, thereby generating an asymmetric signal for axon specification and neuronal symmetry breaking. PMID:20664640

  11. Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming

    The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.

  12. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  13. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore » large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  14. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps.

    PubMed

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R; Miller, John R

    2015-06-18

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17-127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence, and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps, the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF), and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization, and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ∼50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length is LD = 34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length but not on trap depth, solvent polarity, or which trap group is present. PMID:25531034

  15. Diffusion length measurements in bulk and epitaxially grown 3-5 semiconductors using charge collection microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic techniques used was charge collection microscopy also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended generation and point generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations, or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

  16. Diffusion length measurement in bulk and epitaxially grown III-V semiconductors using charge collection microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic technique used was charge collection microscopy, also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line-scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended-generation and point-generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.

  17. Defect density dependent photoluminescence yield and triplet diffusion length in rubrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkhin, Pavel; Biaggio, Ivan; Zimmerling, Tino; Döbeli, Max; Batlogg, Bertram

    2016-02-01

    We investigate how excitonic processes in rubrene single crystals are affected by a deliberately implanted defect gradient induced by proton irradiation. Spatially resolved measurements show a gradually reduced photoluminescence quantum yield and triplet exciton diffusion length along the defect gradient. Both effects are caused by a decrease in the average triplet lifetime due to interaction with the implanted defects. The triplet lifetime was reduced by almost two orders of magnitude at the highest implanted defect density of 1017 cm-3. The strong sensitivity of the photoluminescence quantum yield to the defect density that is observed already at moderate excitation densities is caused by the combination of two effects: the dominant contribution of triplet-fusion to the observed photoluminescence and the long-range diffusion of triplet excitons.

  18. Temporal scaling characteristics of diffusion as a new MRI contrast: Findings in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Özarslan, Evren; Shepherd, Timothy M.; Koay, Cheng Guan; Blackband, Stephen J.; Basser, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Features of the diffusion-time dependence of the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal provide a new contrast that could be altered by numerous biological processes and pathologies in tissue at microscopic length scales. An anomalous diffusion model, based on the theory of Brownian motion in fractal and disordered media, is used to characterize the temporal scaling (TS) characteristics of diffusion-related quantities, such as moments of the displacement and zero-displacement probabilities, in excised rat hippocampus specimens. To reduce the effect of noise in magnitude-valued MRI data, a novel numerical procedure was employed to yield accurate estimation of these quantities even when the signal falls below the noise floor. The power-law dependencies characterize the TS behavior in all regions of the rat hippocampus, providing unique information about its microscopic architecture. The relationship between the TS characteristics and diffusion anisotropy is investigated by examining the anisotropy of TS, and conversely, the TS of anisotropy. The findings suggest the robustness of the technique as well as the reproducibility of estimates. TS characteristics of the diffusion-weighted signals could be used as a new and useful marker of tissue microstructure. PMID:22306798

  19. Diffusion Characteristics of Upwind Schemes on Unstructured Triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.

    1998-01-01

    The diffusive characteristics of two upwind schemes, multi-dimensional fluctuation splitting and dimensionally-split finite volume, are compared for scalar advection-diffusion problems. Algorithms for the two schemes are developed for node-based data representation on median-dual meshes associated with unstructured triangulations in two spatial dimensions. Four model equations are considered: linear advection, non-linear advection, diffusion, and advection-diffusion. Modular coding is employed to isolate the effects of the two approaches for upwind flux evaluation, allowing for head-to-head accuracy and efficiency comparisons. Both the stability of compressive limiters and the amount of artificial diffusion generated by the schemes is found to be grid-orientation dependent, with the fluctuation splitting scheme producing less artificial diffusion than the dimensionally-split finite volume scheme. Convergence rates are compared for the combined advection-diffusion problem, with a speedup of 2-3 seen for fluctuation splitting versus finite volume when solved on the same mesh. However, accurate solutions to problems with small diffusion coefficients can be achieved on coarser meshes using fluctuation splitting rather than finite volume, so that when comparing convergence rates to reach a given accuracy, fluctuation splitting shows a 20-25 speedup over finite volume.

  20. Diffusion length variation in 0.5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  1. Diffusion length measurement using the scanning electron microscope. [for silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1975-01-01

    The present work describes a measuring technique employing the scanning electron microscope in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through application of highly doped surface field layers. The effects of high injection level and low-high junction current generation are investigated. Results obtained with this technique are compared to those obtained by a penetrating radiation (X-ray) method, and a close agreement is found. The SEM technique is limited to cells that contain a back surface field layer.

  2. Probing triplet-triplet annihilation zone and determining triplet exciton diffusion length by using delayed electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yichun; Aziz, Hany

    2010-05-01

    The literature shows that triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) can provide a substantial contribution to the electroluminescence (EL) of fluorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). In this study, we utilized delayed EL measurements to probe the TTA emission zone of archetypical 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) based OLEDs. The results demonstrate that the TTA emission zone of these devices is much larger than the prompt emission zone of singlet states that are formed in the electron-hole recombination. The larger TTA emission zone is attributed to the longer diffusion length of the Alq3 triplet states (60 nm) than that of Alq3 singlet states (20 nm).

  3. Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells were made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) by to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. Spire has made N/P InP/Si cells of sizes up to 2 cm by 4 cm with beginning-of-life (BOL) AM0 efficiencies over 13% (one-sun, 28C). These InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency and power density after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells after a fluence of about 2e15 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm. In this work, we investigate the minority carrier (electron) base diffusion lengths in the N/P InP/Si cells. A quantum efficiency model was constructed for a 12% BOL AM0 N/P InP/Si cell which agreed well with the absolutely measured quantum efficiency and the sun-simulator measured AM0 photocurrent (30.1 mA/sq. cm). This model was then used to generate a table of AM0 photocurrents for a range of base diffusion lengths. AM0 photocurrents were then measured for irradiations up to 7.7e16 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm (the 12% BOL cell was 8% after the final irradiation). By comparing the measured photocurrents with the predicted photocurrents, base diffusion lengths were assigned at each fluence level. A damage coefficient K of 4e-8 and a starting (unirradiated) base electron diffusion length of 0.8 microns fits the data well. The quantum efficiency was measured again at the end of the experiment to verify that the photocurrent predicted by the model (25.5 mA/sq. cm) agreed with the simulator-measured photocurrent after irradiation (25.7 mA/sq. cm).

  4. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic processes. Also, we explore the variability in hillslope length scales as a function of hillslope diffusivity coefficients and critical shear stress in natural landscapes and show that we can infer signatures of dominant geomorphic processes by analyzing characteristic topographic length scales present in topography. References: Beven, K. and Kirkby, M. J.: A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43-69, 1979 Howard, A. D. (1994). A detachment-limited model of drainage basin evolution.Water resources research, 30(7), 2261-2285. Passalacqua, P., Do Trung, T., Foufoula Georgiou, E., Sapiro, G., & Dietrich, W. E. (2010). A geometric framework for channel network extraction from lidar: Nonlinear diffusion and geodesic paths. Journal of Geophysical. Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 115(F1). Sangireddy, H., Passalacqua, P., Stark, C.P.(2012). Multi-resolution estimation of lidar-DTM surface flow metrics to identify characteristic topographic length scales, EP13C-0859: AGU Fall meeting 2012. Stark, C. P., & Stark, G. J. (2001). A channelization model of landscape evolution. American Journal of Science, 301(4-5), 486-512. Tucker, G. E., Catani, F., Rinaldo, A., & Bras, R. L. (2001). Statistical analysis of drainage density from digital terrain data. Geomorphology, 36(3), 187-202.

  5. Absolute standard of diffusion length and lifetime of minority charge carriers in single-crystal silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidanov, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    A substantial difference in electron recombination cross sections on Fe-B complexes (?1) and on activated iron ions (?2) in boron-doped single-crystal silicon is used to independently determine the lifetime of electrons in the standard T st using the surface photo-emf method. Pairs of values of the lifetime T 1 and T 2 before and after the decomposition of the Fe-B complexes were measured for each of 600 ingots at arbitrary diffusion length L cal for the calibrating specimen and were placed on the plane ( T 1, T 2). At the boundary of the region filled with the points, ingots are presented that are only contaminated with iron ions, so that T 2/ T 1 = ?1/?2. The true values of L st and T st of the calibrating specimen and the ratio ?1/?2 = 12.5 0.5 are determined by selecting a new value of the diffusion length for the calibrating specimen, which straightens the boundary of the region filled with the points after the recalculation of the values of T 1 and T 2.

  6. Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Arnold R.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Arnold R.

    1984-02-21

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

  8. Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are being made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers compared to InP or germanium (Ge) wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells. In this work, base electron diffusion lengths in the N/P cell are extracted from measured AM0 short-circuit photocurrent at various irradiation levels out to an equivalent 1 MeV fluence of 1017 1 MeV electrons/sq cm for a 1 sq cm 12% BOL InP/Si cell. These values are then checked for consistency by comparing measured Voc data with a theoretical Voc model that includes a dark current term that depends on the extracted diffusion lengths.

  9. Double-Diffusive Mixing-Length Theory, Semiconvection and Massive Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Scott A.; Taam, Ronald E.

    1996-12-01

    Double-diffusive convection refers to mixing where the effects of thermal and composition gradients compete to determine the stability of a fluid. In addition to the familiar fast convective instability, such fluids exhibit the slow, direct salt finger instability and the slow, overstable semiconvective instability. Previous approaches to this subject usually have been based on linear stability analyses. We develop here the non-linear mixing-length theory (MLT) of double-diffusive convection, in analogy to the more familiar MLT for a fluid of homogeneous composition. We present approximate solutions for the mixing rate in the various regimes, and show that the familiar Schwarzschild and Ledoux stability criteria are good approximations to the precise criteria in stellar interiors. We have implemented the self-consistent computation of the temperature gradient and turbulent mixing rate in a stellar evolution code, and solved a diffusion equation to mix the composition at the appropriate rate. We have evolved 15- and 30solar stars from the zero-age main sequence to the end of core He-burning. Semiconvective mixing is fast enough to alter stellar composition profiles on relevant time-scales, but not so fast that instantaneous readjustment is appropriate.

  10. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  11. Temperature dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and minority electron mobility in GaInP

    SciTech Connect

    Schultes, F. J.; Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Jones-Albertus, R.; Pickett, E.; Liu, T.; Misra, P.; Sukiasyan, A.; Yuen, H.

    2013-12-09

    The mobility of electrons in double heterostructures of p-type Ga{sub 0.50}In{sub 0.50}P has been determined by measuring minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime. The minority electron mobility increases monotonically from 300 K to 5 K, limited primarily by optical phonon and alloy scattering. Comparison to majority electron mobility over the same temperature range in comparably doped samples shows a significant reduction in ionized impurity scattering at lower temperatures, due to differences in interaction of repulsive versus attractive carriers with ionized dopant sites. These results should be useful in modeling and optimization for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  12. Role of impurities in determining the exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, Ian J.; Blaylock, D. Wayne; Holmes, Russell J.

    2016-04-01

    The design and performance of organic photovoltaic cells is dictated, in part, by the magnitude of the exciton diffusion length (LD). Despite the importance of this parameter, there have been few investigations connecting LD and materials purity. Here, we investigate LD for the organic small molecule N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as native impurities are systematically removed from the material. Thin films deposited from the as-synthesized material yield a value for LD, as measured by photoluminescence quenching, of (3.9 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding photoluminescence efficiency (ηPL) of (25 ± 1)% and thin film purity of (97.1 ± 1.2)%, measured by high performance liquid chromatography. After purification by thermal gradient sublimation, the value of LD is increased to (4.7 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding ηPL of (33 ± 1)% and purity of (98.3 ± 0.8)%. Interestingly, a similar behavior is also observed as a function of the deposition boat temperature. Films deposited from the purified material at a high temperature give LD = (5.3 ± 0.8) nm with ηPL = (37 ± 1)% for films with a purity of (99.0 ± 0.3)% purity. Using a model of diffusion by Förster energy transfer, the variation of LD with purity is predicted as a function of ηPL and is in good agreement with measurements. The removal of impurities acts to decrease the non-radiative exciton decay rate and increase the radiative decay rate, leading to increases in both the diffusivity and exciton lifetime. The results of this work highlight the role of impurities in determining LD, while also providing insight into the degree of materials purification necessary to achieve optimized exciton transport.

  13. Diffusion characteristics of ethylene glycol in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís M; Carvalho, Maria Inês; Nogueira, Elisabete M; Tuchin, Valery V

    2015-05-01

    Part of the optical clearing study in biological tissues concerns the determination of the diffusion characteristics of water and optical clearing agents in the subject tissue. Such information is sufficient to characterize the time dependence of the optical clearing mechanisms—tissue dehydration and refractive index (RI) matching. We have used a simple method based on collimated optical transmittance measurements made from muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG), to determine the diffusion time values of water and EG in skeletal muscle. By representing the estimated mean diffusion time values from each treatment as a function of agent concentration in solution, we could identify the real diffusion times for water and agent. These values allowed for the calculation of the correspondent diffusion coefficients for those fluids. With these results, we have demonstrated that the dehydration mechanism is the one that dominates optical clearing in the first minute of treatment, while the RI matching takes over the optical clearing operations after that and remains for a longer time of treatment up to about 10 min, as we could see for EG and thin tissue samples of 0.5 mm. PMID:25525766

  14. Diffusion characteristics of ethylene glycol in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Luís M.; Carvalho, Maria Inês; Nogueira, Elisabete M.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-05-01

    Part of the optical clearing study in biological tissues concerns the determination of the diffusion characteristics of water and optical clearing agents in the subject tissue. Such information is sufficient to characterize the time dependence of the optical clearing mechanisms-tissue dehydration and refractive index (RI) matching. We have used a simple method based on collimated optical transmittance measurements made from muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG), to determine the diffusion time values of water and EG in skeletal muscle. By representing the estimated mean diffusion time values from each treatment as a function of agent concentration in solution, we could identify the real diffusion times for water and agent. These values allowed for the calculation of the correspondent diffusion coefficients for those fluids. With these results, we have demonstrated that the dehydration mechanism is the one that dominates optical clearing in the first minute of treatment, while the RI matching takes over the optical clearing operations after that and remains for a longer time of treatment up to about 10 min, as we could see for EG and thin tissue samples of 0.5 mm.

  15. Gate-dependent carrier diffusion length in lead selenide quantum dot field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tyler; Miller, Chris; Tolentino, Jason; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Yu, Dong

    2013-08-14

    We report a scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) study of colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dot (QD) thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). PbSe QDs are chemically treated with sodium sulfide (Na2S) and coated with amorphous alumina (a-Al2O3) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to obtain high mobility, air-stable FETs with a strongly gate-dependent conductivity. SPCM reveals a long photocurrent decay length of 1.7 μm at moderately positive gate bias that decreases to below 0.5 μm at large positive gate voltage and all negative gate voltages. After excluding other possible mechanisms including thermoelectric effects, a thick depletion width, and fringing electric fields, we conclude from photocurrent lifetime measurements that the diffusion of a small fraction of long-lived carriers accounts for the long photocurrent decay length. The long minority carrier lifetime is attributed to charge traps for majority carriers. PMID:23802707

  16. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass) (b) . Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal's characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal's means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals' skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can calculate a sturdiness factor value so that an individual animal's BMR and body mass can be simultaneously computed given its characteristic length awaits analysis of a data set that simultaneously reports all three of these items for individual animals. However for many of the addressed MMLE homogeneous groups, MMLE can predict the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the BMR and mass data using the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the mass and length data. This argues that MMLE may be able to accurately simultaneously compute BMR and mass for an individual animal. PMID:26355655

  17. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can calculate a sturdiness factor value so that an individual animal’s BMR and body mass can be simultaneously computed given its characteristic length awaits analysis of a data set that simultaneously reports all three of these items for individual animals. However for many of the addressed MMLE homogeneous groups, MMLE can predict the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the BMR and mass data using the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the mass and length data. This argues that MMLE may be able to accurately simultaneously compute BMR and mass for an individual animal. PMID:26355655

  18. The narrow pulse approximation and long length scale determination in xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of model porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Sen, P. N.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Patz, S.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of the narrow pulse approximation and imperfect background gradient cancellation), (ii) the ability to derive long length scale structural information, and (iii) effects of finite sample size. We find that the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times in small beads is significantly affected by the gas pressure. In particular, as expected, we find smaller deviations between measured D(t) and theoretical predictions as the gas pressure is increased, resulting from reduced diffusion during the application of the gradient pulse. The deviations are then completely removed when water D(t) is observed in the same samples. The use of gas also allows us to probe D(t) over a wide range of length scales and observe the long time asymptotic limit which is proportional to the inverse tortuosity of the sample, as well as the diffusion distance where this limit takes effect (approximately 1-1.5 bead diameters). The Pade approximation can be used as a reference for expected xenon D(t) data between the short and the long time limits, allowing us to explore deviations from the expected behavior at intermediate times as a result of finite sample size effects. Finally, the application of the Pade interpolation between the long and the short time asymptotic limits yields a fitted length scale (the Pade length), which is found to be approximately 0.13b for all bead packs, where b is the bead diameter. c. 2002 Elsevier Sciences (USA).

  19. Evaluation of the diffusion length in silicon diodes by means of the lateral IBIC technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, E.; Fizzotti, F.; Gargioni, E.; Lu, R.; Polesello, P.; LoGiudice, A.; Manfredotti, C.; Galassini, S.; Jaksic, M.

    1999-10-01

    The transport properties of silicon p +-n-n + diodes with a junction depth of about 47 μm have been investigated by means of the lateral IBIC technique. Cross section of the samples have been irradiated by a low intensity 5 MeV proton microbeam and the charge pulses have been recorded as a function of incident proton position. The charge collection efficiency (cce) profiles show broad plateaux with values close to 100%. The region where the electric field is absent shows exponentially decreasing cce profiles. The estimate of the decay rate allows the diffusion length of the minority carriers in the bulk of the device to be measured. The analytical method presented in this paper takes into account the dependence of the signal rise time on the incident proton position. The entire cce profile is in full agreement with the IBIC theory based on the extended Ramo's theorem, which provides a very effective tool for quantitative estimates of transport parameters in semiconductor devices.

  20. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  1. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  2. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  3. PbSe/PbSrSe MQW characteristic temperature relationship with laser cavity length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodr, M.

    2015-08-01

    A potential materials system that may play a key role in IR spectroscopy applications is PbSe/Pb0.934 Sr0.066Se quantum well structure. In this work, the characteristic temperature (T0) relationship with laser cavity length was studied for this material system at three temperature ranges 77lengths then decreases to an almost constant value after some critical length. The data were best fitted to a second degree polynomials which can be used to determine these critical values. Also, we analyzed the effects of quantum efficiency on the characteristic temperature values. Inclusion of theoretical values for the quantum efficiency due to Auger recombination and leakage current reduces the characteristic temperature T0 in these ranges. It was found that inclusion of the quantum efficiency decreases the characteristic temperature by 60% for a wide range of cavity lengths.

  4. CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH OF ENERGY-CONTAINING STRUCTURES AT THE BASE OF A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Cao, W.; Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A.

    2013-08-20

    An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that rely on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length {lambda} of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (u{sup 2} and b{sup 2}) transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale directly defines the heating rate. We use a time series analysis of solar granulation and magnetic field measurements inside two CHs obtained with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A data set for transverse magnetic fields obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter on board the Hinode spacecraft was utilized to analyze the squared transverse magnetic field fluctuations b{sub t}{sup 2}. Local correlation tracking was applied to derive the squared transverse velocity fluctuations u {sup 2}. We find that for u {sup 2} structures, the Batchelor integral scale {lambda} varies in a range of 1800-2100 km, whereas the correlation length sigmav and the e-folding length L vary between 660 and 1460 km. Structures for b{sub t}{sup 2} yield {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 1600 km, sigmav Almost-Equal-To 640 km, and L Almost-Equal-To 620 km. An averaged (over {lambda}, sigmav, and L) value of the characteristic length of u {sup 2} fluctuations is 1260 {+-} 500 km, and that of b{sub t}{sup 2} is 950 {+-} 560 km. The characteristic length scale in the photosphere is approximately 1.5-50 times smaller than that adopted in previous models (3-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km). Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration.

  5. Energetic, crystallographic and diffusion characteristics of hydrogen isotopes in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivak, A. B.; Sivak, P. A.; Romanov, V. A.; Chernov, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Energetic, crystallographic and diffusion characteristics of various interstitial configurations of H atoms and their complexes with self-point defects (SIA - self-interstitial atom, V - vacancy) in bcc iron have been calculated by molecular statics and molecular dynamics using Fe-H interatomic interaction potential developed by Ramasubramaniam et al. (2009) and modified by the authors of the present work and Fe-Fe matrix potential M07 developed by Malerba et al. (2010). The most energetically favorable configuration of an interstitial H atom is tetrahedral configuration. The energy barrier for H atom migration is 0.04 eV. The highest binding energy of all the considered complexes "vacancy - H atom" and "SIA - H atom" is 0.54 and 0.15 eV, respectively. The binding energy of H atom with edge dislocations in slip systems <1 1 1>{1 1 0}, <1 1 1>{1 1 2}, <1 0 0>{1 0 0}, <1 0 0>{1 1 0} is 0.32, 0.30, 0.45, 0.54 eV, respectively. The binding energy of H atom in VHn complexes (n = 1 … 15) decreases from 0.54 to 0.35 eV with increasing of n from 1 to 6. At n > 6, it decreases to ∼0.1 eV. The temperature dependences of hydrogen isotopes (P, D, T) diffusivities have been calculated for the temperature range 70-1800 K. Arrhenius-type dependencies describe the calculated data at temperatures T < 100 K. At T > 250 K, the temperature dependencies of the diffusivities DP, DD, DT have a parabolic form. The diffusivities of H isotopes are within 10% at room temperature. The isotope effect becomes stronger at higher temperatures, e.g., ratios DP/DD and DP/DT at 1800 K equal 1.23 and 1.40, respectively.

  6. The use of multiple EBIC curves and low voltage electron microscopy in the measurement of small diffusion lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate evaluations of diffusion lengths for heavily to moderately doped III-V semiconductors and/or radiation damaged solar cells have been made possible by using experimental and numerical techniques. The techniques employed were electron beam induced current and low voltage electron microscopy.

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes and bulk diffusion length in P-N junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonroos, O. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes and bulk diffusion length are qualitatively measured as a means for qualification of a P-N junction photovoltaic solar cell. High frequency (blue) monochromatic light pulses and low-frequency (red) monochromatic light pulses were alternately applied to the cell while it was irradiated by light from a solar simulator, and synchronously displaying the derivative of the output voltage of the cell on an oscilloscope. The output voltage is a measure of the lifetimes of the minority carriers (holes) in the diffused N layer and majority carriers (electrons) in the bulk P material, and of the diffusion length of the bulk silicon. By connecting a reference cell in this manner with a test cell to be tested in reverse parallel, the display of a test cell that matches the reference cell will be a substantially zero output.

  8. An Imaging System for Automated Characteristic Length Measurement of Debrisat Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moraguez, Mathew; Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Cowardin, Heather; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.

    2015-01-01

    The debris fragments generated by DebriSat's hypervelocity impact test are currently being processed and characterized through an effort of NASA and USAF. The debris characteristics will be used to update satellite breakup models. In particular, the physical dimensions of the debris fragments must be measured to provide characteristic lengths for use in these models. Calipers and commercial 3D scanners were considered as measurement options, but an automated imaging system was ultimately developed to measure debris fragments. By automating the entire process, the measurement results are made repeatable and the human factor associated with calipers and 3D scanning is eliminated. Unlike using calipers to measure, the imaging system obtains non-contact measurements to avoid damaging delicate fragments. Furthermore, this fully automated measurement system minimizes fragment handling, which reduces the potential for fragment damage during the characterization process. In addition, the imaging system reduces the time required to determine the characteristic length of the debris fragment. In this way, the imaging system can measure the tens of thousands of DebriSat fragments at a rate of about six minutes per fragment, compared to hours per fragment in NASA's current 3D scanning measurement approach. The imaging system utilizes a space carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud of the article being measured and a custom developed algorithm then extracts the characteristic length from the point cloud. This paper describes the measurement process, results, challenges, and future work of the imaging system used for automated characteristic length measurement of DebriSat fragments.

  9. Renal Water Molecular Diffusion Characteristics in Healthy Native Kidneys: Assessment with Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhenfeng; Shi, Huilan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yunting

    2014-01-01

    Background To explore the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in healthy native kidneys. Methods Seventy-three patients without chronic kidney disease underwent DTI-MRI with spin echo-echo planar (SE-EPI) sequences accompanied by an array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET). Cortical and medullary mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD and RD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3) were analysed in both kidneys and in different genders. Results Cortical MD, λ2, λ3, and RD values were higher than corresponding medullary values. The cortical FA value was lower than the medullary FA value. Medullary λ1 and RD values in the left kidney were lower than in the right kidney. Medullary λ2, and λ3 values in women were higher than those in men. Medullary FA values in women were lower than those in men. Medullary FA (r = 0.351, P = 0.002) and λ1 (r = 0.277, P = 0.018) positively correlated with eGFR. Medullary FA (r = −0.25, P = 0.033) negatively correlated with age. Conclusions Renal water molecular diffusion differences exist in human kidneys and genders. Age and eGFR correlate with medullary FA and primary eigenvalue. PMID:25470776

  10. Increasing polymer diffusivity by increasing the contour length: The surprising effect of YOYO-1 on DNA dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seunghwan; Dorfman, Kevin; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) labeled with cyanine dyes such as YOYO-1 has been extensively used as a model to study equilibrium and dynamic properties of semiflexible polyelectrolytes. The ability to directly visualize the polymer dynamics is an attractive feature of these experiments, but positively charged cyanine dyes affect the physical properties of dsDNA, distorting the double helix and counterbalancing the intrinsic negative charge of the backbone. A variety of studies have been conducted to reveal the effect of the dye on the contour length and the persistence length of dsDNA. However, fewer efforts have been made to directly quantify the effect of dye on the diffusion behavior of dsDNA. In order to resolve this issue, we measured the in-plane diffusion coefficient of unconfined dsDNA using confocal microscopy. Although there is widespread consensus that intercalation increases the contour length of dsDNA, we find that increasing the dye:base pair ratio for YOYO-1 actually enhances the diffusion of dsDNA. This enhancement is more significant at lower ionic strengths, which implies that the increase in the diffusion coefficient by dye-DNA intercalation is mainly due to a reduction of excluded volume effect resulting from charge neutralization on the backbone.

  11. Factorial Moments Analyses Show a Characteristic Length Scale in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Narayana Rao, A. V. S. S.

    2000-02-01

    A unique feature of most of the DNA sequences, found through the factorial moments analysis, is the existence of a characteristic length scale around which the density distribution is nearly Poissonian. Above this point, the DNA sequences, irrespective of their intron contents, show long range correlations with a significant deviation from the Gaussian statistics, while, below this point, the DNA statistics are essentially Gaussian. The famous DNA walk representation is also shown to be a special case of the present analysis.

  12. Characteristics of Gaseous Diffusion Flames with High Temperature Combustion Air in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaderi, M.; Gupta, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of gaseous diffusion flames have been obtained using high temperature combustion air under microgravity conditions. The time resolved flame images under free fall microgravity conditions were obtained from the video images obtained. The tests results reported here were conducted using propane as the fuel and about 1000 C combustion air. The burner included a 0.686 mm diameter central fuel jet injected into the surrounding high temperature combustion air. The fuel jet exit Reynolds number was 63. Several measurements were taken at different air preheats and fuel jet exit Reynolds number. The resulting hybrid color flame was found to be blue at the base of the flame followed by a yellow color flame. The length and width of flame during the entire free fall conditions has been examined. Also the relative flame length and width for blue and yellow portion of the flame has been examined under microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame length decreases and width increases with high air preheats in microgravity condition. In microgravity conditions the flame length is larger with normal temperature combustion air than high temperature air.

  13. Optimization design of strong and tough nacreous nanocomposites through tuning characteristic lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yong; Song, Zhaoqiang; Jiang, Hongyuan; Yu, Shu-Hong; He, Linghui

    2015-08-01

    How nacreous nanocomposites with optimal combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness depend on constituent property and microstructure parameters is studied using a nonlinear shear-lag model. We show that the interfacial elasto-plasticity and the overlapping length between bricks dependent on the brick size and brick staggering mode significantly affect the nonuniformity of the shear stress, the stress-transfer efficiency and thus the failure path. There are two characteristic lengths at which the strength and toughness are optimized respectively. Simultaneous optimization of the strength and toughness is achieved by matching these lengths as close as possible in the nacreous nanocomposite with regularly staggered brick-and-mortar (BM) structure where simultaneous uniform failures of the brick and interface occur. In the randomly staggered BM structure, as the overlapping length is distributed, the nacreous nanocomposite turns the simultaneous uniform failure into progressive interface or brick failure with moderate decrease of the strength and toughness. Specifically there is a parametric range at which the strength and toughness are insensitive to the brick staggering randomness. The obtained results propose a parametric selection guideline based on the length matching for rational design of nacreous nanocomposites. Such guideline explains why nacre is strong and tough while most artificial nacreous nanocomposites aere not.

  14. Characteristics of liquid ethanol diffusion flames from mini tube nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Peng, X.F.; Yang, Z.L.; Cheng, J.

    2009-02-15

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the combustion characteristics of a diffusion flames from mini tubes fueled by liquid ethanol with visual observations of the flame shape, the dynamic liquid-vapor interface during phase change inside the capillary tubes and the tube outer surface temperature using CCD and IR cameras. As the fuel supply rate increased, the interface location rose to the tube exit and the temperature gradient on the outer tube surface increased, consequently the evaporating became much stronger and the interface tended to be unstable. The combustion characteristics are closely related to the rapid phase change and violent evaporation and interfacial dynamics, with the violent evaporation, actually explosive boiling, inducing an explosive flame. The intensity of the explosive flame became stronger as the flowrate increased with the maximum flame height, interface location movement, and sound intensity all significantly increasing. The periodicity of the explosive flame was directly proportional to the interface moving distance and inversely proportional to the fuel flow rate. (author)

  15. The spin Hall angle and spin diffusion length of Pd measured by spin pumping and microwave photoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X. D.; Feng, Z.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Wu, D.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Ding, H. F.

    2014-05-07

    We present the experimental study of the spin Hall angle (SHA) and spin diffusion length of Pd with the spin pumping and microwave photoresistance effects. The Py/Pd bilayer stripes are excited with an out-of-plane microwave magnetic field. The pure spin current is thus pumped and transforms into charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd layer, yielding an ISHE voltage. The ISHE voltage can be distinguished from the unwanted signal caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance according to their different symmetries. Together with Pd thickness dependent measurements of in and out-of-plane precessing angles and effective spin mixing conductance, the SHA and spin-diffusion length of Pd are quantified as 0.0056 ± 0.0007 and 7.3 ± 0.7 nm, respectively.

  16. Doping level dependence of electron irradiation-induced minority carrier diffusion length increase in Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Chernyak, L.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Gartsman, K.

    2007-08-27

    The electron irradiation-induced increase of minority carrier diffusion length was studied as a function of hole concentration in Mg-doped GaN. Variable-temperature electron beam induced current measurements yielded activation energies of 264, 254, 171, and 144 meV for samples with hole concentrations of 2x10{sup 16}, 9x10{sup 16}, 3x10{sup 18}, and 7x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, respectively. This carrier concentration dependence of the activation energy for the effects of electron irradiation was found to be consistent with Mg acceptors, indicating the involvement of the latter levels in the irradiation-induced diffusion length increase.

  17. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood. PMID:19720527

  18. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Measurements of the Membrane Protein TetA in Escherichia coli Suggest Rapid Diffusion at Short Length Scales

    PubMed Central

    Chow, David; Guo, Lin; Gai, Feng; Goulian, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Structural inhomogeneities in biomembranes can lead to complex diffusive behavior of membrane proteins that depend on the length or time scales that are probed. This effect is well studied in eukaryotic cells, but has been explored only recently in bacteria. Here we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study diffusion of the membrane protein TetA-YFP in E. coli. We find that the diffusion constant determined from FRAP is comparable to other reports of inner membrane protein diffusion constants in E. coli. However, FCS, which probes diffusion on shorter length scales, gives a value that is almost two orders of magnitude higher and is comparable to lipid diffusion constants. These results suggest there is a population of TetA-YFP molecules in the membrane that move rapidly over short length scales (∼ 400 nm) but move significantly more slowly over the longer length scales probed by FRAP. PMID:23119068

  19. Increase in the diffusion length of minority carriers in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N alloys ({sub x} = 0–0.1) fabricated by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, T. V. Gilinsky, A. M.; Mansurov, V. G.; Protasov, D. Yu.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Yakimov, E. B.; Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2015-10-15

    The room-temperature diffusion length of minority carriers in n-Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0001) substrates used in structures for ultraviolet photodetectors is studied. Measurements were performed using the spectral dependence of the photocurrent recorded in a built-in p–n junction for thin samples and using the induced electron-current procedure for films up to 2 µm thick. The results show that the hole diffusion length in n-AlGaN films is 120–150 nm, which is larger than in GaN films grown under similar growth conditions by a factor of 3–4. This result can be associated with the larger lateral sizes characteristic of hexagonal columns in AlGaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. No increase in the hole diffusion length is observed for thicker films.

  20. Permeability models of porous media: Characteristic length scales, scaling constants and time-dependent electrokinetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul; Walker, Emile

    2010-05-01

    Four important models that describe the fluid permeability of geological porous media and that are derived from different physical approaches have been rewritten in a generic form that implies a characteristic scale length and scaling constant for each model. The four models have been compared theoretically and using experimental data from 22 bead packs and 188 rock cores from a sand-shale sequence in the UK sector of the North Sea. The Kozeny-Carman model did not perform well because it takes no account of the connectedness of the pore network, and should no longer be used. The other three models (Schwartz, Sen and Johnson (SSJ), Katz and Thompson (KT) and the so-called RGPZ) all performed well when used with their respective length scales and scaling constants. Surprisingly, we have found that the SSJ and KT models are extremely similar, such that their characteristic scale lengths and scaling constants are almost identical even though they are derived using extremely different approaches; the SSJ model by weighting the Kozeny-Carman model using the local electric field, the KT model using entry radii from fluid imbibition measurements. The experimentally determined scaling constants for each model were found to be cSSJ ≈ cKT ≈ 8/3 ≈ cRGPZ/3. Use of these models with AC electrokinetic theory has also allowed us to show that these scaling constants are also related to the a value in the RGPZ model and the m* value in time-dependent electrokinetic theory, and then derive a relationship between the electrokinetic transition frequency and the RGPZ scale length, which we have validated using experimental data. The practical implication of this work for permeability prediction is that the Katz and Thompson model should be used when fluid imbibition data is available, while the RGPZ model should be used when electrical data is available.

  1. Improvement of oxygen diffusion characteristic in gas diffusion layer with planar-distributed wettability for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koresawa, Ryo; Utaka, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of water distribution relating to the microscopic conformation and oxygen diffusivity of GDL. A hybrid type carbon paper GDL with planar-distributed wettability is investigated for control of liquid water movement and distribution due to hydrophobic to hydrophilic areas that provide wettability differences in GDL and to achieve enhancement of both oxygen diffusion and moisture retention. Hybrid GDLs with different PTFE content were fabricated in an attempt to improve the oxygen diffusion characteristics. The effects of different PTFE contents on the oxygen diffusivity and water distribution were simultaneously measured and observed using galvanic cell oxygen absorber and X-ray radiography. The PTFE distribution was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The formation of oxygen diffusion paths was confirmed by X-ray radiography, where voids in the hybrid GDL were first formed in the hydrophobic regions and then spread to the untreated wetting region. Thus, the formation of oxygen diffusion paths enhanced the oxygen diffusion. In addition, the effects of local PTFE content in the hydrophobic region and the optimal amount of PTFE for hybrid GDL were elucidated.

  2. Air entry-based characteristic length improves permeability estimates for compacted earth materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.; Or, D.

    2007-12-01

    The permeability, k, of porous media is required for quantifying flow and transport processes in hydrology, civil, agriculture and petroleum engineering and is often estimated from medium porosity and additional constraints. Changes in porosity of earth materials due to compaction by anthropogenic activities or overburden result in a reduction in mean pore sizes and a decrease of k. Permeability is often expressed as proportional to a characteristic length squared and inversely proportional to a porosity factor, pore shape, and tortuosity of the material. Various characteristic lengths for the porous medium were proposed such as the hydraulic radius of Kozeny-Carman, or limiting pore size derived from critical path analysis. We introduce a characteristic length related to the air entry value compatible with Aissen formula that accommodates complex pore shapes. The proposed model includes a geometrical (tortuosity) factor and links relative changes in porosity to concurrent changes in k. The model was evaluated for three different groups of natural porous media: sands, sandstones with different cementing agents, and unconsolidated soils. For clay-free sands and unconsolidated soils, the model provides reasonable predictions for the entire range of porosities found in laboratory or field experiments. However, for sandstones with cementing agents, the model is valid up to a critical porosity where pore structure seems to collapse and k reduces drastically. The geometrical factor for soils was influenced by silt-to-clay ratio, while for granular media, it was correlated with mean grain diameter. The model offers improvement in predicting k and provides a means for incorporating critical pore size (air entry) information in addition to porosity.

  3. Derivation of effective fission gas diffusivities in UO2 from lower length scale simulations and implementation of fission gas diffusion models in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Pastore, Giovanni; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Tonks, Michael; Stanek, Christopher Richard

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO2 were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.

  4. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grid size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artan, G. A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m 2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m 2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  5. Characteristic length scale of input data in distributed models: implications for modeling grain size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artan, Guleid A.; Neale, C. M. U.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model response. The semi-variogram and the characteristic length calculated from the spatial autocorrelation were used to determine the scale of variability of the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data. The data were collected from two hillsides at Upper Sheep Creek, a sub-basin of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, in southwest Idaho. The data were analyzed in terms of the semivariance and the integral of the autocorrelation. The minimum characteristic length associated with the variability of the data used in the analysis was 15 m. Simulated and observed radiometric surface temperature fields at different spatial resolutions were compared. The correlation between agreement simulated and observed fields sharply declined after a 10×10 m2 modeling grid size. A modeling grid size of about 10×10 m2 was deemed to be the best compromise to achieve: (a) reduction of computation time and the size of the support data; and (b) a reproduction of the observed radiometric surface temperature.

  6. Effect of Crystal Defects on Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in 6H SiC Measured Using the Electron Beam Induced Current Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1997-01-01

    We report values of minority carrier diffusion length in n-type 6H SiC measured using a planar Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. Values of hole diffusion length in defect free regions of n-type 6H SiC, with a doping concentration of 1.7El7 1/cu cm, ranged from 1.46 microns to 0.68 microns. We next introduce a novel variation of the planar method used above. This 'planar mapping' technique measured diffusion length along a linescan creating a map of diffusion length versus position. This map is then overlaid onto the EBIC image of the corresponding linescan, allowing direct visualization of the effect of defects on minority carrier diffusion length. Measurements of the above n-type 6H SiC resulted in values of hole diffusion length ranging from 1.2 micron in defect free regions to below 0.1 gm at the center of large defects. In addition, measurements on p-type 6H SiC resulted in electron diffusion lengths ranging from 1.42 micron to 0.8 micron.

  7. Effects of approach velocity and foot-target characteristics on the visual regulation of step length.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, E J; Sparrow, W A

    2001-11-01

    Two questions emerge from the literature concerning the perceptual-motor processes underlying the visual regulation of step length. The first concerns the effects of velocity on the onset of visual control (VCO), when visual regulation of step length begins during goal-directed locomotion. The second concerns the effects of different obstacles such as a target or raised surface on step length regulation. In two separate experiments, participants (Experiment 1 & 2: n=12, 6 female, 6 male) walked, jogged, or sprinted towards an obstacle along a 10 m walkway, consisting of two marker-strips with alternating black and white 0.50 m markings. Each experiment consisted of three targeting or obstacle tasks with the requirement to both negotiate and continue moving (run-through) through the target. Five trials were conducted for each task and approach speed, with trials block randomised between the six participants of each gender. One 50 Hz video camera panned and filmed each trial from an elevated position, adjacent to the walkway. Video footage was digitized to deduce the gait characteristics. Results for the targeting tasks indicate a linear relationship between approach velocity and accuracy of final foot placement (r=0.89). When foot placement was highly constrained by the obstacle step length shortened during the entire approach. VCO was found to occur at an earlier tau-margin for lower approach velocities for both experiments, indicating that the optical variable 'tau' is affected by approach velocity. A three-phase kinematic profile was found for all tasks, except for the take-off board condition when sprinting. Further research is needed to determine whether this velocity affect on VCO is due to 'whole-body' approach velocity or whether it is a function of the differences between gait modes. PMID:11750670

  8. Dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite mixed former glasses: Correlation between the characteristic length scales of mobile ions and glass network structural units

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-10-28

    We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.

  9. Variation of the length of gaseous fuel diffusion flames in an accompanying air flow

    SciTech Connect

    Annushkin, Y.M.; Sverdlov, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    These authors study the effect of the relative area of the edges of the fuel nozzles or pylons on the variation of the flame length in an accompanying oxidizer flow, and seek to establish the conditions of reliable flame propagation to all the fuel jets. A diagram illustrates the experimental set-up and charts present the data gathered. Analysis of these data leads the authors to conclude: that as the relative area of the edges is increased, raising relative accompanying air velocity leads to an intensified mixing and a shorter flame; that the effect of relative area of the edges on flame length for various fuels can be represented by a single curve; and that these results are valid for both individual jets and groups of jets provided they are characterized by autonomous mixing or total fusion.

  10. Measurement of N-Type 6H SiC Minority-Carrier Diffusion Lengths by Electron Bombardment of Schottky Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Balley, S.; Rybickid, G.; Neudeck, P.; Raffaelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Minority-Carrier diffusion lengths of n-type 6H-SiC were measured using the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) technique. Experimental values of primary beam current, EBIC, and beam voltage were obtained for a variety of SIC samples. This data was used to calculate experimental diode efficiency vs. beam voltage curves. These curves were fit to theoretically calculated efficiency curves, and the diffusion length and metal layer thickness were extracted. The hole diffusion length in n-6H SiC ranged from 0.93 +/- 0.15 microns.

  11. Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  12. Cathodoluminescence of stacking fault bound excitons for local probing of the exciton diffusion length in single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Nogues, Gilles Den Hertog, Martien; Auzelle, Thomas; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno

    2014-03-10

    We perform correlated studies of individual GaN nanowires in scanning electron microscopy combined to low temperature cathodoluminescence, microphotoluminescence, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that some nanowires exhibit well localized regions emitting light at the energy of a stacking fault bound exciton (3.42 eV) and are able to observe the presence of a single stacking fault in these regions. Precise measurements of the cathodoluminescence signal in the vicinity of the stacking fault give access to the exciton diffusion length near this location.

  13. Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    1993-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).

  14. Characteristics of Li diffusion on silicene and zigzag nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Hua, Guo; Jue-Xian, Cao; Bo, Xu

    2016-01-01

    We perform a density functional study on the adsorption and diffusion of Li atoms on silicene sheet and zigzag nanoribbons. Our results show that the diffusion energy barrier of Li adatoms on silicene sheet is 0.25 eV, which is much lower than on graphene and Si bulk. The diffusion barriers along the axis of zigzag silicene nanoribbon range from 0.1 to 0.25 eV due to an edge effect, while the diffusion energy barrier is about 0.5 eV for a Li adatom to enter into a silicene nanoribbon. Our calculations indicate that using silicene nanoribbons as anodes is favorable for a Li-ion battery. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074212 and 11204123) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu province, China (Grant No. BK20130945).

  15. Preliminary breakdown of intracloud lightning: Initiation altitude, propagation speed, pulse train characteristics, and step length estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting; Yoshida, Satoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Stock, Michael; Ushio, Tomoo; Kawasaki, Zen

    2015-09-01

    Using a low-frequency lightning location system comprising 11 sites, we located preliminary breakdown (PB) processes in 662 intracloud (IC) lightning flashes during the summer of 2013 in Osaka area of Japan. On the basis of three-dimensional location results, we studied initiation altitude and upward propagation speed of PB processes. PB in most IC flashes has an initiation altitude that ranges from 5 to 10 km with an average of 7.8 km. Vertical speed ranges from 0.5 to 17.8 × 105 m/s with an average of 4.0 × 105 m/s. Vertical speed is closely related with initiation altitude, with IC flashes initiated at higher altitude having lower vertical speed during PB stage. Characteristics of PB pulse trains including pulse rate, pulse amplitude, and pulse width are also analyzed. The relationship between pulse rate and vertical speed has the strongest correlation, suggesting that each PB pulse corresponds to one step of the initial leader during the PB stage. Pulse rate, pulse amplitude, and pulse width all show decreasing trends with increasing initiation altitude and increasing trends with increasing vertical speed. Using a simple model, the step length of the initial leader during the PB stage is estimated. Most of initial leaders have step lengths that range from 40 to 140 m with an average of 113 m. Estimated step length has a strong correlation with initiation altitude, indicating that leaders initiated at higher altitude have longer steps. Based on the results of this study, we speculate that above certain altitude (~12 km), initial leaders in PB stages of IC flashes may only have horizontal propagations. PB processes at very high altitude may also have very weak radiation, so detecting and locating them would be relatively difficult.

  16. Effect on fan flow characteristics of length and axial location of a cascade thrust reverser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A series of static tests were conducted on a model fan with a diameter of 14.0 cm to determine the fan operating characteristics, the inlet static pressure contours, the fan-exit total and static pressure contours, and the fan-exit pressure distortion parameters associated with the installation of a partial-circumferential-emission cascade thrust reverser. The tests variables included the cascade axial length, the axial location of the reverser, and the type of fan inlet. It was shown that significant total and static pressure distortions were produced in the fan aft duct, and that some configurations induced a static pressure distortion at the fan face. The amount of flow passed by the fan and the level of the flow distortions were dependent upon all the variables tested.

  17. PREDICTION OF CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS IN DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P

    2008-04-15

    Finite element method was used to analyze the three-point bend experimental data of A533B-1 pressure vessel steel obtained by Sherry, Lidbury, and Beardsmore [1] from -160 to -45 C within the ductile-brittle transition regime. As many researchers have shown, the failure stress ({sigma}{sub f}) of the material could be approximated as a constant. The characteristic length, or the critical distance (r{sub c}) from the crack tip, at which {sigma}{sub f} is reached, is shown to be temperature dependent based on the crack tip stress field calculated by the finite element method. With the J-A{sub 2} two-parameter constraint theory in fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness (J{sub C} or K{sub JC}) can be expressed as a function of the constraint level (A{sub 2}) and the critical distance r{sub c}. This relationship is used to predict the fracture toughness of A533B-1 in the ductile-brittle transition regime with a constant {sigma}{sub f} and a set of temperature-dependent r{sub c}. It can be shown that the prediction agrees well with the test data for wide range of constraint levels from shallow cracks (a/W= 0.075) to deep cracks (a/W= 0.5), where a is the crack length and W is the specimen width.

  18. Manipulating surface diffusion and elastic interactions to obtain quantum dot multilayer arrangements over different length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, E. Arciprete, F.; Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Patella, F.; Magri, R.

    2014-09-15

    An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.

  19. Optical absorption coefficient and minority carrier diffusion length measurements in low-cost silicon solar cell material

    SciTech Connect

    Swimm, R.T.; Dumas, K.A.

    1982-11-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of silicon solar cell material grown by three low-cost growth methods was measured in the wavelength interval 0.8< or =lambda< or =1.0 ..mu..m, the wavelength region of interest in surface photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length. The square root of the absorption coefficient was found to vary linearly with photon energy over the wavelengths studied, and the measured data agree with a linear empirical fit to within 0.5% RMS. The absorption coefficients obtained are slightly lower than those reported by Runyan, with the greatest disagreement at long wavelengths. Minority carrier diffusion lengths computed using the present absorption coefficients are approximately 16% greater than those calculated using Runyan's data. Excellent sample-to-sample agreement within and between lots indicates that for two of the growth methods studied, material quality as judged by optical properties has not been sacrificed by the use of low-cost growth methods. Samples grown by the third growth method studied showed measurably poorer optical quality.

  20. Comparison of Three E-Beam Techniques for Electric Field Imaging and Carrier Diffusion Length Measurement on the Same Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Donatini, F; de Luna Bugallo, Andres; Tchoulfian, Pierre; Chicot, Gauthier; Sartel, Corinne; Sallet, Vincent; Pernot, Julien

    2016-05-11

    Whereas nanowire (NW)-based devices offer numerous advantages compared to bulk ones, their performances are frequently limited by an incomplete understanding of their properties where surface effect should be carefully considered. Here, we demonstrate the ability to spatially map the electric field and determine the exciton diffusion length in NW by using an electron beam as the single excitation source. This approach is performed on numerous single ZnO NW Schottky diodes whose NW radius vary from 42.5 to 175 nm. The dominant impact of the surface on the NW properties is revealed through the comparison of three different physical quantities recorded on the same NW: electron-beam induced current, cathodoluminescence, and secondary electron signal. Indeed, the space charge region near the Schottky contact exhibits an unusual linear variation with reverse bias whatever the NW radius. On the contrary, the exciton diffusion length is shown to be controlled by the NW radius through surface recombination. This systematic comparison performed on a single ZnO NW demonstrates the power of these complementary techniques in understanding NW properties. PMID:27105083

  1. Reacto-Diffusive Length of N2O5 in Aqueous Sulfate- and Chloride-Containing Aerosol Particles.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Thornton, Joel A

    2016-02-25

    Heterogeneous reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on aerosol particles impact air quality and climate, yet aspects of the relevant physical chemistry remain unresolved. One important consideration is the competing effects of diffusion and the rate of chemical reaction within the particle, which determines the length that N2O5 travels within a particle before reacting, referred to as the reacto-diffusive length (l). Large values of l imply a dependence of the reactive uptake efficiency of N2O5, i.e., ?(N2O5), on particle size. We present measurements of the size dependence of ?(N2O5) on aqueous sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium bisulfate particles. ?(N2O5) on ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate particles ranged from 0.016 0.005 to 0.036 0.001 as the surface-area-weighted particle radius increased from 39 to 127 nm, resulting in an estimated l of 32 6 nm. In contrast, ?(N2O5) on sodium chloride particles was independent of particle size, suggesting a near-surface reaction dominated the uptake of N2O5. Differences in the reactivity of the N2O5 intermediate, NO2(+), with water and chloride can explain the observed dependencies. These results allow for parameterizations in atmospheric models to determine a more robust population mean value of ?(N2O5) that accounts for the distribution of particle sizes. PMID:26836323

  2. Electron-beam-induced current determination of minority-carrier diffusion length and surface recombination velocity in mercury-cadmium-telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, B. E.

    1985-04-01

    A method is presented for determining the minority-carrier diffusion length and surface recombination velocity in passivated, shallow junction semiconductor devices. The method is particularly useful with devices where the minority-carrier diffusion length is comparable to the diameter of the electron beam interaction volume. A gaussian beam profile is convoluted with a theoretical model for electron-beam-induced current and the results used to determine the minority-carrier diffusion length from measured data. The surface recombination velocity is estimated from the dependence of the measured minority-carrier diffusion length on the electron beam accelerating voltage. The technique is applied to a photovoltaic infrared sensor device made in mercury-cadmium-telluride.

  3. The impact of network characteristics on the diffusion of innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Renana

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of network topology on the speed and reach of new product diffusion. While previous research has focused on comparing network types, this paper explores explicitly the relationship between topology and measurements of diffusion effectiveness. We study simultaneously the effect of three network metrics: the average degree, the relative degree of social hubs (i.e., the ratio of the average degree of highly-connected individuals to the average degree of the entire population), and the clustering coefficient. A novel network-generation procedure based on random graphs with a planted partition is used to generate 160 networks with a wide range of values for these topological metrics. Using an agent-based model, we simulate diffusion on these networks and check the dependence of the net present value (NPV) of the number of adopters over time on the network metrics. We find that the average degree and the relative degree of social hubs have a positive influence on diffusion. This result emphasizes the importance of high network connectivity and strong hubs. The clustering coefficient has a negative impact on diffusion, a finding that contributes to the ongoing controversy on the benefits and disadvantages of transitivity. These results hold for both monopolistic and duopolistic markets, and were also tested on a sample of 12 real networks.

  4. Characteristic length of dynamic glass transition near T{sub g} for a wide assortment of glass-forming substances

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, E.; Hempel, G.; Hensel, A.; Schick, C.; Donth, E.

    2000-03-23

    Dynamic heterogeneity is an active field of glass-transition research. the length scale of this heterogeneity is called the characteristic length. It can be calculated from complex heat capacity curves in the equilibrium liquid or from dynamic calorimetry curves corrected with regard to nonequilibrium. No molecular parameters or microscopic models are necessary for obtaining the length. The authors report the characteristic length near glass temperature for about 30 glass formers including small-molecule liquids, polymers, silicate glasses, a metallic glass, a liquid crystal, and a plastic crystal. The lengths are between 1.0 and 3.5 nm with certain accumulations between 1.0 and 2.0 nm and between 2.5 and 3.5 nm. To try a correlation to other properties, the authors find that at least two should be included, e.g., Angell's fragility and the distance of T{sub g} from the crossover temperature, T{sub c}.

  5. Spin Torque Study of the Spin Hall Conductivity and Spin Diffusion Length in Platinum Thin Films with Varying Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report measurements of the spin torque efficiencies in perpendicularly magnetized Pt /Co bilayers where the Pt resistivity ρPt is strongly dependent on thickness tPt . The dampinglike spin Hall torque efficiency per unit current density ξDLj varies significantly with tPt , exhibiting a peak value ξDLj=0.12 at tPt=2.8 - 3.9 nm . In contrast, ξDLj/ρPt increases monotonically with tPt and saturates for tPt>5 nm , consistent with an intrinsic spin Hall effect mechanism, in which ξDLj is enhanced by an increase in ρPt . Assuming the Elliott-Yafet spin scattering mechanism dominates, we estimate that the spin diffusion length λs=(0.77 ±0.08 )×10-15 Ω .m2/ρPt .

  6. Determination of minority carrier diffusion length of sprayed-Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courel, Maykel; Valencia-Resendiz, E.; Pulgarín-Agudelo, F. A.; Vigil-Galán, O.

    2016-04-01

    Despite Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) is a potential candidate for solar cell applications, so far, low efficiency values have been reported. In particular, for spray-deposited CZTS, efficiencies lower than 2% are commonly achieved. It is well known that one of the most important parameters governing solar cell performance is minority carrier diffusion length (Ln). In this work, CZTS thin film solar cells with different compositional ratios are fabricated in order to study its impact on Ln values. The Ln parameter is calculated for sprayed-CZTS layers using external quantum efficiency measurements in conjunction with optical absorption coefficient versus wavelength measurements - for the first time. Values in the range of 0.11-0.17 μm are obtained emphasizing the need for improving sprayed-CZTS crystalline quality.

  7. Evaluating pedestal gradients and scale lengths without functional fits in order to test for non-diffusive transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, D. P.; Tynan, G. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Bray, B. D.; Boivin, R. L.; Nazikian, R.

    2012-10-01

    The advent of the recent spatial resolution upgrade to the edge Thomson scattering diagnostic at DIII-D allows re-examination of methods for measuring electron density and temperature scale lengths. The modified hyperbolic tangent fit is widely used, however, this function is clearly inappropriate in some situations such as when density profiles are distorted by applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In these cases, a flattening of the density profile is observed at or near the separatrix while the RMP is applied. However, no similar structure is observed in the temperature profile so far. Furthermore, the tanh fit is based on a diffusive model and recently observed differences between the tanh fit and measured profiles using newly available high spatial resolution data are revealing more subtle transport processes at the mm scale.

  8. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A LB = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a LB of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  9. Flow Characteristics in Compact Thermal Spray Coating Systems with Minimum Length Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seung-Hyun, Kim; Youn-Jea, Kim

    2009-10-01

    In this study, numerical analysis is performed to adopt the equivalence ratio on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating systems equipped with a minimum length nozzle. The analysis is applied to investigate the axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, and chemically combusting flow both within the torch and in a free jet region between the torch and the substrate to be coated. The combustion is modeled using a single-step and eddy-dissipation model which assumes that the reaction rate is limited by the turbulent mixing rate of the fuel and oxidant. As the diameter of the nozzle throat is increased, the location of the Mach shock disc moves backward from the nozzle exit. As the throat diameter and the divergent portion are 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively, the pressure in the HVOF system is the lowest at the chamber and the expanding gas is steadily maintained with both high velocity and high temperature for different equivalence ratios. Thus, relatively minor amendments of the equivalence ratio and the geometry of HVOF can lead to improved control over coating characteristics.

  10. Improvement of mechanical characteristics and performances with Ni diffusion mechanism throughout Bi-2223 superconducting matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarıtekin, N. K.; Bilge, H.; Kahraman, M. F.; Zalaoǧlu, Y.; Pakdil, M.; Doǧruer, M.; Yıldırım, G.; Oz, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study is interested in the role of diffusion annealing temperature (650-850°C) on the mechanical characteristics and performance of pure and Ni diffused Bi-2223 superconducting materials by means of standard compression tests and Vickers hardness measurements at performed different applied loads in the range of 0.245-2.940N and theoretical calculations. Based on the experimental findings, the mechanical performances improve with increasing annealing temperature up to 700 °C beyond which they degrade drastically due to the increased artificial disorders, cracks and irregular grain orientation distribution. In other words, the penetration of excess Ni inclusions accelerates both the dislocation movement and especially the cracks and voids propagation as a result of the decrement in the Griffith critical crack length. Further, it is to be mentioned here that all the sample exhibit typical indentation size effect (ISE) behavior. In this respect, both the plastic (irreversible) and elastic (reversible) deformations have dominant role on the superconducting structures as a result of the enhancement in the elastic recovery. At the same time elastic modulus, yield strength and fracture toughness parameters are theoretically extracted from the microhardness values. Moreover, the elastic modulus parameters are compared with the experimental values. It is found that the differentiation between the comparison results enhances hastily with the increment in the applied indentation test loads due to the existence of the increased permanent disorders, lattice defects and strains in the stacked layers. Namely, the error level increases away from the actual crystal structure. Additionally, the microhardness values are theoretically analyzed for the change of the mechanical behaviors with the aid of Meyer's law, elastic/plastic deformation and Hays-Kendall approaches for the first time.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  12. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A. Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-03

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph} ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  13. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  14. A new sequentially etched quantum-yield technique for measuring surface recombination velocity and diffusion lengths of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partain, L. D.; Kuryla, M. S.; Fraas, L. M.; McLeod, P. S.; Cape, J. A.

    1987-06-01

    A technique for determining the lower bounds of minority-carrier diffusion length (DL) and the upper and lower bounds of interface recombination velocity (RV) in the individual layers of high-efficiency solar cells is described and demonstrated for the case of p-on-n GaAs cells with Al(x)Ga(1-x)As passivation. In this approach, quantum-yield spectra are measured in a diagnostic region of the cell as its layers are sequentially etched away, while the rest of the cell remains intact. Results for C-doped and Mg-doped cells are presented in tables and graphs and discussed. The C-doped cells are found to have DL = 1.0 + or - 0.2 microns in the n layer, DL = 2.0 microns or more in the p layer, and RV = 400,000 + or - 50,000 cm/s; the corresponding values for the Mg-doped cells are DL = 200 + or - 50 nm, DL = 4.0 microns or more, and RV = 500-10,000 cm/s.

  15. Determination of bulk diffusion lengths for angle-lapped semiconductor material via the scanning electron microscope: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonroos, O.

    1978-01-01

    A standard procedure for the determination of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) consists in scanning across an angle-lapped surface of a P-N junction and measuring the resultant short circuit current I sub sc as a function of beam position. A detailed analysis of the I sub sc originating from this configuration is presented. It is found that, for a point source excitation, the I sub sc depends very simply on x, the variable distance between the surface and the junction edge. The expression for the I sub sc of a planar junction device is well known. If d, the constant distance between the plane of the surface of the semiconductor and the junction edge in the expression for the I of a planar junction is merely replaced by x, the variable distance of the corresponding angle-lapped junction, an expression results which is correct to within a small fraction of a percent as long as the angle between the surfaces, 2 theta sub 1, is smaller than 10 deg.

  16. Effect of nose shape and tail length on supersonic stability characteristics of a projectile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Collins, I. K.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of nose shape and tail length on the static stability of a fin-stabilized projectile has been investigated in the Langley Unitary Plan with tunnel at angles of attack to about 12 deg for a Mach number range from 1.5 to 2.5. The tests were made at a constant Reynolds number of 6.56 x 1,000,000 per meter. The results of the investigation showed that nose shape had no effect on the static stability. Increasing the tail length resulted in a progressively stabilizing tendency. However, only the 1.5-caliber-tail-length configuration was stable over the test angle-of-attack range at Mach number 1.5. This configuration was marginally stable or unstable at the higher Mach numbers, and the shorter configurations were unstable at all Mach numbers for either part of or the entire test angle-of-attack range.

  17. Supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of two shuttle-orbiter configurations designed for reduced length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Performance, stability, and control tests at supersonic and hypersonic speeds have been performed on two versions of a shuttle orbiter configuration designed for reduced length. One of the test configurations had twin dorsal fins rolled out 15 deg the other a centerline single dorsal fin. Effects of elevon and body deg flap deflection, rudder flare, planform fillet, and aileron deflection were examined. The supersonic tests were over the Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number based on model length of 4,300,000. The hypersonic tests were conducted at a Mach number of 10.3 and Reynolds number of 670,000.

  18. Effect of the length of ligands passivating quantum dots on the electrooptical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, N. S.; Vashchenko, A. A. Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Tananaev, P. N.

    2015-07-15

    The electrooptical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with quantum dots passivated with organic ligands of different lengths as emitting centers are investigated. It is established that the thickness of the ligand coating covering the quantum dots has little effect on the Förster energy transfer in the diodes, but significantly affects the direct injection of charge carriers into the quantum-dot layer. It is shown that the thickness of the passivation coating covering the quantum dots in a close-packed nanoparticle layer is deter- mined both by the length of passivating ligands and the degree of quantum-dot coverage with ligands.

  19. [Effects of field border length for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang-Yu; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong-Li; Shi, Yu

    2012-09-01

    In the wheat growth seasons of 2009 -2010 and 2010-2011, six border lengths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 m were installed in a wheat field to study the effects of different border lengths for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat. The results showed that with the increasing border length from 10 to 80 m, the irrigation amount and the proportion of irrigation amount to total water consumption amount, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layers and the soil water supply capacity at anthesis stage, as well as the wheat grain yield and water use efficiency increased, while the soil water consumption amount and the water consumption amount of wheat from jointing to anthesis stages as well as the total water consumption amount decreased. At the border length of <80 m, the irrigation amount was smaller, and the water content in upper soil layers was lower, as compared with those at the border length of 80 m, which led to the wheat to absorb more water from deeper soil layers, and thus, the total water consumption increased. At the border length of 100 m, the irrigation amount, soil water consumption amount, and total water consumption amount all increased, and, due to the excessive irrigation amount and the uneven distribution of irrigation water when irrigated once, the 1000-grain mass, grain yield, and water use efficiency decreased significantly, which was not conductive to the water-saving and high-yield cultivation. PMID:23286006

  20. Characteristics of laminar gas jet diffusion flames under the influence of elevated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, R. A.; Eichhorn, R.; Hsu, N. N.; Brancic, A. B.; Cevallos, N. E.

    1977-01-01

    Laminar gas jet diffusion flames of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane, stabilized on small cylindrical burners, were studied at elevated gravity in a centrifuge to investigate the role of buoyancy in such flames. Photographic observation of the hydrocarbon flames indicated that length and carbon luminosity decreased with increasing buoyancy. These flames eventually separated from the burner rim and finally extinguished as gravity increased. Hydrogen flames, however, did not separate or extinguish up to about 31 times earth normal gravity. Length data are reported and interpreted with the aid of a simplified model which describes the flame as a heated vertical cylindrical sheet to which oxygen is supplied by a free convection boundary layer.

  1. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals thanmore »in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less

  2. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals thanmore » in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less

  3. Effective spin Hall properties of a mixture of materials with and without spin-orbit coupling: Tailoring the effective spin diffusion length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Z.; Prestgard, M. C.; Tiwari, A.; Raikh, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the effective spin Hall properties of a composite consisting of two materials with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling. In particular, we assume that SO material represents a system of grains in a matrix with no SO. We calculate the effective spin Hall angle and the effective spin diffusion length of the mixture. Our main qualitative finding is that, when the bare spin diffusion length is much smaller than the radius of the grain, the effective spin diffusion length is strongly enhanced, well beyond the "geometrical" factor. The physical origin of this additional enhancement is that, with small diffusion length, the spin current mostly flows around the grain without suffering much loss. We also demonstrate that the voltage, created by a spin current, is sensitive to a very weak magnetic field directed along the spin current, and even reverses sign in a certain domain of fields. The origin of this sensitivity is that the spin precession, caused by magnetic field, takes place outside the grains where SO is absent.

  4. Cavity length and stripe width dependent lasing characteristics of InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. G.; Gong, Q.; Wang, X. Z.; Cao, C. F.; Zhou, Z. W.; Wang, H. L.

    2016-03-01

    The lasing characteristics of InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dot lasers grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were carefully studied by varying cavity length and stripe width. With the increase of injection current, the lasers having a longer cavity length and a wider stripe width exhibited simultaneously two-lasing peaks or/three-lasing peaks. The high-energy peak undergoes continuous buleshift, while the low-energy peaks are somewhat fixed. At the same times, the injection current density decreased as the stripe width increase. When the lasers were applied to external cavity system, the shorter cavity length of InAs/InP quantum dot laser had a wider tunable range.

  5. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k--o turbulence model produced a mean flow velocity profile at the middle of the annular diffuser portion that had the best overall match with the experiment. The RNG k --epsilon, however, better predicted the diffuser performance along the exhaust diffuser length by means of the pressure recovery coefficient. These results were obtained using uniform inflow conditions and steady-state simulations. As such, the last phase of our investigations involved varying the inflow parameters like the turbulence intensity, the inlet flow temperature, and the flow angularity, which constitute important characteristics of the turbine blade wake, to investigate their impact on the diffuser design and performance. These isothermal CFD simulations revealed that by changing the flow temperature from 15 to 427C, the pressure recovery coefficient significantly increased. However, it has been shown that the increase of temperature had no effects on the size of the reversed flow region and the thickness of the separated casing boundary layer, although the flow appears to be more turbulent. Furthermore, it has been established that an optimum turbulence intensity of about 4% produced comparable diffuser performance as the experiment. We also found that a velocity angle of about 2.5 at the last turbine stage will ensure a better exhaust diffuser performance.

  6. Performance characteristics of two annular dump diffusers using suction-stabilized vortex flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The two diffusers employed in the investigation had the same overall area ratio but different prediffuser area ratios and suction slot geometries. Velocity profile and diffuser pressure recovery performance data were obtained at ambient pressure and temperature, with inlet Mach numbers ranging from 0.18 to 0.41 and suction rate varying from zero to 18% of total inlet mass flow rate. On the basis of the reported investigation it is concluded that suction stabilized vortex flow diffusers show promise for application in combustors because of relatively high static pressure recovery and low total pressure loss obtained in a short length. Performance obtained using a narrow angle (7 degree) prediffuser was superior to that obtained with a prediffuser having a 14 degree included angle.

  7. Method for digital measurement of phase-frequency characteristics for a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. E.; Belosludtsev, K. N.; Kharakoz, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the compressibility of liquids is resonance measurement of sound velocity in a fixed-length interferometer. This method combines high sensitivity, accuracy, and small sample volume of the test liquid. The measuring principle is to study the resonance properties of a composite resonator that contains a test liquid sample. Ealier, the phase-locked loop (PLL) scheme was used for this. In this paper, we propose an alternative measurement scheme based on digital analysis of harmonic signals, describe the implementation of this scheme using commercially available data acquisition modules, and give examples of test measurements with accuracy evaluations of the results.

  8. Characteristics of thick disks formed through minor mergers: stellar excesses and scale lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Y.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; van Driel, W.

    2011-06-01

    By means of a series of N-body/SPH simulations we investigate the morphological properties of thick stellar disks formed through minor mergers with, e.g. a range of gas-to-stellar mass ratios. We show that the vertical surface density profile of the post-merger thick disk follows a sech function and has an excess in the regions furthest away from the disk mid-plane (z ≳ 2 kpc). This stellar excess also follows a sech function with a larger scale height than the main thick disk component (except at large radii). It is usually dominated by stars from the primary galaxy, but this depends on the orbital configuration. Stars in the excess have a rotational velocity lower than that of stars in the thick disk, and they may thus be confused with stars in the inner galactic halo, which can have a similar lag. Confirming previous results, the thick disk scale height increases with radius and the rate of its increase is smaller for more gas rich primary galaxies. On the contrary, the scale height of the stellar excess is independent of both radius and gas fraction. We also find that the post-merger thick disk has a radial scale length which is 10-50% larger than that of the thin disk. Two consecutive mergers have basically the same effect on heating the stellar disk as a single merger of the same total mass, i.e., the disk heating effect of a few consecutive mergers does not saturate but is cumulative. To investigate how thick disks produced through secular processes may differ from those produced by minor mergers, we also simulated gravitationally unstable gas-rich disks ("clumpy disks"). These clumpy disks do not produce either a stellar excess or a ratio of thick to thin disk scale lengths greater than one. Comparing our simulation results with observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies shows that our results for minor mergers are consistent with observations of the ratio of thick to thin disk scale lengths and with the "Toomre diagram" (the sum in quadrature of the vertical and radial versus the rotational kinetic energies) of the Milky Way. The simulations of clumpy disks do not show such agreement. We conclude that minor mergers are a viable mechanism for the creation of galactic thick disks and investigating stars at several kpc above the mid-plane of the Milky Way and other galaxies may provide a quantitative method for studying the (minor) merger history of galaxies.

  9. Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

  10. The influences of thermodynamic characteristics on aerodynamic roughness length over land surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yao, Tong; Yue, Ping; Zhangf, Liyang; Zeng, Jian

    2013-04-01

    It has previously been shown that aerodynamic roughness length changes significantly along with nearsurface atmospheric thermodynamic state; however, at present, this phenomenon remains poorly understood, and very little research concerning this topic has been conducted. In this paper, by using the data of different underlying surfaces provided by the Experimental Co-observation and Integral Research in Semi-arid and Arid Regions over North China, aerodynamic roughness length ( z 0) values in stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric stratifications are compared with one another, and the relationship between z 0 and atmospheric thermodynamic stability ( ζ) is analyzed. It is found that z 0 shows great differences among the stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric thermodynamic states, with the difference in z 0 values between the fully thermodynamic stable condition and the neutral condition reaching 60% of the mean z 0. Furthermore, for the wind speed range in which the wind data are less sensitive to z 0, the surface z 0 changes more significantly with ζ, and is highly correlated with both the Monin-Obukhov stability ( ζ 0) and the overall Richardson number ( R ib), with both of their correlation coefficients greater than 0.71 and 0.47 in the stable and unstable atmospheric stratification, respectively. The empirical relation fitted with the experimental observations is quite consistent with the Zilitinkevich theoretical relation in the stable atmosphere, but the two are quite distinct and even show opposite variation tendencies in the unstable atmosphere. In application, however, verification of the empirical fitted relations by using the experimental data finds that the fitted relation is slightly more applicable than the Zilitinkevich theoretical relation in stable atmospheric stratification, but it is much more suitable than the Zilitinkevich relation in unstable atmospheric stratification.

  11. Electron irradiation-induced increase of minority carrier diffusion length, mobility, and lifetime in Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN short period superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Chernyak, L.; Borisov, B. A.; Kuryatkov, V. V.; Nikishin, S. A.; Gartsman, K.

    2007-10-29

    Minority carrier diffusion length in a p-type Mg-doped AlN/Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N short period superlattice was shown to undergo a multifold and persistent (for at least 1 week) increase under continuous irradiation by low-energy beam of a scanning electron microscope. Since neither the diffusion length itself nor the rate of its increase exhibited any measurable temperature dependence, it is concluded that this phenomenon is attributable to the increase in mobility of minority electrons in the two-dimensional electron gas, which in turn is limited by defect scattering. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy revealed {approx}40% growth of carrier lifetime under irradiation with an activation energy of 240 meV.

  12. Comparison of Hospitalists and Nonhospitalists in Inpatient Length of Stay Adjusting for Patient and Physician Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, William D; Holmboe, Eric; Scherer, Hannah; Sierra, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the independent effect of hospitalist status upon inpatient length of stay after controlling for case mix, as well as patient-level and provider-level variables such as age, years since physician medical school graduation, and volume status of provider. DESIGN Observational retrospective cohort study employing a hierarchical random intercept logistic regression model. SETTING Tertiary-care teaching hospital. PATIENTS All admissions during 2001 to the department of medicine not sent initially to the medical intensive care unit or coronary care unit. MEASUREMENTS Observed length of stay (LOS) compared to principle diagnosis related group (DRG)-specific mean LOS for hospitalist and nonhospitalist patients adjusting for patient age, gender, years since physician graduation from medical school, and physician volume status. MAIN RESULTS The 9 hospitalists discharged 2,027 patients while the nonhospitalists discharged 9,361 patients. On average, hospitalist patients were younger, 63.3 versus 73.3 years (P < .0001). Hospitalists were more recently graduated from medical school, 13.8 versus 22.5 years (P = .02). Each year of patient age was found to increase the likelihood of an above average LOS (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.02; P < .001). In unadjusted analysis, hospitalists were less likely to have an above average LOS (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.93; P = .03). Adjustment for effects of patient age and gender, physician gender, years since medical school graduation, and quintile of physician admission volume did not appreciably change the point estimate that hospitalist patients remained less likely to have above average LOS (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.11; P = .11). CONCLUSIONS For a given principle DRG, hospitalist patients were less likely to exceed the average LOS than were nonhospitalist patients. This effect was rather large, in that hospitalist status reduced the likelihood of above average LOS by about 49%. Adjustment for patient age, years since physician graduation, and admission volume did not significantly alter this finding. Further research should focus on identifying specific practices that account for hospitalism's effects. PMID:15566442

  13. Diffusion characteristics and molecular size of DOM in plant and soil extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Roland; Zsolnay, dm.; Munch, Jean Charles

    2010-05-01

    The main sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil are plant litter, root exudates, soil fauna, and the un-dissolved soil organic matter pool. A strong spatial heterogeneity of these sources, even on the microscale, is observed in soil. Consequently diffusion of DOM is an important transport process, which connects "hot-spots" of microbial activity and substrates. Therefore an experiment was conducted in order to measure diffusion constants of DOM and 2 inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, hydrodynamic diameters were calculated from these constants, which give an approximation of molecular size. The diffusion characteristics of several parameters in aqueous extracts of two soils and of barley were investigated. They were: Ammonium, nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 3 different fluorophore groups associated with DOM. The fluorophore groups were identified and quantified from fluorescence excitation emission spectra with the PARAFAC model. Two of the groups resembled groups, which have been used to imply the presence of humic substances (HS). Our results give reason to believe these groups can be regarded as indicators of dissolved HS in aqueous extracts only with caution. The other group, enriched in the barley extract, was the "tryptophan" group. However, its diffusion constant differed markedly between the soil and barley extracts, indicating that compounds other than tryptophan contributed to this fluorophore in soil extracts. When the Stokes-Einstein equation was applied to the diffusion coefficients of DOC (in all extracts about 0.27 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 4 C), a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 1.0 nm for the DOC was calculated. The diffusion constants for the other DOM parameters were also similar, regardless of source, with the exception of the "tryptophan" fluorophore group from barley, which diffused about 1.5 times faster than that from the soils and was in good agreement with the theoretical diffusion coefficient of tryptophan. There was no evidence of macromolecules in DOM. The diffusion of the inorganic nitrogen species was up to 4 times as rapid as that for DOC. Therefore, where in situ metabolism is fuelled by diffusion, diffusion rates of dissolved nitrogen are not likely to be the limiting factor.

  14. Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Gapinski, Jacek Patkowski, Adam; Nägele, Gerhard

    2014-09-28

    Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio.

  15. Determination of critical diameters for intrinsic carrier diffusion-length of GaN nanorods with cryo-scanning near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. T.; Karlsson, K. F.; Birch, J.; Holtz, P. O.

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurements of carrier diffusion in GaN nanorods with a designed InGaN/GaN layer-in-a-wire structure by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) were performed at liquid-helium temperatures of 10 K. Without an applied voltage, intrinsic diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers were measured as the diameters of the nanorods differ from 50 to 800 nm. The critical diameter of nanorods for carrier diffusion is concluded as 170 nm with a statistical approach. Photoluminescence spectra were acquired for different positions of the SNOM tip on the nanorod, corresponding to the origins of the well-defined luminescence peaks, each being related to recombination-centers. The phenomenon originated from surface oxide by direct comparison of two nanorods with similar diameters in a single map has been observed and investigated. PMID:26876009

  16. Interactions between a fractal tree-like object and hydrodynamic turbulence: flow structure and characteristic mixing length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneveau, C. V.; Bai, K.; Katz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The vegetation canopy has a significant impact on various physical and biological processes such as forest microclimate, rainfall evaporation distribution and climate change. Most scaled laboratory experimental studies have used canopy element models that consist of rigid vertical strips or cylindrical rods that can be typically represented through only one or a few characteristic length scales, for example the diameter and height for cylindrical rods. However, most natural canopies and vegetation are highly multi-scale with branches and sub-branches, covering a wide range of length scales. Fractals provide a convenient idealization of multi-scale objects, since their multi-scale properties can be described in simple ways (Mandelbrot 1982). While fractal aspects of turbulence have been studied in several works in the past decades, research on turbulence generated by fractal objects started more recently. We present an experimental study of boundary layer flow over fractal tree-like objects. Detailed Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are carried out in the near-wake of a fractal-like tree. The tree is a pre-fractal with five generations, with three branches and a scale reduction factor 1/2 at each generation. Its similarity fractal dimension (Mandelbrot 1982) is D ~ 1.58. Detailed mean velocity and turbulence stress profiles are documented, as well as their downstream development. We then turn attention to the turbulence mixing properties of the flow, specifically to the question whether a mixing length-scale can be identified in this flow, and if so, how it relates to the geometric length-scales in the pre-fractal object. Scatter plots of mean velocity gradient (shear) and Reynolds shear stress exhibit good linear relation at all locations in the flow. Therefore, in the transverse direction of the wake evolution, the Boussinesq eddy viscosity concept is appropriate to describe the mixing. We find that the measured mixing length increases with increasing streamwise locations. Conversely, the measured eddy viscosity and mixing length decrease with increasing elevation, which differs from eddy viscosity and mixing length behaviors of traditional boundary layers or canopies studied before. In order to find an appropriate length for the flow, several models based on the notion of superposition of scales are proposed and examined. One approach is based on spectral distributions. Another more practical approach is based on length-scale distributions evaluated using fractal geometry tools. These proposed models agree well with the measured mixing length. The results indicate that information about multi-scale clustering of branches as it occurs in fractals has to be incorporated into models of the mixing length for flows through canopies with multiple scales. The research is supported by National Science Foundation grant ATM-0621396 and AGS-1047550.

  17. Element diffusion ability in metasomatic agents and its effect on chemical characteristics of metasomatized peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Detailed in situ LM-ICPMS researches on the composite xenoliths from Yingfengling volcano of Leizhou Peninsula, South China, indicate that most incompatible trace elements of clinopyroxenes in composite xenoliths decrease spatially from pyroxenites to distal lherzolites, and compatible elements and HREE increase steeply. The increasing and decreasing rate is distinct for different trace elements, which give rise to element chromatographic fractionation within metasomatized lherzolites. The element chromatographic fractionation result actually from the difference in element diffusive rate in melts or fluids percolating through wallrock lherzolites. Based on element variation profiles in composite xenoliths this study indicates that Sr, Nb, La and Ce have the highest diffusive mobility, MREE-HREE are moderate, and Zr, Hf, Ti, Ga and Sc are very low in most cases. Higher diffusive rates of LREE than HREE would enlarge the REE fractionation of metasomatized peridotites, and lower diffusive rate of Zr, Hf and Ti relative to neighbor REEs with similar incompatibility would cause the relative depletion of these elements in metasomatized peridotites. Trace elements commonly have a higher diffusive rate in fluid-rich infiltrating melt, which will weaken element chromatographic fractionation during the metasomatism. The range of mantle metasomatism caused by silicate melt intrusion is very limited, generally within tens of centimeters wide. The width of metasomatized wallrock peridotites near the pyroxenite or horblendite veins was strictly controlled by both melt volume and chemical characteristics.

  18. Improved current and power density with a micro-scale microbial fuel cell due to a small characteristic length.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Torres, Csar I; Parameswaran, Prathap; Rittmann, Bruce E; Chae, Junseok

    2014-11-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical converter that can extract electricity from biomass by the catabolic reaction of microorganisms. This work demonstrates the impact of a small characteristic length in a Geobacteraceae-enriched, micro-scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) that achieved a high power density. The small characteristic length increased the surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) and the mass transfer coefficient. Together, these factors made it possible for the 100-L MFC to achieve among the highest areal and volumetric power densities - 83 ?W/cm(2) and 3300 ?W/cm(3), respectively - among all micro-scale MFCs to date. Furthermore, the measured Coulombic efficiency (CE) was at least 79%, which is 2.5-fold greater than the previously reported maximum CE in micro-scale MFCs. The ability to improve these performance metrics may make micro-scale MFCs attractive for supplying power in sub-100 W applications, especially in remote or hazardous conditions, where conventional powering units are hard to establish. PMID:24956566

  19. Unique sequence characteristics account for good DGGE separation of almost full-length 18S rDNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiqing; Ke, Xinxin; Lv, Xiaodan; Liu, Zhibin; Ni, Li

    2016-03-01

    A major limiting factor for DGGE-based microbial community studies is that the fragments should not be much longer than 500 bp for successful analysis. However, relatively high-resolution was achieved based on DGGE of the long 18S rDNA fragment (>1500 bp), which might be surprising due to the known decrease in DGGE resolution of DNA molecules with large melted regions. A unique sequence characteristic was found in a specific region (ca. 275 bp, named the NS1-end region) of 18S rDNAs, and fungal communities separated from Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing system was used to reveal the relationship between high resolution capacity and the unique sequence characteristics. The results showed that DGGE separation of the long 18S rDNA fragments depended on their NS1-end regions. The region is composed of a sequence-variable and short-length GC-poor region (ca. 160 bp) and a GC-rich region (ca. 110 bp), which contribute to the high resolution capacity achieved for DGGE of the long 18S rDNA fragments. Thus DGGE of the long 18S rDNA fragment is recommended as a target fragment for studies of fungal communities whose 18S rDNAs possess similar sequence characteristics. Good resolution and almost full-length 18S rDNA sequences can thus be obtained to provide more accurate and reliable analysis of fungal communities. Since more sequences are obtained directly from the PCR product through the long rDNA fragment approach, this is a convenient and effective approach for sequence-based analysis without using other complementary methods such as an rDNA clone library method. PMID:26873559

  20. Evaluation of spin diffusion length of AuW alloys using spin absorption experiments in the limit of large spin-orbit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczkowski, P.; Jaffrès, H.; Savero-Torres, W.; Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C.; Fu, Y.; Reyren, N.; Deranlot, C.; Notin, L.; Beigné, C.; Attané, J.-P.; Vila, L.; George, J.-M.; Marty, A.

    2015-12-01

    The knowledge of the spin diffusion length, λA, is a prerequisite for the estimation of the spin Hall angle of given materials. We investigate the spin-current absorption of materials with a short λA using AuW stripes inserted in Cu-based lateral spin valves. Width variations of the AuW stripe lead to drastic changes of the spin absorption which cannot be explained by a conventional analysis. We show that the spin-current polarization and the spin-accumulation attenuation in Cu in the vicinity of the spin absorber must be precisely taken into account for an accurate estimation of λA. We propose an analytical extension of the standard diffusion model of spin transport and spin absorption based on the existence of an effective spin diffusion length for Cu being in direct contact with AuW. The calculations are supported by numerical investigations which allow us to extract proper values of λA.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Vertical-tail Size and Length and of Fuselage Shape and Length on the Static Lateral Stability Characteristics of a Model with 45 Degree Sweptback Wing and Tail Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M J; Wolhart, Walter D

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of vertical-tail size and length and of fuselage shape and length on the static lateral stability characteristics of a model with wing and vertical tails having the quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees. The results indicate that the directional instability of the various isolated fuselages was about two-thirds as large as that predicted by classical theory.

  2. Determination of the self-diffusion coefficient of intracellular water using PGSE NMR with variable gradient pulse length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åslund, Ingrid; Topgaard, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    A new pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR protocol for assessing the local self-diffusion coefficient D0 of water confined within living cells is proposed. Equations for the apparent mean-square displacement < Z2> as a function of the effective diffusion time td and the duration of the displacement-encoding gradient pulses δ are derived. The standard method of estimating D0 - reducing td until the influence of collisions between the water molecules and the plasma membrane can be neglected - often fails because of the small size of typical cells. As demonstrated here, the decrease of the apparent < Z2> with increasing δ at constant td can be utilized to measure D0.

  3. Characteristic length scales and time-averaged transport velocities of suspended sediment in the mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzuto, James; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg; Williamson, Elyse; Karwan, Diana L.; O'Neal, Michael; Marquard, Julia; Aalto, Rolf; Newbold, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A theory is developed that describes the downstream movement of suspended sediment particles accounting for the time particles spend in storage given sediment budget data (by grain size fraction) and information on particle transit times through storage reservoirs. The theory is used to define a suspended sediment transport length scale that describes how far particles are carried during transport events, and to estimate a downstream particle velocity that includes time spent in storage. At 5 upland watersheds of the mid-Atlantic region, transport length scales for silt-clay range from 4 to 60 km, while those for sand range from 0.4 to 113 km. Mean sediment velocities for silt-clay range from 0.0072 km/yr to 0.12 km/yr, while those for sand range from 0.0008 km/yr to 0.20 km/yr, 4–6 orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of water in the channel. These results suggest lag times of 100–1000 years between BMP implementation and effectiveness in receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay (where BMPs are located upstream of the characteristic transport length scale). Many particles likely travel much faster than these average values, so further research is needed to determine the complete distribution of suspended sediment velocities in real watersheds.

  4. Characteristic length scales and time-averaged transport velocities of suspended sediment in the mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, James; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg; Williamson, Elyse; Karwan, Diana L.; O'Neal, Michael; Marquard, Julia; Aalto, Rolf; Newbold, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A theory is developed that describes the downstream movement of suspended sediment particles accounting for the time particles spend in storage given sediment budget data (by grain size fraction) and information on particle transit times through storage reservoirs. The theory is used to define a suspended sediment transport length scale that describes how far particles are carried during transport events, and to estimate a downstream particle velocity that includes time spent in storage. At 5 upland watersheds of the mid-Atlantic region, transport length scales for silt-clay range from 4 to 60 km, while those for sand range from 0.4 to 113 km. Mean sediment velocities for silt-clay range from 0.0072 km/yr to 0.12 km/yr, while those for sand range from 0.0008 km/yr to 0.20 km/yr, 4-6 orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of water in the channel. These results suggest lag times of 100-1000 years between BMP implementation and effectiveness in receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay (where BMPs are located upstream of the characteristic transport length scale). Many particles likely travel much faster than these average values, so further research is needed to determine the complete distribution of suspended sediment velocities in real watersheds.

  5. A study of damage zones or characteristic lengths as related to the fracture behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeow, Y. T.; Brinson, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests conducted on a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates, containing narrow rectangular slits, square or circular holes with various aspect ratios are discussed. The techniques used to study stable crack or damage zone growth--namely, birefringence coatings, COD gages, and microscopic observations are discussed. Initial and final fracture modes are discussed as well as the effect of notch size and shape, and laminate type on the fracture process. Characteristic lengths are calculated and compared to each other using the point, average and inherent flaw theories. Fracture toughnesses are calculated by the same theories and compared to a boundary integral equation technique. Finite width K-calibration factors are also discussed.

  6. Effects of phenotypic characteristics on the length of stay of dogs at two no kill animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Brown, William P; Davidson, Janelle P; Zuefle, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Adoption records from 2 no kill shelters in New York State were examined to determine how age, sex, size, breed group, and coat color influenced the length of stay (LOS) of dogs at these shelters. Young puppies had the shortest length of stay; LOS among dogs increased linearly as age increased. Neither coat color nor sex influenced LOS. Considering only size classifications, medium-size dogs had the greatest LOS, and extra small dogs and puppies remained in shelters for the least amount of time. Considering only breed groupings, dogs in the guard group had the greatest LOS and those in the giant group had the shortest LOS. The lack of effect of coat color was not expected, nor was the shorter LOS among "fighting" breeds compared with other breed groups. Coat color and breed may have only local effects on LOS that do not generalize to all shelters, including traditional shelters. Understanding the traits of dogs in a specific shelter and the characteristics of these nonhuman animals desired by adopters are critical to improving the welfare of animals served by that shelter. PMID:23282290

  7. Evaluation of the minority carrier diffusion length and surface-recombination velocity in GaAs p/n solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Moeller, Hans J.; Bailey, Sheila

    1991-01-01

    The minority carrier diffusion length (Lp) and the surface recombination velocity (Vs) were measured as a function of distance (x) from the p-n junction in GaAs p/n concentrator solar cells. The measured Vs values were used in a theoretical expression for the normalized electron-beam-induced current. A fitting procedure was then used to fit this expression with experimental values to obtain Lp. The results show that both Vs and Lp vary with x. Lp measured in irradiated cells showed a marked reduction. These values were compared to those measured previously which did not account for Vs.

  8. Statistical investigation of the length-dependent deviations in the electrical characteristics of molecular electronic junctions fabricated using the direct metal transfer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Kwon, Hyukwoo; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Jang, Yeonsik; Min, Misook; Char, Kookrin; Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Heejun; Lee, Takhee

    2016-03-01

    We fabricated and analyzed the electrical transport characteristics of vertical type alkanethiolate molecular junctions using the high-yield fabrication method that we previously reported. The electrical characteristics of the molecular electronic junctions were statistically collected and investigated in terms of current density and transport parameters based on the Simmons tunneling model, and we determined representative current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions. In particular, we examined the statistical variations in the length-dependent electrical characteristics, especially the Gaussian standard deviation σ of the current density histogram. From the results, we found that the magnitude of the σ value can be dependent on the individual molecular length due to specific microscopic structures in the molecular junctions. The probable origin of the molecular length-dependent deviation of the electrical characteristics is discussed.

  9. Statistical investigation of the length-dependent deviations in the electrical characteristics of molecular electronic junctions fabricated using the direct metal transfer method.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Kwon, Hyukwoo; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Jang, Yeonsik; Min, Misook; Char, Kookrin; Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Heejun; Lee, Takhee

    2016-03-01

    We fabricated and analyzed the electrical transport characteristics of vertical type alkanethiolate molecular junctions using the high-yield fabrication method that we previously reported. The electrical characteristics of the molecular electronic junctions were statistically collected and investigated in terms of current density and transport parameters based on the Simmons tunneling model, and we determined representative current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions. In particular, we examined the statistical variations in the length-dependent electrical characteristics, especially the Gaussian standard deviation σ of the current density histogram. From the results, we found that the magnitude of the σ value can be dependent on the individual molecular length due to specific microscopic structures in the molecular junctions. The probable origin of the molecular length-dependent deviation of the electrical characteristics is discussed. PMID:26871992

  10. Thermal Characteristics and Structure of Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulent jet diffusion flames are studied in microgravity and normal gravity under fully-modulated conditions for a range of injection times and a 50% duty cycle. Diluted ethylene was injected through a 2-mm nozzle at a Reynolds number of 5,000 into an open duct, with a slow oxidizer co-flow. Microgravity tests are conducted in NASA's 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Flames with short injection times and high duty cycle exhibit a marked increase in the ensemble-averaged flame length due to the removal of buoyancy. The cycle-averaged centerline temperature profile reveals higher temperatures in the microgravity flames, especially at the flame tip where the difference is about 200 K. In addition, the cycle-averaged measurements of flame radiation were about 30% to 60% greater in microgravity than in normal gravity.

  11. [Characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its impact on aquatic ecology environment].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chun; Li, Yun-Mei; Sun, De-Yong; Le, Cheng-Feng; Wu, Lan; Wang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Xing

    2009-02-15

    According to the optical property data measured in Taihu Lake at October and November 2006, the characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coeffcient (Kd), the contribution of each factor effecting on Kd and the effect of Kd on the aquatic ecology environment were analyzed. The results indicate that, the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd of Taihu Lake has two main trends in the whole visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). The first type is that, Kd decreases with the wavelengths by exponential style in the range of less than 571 nm wavelengths, and the second type is that, Kd is in the form of fluctuations in the range of larger than 571 nm wavelengths. In the range of 400-700 nm wavelength, the absorption coefficient of pigment particles is the first contributors of diffuse attenuation coefficient. Non-pigment particles absorption and scattering coefficients is the second contributor, and the rate of contribution of yellow substance is the smallest. The Kd of Taihu Lake determines the light factor of the Taihu water ecosystem. The "water window" shaped by the Kd provides the light base for different kinds of ecosystem and the appearance of Microcystic aentginosa which is the preponderant algae in the "algal blooms" phenomenon. PMID:19402480

  12. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (˜12 and 18 Å, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient Dr and relaxation time <τ0> of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed Dr values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient Dr of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient Dc associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio θ of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  13. Diffuse characteristics study of laser target board using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengling; Wu, Yong; Wang, Zhenbao; Tao, Mengmeng; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Ping; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Gang; Zhu, Jinghui; Feng, Guobin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, Torrance-Sparrow and Oren-Nayar model is adopt to study diffuse characteristics of laser target board. The model which based on geometric optics, assumes that rough surfaces are made up of a series of symmetric V-groove cavities with different slopes at microscopic level. The distribution of the slopes of the V-grooves are modeled as beckman distribution function, and every microfacet of the V-groove cavity is assumed to behave like a perfect mirror, which means the reflected ray follows Fresnel law at the microfacet. The masking and shadowing effects of rough surface are also taken into account through geometric attenuation factor. Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the diffuse reflectance distribution of the laser target board with different materials and processing technology, and all the calculated results are verified by experiment. It is shown that the profile of bidirectional reflectance distribution curve is lobe-shaped with the maximum lies along the mirror reflection direction. The width of the profile is narrower for a lower roughness value, and broader for a higher roughness value. The refractive index of target material will also influence the intensity and distribution of diffuse reflectance of laser target surface.

  14. Light-Induced Increase of Electron Diffusion Length in a p-n Junction Type CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Nir; Brenner, Thomas M; Kulbak, Michael; Schaefer, Norbert; Levcenko, Sergiu; Levine, Igal; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2015-07-01

    High band gap, high open-circuit voltage solar cells with methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite absorbers are of interest for spectral splitting and photoelectrochemical applications, because of their good performance and ease of processing. The physical origin of high performance in these and similar perovskite-based devices remains only partially understood. Using cross-sectional electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements, we find an increase in carrier diffusion length in MAPbBr3(Cl)-based solar cells upon low intensity (a few percent of 1 sun intensity) blue laser illumination. Comparing dark and illuminated conditions, the minority carrier (electron) diffusion length increases about 3.5 times from Ln = 100 ± 50 nm to 360 ± 22 nm. The EBIC cross section profile indicates a p-n structure between the n-FTO/TiO2 and p-perovskite, rather than the p-i-n structure, reported for the iodide derivative. On the basis of the variation in space-charge region width with varying bias, measured by EBIC and capacitance-voltage measurements, we estimate the net-doping concentration in MAPbBr3(Cl) to be 3-6 × 10(17) cm(-3). PMID:26266721

  15. Measurement of a long diffusion length in a GaAs film improved by metalorganic-chemical-vapor-deposition source purifications

    SciTech Connect

    Partain, L.D.; Cohen, M.J.; Cape, J.A.; Fraas, L.M.; McLeod, P.S.; Dean, C.S.; Ransom, R.A.

    1985-11-15

    The vacuum metalorganic-chemical-vapor-deposition (Vacuum MOCVD) process was combined with two source purifications to grow p-GaAs epitaxial films of high quality. Theoretical modeling of quantum yield spectra measured on a specially configured n/sup +/-p sample determined the minority-carrier electron diffusion length to be 10 ..mu..m to within a factor of 2 in the p layer. The p doping was reduced to the 5 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ level to avoid suppression of the diffusion length by Auger recombination. Multiple vacuum sublimations of dicyclopentadienyl magnesium (CP/sub 2/Mg), the source of Mg for p doping, reduced the contamination by air and by cyclopentadiene (CP) by an order of magnitude. A dry ice/acetone cold trap was operated at slightly below 180-Torr pressure to reduce the water vapor content of arsine, used as the As source, from the hundreds of ppm down level down to the 2 ppm range. The vacuum growth process reduced residual gas contamination. These techniques were combined to grow a p on n GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 24% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5).

  16. Large amplitude undulations of evening site diffuse aurorae. Optical characteristics and conditions of generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobjev, V. G.; Roldugin, V. C.; Yagodkina, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Optical characteristics of large amplitude undulations (LAU) of diffuse aurorae observed by all-sky cameras at Kola Peninsula on December 28, 2010 were examined. Both interplanetary medium conditions and characteristics of magnetic activity before and during LAU were analyzed. It was shown that the development of undulations could be activated by sharp short-living of ˜20 minutes solar wind dynamic pressure impulse and existence of the undulations during about two hours was supported by electric field of stationary magnetospheric convection originated from large smoothly changed southward IMF Bz component of about -12nT. The altitude of undulation luminosity determined by triangulation method was 120 ± 10 km. The undulations amplitude changed from about 100 to 300 km and the average wavelength was ˜250 km. The undulations were observed moving westward with the average phase velocity of ˜0.7 km/s. The pass of DMSP F16 spacecraft just along "the tongue" of undulations showed that the wave of luminosity was located in the region of the predominantly ion (proton) precipitation with the average energy of particles of ˜18 keV. Rayed auroral structures were observed continuously in the region of diffuse aurorae during time interval of LAU existence. These structures were observed moving westward with the velocity of about 2 km/s that corresponds to the northward electric field of ˜100 mV/m.

  17. High-pressure soot formation and diffusion flame extinction characteristics of gaseous and liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Ahmet Emre

    High-pressure soot formation and flame stability characteristics were studied experimentally in laminar diffusion flames. For the former, radially resolved soot volume fraction and temperature profiles were measured in axisymmetric co-flow laminar diffusion flames of pre-vaporized n-heptane-air, undiluted ethylene-air, and nitrogen and carbon dioxide diluted ethylene-air at elevated pressures. Abel inversion was used to re-construct radially resolved data from the line-of-sight spectral soot emission measurements. For the latter, flame extinction strain rate was measured in counterflow laminar diffusion flames of C1-4 alcohols and hydrocarbon fuels of n-heptane, n-octane, iso-octane, toluene, Jet-A, and biodiesel. The luminous flame height, as marked by visible soot radiation, of the nitrogen- and helium-diluted n-heptane and nitrogen- and carbon dioxide-diluted ethylene flames stayed constant at all pressures. In pure ethylene flames, flame heights initially increased with pressure, but changed little above 5 atm. The maximum soot yield as a function of pressure in nitrogen-diluted n-heptane diffusion flames indicate that n-heptane flames are slightly more sensitive to pressure than gaseous alkane hydrocarbon flames at least up to 7 atm. Ethylene's maximum soot volume fractions were much higher than those of ethane and n-heptane diluted with nitrogen (fuel to nitrogen mass flow ratio is about 0.5). Pressure dependence of the peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel's carbon content converted to soot, was assessed and compared to previous measurements with other gaseous fuels. Maximum soot volume fractions were consistently lower in carbon dioxide-diluted flames between 5 and 15 atm but approached similar values to those in nitrogen-diluted flames at 20 atm. This observation implies that the chemical soot suppression effect of carbon dioxide, previously demonstrated at atmospheric pressure, is also present at elevated pressures up to 15 atm, but fades off beyond 15 atm. In flame stability experiments, the extinction strain rates increased with decreasing dilution. In general, the fuels with higher carbon number and fuels with more compact structures were found to be more prone to extinction. Counterflow laminar diffusion flames established at the impingement of reactants with a top-hat (axially uniform) velocity profile were found to be more resistant to extinction than those with a parabolic exit velocity profile. Multiple solutions to the flame stability were observed for certain hydrocarbons.

  18. Relationship between characteristic length and average grain size in nanosize MgO added Bi-2212 superconductor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, N. A.; Asbullah, M. S. N.; Yahya, S. Y. S.; Hashim, A.

    2012-09-01

    In the present work, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212)/MgO compound was prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The powder of nanosize MgO particles was added to Bi-2212 superconductor with weight percentage of 3%, 5%, and 8%, respectively. The compound was sintered for 48 hours at 855°C in air. Besides the existence of a small amount of impurity phases, all the samples showed the Bi-2212 phase as the dominant phase. The temperature dependence of transport current density (Jc) in zero magnetic fields for each sample was measured from 40 K to transition temperature (Tc). It was found that the Jc value decreased with increasing temperature and this showed the consequence of thermal activated flux creep. Using the self-field approximation together with Jc dependence on temperature, we estimated that the characteristic length (Lc) associated with the pinning force is approximately the same as the average grain size (Rg) for the non-added sample and for sample with 8% nanosize MgO addition. In contrast, for samples with 3% and 5% addition, the results showed that Lc < Rg. This indicates that addition of 3% to 5% of nanosize MgO particles provides the optimum flux pinning centers for Bi-2212 superconductor ceramics.

  19. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody. PMID:22345010

  20. Time-domain diffuse optical tomography using analytic statistical characteristics of photon trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, Aleksandr B; Vlasov, V V; Kalintsev, A G; Lyubimov, Vladimir V; Kravtsenyuk, Olga V

    2006-11-30

    The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is reduced by the method of photon average trajectories (PAT) to the solution of the integral equation integrated along the conditional mean statistical photon trajectory. The PAT bending near the flat boundary of a scattering medium is estimated analytically. These estimates are used to determine the analytic statistical characteristics of photon trajectories for the flat layer geometry. The inverse DOT problem is solved by using the multiplicative algebraic algorithm modified to improve the convergence of the iteration reconstruction process. The numerical experiment shows that the modified PAT method permits the reconstruction of near-surface optical inhomogeneities virtually without distortions. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  1. Influences of carrier diffusion and radial mode field pattern on high speed characteristics for microring lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun

    2014-04-21

    High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3 dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15 μm, which accords with the simulation results.

  2. Microstructural Characteristics of HIP-bonded Monolithic Nuclear Fuels with a Diffusion Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Jan-Fong Jue; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Glenn A. Moore; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-05-01

    Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U–Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between fuel meat, cladding, and diffusion barrier, as well as U–10Mo fuel meat and Al–6061 cladding were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are • A typical Zr diffusion barrier of thickness 25 µm • Transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 µm • Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 µm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7–13 wt% • Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase • A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer of thickness 1-2 µm • A visible UZr2 bearing layer of thickness 1-2 µm • Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U–Mo matrix • No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge • Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. • Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and interaction layer between U–Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

  3. Microstructural characteristics of HIP-bonded monolithic nuclear fuels with a diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Keiser, Dennis D.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high-performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press (HIP) bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U-Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between the fuel meat, the cladding, and the diffusion barrier, as well as between the U-10Mo fuel meat and the Al-6061 cladding, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are: diffusion barrier with a thickness of 25 μm. A transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 μm. Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 μm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7-13 wt.%. Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase. A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer with a thickness of 1-2 μm. A visible UZr2 bearing layer with a thickness of 1-2 μm. Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U-Mo matrix. No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge. Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along the cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and the interaction layer between the U-Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

  4. Solute transport through fractured rock: Radial diffusion into the rock matrix with several geological layers for an arbitrary length decay chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Batoul; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a model development to derive a semi-analytical solution to describe reactive solute transport through a single channel in a fracture with cylindrical geometry. The model accounts for advection through the channel, radial diffusion into the adjacent heterogeneous rock matrix comprising different geological layers, adsorption on both the channel surface, and the geological layers of the rock matrix and radioactive decay chain. Not only an arbitrary-length decay chain, but also as many number of the rock matrix layers with different properties as observed in the field can be handled. The solution, which is analytical in the Laplace domain, is transformed back to the time domain numerically e.g. by use of de Hoog algorithm. The solution is verified against experimental data and analytical solutions of limiting cases of solute transport through porous media. More importantly, the relative importance and contribution of different processes on solute transport retardation in fractured rocks are investigated by simulating several cases of varying complexity. The simulation results are compared with those obtained from rectangular model with linear matrix diffusion. It is found that the impact of channel geometry on breakthrough curves increases markedly as the transport distance along the flow channel and away into the rock matrix increase. The effect of geometry is more pronounced for transport of a decay chain when the rock matrix consists of a porous altered layer.

  5. Investigation of doped calcium aluminosilicate glass: A coupling between thermal-expansion and thermal-diffusion models for assessment of nonradiative relaxation time and characteristic diffusion time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Filho, N. E.; Nogueira, A. C.; Rohling, J. H.; Baesso, M. L.; Medina, A. N.; Siqueira, A. P. L.; Sampaio, J. A.; Vargas, H.; Bento, A. C.

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of photoacoustic models to obtain the nonradiative relaxation time (τ) and characteristic diffusion time (τβ) for a sample showing visible absorption bands from fluorescent ion-doped low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass. Two models allowing phase shift analyses, the thermal-expansion and thermal-diffusion models, are briefly reviewed. These models have limitations when the photoacoustic signal depends on both factors, in a coupling mechanism. An alternative model is proposed to take both thermal expansion and thermal diffusion into account with a single temperature solution for the heat-coupled differential equation. This model is simulated for absorbing samples near the thermally thick region. The model is applied to Eu-V codoped glass showing intermediate signal dependence from ω-1.0 to ω-3/2. The nonradiative time and characteristic diffusion time are derived with 33<τ(ms)<39, and τβ(ms)˜70 ms for the Eu-ion and 340<τβ(ms)<710 for the V-ion. Four absorption bands were analyzed (280, 350, 420, and 600 nm), which showed a signal dependence from ω-1.1 to ω-1.52. Absorption coefficients were derived from τβ in the range of 15<β(cm-1)<51, which agreed fairly well with spectrophotometer data for the same ions.

  6. Estimation of Gas Permeation Characteristics of Ultrahigh Barrier Edge Sealing Materials from Asymptotic Solution of Diffusion Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Toshihiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Kanno, Toshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    Materials and structures for water vapor barrier sealing are now actively studied, as the commercialization of organic electronic devices has become a reality. In this paper, we focus on the edge sealing barriers, in which diffusion plays an essential role. In the past, the diffusion-limited gas barrier properties were analyzed in the steady-state approximation, which is never reached within the device lifetime in the application for organic electronics. We analyze them using a simple analytical model. The diffusion before reaching the steady state is a strongly non-linear process, as is well known, and the length scale of approximately 1-10 mm is very important when a practical polymer resin is used for the edge seal.

  7. Performance characteristics of two annular dump diffusers using suction-stabilized vortex flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Test results are described for two abrupt area change annular diffusers with provisions for maintaining suction stabilized toroidal vortices at the area discontinuity. Both diffusers had an overall area ratio of 4.0 with the prediffuser area ratio being 1.18 for diffuser A and 1.4 for diffuser B. Performance was evaluated at near atmospheric pressure and temperature for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.18 to 0.41 and suction rates from 0 to 18%. Static pressure recovery improved significantly as the suction rate was increased to approximately 11%. Results obtained with diffuser A were superior to that obtained with diffuser B. Flat radial profiles of exit velocity were not obtained since the flow showed preferential hub or tip attachment at moderate suction rates. At high suction rates the diffuser exit flow became circumferentially nonuniform and unstable.

  8. LABORATORY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERMEABILITY AND DIFFUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA CONCRETES - PHASE I. METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of Phase I of a laboratory assessment of the permeability and diffusion characteristics of Florida concretes. (NOTE: The ability of concrete to permit air flow under pressure (permeability) and the passage of radon gas without any pressure difference (dif...

  9. LABORATORY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERMEABILITY AND DIFFUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA CONCRETES - PHASE I - METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of Phase I of a laboratory assessment of the permeability and diffusion characteristics of Florida concretes. (NOTE: The ability of concrete to permit air flow under pressure (permeability) and the passage of radon gas without any pressure difference (dif...

  10. Liquid water transport characteristics of porous diffusion media in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunliang; Peng, Fangyuan; Lou, Guofeng; Wen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of liquid water transport in gas diffusion media (GDM) is important to improve the material and structure design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Continuum methods of two-phase flow modeling facilitate to give more details of relevant information. The proper empirical correlations of liquid water transport properties, such as capillary characteristics, water relative permeability and effective contact angle, are crucial to two phase flow modeling and cell performance prediction. In this work, researches on these properties in the last decade are reviewed. Various efforts have been devoted to determine the water transport properties for GDMs. However, most of the experimental studies are ex-situ measurements. In-situ measurements for GDMs and extending techniques available to study the catalyst layer and the microporous layer will be further challenges. Using the Leverett-Udell correlation is not recommended for quantitative modeling. The reliable Leverett-type correlation for GDMs, with the inclusion of the cosine of effective contact angle, is desirable but hard to be established for modeling two-phase flow in GDMs. A comprehensive data set of liquid water transport properties is needed for various GDM materials under different PEM fuel cell operating conditions.

  11. Characteristics of Copper Diffusion into Low Dielectric Constant Plasma Polymerized Cyclohexane Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Cheonman; Choi, Jayoung; Jung, Donggeun; Lee, Nae-Eung; Yang, Cheol-Woong

    2000-12-01

    Copper (Cu) diffusion into low dielectric constant plasma polymerized cyclohexane (PPCHex) thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition upon annealing was investigated. Cu diffusion was analyzed by current-voltage (I-V) measurement, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From I-V measurement and TEM analysis, it was revealed that PPCHex thin films were resistant to Cu diffusion up to 400^\\circC, while there was a notable amount of Cu diffused into the PPCHex thin films after 450^\\circC annealing. RBS was not sensitive enough to detect a small amount of Cu diffused into the PPCHex films. Improved Cu diffusion resistance of our PPCHex thin films compared to thin films of chemically synthesized polymers is thought to be due to high cross-linking among film-forming species of plasma polymers.

  12. Minority-carrier diffusion length, minority-carrier lifetime, and photoresponsivity of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Akutsu, Keiichi; Kawakami, Hideki; Suzuno, Mitsushi; Yaguchi, Takashi; Jiptner, Karolin; Chen, Jun; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Suemasu, Takashi

    2011-06-15

    We have epitaxially grown undoped {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films on Si(111) substrates via atomic-hydrogen-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films grown without atomic hydrogen exhibited p-type conduction with a hole density of over 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at room temperature (RT). In contrast, those prepared with atomic hydrogen showed n-type conduction and had a residual electron density that was more than two orders of magnitude lower than the hole density of films grown without atomic hydrogen (of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at RT). The minority-carrier diffusion length was estimated to be approximately 16 {mu}m using an electron-beam-induced current technique; this value is twice as large as that for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} prepared without atomic hydrogen. This result could be well explained in terms of the minority-carrier lifetimes measured by a microwave photoconductance decay technique. The 1/e decay time using a 904 nm laser pulse was approximately 17 {mu}s, which is much longer than that for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} prepared without atomic hydrogen (3 {mu}s). The photoresponsivity reached 13 mA/W at 1.31 {mu}m, which is the highest value ever reported for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films.

  13. Clinical applications and characteristics of apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the brain of two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boeun; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Seoyeon; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping are functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for detecting water diffusion. DWI and the ADC map were performed for intracranial lesions in two dogs. In necrotizing leukoencephalitis, cavitated lesions contained a hypointense center with a hyperintense periphery on DWI, and hyperintense signals on the ADC maps. In metastatic sarcoma, masses including a necrotic region were hypointense with DWI, and hyperintense on the ADC map with hyperintense perilesional edema on DWI and ADC map. Since DWI and ADC data reflect the altered water diffusion, they can provide additional information at the molecular level. PMID:24675836

  14. Effects of the carbon powder characteristics in the cathode gas diffusion layer on the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, E.; Passos, R. R.; Ticianelli, E. A.

    The effects of two different carbon powders (oil-furnace carbon black and acetylene-black) as materials for carbon cloth-based cathode gas diffusion layers on the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) electrodes were investigated. The carbon powder characteristics affect the reversible potential of the cell ( E°) and both the linear and non-linear polarization components. The best fuel cell performance was obtained at an oxygen pressure of 5 atm with acetylene-black in the cathode gas diffusion layer.

  15. Clinico-radiologic characteristics of long-term survivors of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Sadhana; Patay, Zoltan; Howarth, Robyn; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the deadliest central nervous system tumor in children. The survival of affected children has remained poor despite treatment with radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all surviving patients with DIPG treated at our institution between October 1, 1992 and May 31, 2011. Blinded central radiologic review of the magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis of all surviving patients and 15 controls with DIPG was performed. All surviving patients underwent neurocognitive assessment during follow-up. Five (2.6%) of 191 patients treated during the study period were surviving at a median of 9.3 years from their diagnosis (range, 5.3 to 13.2 years). Two patients were younger than 3 years, one lacked signs of pontine cranial nerve involvement, and three had longer duration of symptoms at diagnosis. One patient had a radiologically atypical tumor and one had a tumor originating in the medulla. All five patients received RT. Chemotherapy was variable among these patients. Neurocognitive assessments were obtained after a median interval of 7.1 years. Three of four patients who underwent a detailed evaluation showed cognitive function in the borderline or mental retardation range. Two patients experienced disease progression at 8.8 and 13 years after diagnosis. A minority of children with DIPG experienced long-term survival with currently available therapies. These patients remained at high risk for tumor progression even after long follow-ups. Four of our long-term survivors had clinical and radiologic characteristics at diagnosis associated with improved outcome. PMID:23813229

  16. Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, C. R.; Todd, N.; Payne, A.; Parker, D. L.; Christensen, D. A.; Roemer, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD = 0.0-2.0 °C), temporal sampling (tacq = 1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res = 0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies.

  17. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. PMID:25526672

  18. White matter structure and clinical characteristics of stroke patients: A diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Senoo, Atsushi

    2016-03-15

    Fractional anisotropy has been used in many studies that examined post-stroke changes in white matter. This study was performed to clarify cerebral white matter changes after stroke using generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). White matter structure was visualized using diffusion tensor imaging in 72 patients with post-stroke arm paralysis. Exercise-related brain regions were examined in cerebral white matter using GFA. The relationship between GFA and clinical characteristics was examined. Overall, the mean GFA of the lesioned hemisphere was significantly lower than that of the non-lesioned hemisphere (P<0.05), the white matter of the lesioned side was severely affected by stroke. A weak negative correlation between GFA and time since stroke onset was found in Brodmann area 5 of the non-lesioned hemisphere. Age correlated negatively with GFA in Brodmann areas 5 and 7 of the lesioned hemisphere. Though these results may be due to a decrease in the frequency of use of the paralyzed limb over time, GFA overall was significantly and negatively affected by the subject's age. The GFA values of patients with paralysis of the dominant hand were significantly different from those of patients with paralysis of the nondominant hand in Brodmann areas 4 and 6 of the non-lesioned hemisphere and Brodmann area 4 of the lesioned hemisphere (P<0.05). The stroke size and location were not associated with GFA differences. Differences between the GFA of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres varied depending on the affected brain region, age at onset of paralysis, and paralysis of the dominant or non-dominant hand. PMID:26783693

  19. Effects of Maternal and Infant Characteristics on Birth Weight and Gestation Length in a Colony of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques. PMID:19149417

  20. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.

  1. High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics and Boundary-Layer Investigations of a 12 10-Inch-Inlet-Diameter Conical Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Wilbur, Stafford W.

    1950-01-01

    Performance and boundary-layer data were taken in a 12 degree 10-inch inlet-diameter conical diffuser of 2:1 exit- to inlet-area ratio. These data were taken for two inlet-boundary-layer conditions. The first condition was that of a thinner inlet boundary later (boundary-layer displacement thickness, delta* approximately equal to 0.034) produced by an inlet section approximately 1 inlet diameter in length between the entrance bell and the diffuser. The second condition was a thicker inlet boundary layer (delta* approximately equal to 0.120) produced by an additional inlet section length of approximately 6 diameters. Longitudinal static-pressure distributions were measured fro wall static orifices. Transverse total- and static-pressure surveys were made at the inlet and exit stations. Boundary-layer velocity distributions were measured at seven stations between the inlet and exit. These data were obtained for a Reynolds number (based on inlet diameter) range of 1 x 10(exp 6) to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The corresponding Mach number range was from M = 0.2 to choking. At the maximum-power-available condition supersonic flow was obtained as far as 4.5 inches downstream from the diffuser inlet with a maximum Mach number of M approximately equal to 1.5. The total-pressure loss through the diffuser in percentage of inlet dynamic pressure was approximately 2.5 percent for the thinner inlet boundary later and 5.5 percent for the thicker inlet boundary later over the lower subsonic range. These valued increased with increasing flow rate- the values for the thicker inlet boundary later more than those for the thinner inlet boundary layer. The diffuser effectiveness, expressed as the ratio of the actual static-pressure rise to the ideal static-pressure rise, was about 85 percent for the thinner inlet boundary layer and about 67 percent for the thicker inlet boundary later in the lower subsonic range. These values decrease with increasing flow rate. Separated flow was observed for both inlet-boundary-layer conditions in the region of adverse pressure gradient just downstream of the transition curvature from inlet section to diffuser. The flow for the thinner-inlet-boundary-layer condition did not fully re-establish itself along the diffuser walls. The thicker inlet-boundary-layer flow, while not completely re-establishing the normal flow pattern downstream of the separated region, did re-establish more successfully than the thinner inlet boundary layer.

  2. Effect of crystal length on the thermal characteristic in Nd: YLF laser with 20W diode pumped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, K. A.; Hussein, O. A.; Mustafa, O. H.

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical results are reported on thermal effects along the π- 1047nm and σ- 1053nm polarizations in a cut Nd: YLF rod crystal by using 20W Diode -End-pumped. The crystal length effects on the fraction of absorbed pump radiation converted into heat, radial temperature distribution, and the change in a radial refractive index. The result from this study has shown that a maximum fraction converted into heat is calculated to be around 24% and thermal effects of π-polarized 1047 nm stronger than σ-polarized 1053 nm.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Characteristics of Histologically Defined Prostate Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junqian; Humphrey, Peter A.; Kibel, Adam S.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Narra, Vamsidhar R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2010-01-01

    The contrast provided by diffusion-sensitive magnetic resonance offers the promise of improved tumor localization in organ-confined human prostate cancer (PCa). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements of PCa were performed in vivo, in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, and later, ex vivo, in the same patients’ prostatectomy specimens. The imaging data were coregistered to histological sections of the prostatectomy specimens, thereby enabling unambiguous characterization of diffusion parameters in cancerous and benign tissues. Increased cellularity, and hence decreased luminal spaces, in peripheral zone PCa led to approximately 40% and 50% apparent diffusion policy (ADC) decrease compared with benign peripheral zone tissues in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. In contrast, no significant diffusion anisotropy differences were observed between the cancerous and noncancerous peripheral zone tissues. However, the dense fibromuscular tissues in prostate, such as stromal tissues in benign prostatic hyperplasia in central gland, exhibited high diffusion anisotropy. A tissue classification method is proposed to combine DTI and T2-weighted image contrasts that may provide improved specificity of PCa detection over T2-weighted imaging alone. PCa identified in volume rendered MR images qualitatively correlates well with histologically determined PCa foci. PMID:19215051

  4. Effect of gate-length shortening on the terahertz small-signal and self-oscillations characteristics of field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, E.; Shiktorov, P.; Gruinskis, V.; Marinchio, H.; Palermo, C.; Varani, L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the shortening of the gate-length in submicrometric and nanometric field-effect transistors as a powerful tool to improve their self-oscillations performances in the terahertz frequency region due to the appearance of the Dyakonov-Shur instability. The theoretical model is based on the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations for the electron transport in FETs/HEMTs channels. We show that a decrease of the gate length allows, on the one hand, to increase the intrinsic resonant frequencies near 1 THz and, on the other hand, to improve the conditions for the onset of the Dyakonov-Shur instability and related phenomena. The small-signal characteristics calculated under constant drain-voltage operation are compared with the drain-voltage self-oscillations calculated under constant drain-current operation.

  5. Microstructural White Matter Tissue Characteristics Are Modulated by Homocysteine: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Leu, Jyu-Gang; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Viergever, Max A.; Leemans, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine level can lead to adverse effects on the brain white matter through endothelial dysfunction, microstructural inflammation, and neurotoxin effects. Despite previously observed associations between elevated homocysteine and macroscopic structural brain changes, it is still unknown whether microstructural associations of homocysteine on brain tissue properties can be observed in healthy subjects with routine MRI. To this end, we investigated potential relationships between homocysteine levels and microstructural measures computed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a cohort of 338 healthy participants. Significant positive correlations were observed between homocysteine levels and diffusivity measures in the bilateral temporal WM, the brainstem, and the bilateral cerebellar peduncle. This is the first study demonstrating that DTI is sufficiently sensitive to relate microstructural WM properties to homocysteine levels in healthy subjects. PMID:25693199

  6. Molecular emission characteristics of various fluorides in a low-temperature-hydrogen diffusion flame.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, R M; Fleet, B; Risby, T H; Deans, D R

    1971-02-01

    A capillary burner supporting a nitrogen/hydrogen diffusion flame has been evaluated as a possible means of detection for several volatile fluorides after their gas-chromatographic separation. The fluorides of As, B, C, Ge, I, Mo, P, Re, S, Sb, Se, Si, Te and W were formed by the reaction of the element with chlorine trifluoride, and the intense molecular emission given by each was recorded. An attempt was made to identify the emitting species. PMID:18960872

  7. Determination of characteristic constants for some basic processes in plasma—diffusion, Penning ionization, asymmetric charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Ekov, R. P.; Sabotinov, N. V.

    2008-05-01

    The diffusion coefficients of ten chemical element atoms in the binary system with helium and neon are calculated on the basis of 12-6 Lennard-Jones and rigid sphere inter-atomic interaction approximations. Cross-sections and rate constants for thermal energy charge transfer and Penning collisions are calculated for all Tl+ and I+ excited states possibly populated via these reactions. For the case of the charge transfer process the theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained ones. Since the characteristic constants considered depend on the gas temperature, the gas temperature distribution is also calculated by solving the heat conduction equation for the gas discharges studied.

  8. A Diffusion of Rumor Example Demonstrating the Characteristics of Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aburdene, Maurice F.

    1982-01-01

    Develops Volterra model for spread of information in group analytically and by simulation and compares characteristics of both methods. Topics of modeling, equilibrium, linearization, stability, error analysis, and parameter identification are incorporated in obtaining the solutions. (SK)

  9. Diffusion barrier characteristics of co monolayer prepared by Langmuir Blodgett technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Mukesh; Rani, Sumita; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Monolayers of Co over SiO2/Si substrate were deposited using Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique. The diffusion barrier capability of Co layer was evaluated against copper diffusion. The structure of the deposited Co layer was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Thermal stability of Cu/SiO2/Si and Cu/Co/SiO2/Si test structures was studied and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and four probe techniques. The samples were annealed at different temperatures starting from 200 °C up to 700 °C in vacuum for 30 min. XRD results indicated that combination of Co/SiO2 worked as diffusion barrier up to 550 °C whereas SiO2 alone could work as barrier only up to 300 °C. Sheet resistance of these samples was measured as a function of annealing temperature which also supports XRD results. C-V curves of these structures under the influence of Biased Thermal Stress (BTS) were analyzed. BTS was applied at 2.5 MV cm-1 at 150 °C. Results showed that in the presence of Co barrier layer there was no shift in the C-V curve even after 90 min of BTS while in the absence of barrier there was a significant shift in the C-V curve even after 30 min of BTS. Further these test structures were examined for leakage current density (jL) at same BTS conditions and leakage current density (jL) was plotted against the BTS duration. It was found that the Cu/Co/SiO2/Si test structure could survive about one and half time more than the Cu/SiO2/Si test structure.

  10. Application of continuum percolation theory for modeling single- and two-phase characteristics of anisotropic carbon paper gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Cheng, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Percolation theory is used to model intrinsic and relative permeabilities as well as tortuosity in anisotropic carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDL) and compared with existing results from lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations and experimental measurements. Although single- and two-phase characteristics of the carbon paper GDL are mainly affected by medium geometrical and topological properties, e.g., pore-size distribution, connectivity, and pore geometry, analyzing capillary pressure curves implies that the pore-size distribution of the carbon paper GDL is very narrow. This suggests that its effect on tortuosity and wetting- and nonwetting-phase relative permeabilities is trivial. However, integrated effects of pore geometry, surface area, connectivity, and tortuosity on intrinsic permeability might be substantial. Universal power laws from percolation theory predict the tortuosity-porosity and relative permeability-saturation curves accurately, indicating both characteristics not affected by the pore-size distribution. The permeability-porosity relationship, however, conforms to nonuniversality.

  11. Content Characteristics Driving the Diffusion of Antismoking Messages: Implications for Cancer Prevention in the Emerging Public Communication Environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how content characteristics of antitobacco messages affect smokers’ selective exposure to and social sharing of those messages. Results from an experiment revealed that content features predicting smokers’ selection of antismoking messages are different from those predicting whether those messages are shared. Antismoking messages smokers tend to select are characterized by strong arguments (odds ratio = 2.02, P = .02) and positive sentiments (odds ratio = 3.08, P = .03). Once selected, the messages more likely to be retransmitted by smokers were those with novel arguments (B = .83, P = .002) and positive sentiments (B = 1.65, P = .005). This research adds to the literature about the content characteristics driving the social diffusion of antitobacco messages and contributes to our understanding of the role of persuasive messages about smoking cessation in the emerging public communication environment. PMID:24395989

  12. High-Performance Simulations of the Diffusion Characteristics of a Pentacene Derivative on Gold Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Larson, Amanda; Pohl, Karsten

    Pentacene serves as a backbone for several molecules that provide attractive qualities for organic photovoltaic devices. One of these pentacene derivatives is 5 6,7-trithiapentacene-13-one (TTPO), which is unique in that it achieves its lowest energy configuration on Au(1 1 1) surfaces with the thiol group angled down towards the surface, allowing many molecules to pack closely together and form molecular nanowires. However, TTPO diffuses on flat surfaces, making it difficult for the self-assembly process to be initiated. With the help of the low-energy sites in surface defects and Au(7 8 8) step edges, TTPO molecules can be anchored in place on surfaces, allowing for chain formation to begin. By using high-performance Density Functional Theory based molecular dynamics calculations, the molecules can be shown to stay localized to these bonding sites and serve as a basis for chain formation. In addition, by simulating various temperatures with a Nose-Hoover thermostat, we can analyze how temperature affects anchoring ability and diffusion properties.

  13. Characteristics of red-emitting broad area stripe laser diodes with zinc diffused window structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Tomoki; Takiguchi, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Naganuma, Kaori; Ohara, Maho; Ito, Satoshi; Hirata, Shoji

    2010-02-01

    We have applied zinc diffused window structures to 640 nm broad area stripe laser diodes (BALDs) for the first time. A solid-phase zinc diffusion technique was used for a thick single quantum well (SQW) in GaInP employing the short wavelength and disordered active layer possessed a blue shift of 58 nm in photoluminescence spectrum. We fabricated 10 mm arrays including twenty-five BALDs and each BALD consists of a 60 μm ridge stripe and a 1000 μm cavity. An initial catastrophic optical damage (COD) level of the window laser was increased by four times of a conventional none-window laser. A long-term reliability under automatic current control was investigated for initial output powers of 13W and 15W which overcome a previous demonstration of 7.2 W. Measured degradations within a period of 1000-hours were 5 % or less, in contrast a half-life period of our conventional none-window laser with an initial output power of 10 W was only 120-hours. Therefore the window structure improved the BALD in terms of the COD level and the long-term reliability.

  14. EFFECT OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ON DO DISTRIBUTION IN A FULL SCALE OXIDATION DITCH WITH DIFFUSED AERATION AND VERTICAL FLOW BOOSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamachi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Taku; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    The high loading rate oxidation ditch (OD) system with dual dissolved oxygen (DO) control has been developed for the purpose of advanced wastewater treatment and cost saving. For the purpose of scale-up to the real scale, the clean water experiments were conducted, with the full scale oxidation ditch with diffused aeration and vertical flow boosters, to examine the effect to the dual DO control by the design and operational factors, which include a flow characteristics and a oxygen supply capability. In this study, the flow characteristics of the OD channel were analyzed using a tank number and circulation ratio as the parameters. The analysis showed the complicated flow characteristics of the OD channel, which changed from the plug flow to the completely mixing transiently. Based on the tank number N =65~100 which were obtained from the tracer tests, a model of DO mass balance was constructed, then the accurate method for estimate the overall oxygen transfer coefficients was proposed. The potential error of the conventional method in the specific conditions was indicated. In addition, the effect of the flow characteristics on the design and operational parameters of the dual DO control, which include the circulation time or the DO profile, was clarified.

  15. Diffusion characteristics and extracellular volume fraction during normoxia and hypoxia in slices of rat neostriatum.

    PubMed

    Rice, M E; Nicholson, C

    1991-02-01

    1. Diffusion properties of submerged, superfused slices from the rat neostriatum were measured by quantitative analysis of concentration-time profiles of tetramethylammonium (TMA+) introduced by iontophoresis. TMA+ was sensed at an ion-selective microelectrode (ISM) positioned 100-150 microns from the source pipette. Slice viability was assessed from the extracellular field potentials evoked by intrastriatal electrical stimulation. 2. Under normoxic conditions the extracellular volume fraction (alpha) was 0.21 (range 0.18-0.24), and the tortuosity (lambda) was 1.54, in slices with good field potentials. In slices with poor field potentials, alpha was 0.09-0.16. Extraction of correct alpha and lambda in the slice required evaluation of nonspecific uptake, k', which was 1 x 10(-2) s-1. 3. Slices were made hypoxic by superfusing physiological saline equilibrated with 95% N2-5% CO2 for 10-30 min. Synaptic components of field potentials were inhibited after 3-4 min in hypoxic media. In some experiments extracellular K+ concentration [( K+]o) was monitored with ISMs. During hypoxia, [K+]o rose from an average baseline of 5.1 mM to 7-10 mM. After reoxygenation, [K+]o transiently fell below the original level. 4. The average value for alpha during hypoxia was 0.13 (a 38% decrease), which was significantly different from control (P less than 0.001) and increased progressively during hypoxic exposure. In contrast, tortuosity and k' were unchanged by this treatment. 5. These data represent the first characterization of the diffusion properties of the rat striatal slice and of changes in extracellular volume fraction during hypoxia in a brain slice preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2016641

  16. Study on Breakup Length of Liquid Jet by Liquid-Gas Coaxial Injector —Evaluation of Atomization Characteristics of Rocket Engine Injectors—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki

    Based on the experimental observations using a liquid-gas coaxial injector with fairly dense liquid injection, an empirical calculation model of the breakup length of a liquid jet was derived. It is based on the one-dimensional momentum conservation equation for two-phase flow, as well as on the critical Eötvös number, which was derived experimentally by the author in a previous study. This model was applied to evaluate the local stripping rate of the liquid mass at the interaction surface between a liquid and a gas, and was applied to calculate the size of the formed droplets. Comparisons of the mean droplet size, distribution histogram of the size, and breakup length of the liquid jet were made with experimental data. This calculation model was also applied to evaluate the characteristics of the rocket injectors chosen as candidates for the LE-5, the liquid oxygen/hydrogen engine of the second stage of the Japanese H-1 launcher.

  17. The relative diffusive transport rate of SrI2 in water changes over the nanometer length scale as measured by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Faraone, Antonio

    2016-05-14

    X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to provide insight into the structures of ionic solutions for over a century, but the probes have covered distances shorter than 8 Å. For the non-hydrolyzing salt SrI2 in aqueous solution, a locally ordered lattice of ions exists that scatters slow neutrons coherently down to at least 0.1 mol L(-1) concentration, where the measured average distance between scatterers is over 18 Å. To investigate the motions of these scatterers, coherent quasielastic neutron scattering (CQENS) data on D2O solutions with SrI2 at 1, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4 mol L(-1) concentrations was obtained to provide an experimental measure of the diffusive transport rate for the motion between pairs of ions relative to each other. Because CQENS measures the motion of one ion relative to another, the frame of reference is centered on an ion, which is unique among all diffusion measurement methods. We call the measured quantity the pairwise diffusive transport rate Dp. In addition to this ion centered frame of reference, the diffusive transport rate can be measured as a function of the momentum transfer q, where q = (4π/λ)sin θ with a scattering angle of 2θ. Since q is related to the interion distance (d = 2π/q), for the experimental range 0.2 Å(-1)≤q≤ 1.0 Å(-1), Dp is, then, measured over interion distances from 40 Å to ≈6 Å. We find the measured diffusional transport rates increase with increasing distance between scatterers over the entire range covered and interpret this behavior to be caused by dynamic coupling among the ions. Within the model of Fickian diffusion, at the longer interionic distances Dp is greater than the Nernst-Hartley value for an infinitely dilute solution. For these nm-distance diffusional transport rates to conform with the lower, macroscopically measured diffusion coefficients, we propose that local, coordinated counter motion of at least pairs of ions is part of the transport process. PMID:27096293

  18. Diffusion characteristics and controlled release of bacterial fertilizers from modified calcium alginate capsules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-04-01

    An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials. PMID:17482812

  19. Characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients with ICU lengths of stay 30 days and greater: a seven-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged intensive care unit lengths of stay (ICU LOS) for critical illness can have acceptable mortality rates and quality of life despite significant costs. Only a few studies have specifically addressed prolonged ICU LOS after trauma. Our goals were to examine characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients with LOS ≥ 30 days, predictors of prolonged stay and mortality. Methods All trauma ICU admissions over a seven-year period in a level 1 trauma center were analyzed. Admission characteristics, pre-existing conditions and acquired complications in the ICU were recorded. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of prolonged LOS and predictors of mortality among those with prolonged LOS after univariate analyses. Results Of 4920 ICU admissions, 205 (4%) had ICU LOS >30 days. These patients were older and more severely injured. Age and injury severity score (ISS) were associated with prolonged LOS. After logistic regression analysis, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and several infectious complications were important independent predictors of prolonged LOS. Within the group with ICU LOS >30 days, predictors of mortality were age, pre-existing renal disease as well as the development of renal failure requiring dialysis. Overall mortality was 12%. Conclusions The majority of patients with ICU LOS ≥ 30 days will survive their hospitalization. Infectious and pulmonary complications were predictors of prolonged stay. Further efforts targeting prevention of these complications are warranted. PMID:19778422

  20. "Smoking-Gun" Observables of Magnetic Reconnection: Spatiotemporal Evolution of Electron Characteristics Throughout the Diffusion Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Chen, L. J.; Bessho, N.; Li, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.; Argall, M. R.; Daughton, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Electron distribution functions can provide "smoking-gun" evidence for the detection of electron diffusion regions in collisionless magnetic reconnection. Knowledge of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron distributions during reconnection is significantly lacking, and will further elucidate the outstanding questions of how, where, and when electrons are energized during reconnection. Based on spacecraft observations and PIC simulations of symmetric reconnection, electrons in the inflow region are known to exhibit a temperature anisotropy Te// > Te⊥. Studies of exhaust electrons have reported hot and isotropic electrons, while others have reported anisotropic exhaust structures. Electron distributions in the vicinity of the X-line have a triangular, 3D velocity space structure with distinct striations corresponding to the number of times electrons reflect within the electron current layer. Here, we report the spatial and temporal evolution of electron distributions from the vicinity of the X-line to the end of the electron outflow jet, with the discovery that the discrete striations swirl and rotate as electrons re-magnetize, forming arc and ring structures. Highly structured, time-dependent electron anisotropy develops in the exhaust distributions only near or after the peak reconnection rate, explaining the previous discrepancy concerning the degree of electron anisotropy in the exhaust, and suggesting a technique to infer the evolution stage of reconnection using spacecraft measurements. We also present a theory for predicting the spacing of the striations of electron distributions in the vicinity of the X-line based on local measurements, which could be directly tested by spacecraft observations. Electron data from Cluster magnetotail reconnection inflows and exhausts exhibit many anisotropic structures as predicted by simulation. Observed distributions near the reconnection mid-plane (Bx ~ 0 nT) are often highly structured with populations exhibiting Te⊥ > Te// in addition to lower energy field-aligned beams. Our work advances the understanding of electron distribution evolution, setting a foundation to successfully interpret the high resolution electron data anticipated from NASA's upcoming Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission.

  1. Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics with Prognostic Significance in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  2. Head Rotational Acceleration Characteristics Influence Behavioral and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Outcomes Following Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Stemper, Brian D.; Shah, Alok S.; Pintar, Frank A.; McCrea, Michael; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Olsen, Christopher; Budde, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational acceleration-induced mild TBI (mTBI) to quantify independent effects of magnitude and duration on behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes. Ninety-two Sprague– Dawley rats were exposed to head rotational acceleration at peak magnitudes of 214 or 350 krad/s2 and acceleration pulse durations of 1.6 or 3.4 ms in a full factorial design. Rats underwent a series of behavioral tests including the Composite Neuroscore (CN), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Morris Water Maze (MWM). Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the fixed brains was conducted to assess the effects of rotational injury on brain microstructure as revealed by the parameter fractional anisotropy (FA). While the injury did not cause significant locomotor or cognitive deficits measured with the CN and MWM, respectively, a main effect of duration was consistently observed for the EPM. Increased duration caused significantly greater activity and exploratory behaviors measured as open arm time and number of arm changes. DTI demonstrated significant effects of both magnitude and duration, with the FA of the amygdala related to both the magnitude and duration. Increased duration also caused FA changes at the interface of gray and white matter. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that the consequences of rotational acceleration mTBI were more closely associated with duration of the rotational acceleration impulse, which is often neglected as an independent factor, and highlight the need for animal models of TBI with strong biomechanical foundations to associate behavioral outcomes with brain microstructure. PMID:25344352

  3. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  4. Drain Current Characteristics of Ferroelectric Gate-All-Around Si Nanowire Transistors Based on Drift/Diffusion Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Masakazu; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    The drain current vs gate voltage (ID-VG) and drain current vs drain voltage (ID-VD) characteristics of ferroelectric gate-all-around Si nanowire transistors are derived using the drift/diffusion transport theory. It is pointed out that the nonsaturated polarization in the ferroelectric film, which occurs near the drain region in the channel owing to the influence of the applied drain voltage, plays an important role in the calculation of the drain current as well as the polarization near the source region, and a graphical method using analytical expressions for the minor polarization hysteresis loops is presented to calculate the mobile charge density in the nanowire. By numerical analysis, the gate voltage range suitable for memory operation is determined in Si nanowire transistors with ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate films.

  5. Elevated-temperature flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of Ti-gAl-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo was conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material was essentially processed above the beta transus while the rolled form was subjected to considerable work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

  6. Elevated temperature flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo has been conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material had been processed above the beta transus (approximately 1275 K) while the rolled form had been subjected to work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

  7. Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion quantum Monte Carlo study on the bond lengths and harmonic frequencies of some first-row diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-I.

    2004-02-01

    This article accesses the performance of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion quantum Monte Carlo with regard to the calculation of molecular geometries and harmonic frequencies of H2, LiH, HF, Li2, LiF, CO, N2, and F2 molecules. A comparison of the results for the eight first-row diatomic molecules from experiments, CCSD(T)/6-311G(3df,3pd) and CCSD(T)/cc-pV5Z levels of theory as well as our work is given. The results presented show that quantum Monte Carlo is becoming powerful tools for ab initio electronic structure calculations.

  8. PS-b-PEO/Silica Films with Regular and Reverse Mesostructures of Large Characteristic Length Scales Prepared by Solvent Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI

    2000-11-22

    Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica by Mobil scientists in 1992, mesostructured silica has been synthesized in various forms including thin films, powders, particles, and fibers. In general, mesostructured silica has potential applications, such as in separation, catalysis, sensors, and fluidic microsystems. In respect to these potential applications, mesostructured silica in the form of thin films is perhaps one of the most promising candidates. The preparation of mesostructured silica films through preferential solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has recently received much attention in the laboratories. However, no amphiphile/silica films with reverse mesophases have ever been made through this EISA procedure. Furthermore, templates employed to date have been either surfactants or poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers, such as pluronic P-123, both of which are water-soluble and alcohol-soluble. Due to their relatively low molecular weight, the templated silica films with mesoscopic order have been limited to relatively small characteristic length scales. In the present communication, the authors report a novel synthetic method to prepare mesostructured amphiphilic/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases of large characteristic length scales. This method involves evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers. In the present study, the PS-b-PEO diblocks are denoted as, for example, PS(215)-b-PEO(100), showing that this particular sample contains 215 S repeat units and 100 EO repeat units. This PS(215)-b-PEO(100) diblock possesses high molecular weight and does not directly mix with water or alcohol. To the authors knowledge, no studies have reported the use of water-insoluble and alcohol-insoluble amphiphilic diblocks as structure-directing agents in the synthesis of mesostructured silica films through EISA. It is believed that the present system is the first to yield amphiphile/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases, as well as curved multi-bilayer mesostructures, through EISA. The ready formation of the diblock/silica films with multi-bilayer vesicular mesostructures is discussed.

  9. Plasmapause diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Bohm diffusion coefficient and observed electrostatic wave scattering are used as the bases of estimates of the smoothing effect that diffusion may have on steep plasmapause density gradients. The estimate for diffusion resulting from scattering by observed electrostatic waves is found to be much lower than that of the perpendicular Bohm diffusion coefficient for characteristic plasma temperatures and magnetic fields. This diffusion rate estimate may be too small, however, if the wave amplitudes are significantly higher for steep plasmapauses. The effects are therefore negligible for most considerations of macroscopic plasmapause dynamics, but may be significant in limiting drift wave instabilities and similar phenomena driven by the steepness of the plasmapause density gradient.

  10. Analysis of the electron-beam-induced current of a polycrystalline p-n junction when the diffusion lengths of the material on either side of a grain boundary differ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.; Luke, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    The short circuit current generated by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope in p-n junctions is reduced by enhanced recombination at grain boundaries in polycrystalline material. Frequently, grain boundaries separate the semiconductor into regions possessing different minority carrier life times. This markedly affects the short circuit current I(sc) as a function of scanning distance from the grain boundary. It will be shown theoretically that (1) the minimum of the I(sc) in crossing the grain boundary with the scanning electron beam is shifted away from the grain boundary toward the region with smaller life time (shorter diffusion length), (2) the magnitude of the minimum differs markedly from those calculated under the assumption of equal diffusion lengths on either side of the grain boundary, and (3) the minimum disappears altogether for small surface recombination velocities (s less than 10,000 cm/s). These effects become negligible, however, for large recombination velocities s at grain boundaries. For p-type silicon this happens for s not less than 100,000 cm/s.

  11. T Cell Receptor Complementarity Determining Region 3 Length Analysis Reveals the Absence of a Characteristic Public T Cell Repertoire in Neonatal Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Beech, Jonathan T.; Wilson, Stephen S.; Quinn, Anthony; Pedersen, Brian; Sercarz, Eli E.

    2000-01-01

    All adult BALB/c mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) or its dominant determinant, peptide (p)106–116, mount a T cell response using a “public” Vβ8.2Jβ1.5 T cell clone. Neonatal exposure to tolerance-inducing doses of antigen can drastically diminish responsiveness in the draining lymph nodes but not in the spleens of animals challenged as adults with the cognate antigen. To determine the role of T cell deletion or anergy within the mechanisms of observed neonatal “tolerance,” we treated neonatal BALB/c mice with HEL and directly followed the characteristic public clone using complementarity determining region 3 length T cell repertoire analysis. Our results confirm that despite intraperitoneal injection of neonates with a high dose of HEL emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, a strong splenic proliferative response to HEL was observed upon recall. However, the adult splenic T cell response of these neonatally treated mice lacked the usual Vβ8.2Jβ1.5 public clone characteristic of HEL-primed BALB/c mice. After challenge with HEL–complete Freund's adjuvant as adults, immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a isotype antibody was drastically reduced, and IgG1 was found to be the predominant anti-HEL IgG isotype expressed, indicating a deviation of cytokine response toward T helper type 2. 5-wk-old mice, nasally instilled with tolerogenic doses of HEL p106–116, also showed significant inhibition of this public T cell expansion. These results demonstrate that during neonatal and adult nasal tolerance induction, deletion/anergy removes the public clone, exposing a response of similar specificity but that is characterized by the T helper type 2 phenotype and a splenic residence. PMID:10684861

  12. Noise characteristics of jet flap type exhaust flows. [effects of Mach number, slot nozzle aspect ratio, and flap length on radiated sound power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrecker, G. O.; Maus, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise and flow field characteristics of internal-flow jet-augmented flap configurations (abbreviated by the term jet flap throughout the study) is presented. The first part is a parametric study of the influence of the Mach number (subsonic range only), the slot nozzle aspect ratio and the flap length on the overall radiated sound power and the spectral composition of the jet noise, as measured in a reverberation chamber. In the second part, mean and fluctuating velocity profiles, spectra of the fluctuating velocity and space correlograms were measured in the flow field of jet flaps by means of hot-wire anemometry. Using an expression derived by Lilley, an attempt was made to estimate the overall sound power radiated by the free mixing region that originates at the orifice of the slot nozzle (primary mixing region) relative to the overall sound power generated by the free mixing region that originates at the trailing edge of the flap (secondary mixing region). It is concluded that at least as much noise is generated in the secondary mixing region as in the primary mixing region. Furthermore, the noise generation of the primary mixing region appears to be unaffected by the presence of a flap.

  13. Analysis of the impact of surface layer properties on evaporation from porous systems using column experiments and modified definition of characteristic length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir; Gherabli, Rivka; Lefort, Philippe; Prat, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The hydraulic properties of the layer at the vicinity of the soil surface have significant impact on evaporation and could be harnessed to reduce water losses. The effect of the properties of the upper layer on the evolution of phase distribution during the evaporation process is first illustrated from three-dimensional pore network simulations. This effect is then studied from experiments carried out on soil columns under laboratory conditions. Comparisons between homogeneous columns packed with coarse (sand) and fine (sandy loam) materials and heterogeneous columns packed with layers of fine overlying coarse material and coarse overlying fine material of different thicknesses are performed to assess the impact of upper layer properties on evaporation. Experiments are analyzed using the classical approach based on the numerical solution of Richards equation and semianalytical theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis is based on the clear distinction between two drying regimes, namely, the capillary regime and the gravity-capillary regime, which are the prevailing regimes in our experiments. Simple relationships enabling to estimate the duration of stage 1 evaporation (S1) for both regimes are proposed. In particular, this led to defining the characteristic length for the gravity-capillary regime from the consideration of viscous effects at low water content differently from available expressions. The duration of S1, during which most of the water losses occur, for both the homogeneous and two-layer columns is presented and discussed. Finally, the impact of liquid films and its consequences on the soil hydraulic conductivity function are briefly discussed.

  14. Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Small Mammals from a Diffusely Polluted Floodplain: Importance of Species- and Location-Specific Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Leuven, R. S. E. W.; van der Velde, G.; Jungheim, G.; Koelemij, E. I.; de Vries, F. T.; Eijsackers, H. J. P.; Smits, A. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The soil of several floodplain areas along large European rivers shows increased levels of heavy metals as a relict from past sedimentation of contaminants. These levels may pose risks of accumulation in food webs and toxicologic effects on flora and fauna. However, for floodplains, data on heavy-metal concentrations in vertebrates are scarce. Moreover, these environments are characterised by periodical flooding cycles influencing ecologic processes and patterns. To investigate whether the suggested differences in accumulation risks for insectivores and carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores are reflected in the actual heavy-metal concentrations in the species, we measured the current levels of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in 199 specimens of 7 small mammal species (voles, mice, and shrews) and in their habitats in a diffusely polluted floodplain. The highest metal concentrations were found in the insectivorous and carnivorous shrew, Sorex araneus. Significant differences between the other shrew species, Crocidura russula, and the vole and mouse species was only found for Cd. The Cu concentration in Clethrionomys glareolus, however, was significantly higher than in several other vole and mouse species. To explain the metal concentrations found in the specimens, we related them to environmental variables at the trapping locations and to certain characteristics of the mammals. Variables taken into account were soil total and CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations at the trapping locations; whether locations were flooded or nonflooded; the trapping season; and the life stage; sex; and fresh weight of the specimens. Correlations between body and soil concentrations and location or specimen characteristics were weak. Therefore; we assumed that exposure of small mammals to heavy-metal contamination in floodplains is significantly influenced by exposure time, which is age related, as well as by dispersal and changes in foraging and feeding patterns under influence of periodic flooding. PMID:17387425

  15. Characteristics of Optical Diffusers for Light-Emitting Diodes Backlight Unit Prepared by Melt-Extrusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Seong Woo

    2013-10-01

    Using extrusion compounding followed by compression molding processes, polycarbonate-based optical diffusers with uniform dispersion of diffusing particles could be prepared for application in direct-lit LED backlight unit. Inorganic porous silica and organic silicone microsphere particles were employed as diffusing agents. The inclusion of diffusing particles up to 3 wt % substantially improved the luminance uniformity with respect to both location and viewing angle, and the effect was shown to be more prominent for the silicone particles. Alternatively, inorganic silica particles could yield diffusers with enhanced absolute luminance and thermal resistance property. The thermo-mechanical property of the elastic modulus was revealed to be improved upon addition of diffusing particles of silica and silicone with cross-linked structure.

  16. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  17. DIFFUSION IN THE VICINITY OF STANDARD-DESIGN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS-I. WIND-TUNNEL EVALUATION OF DIFFUSIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SIMULATED SUBURBAN NEUTRAL ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large meteorological wind tunnel was used to simulate a suburban atmospheric boundary layer. The model-prototype scale was 1:300 and the roughness length was approximately 1.0 m full scale. The model boundary layer simulated full scale dispersion from ground-level and elevated ...

  18. Variable ranking based on the estimated degree of separation for two distributions of data by the length of the receiver operating characteristic curve.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Waleed M; Snyder, A Peter

    2015-05-30

    Variable responses are fundamental for all experiments, and they can consist of information-rich, redundant, and low signal intensities. A dataset can consist of a collection of variable responses over multiple classes or groups. Usually some of the variables are removed in a dataset that contain very little information. Sometimes all the variables are used in the data analysis phase. It is common practice to discriminate between two distributions of data; however, there is no formal algorithm to arrive at a degree of separation (DS) between two distributions of data. The DS is defined herein as the average of the sum of the areas from the probability density functions (PDFs) of A and B that contain a≥percentage of A and/or B. Thus, DS90 is the average of the sum of the PDF areas of A and B that contain ≥90% of A and/or B. To arrive at a DS value, two synthesized PDFs or very large experimental datasets are required. Experimentally it is common practice to generate relatively small datasets. Therefore, the challenge was to find a statistical parameter that can be used on small datasets to estimate and highly correlate with the DS90 parameter. Established statistical methods include the overlap area of the two data distribution profiles, Welch's t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). The area between the ROC curve and diagonal (ACD) and the length of the ROC curve (LROC) are introduced. The established, ACD, and LROC methods were correlated to the DS90 when applied on many pairs of synthesized PDFs. The LROC method provided the best linear correlation with, and estimation of, the DS90. The estimated DS90 from the LROC (DS90-LROC) is applied to a database, as an example, of three Italian wines consisting of thirteen variable responses for variable ranking consideration. An important highlight of the DS90-LROC method is utilizing the LROC curve methodology to test all variables one-at-a-time with all pairs of classes in a dataset. PMID:25998456

  19. A diffuser-based three-dimensional measurement of polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of optical films for 3D-display applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-26

    We propose an accurate and easy-to-use three-dimensional measurement method using a diffuser plate to analyze the scattering characteristics of optical films. The far-field radiation pattern of light scattered by the optical film is obtained from the illuminance pattern created on the diffuser plate by the light. A mathematical model and calibration methods were described, and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct measurement using a luminance meter. The new method gave very precise three-dimensional polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of scattering polarizer films, and it can play an effective role in developing high performance polarization-selective screens for 3D display applications. PMID:25835866

  20. Macro-meso two-scale model for predicting the VOC diffusion coefficients and emission characteristics of porous building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Xinke; Chang, Dongwu

    Through the observation of the pore structure and mercury intruding porosimetry (MIP) experiments of some typical porous building materials, we found that the diffusion coefficient of the material can be expressed by that of a representative elementary volume (REV) in which the pore structure can be simplified as a connection in series of macro and meso pores. Based upon that, a macro-meso two-scale model for predicting the diffusion coefficient of porous building materials is proposed. In contrast to the traditional porous mass transfer model for determining the diffusion coefficient described in the literature [Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, A.L., Damian, A., Amiri, O., Molina, J.L., 2003. Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air 13, 302-310; Seo, J., Kato, S., Ataka, Y., Zhu, Q., 2005. Evaluation of effective diffusion coefficient in various building materials and absorbents by mercury intrusion porosimetry. In Proceedings of the Indoor Air, Beijing, China, pp. 1854-1859], the proposed model relates the volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion coefficient of building material not only to the porosity of the building material, but also to the pore size distribution and pore connection modes. To verify the model, a series of experiments of VOC emissions of three types of medium-density board were conducted. The comparison of the model and experimental results shows that the proposed model agrees much better with the experimental results than the traditional models in the literature. More validation for other building materials is needed. The proposed model is useful for predicting the VOC diffusion coefficient of porous building materials and for developing low VOC emission building materials.

  1. Spatial Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Grade 3 Glioma Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Metabolic and Diffusion Tensor Imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Pirzkall, Andrea; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in magnetic resonance (MR) metabolic and diffusion parameters and their relationship were studied for patients with treatment-naive grade 3 gliomas. MR data were evaluated from 51 patients with newly diagnosed grade 3 gliomas. Anatomic, diffusion, and metabolic imaging data were considered. Variations in metabolite levels, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were evaluated in regions of gadolinium enhancement and T2 hyperintensity as well as regions with abnormal metabolic signatures. Contrast enhancement was present in only 21 of the 51 patients. When present, the enhancing component of the lesion had higher choline-to-N-acetylaspartate index (CNI), higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, similar creatine, similar ADC and FA, and higher lactate/lipid than the nonenhancing lesion. Regions with CNI ≥ 4 had higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, higher lactate/lipid, higher ADC, and lower FA than normal-appearing white matter and regions with intermediate CNI values. For lesions that exhibited gadolinium enhancement, the metabolite levels and diffusion parameters in the region of enhancement were consistent with it corresponding to the most abnormal portion of the tumor. For nonenhancing lesions, areas with CNI ≥ 4 were the most abnormal in metabolic and diffusion parameters. This suggests that the region with the highest CNI might provide a good target for biopsies for nonenhancing lesions to obtain a representative histologic diagnosis of its degree of malignancy. Metabolic and diffusion parameter levels may be of interest not only for directing tissue sampling but also for defining the targets for focal therapy and assessing response to therapy. PMID:22348171

  2. Spatial characteristics of newly diagnosed grade 3 glioma assessed by magnetic resonance metabolic and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Pirzkall, Andrea; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2012-02-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in magnetic resonance (MR) metabolic and diffusion parameters and their relationship were studied for patients with treatment-naive grade 3 gliomas. MR data were evaluated from 51 patients with newly diagnosed grade 3 gliomas. Anatomic, diffusion, and metabolic imaging data were considered. Variations in metabolite levels, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were evaluated in regions of gadolinium enhancement and T2 hyperintensity as well as regions with abnormal metabolic signatures. Contrast enhancement was present in only 21 of the 51 patients. When present, the enhancing component of the lesion had higher choline-to-N-acetylaspartate index (CNI), higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, similar creatine, similar ADC and FA, and higher lactate/lipid than the nonenhancing lesion. Regions with CNI ≥ 4 had higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, higher lactate/lipid, higher ADC, and lower FA than normal-appearing white matter and regions with intermediate CNI values. For lesions that exhibited gadolinium enhancement, the metabolite levels and diffusion parameters in the region of enhancement were consistent with it corresponding to the most abnormal portion of the tumor. For nonenhancing lesions, areas with CNI ≥ 4 were the most abnormal in metabolic and diffusion parameters. This suggests that the region with the highest CNI might provide a good target for biopsies for nonenhancing lesions to obtain a representative histologic diagnosis of its degree of malignancy. Metabolic and diffusion parameter levels may be of interest not only for directing tissue sampling but also for defining the targets for focal therapy and assessing response to therapy. PMID:22348171

  3. Effects of airplane characteristics and takeoff noise and field length constraints on engine cycle selection for a Mach 2.32 cruise application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Sideline noise and takeoff field length were varied for two types of Mach 2.32 cruise airplane to determine their effect on engine cycle selection. One of these airplanes was the NASA/Langley-LTV arrow wing while the other was a Boeing modified delta-plus-tail derived from the earlier 2707-300 concept. Advanced variable cycle engines were considered. A more conventional advanced low bypass turbofan engine was used as a baseline for comparison. Appropriate exhaust nozzle modifications were assumed, where needed, to allow all engines to receive either an inherent co-annular or annular jet noise suppression benefit. All the VCE's out-performed the baseline engine by substantial margins in a design range comparison, regardless of airplane choice or takeoff restrictions. The choice among the three VCE's considered, however, depends on the field length, noise level, and airplane selected.

  4. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  5. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.

  6. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  7. Diffusion of subsidized ACTs in accredited drug shops in Tanzania: determinants of stocking and characteristics of early and late adopters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many households in sub-Saharan Africa utilize the private sector as a primary source of treatment for malaria episodes. Expanding access to effective treatment in private drug shops may help reduce incidence of severe disease and mortality. This research leveraged a longitudinal survey of stocking of subsidized artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), an effective anti-malarial, in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) in two regions of Tanzania. This provided a unique opportunity to explore shop and market level determinants of product diffusion in a developing country retail market. Methods 356 ADDOs in the Rukwa and Mtwara regions of Tanzania were surveyed at seven points between Feb 2011 and May 2012. Shop level audits were used to measure the availability of subsidized ACTs at each shop. Data on market and shop level factors were collected during the survey and also extracted from GIS layers. Regression and network based methodologies were used. Shops classified as early and late adopters, following Rogers’ model of product diffusion, were compared. The Bass model of product diffusion was applied to determine whether shops stocked ACTs out of a need to imitate market competitors or a desire to satisfy customer needs. Results Following the introduction of a subsidy for ACTs, stocking increased from 12% to nearly 80% over the seven survey rounds. Stocking was influenced by higher numbers of proximal shops and clinics, larger customer traffic and the presence of a licensed pharmacist. Early adopters were characterized by a larger percentage of customers seeking care for malaria, a larger catchment and sourcing from specific wholesalers/suppliers. The Bass model of product diffusion indicated that shops were adopting products in response to competitor behavior, rather than customer demand. Conclusions Decisions to stock new pharmaceutical products in Tanzanian ADDOs are influenced by a combination of factors related to both market competition and customer demand, but are particularly influenced by the behavior of competing shops. Efforts to expand access to new pharmaceutical products in developing country markets could benefit from initial targeting of high profile shops in competitive markets and wholesale suppliers to encourage faster product diffusion across all drug retailers. PMID:24350611

  8. Biofouling of Polymer Hydrogel Materials and its Effect on Diffusion and Enzyme-Based Luminescent Glucose Sensor Functional Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jason R.; Park, Jaebum; Helton, Kristen; Wisniewski, Natalie; McShane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuous glucose monitoring is crucial to developing a successful artificial pancreas. However, biofouling and host response make in vivo sensor performance difficult to predict. We investigated changes in glucose diffusivity and sensor response of optical enzymatic glucose sensors due to biological exposure. Method Three hydrogel materials, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), poly(acrylamide) (pAM), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) (p(HEMA-co-AM)), were tested for glucose diffusivity before and after exposure to serum or implantation in rats for 1 month. Luminescent sensors based on these materials were measured to compare the response to glucose before and after serum exposure. Results Glucose diffusivity through the pHEMA [(8.1 0.38) 10-8 cm2/s] slabs was much lower than diffusivity through pAM [(2.7 0.15) 10-6 cm2/s] and p(HEMA-co-AM) [(2.5 0.08) 10-6]. As expected from these differences, sensor response was highly dependent on material type. The pHEMA sensors had a maximum sensitivity of 2.5%/(mg/dl) and an analytical range of 4.2356 mg/dl, while the p(HEMA-co-AM) sensors had a higher sensitivity [14.9%/(mg/dl)] and a narrower analytical range (17.670.5 mg/dl). After serum exposure, the pHEMA sensors were unaffected, whereas the p(HEMA-co-AM) sensors exhibited significantly decreased sensitivity and increased analytical range. Conclusions Decreases in glucose diffusivity in the polymers resulting from in vitro serum exposure and residence in vivo were shown to be similar, suggesting that serum incubation was a reasonable approximation of in vivo fouling. While biofouling is expected to affect the response of flux-based sensors, we have shown that this depended on the type of sensor and matrix used. Therefore, proper design and materials selection may minimize response alterations occurring upon implantation. PMID:23294771

  9. Finite-element solution for a combined radiative-conductive analysis with mixed diffuse-specular surface characteristics. [of spaceborne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.-P.; Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The finite-element method has been applied to solve a combined radiative-conductive heat transfer problem for a large space telescope similar to those used in orbiting satellites. The derivation of the underlying matrices and associated solution algorithm for a 2-D triangular element is presented in detail. The resulting expressions for this triangular element typify such an analysis, which yields constitutive matrices when the heat equation is cast in the matrix form. The relevant matrices include those pertaining to thermal conductance, internal heat generation, radiative exchanges, and all possible external thermal loadings. Emphasis is placed on the treatment of non-linear radiative interchange between surfaces in an enclosure having mixed diffuse-specular surface characteristics. Essential differences in governing equations describing these distinctive surface characteristics are identified. Concluding remarks are drawn from an example simulating a Cassegrainian space telescope.

  10. Pediatric primary bone lymphoma-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Frank; Young, Ken H; Frank, Dale; Goradia, Ami; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Pan, Wilbur; Kersun, Leslie S; Leahey, Ann; Dormans, John P; Choi, John K

    2007-01-01

    Most primary bone lymphomas (PBLs) are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Pediatric PBL-DLBCL has a favorable prognosis but remains poorly characterized. Herein, 10 such cases are detailed. They involved 11- to 20-year-old males with bone lesions that were often painful. They were diagnosed often after months to years of symptoms, suggesting an indolent disease. All were successfully treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy (0.5- to 24-year followup). Biopsy revealed that the lymphomas were paratrabecular or diffuse and were medium- to large-sized with round to irregular nuclei, dispersed chromatin, indistinct to small nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. Other features included varying levels of necrosis, cytoplasmic retraction, and myeloid hyperplasia. All cases marked as mature B cells, and most were CD10+ (7/10). Typical centroblastic morphologic features with nucleoli were rare, multilobated nuclei were uncommon, and CD10 negativity did not predict poor prognosis, unlike in the adult PBL-DLBCL. These findings suggest that pediatric and adult PBL-DLBCLs are distinct entities. PMID:17145622

  11. Generalized Drift-Diffusion Model In Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, S.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.

    2008-09-23

    A new drift-diffusion model is proposed based on the computation of the stationary nonlocal current density. The semi classical Boltzmann equation is solved keeping all the anisotropies of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conductivity is calculated in the linear approximation and for arbitrary collision frequency with respect to Kv{sub t} where K{sup -1} is the characteristic length scale of the system and V{sub t} is the thermal velocity. The nonlocal conductivity can be used to close the generalized drift-diffusion equations valid for arbitrary collisionality.

  12. Diffusion MR Characteristics Following Concurrent Radiochemotherapy Predicts Progression-Free and Overall Survival in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Warren; Pope, Whitney B.; Harris, Robert J.; Hardy, Anthony J.; Leu, Kevin; Mody, Reema R.; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Lai, Albert; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) is surgery, then radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ), followed by adjuvant TMZ. We hypothesized patients with low diffusivity measured using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis evaluated after RT+TMZ, prior to adjuvant TMZ, would have a significantly shorter progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). To test this hypothesis we evaluated 120 patients with newly diagnosed GBM receiving RT+TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ. MRI was performed after completion of RT+TMZ, prior to initiation of adjuvant TMZ. A double Gaussian mixed model was used to describe the ADC histograms within the enhancing tumor, where ADCL and ADCH were defined as the mean ADC value of the lower and higher Gaussian distribution, respectively. An ADCL value of 1.0 um2/ms and ADCH value of 1.6 um2/ms were used to stratify patients into high and low risk categories. Results suggest patients with low ADCL had significantly shorter PFS (Cox Hazard Ratio = 0.12, P = 0.0006). OS was significantly shorter with low ADCL tumors, showing a median OS of 407 vs. 644 days (Cox Hazard Ratio = 0.31, P = 0.047). ADCH was not predictive of PFS or OS when accounting for age and ADCL. In summary, newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with low ADCL after completion of RT+TMZ are likely to progress and die earlier than patients with higher ADCL. Results suggest ADC histogram analysis may be useful for patient risk stratification following completion of RT+TMZ. PMID:26740971

  13. Characteristics of ? multifilamentary wires for a.c. use developed by the bronze process using diffusion barrier techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Osuke; Matsumoto, Kaname; Tanaka, Yasuzo; Uno, Naoki

    1996-03-01

    0953-2048/9/3/015/img7 multifilamentary superconducting wires for a.c. use were developed by the bronze method using Cu diffusion barrier techniques. To reduce a.c. losses, the filament diameter was designed to be less than 0953-2048/9/3/015/img8 and the final resistivity of the bronze matrix was increased using a Cu alloy diffusion barrier with the addition of Si and Mn elements around the filaments. As a result, interfilamentary proximity coupling could be prevented until a filament spacing of 0953-2048/9/3/015/img9 and hysteresis losses for the wires reached lower values, from 0953-2048/9/3/015/img10 to 0953-2048/9/3/015/img11 at a magnetic field amplitude of 0.5 T under controlled reaction heat treatment. The perpendicular resistivity of the matrix between the filaments estimated from the coupling loss was about 0953-2048/9/3/015/img12, which was considerably less than the resistivity value of the matrix estimated after the reaction. This was thought to be due to an extreme reduction in Sn concentration between the filaments. Furthermore, a small a.c. coil was fabricated by winding a stranded cable fabricated in this way. The a.c. loss of the coil at 50 Hz in a central magnetic field of 0.5 T was 0953-2048/9/3/015/img13 and the a.c. quench current at 50 Hz was 195 A, which is about 10% lower than the critical current on the load line. This degradation was due to the temperature rise in the cable caused by a.c. loss.

  14. Characteristics of troponin C binding to the myofibrillar thin filament: extraction of troponin C is not random along the length of the thin filament.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1997-01-01

    Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca(2+)-sensing subunit of troponin responsible for initiating the cascade of events resulting in contraction of striated muscle. This protein can be readily extracted from myofibrils with low-ionic-strength EDTA-containing buffers. The properties of TnC extraction have not been characterized at the structural level, nor have the interactions of TnC with the native myofibrillar thin filament been studied. To address these issues, fluorescein-labeled TnC, in conjunction with high-resolution digital fluorescence microscopy, was used to characterize TnC binding to myofibrils and to determine the randomness of TnC extraction. Fluorescein-5-maleimide TnC (F5M TnC) retained biological activity, as evidenced by reconstitution of Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity in extracted myofibrils and binding to TnI in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner. The binding of F5M TnC to highly extracted myofibrils at low Ca2+ was restricted to the overlap region under rigor conditions, and the location of binding was not influenced by F5M TnC concentration. The addition of myosin subfragment 1 to occupy all actin sites resulted in F5M TnC being bound in both the overlap and nonoverlap regions. However, very little F5M TnC was bound to myofibrils under relaxing conditions. These results suggest that strong binding of myosin heads enhances TnC binding. At high Ca2+, the pattern of F5M TnC binding was concentration dependent: binding was restricted to the overlap region at low F5M TnC concentration, whereas the binding propagated into the nonoverlap region at higher levels. Analysis of fluorescence intensity showed the greatest binding of F5M TnC at high Ca2+ with S1, and these conditions were used to characterize partially TnC-extracted myofibrils. Comparison of partially extracted myofibrils showed that low levels of extraction were associated with greater F5M TnC being bound in the nonoverlap region than in the overlap region relative to higher levels of extraction. These results show that TnC extraction is not random along the length of the thin filament, but occurs more readily in the nonoverlap region. This observation, in conjunction with the influence of rigor heads on the pattern of F5M TnC binding, suggests that strong myosin binding to actin stabilizes TnC binding at low Ca2+. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9199794

  15. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  16. Length-Scale Dependent Viscosity in Semidilute Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling-Skutvik, Ryan; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Conrad, Jacinta

    2015-03-01

    Using optical microscopy and particle tracking algorithms, we measured the mean-squared displacements (MSDs) of fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameters ranging from 300 nm to 2 μm suspended in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The solutions had polymer concentrations ranging from 0.67 to 67c*, where c* is the overlap concentration, and estimated correlation lengths of ~ 100 to 900 nm. At short times, the particles exhibited subdiffusive behavior characterized by MSD ~tα with α < 1 . On long time scales, the particles transitioned to Fickian diffusion (α = 1) and their diffusivity was calculated from the slope of the MSD. Whereas the large particles agreed with predictions using the Stokes-Einstein equation and bulk zero-shear viscosity, the smaller particles diffused much faster than predicted. The relative diffusivities do not collapse onto a single curve, but rather form a continuum that varies with particle size. This indicates that the particles experience a size-dependent effective viscosity mediated by the ratio of particle diameter to characteristic length scales in the polymer solution.

  17. Role of electroless nickel diffusion barrier on the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/PSS composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Murali; Agarwal, Amrita; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-06-01

    This work addresses the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/porous stainless steel (PSS) composite membranes in comparison with Pd/PSS membranes. While Pd/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.1 μm nominal pore size PSS supports, Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.5 and 0.1 μm nominal pore size PSS supports. Both Ni and Pd films were deposited using an identified novel electroless plating process that characterizes the optimal utilization of surfactant, sonication and reducing agent contacting pattern in Pd electroless plating baths. It was observed that the combinatorial plating characteristics for Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were significantly different and poorer in comparison with those obtained for the Pd/PSS membranes. In summary, it has been inferred that the introduction of nickel interdiffusion barrier was not fruitful to reduce the critical thickness of dense Pd film without jeopardizing upon the pore densification.

  18. White Matter Characteristics of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Diffusion Tensor Tract-Based Spatial Statistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Marumoto, Kohei; Domen, Kazuhisa; Miyake, Hiroji

    2013-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we examined white matter changes within the brains of patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). We analyzed data for 24 INPH patients who were presented with typical clinical symptoms (gait disturbance, dementia, and/ or urinary incontinence) and Evans index > 0.3, and compared these with the control data from 21 elderly persons (≥ 60 years). DTI brain images were obtained with a 3T scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) brain maps were generated using a computer-automated method, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were then applied to compare the FA brain maps of the INPH and control groups in standard space. The TBSS data were further investigated using region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. ROIs were set within the corpus callosum, the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), and the cerebral peduncle in reference to a standard brain template. Compared with the control group, FA values in the INPH group were significantly lower in the corpus callosum and just significantly higher in the PLIC, but no significant differences were evident in the cerebral peduncle. The much lower FA values in the corpus callosum, but not the slightly higher FA values in the PLIC, were associated with more severe clinical symptoms such as gait disturbance. The lower FA values in the corpus callosum may offer a clue to solve the pathophysiology of INPH. PMID:24067771

  19. White matter characteristics of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a diffusion tensor tract-based spatial statistic study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Marumoto, Kohei; Domen, Kazuhisa; Miyake, Hiroji

    2013-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we examined white matter changes within the brains of patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). We analyzed data for 24 INPH patients who were presented with typical clinical symptoms (gait disturbance, dementia, and/or urinary incontinence) and Evans index > 0.3, and compared these with the control data from 21 elderly persons (≥ 60 years). DTI brain images were obtained with a 3T scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) brain maps were generated using a computer-automated method, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were then applied to compare the FA brain maps of the INPH and control groups in standard space. The TBSS data were further investigated using region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. ROIs were set within the corpus callosum, the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), and the cerebral peduncle in reference to a standard brain template. Compared with the control group, FA values in the INPH group were significantly lower in the corpus callosum and just significantly higher in the PLIC, but no significant differences were evident in the cerebral peduncle. The much lower FA values in the corpus callosum, but not the slightly higher FA values in the PLIC, were associated with more severe clinical symptoms such as gait disturbance. The lower FA values in the corpus callosum may offer a clue to solve the pathophysiology of INPH. PMID:24067771

  20. Characteristics of the motions, turbulence intensity, diffusivity, flux of momentum and sensible heat in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, S. K.; Lordi, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the meteorological rocket data obtained from an experiment conducted at 3-hour intervals at 8 western meridional rocket stations are presented. Large variations in the meridional wind contribute substantially to overall turbulence in the tropical stratosphere. The solar semidiurnal component of wind oscillations in the tropics was observed to be much higher than predicted by theory, often exceeding the magnitude of the diurnal amplitude throughout the stratosphere. The observed value of the solar diurnal amplitude in the stratosphere was in line with theoretical prediction. The solar terdiurnal amplitudes for temperature, meridional and zonal winds were non-negligible and must be considered in any harmonic analysis. Phase angle variation with height was rapid for all harmonics; however, there was general agreement between predicted and observed phase angles. Because of large changes in the mean winds in the mesosphere with season, harmonic determinations are difficult. There appear to be large zonal wind changes even within the same season as mentioned previously. Turbulence diffusivity in the upper stratosphere is greater near the equator than in the mid-latitudes.

  1. Correlations between PAH bioavailability, degrading bacteria, and soil characteristics during PAH biodegradation in five diffusely contaminated dissimilar soils.

    PubMed

    Crampon, M; Bureau, F; Akpa-Vinceslas, M; Bodilis, J; Machour, N; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F

    2014-01-01

    The natural biodegradation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microorganisms was studied in five soils from Normandy (France) from diffusely polluted areas, which can also pose a problem in terms of surfaces and amounts of contaminated soils. Bioavailability tests using cyclodextrin-based extractions were performed. The natural degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs was not strongly correlated to their bioavailability due to their sorption to geosorbents. Conversely, the very low degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs was partly correlated to their poor availability, due to their sorption on complexes of organic matter and kaolinites or smectites. A principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between the respective degradation behaviors of LMW and HMW PAHs. LMW PAHs were degraded in less than 2-3 months and were strongly influenced by the relative percentage of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria over total bacteria in soils. HMW PAHs were not significantly degraded, not only because they were less bioavailable but also because of a lack of degrading microorganisms. Benzo[a]pyrene stood apart since it was partly degraded in acidic soils, probably because of a catabolic cooperation between bacteria and fungi. PMID:24671402

  2. Noise characteristics of centrifugal blower with low solidity cascade diffuser (Noise reduction by means of small groove located at LSD blade leading tip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tengen; Ishida, Masahiro; Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Koba, Yu

    2009-12-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the blade tip-groove of the low solidity cascade diffuser (LSD) on the blower characteristic and the noise generated by the LSD. The small grooves were set up at the root and/or tip near the leading edge of the LSD blade. In order to clarify the mechanism of noise increase due to LSD and also to reduce the noise, the relationships between the noise increase based on the LSD, the LSD performance and the secondary flow formed additionally by the tip-groove were investigated experimentally as well as numerically, especially analyzing flow behaviors in the LSD in view points of flow separation on the suction surface of the LSD blade and the secondary flow on the side walls. By reducing the stagnation region smaller near the root and/or tip of the LSD blade leading edge, the secondary flow behavior changes remarkably around the LSD blade, as a result, the noise level and the blower characteristics vary. It can be concluded that, by means of a small tip-groove located only at the shroud side near the LSD blade leading edge, the noise generated by the LSD can be reduced without deteriorations of the LSD performance and the blower characteristics as well.

  3. The effect of diffusion induced lattice stress on the open-circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that diffusion induced stresses in low resistivity silicon solar cells can significantly reduce both the open-circuit voltage and collection efficiency. The degradation mechanism involves stress induced changes in both the minority carrier mobility and the diffusion length. Thermal recovery characteristics indicate that the stresses are relieved at higher temperatures by divacancy flow (silicon self diffusion). The level of residual stress in as-fabricated cells was found to be negligible in the cells tested.

  4. Finite difference methods for reducing numerical diffusion in TEACH-type calculations. [Teaching Elliptic Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    A methodological evaluation for two-finite differencing schemes for computer-aided gas turbine design is presented. The two computational schemes include; a Bounded Skewed Finite Differencing Scheme (BSUDS); and a Quadratic Upwind Differencing Scheme (QSDS). In the evaluation, the derivations of the schemes were incorporated into two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Teaching Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically (TEACH) computer code. Assessments were made according to performance criteria for the solution of problems of turbulent, laminar, and coannular turbulent flow. The specific performance criteria used in the evaluation were simplicity, accuracy, and computational economy. It is found that the BSUDS scheme performed better with respect to the criteria than the QUDS. Some of the reasons for the more successful performance BSUDS are discussed.

  5. Symmetrical Location Characteristics of Corticospinal Tract Associated With Hand Movement in the Human Brain: A Probabilistic Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the symmetrical characteristics of corticospinal tract (CST) related with hand movement in bilateral hemispheres using probabilistic fiber tracking method.Seventeen subjects were participated in this study. Fiber tracking was performed with 2 regions of interest, hand activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and pontomedullary junction in each cerebral hemisphere. Each subject's extracted fiber tract was normalized with a brain template. To measure the symmetrical distributions of the CST related with hand movement, the laterality and anteriority indices were defined in upper corona radiata (CR), lower CR, and posterior limb of internal capsule.The measured laterality and anteriority indices between the hemispheres in each different brain location showed no significant differences with P < 0.05. There were significant differences in the measured indices among 3 different brain locations in each cerebral hemisphere with P < 0.001. Our results clearly showed that the hand CST had symmetric structures in bilateral hemispheres.The probabilistic fiber tracking with fMRI approach demonstrated that the hand CST can be successfully extracted regardless of crossing fiber problem. Our analytical approaches and results seem to be helpful for providing the database of CST somatotopy to neurologists and clinical researches. PMID:27082576

  6. Amplitude of Supersonic Diffuser Flow Pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterbentz, William H.; Davids, Joseph

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical method for evaluating the stability characteristics and the amplitude and the frequency of pulsation of ram-jet engines without heat addition is presented herein. Experimental verification of the theoretical results are included where data were available. Theory and experiment show that the pulsation amplitude of a high mass-flow-ratio diffuser having no cone surface flow separation increases with decreasing mass flow. The theoretical trends for changes in amplitude, frequency, and mean-pressure recovery with changes in plenum-chamber volume were experimentally confirmed. For perforated convergent-divergent-type diffusers, a stability hysteresis loop was predicted on the pressure-recovery mass-flow-ratio curve. At a given mean mass-flow ratio, the higher.value of mean pressure recovery corresponded to oscillatory flow in the diffuser while the lower branch was stable. This hysteresis has been observed experimentally. The theory indicates that for a ram-jet engine of given diameter, the amplitude of pulsation of a supersonic diffuser is increased by decreasing the relative size of the plenum chamber with respect to the diffuser volume down to a critical value at which oscillations cease. In the region of these critical values, the stable mass-flow range of the diffuser may be increased either by decreasing the combustion chamber volume or by increasing the length of the diffuser.

  7. The back-diffusion effect of air on the discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges using bare metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Ting; Liang, Tian-Ran; Wang, Hua-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2007-05-01

    Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform α mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.

  8. The diffusive idealization of charged-particle transport in random magnetic fields. [cosmic ray propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The uniqueness and accuracy of the equations which describe the transport of charged particles diffusing in a random magnetic field parallel to a relatively large guiding field is examined. With regard to uniqueness, it is found that the same coefficient of diffusion is obtained by three methods that have apparently led to discrepancies in previous work. With regard to accuracy, it is found that two corrections must be added to Fick's law in which the diffusive flux is proportional to the gradient of the density. Explicit expressions are given for a characteristic time and a characteristic length which describe the corrections.

  9. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), pigmentary characteristics and sun exposure: findings from a case-control study of diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kane, Eleanor V; Painter, Dan; Roman, Eve; Allan, James; Law, Graham; Lightfoot, Tracy

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) suggests common genetic, host or environmental causes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pigmentary characteristics have been linked with both malignancies, and for skin cancer, the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) which influences pigmentation has also been implicated. This paper reports on the relationship between MC1R, skin, hair and eye colour, time spent outdoors, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Persons carrying MC1R homozygote variant alleles at R151C, R160W, D294H and D84E were more likely to have fair skin, red hair and to spend less time outdoors than those who did not. The variant allele at V92M was associated with FL (odds ratio (OR)=1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.39) and the r:wild type genotype with DLBCL (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.89). Interactions between MC1R genotypes and skin colour influenced DLBCL risk; the RR genotype increased risk in individuals with medium or dark skin, based on 5 cases and no controls, but decreased risk among those of fair skin. On the whole, DLBCL and FL risk were not related to genetic variation in MC1R, pigmentation or time spent outdoors. PMID:20129839

  10. Tailoring characteristic thermal stability of Ni-Au binary nanocrystals via structure and composition engineering: theoretical insights into structural evolution and atomic inter-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bangquan; Wang, Hailong; Xing, Guozhong; Wang, Rongming E-mail: rmwang@ustb.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    We report on the structural evolution and atomic inter-diffusion characteristics of the bimetallic Ni-Au nanocrystals (NCs) by molecular dynamics simulations studies. Our results reveal that the thermal stability dynamics of Ni-Au NCs strongly depends on the atomic configurations. By engineering the structural construction with Ni:Au = 1:1 atomic composition, compared with core-shell Au@Ni and alloy NCs, the melting point of core-shell Ni@Au NCs is significantly enhanced up to 1215 K. Unexpectedly, with atomic ratio of Au:Ni= 1:9, the melting process initiates from the atoms in the shell of Ni@Au and alloy NCs, while starts from the core of Au@Ni NCs. The corresponding features and evolution process of structural motifs, mixing and segregation are illustrated via a series of dynamic simulations videos. Moreover, our results revealed that the face centered cubic phase Au{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 0.25} favorably stabilizes in NCs form but does not exist in the bulk counterpart, which elucidates the anomalies of previously reported experimental results on such bimetallic NCs.

  11. Probe diffusion in phase-separated bicontinuous biopolymer gels.

    PubMed

    Wassén, Sophia; Bordes, Romain; Gebäck, Tobias; Bernin, Diana; Schuster, Erich; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-01

    Probe diffusion was determined in phase separated bicontinuous gels prepared by acid-induced gelation of the whey protein isolate-gellan gum system. The topological characterization of the phase-separated gel systems is achieved by confocal microscopy and the diffusion measurements are performed using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP). These two techniques gave complementary information about the mass transport at different time- and length scales, PFG NMR provided global diffusion rates in the gel systems, while FRAP enabled the measurements of diffusion in different phases of the phase-separated gels. The results revealed that the phase-separated gel with the largest characteristic wavelength had the fastest diffusion coefficient, while the gel with smaller microstructures had a slower probe diffusion rate. By using the diffusion data obtained by FRAP and the structural data from confocal microscopy, modelling through the lattice-Boltzmann framework was carried out to simulate the global diffusion and verify the validity of the experimental measurements. With this approach it was found that discrepancies between the two experimental techniques can be rationalized in terms of probe distribution between the different phases of the system. The combination of different techniques allowed the determination of diffusion in a phase-separated biopolymer gel and gave a clearer picture of this complex system. We also illustrate the difficulties that can arise if precautions are not taken to understand the system-probe interactions. PMID:25189146

  12. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  13. The diffusive idealization of charged particle transport in random magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The transport of charged particles diffusing in a random magnetic field parallel to a relatively large guiding field is presented. The same coefficient of diffusion is obtained by three methods. Two corrections must be added to the expression in which the diffusive flux is proportional to the gradient of the density. Explicit expressions are given for a characteristic time and a characteristic length which describe the corrections. The well known divergence of the coefficient of diffusion, which is implied by the quasilinear analysis of pitch angle scattering, does not occur if the scattering rate is finite at 90 deg pitch angle. This effect is illustrated by formulas which give the coefficient of diffusion when the quasilinear expression is perturbed by a variable amount of isotropic scattering.

  14. Investigation of High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics of a 12 Degree 21-Inch Conical Diffuser, Including the Effects of Change in Inlet-Boundary-Layer Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copp, Martin R.; Klevatt, Paul L.

    1950-01-01

    Investigations were conducted of a 12 degree 21-inch conical diffuser of 2:l area ratio to determine the interrelation of boundary layer growth and performance characteristics. surveys were made of inlet and exit from, longitudinal static pressures were recorded, and velocity profiles were obtained through an inlet Reynolds number range, determined From mass flows and based on inlet diameter of 1.45 x 10(exp 6) to 7.45 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.11 to approximately choking. These investigations were made to two thicknesses of inlet boundary layer. The mean value, over the entire range of inlet velocities, of the displacement thickness of the thinner inlet boundary layer was approximately 0.035 inch and that of the thicker inlet boundary layer was approximately six times this value. The loss coefficient in the case of the thinner inlet boundary layer had a value between 2 to 3 percent of the inlet impact pressure over most of the air-flow range. The loss coefficient with the thicker inlet boundary layer was of the order of twice that of the thinner inlet boundary layer at low speeds and approximately three times at high speeds. In both cases the values were substantially less than those given in the literature for fully developed pipe flow. The static-pressure rise for the thinner inlet boundary layer was of the order of 95 percent of that theoretically possible over the entire speed range. For the thicker inlet boundary layer the static pressure rise, as a percentage of that theoretically possible, ranged from 82 percent at low speeds to 68 percent at high speeds.

  15. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.

    2013-12-01

    Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.

  16. Leg Length Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Colin R.

    1983-01-01

    Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327

  17. Leg length inequality.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, C R

    1983-02-01

    Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327

  18. Correlation length for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A.; Sari, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    It is argued that it is necessary to consider two correlation lengths for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. For particles with gyroradii large enough to encounter and be scattered by large-scale tangential discontinuities in the field (particles with energies of above several GeV/nucleon) the appropriate correlation length is simply the mean spatial separation between the discontinuities. Particles with gyroradii much less than this mean separation appear to be unaffected by the discontinuities and respond only to smaller-scale field fluctuations. With this system of two correlation lengths the cosmic ray diffusion tensor may be altered from what was predicted by, for example, Jokipii and Coleman, and the objections raised recently by Klimas and Sandri to the diffusion analysis of Jokipii may apply only at relatively low energies (about 50 MeV/nucleon).

  19. Correlating anomalous diffusion with lipid bilayer membrane structure using single molecule tracking and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Skaug, Michael J; Faller, Roland; Longo, Marjorie L

    2011-06-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been observed abundantly in the plasma membrane of biological cells, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In general, it has not been possible to directly image the obstacles to diffusion in membranes, which are thought to be skeleton bound proteins, protein aggregates, and lipid domains, so the dynamics of diffusing particles is used to deduce the obstacle characteristics. We present a supported lipid bilayer system in which we characterized the anomalous diffusion of lipid molecules using single molecule tracking, while at the same time imaging the obstacles to diffusion with atomic force microscopy. To explain our experimental results, we performed lattice Monte Carlo simulations of tracer diffusion in the presence of the experimentally determined obstacle configurations. We correlate the observed anomalous diffusion with obstacle area fraction, fractal dimension, and correlation length. To accurately measure an anomalous diffusion exponent, we derived an expression to account for the time-averaging inherent to all single molecule tracking experiments. We show that the length of the single molecule trajectories is critical to the determination of the anomalous diffusion exponent. We further discuss our results in the context of confinement models and the generating stochastic process. PMID:21663377

  20. Neandertal clavicle length

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  1. Diffused junction p(+)-n solar cells in bulk GaAs. II - Device characterization and modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeney, R.; Sundaram, L. M. G.; Rode, H.; Bhat, I.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of p(+)-n junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are presented in detail. Quantum efficiency measurements were analyzed and compared to computer simulations of the cell structure in order to determine material parameters such as diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and junction depth. From the results obtained it is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells to close to 20 percent.

  2. A Multiscale Analysis of Diffusions on Rapidly Varying Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A. B.; Elliott, C. M.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stuart, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules on surfaces plays a very important role in various biological processes, including lipid transport across the cell membrane, synaptic transmission, and other phenomena such as exo- and endocytosis, signal transduction, chemotaxis, and cell growth. In many cases, the surfaces can possess spatial inhomogeneities and/or be rapidly changing shape. Using a generalization of the model for a thermally excited Helfrich elastic membrane, we consider the problem of lateral diffusion on quasi-planar surfaces, possessing both spatial and temporal fluctuations. Using results from homogenization theory, we show that, under the assumption of scale separation between the characteristic length and timescales of the membrane fluctuations and the characteristic scale of the diffusing particle, the lateral diffusion process can be well approximated by a Brownian motion on the plane with constant diffusion tensor that depends on a highly nonlinear way on the detailed properties of the surface. The effective diffusion tensor will depend on the relative scales of the spatial and temporal fluctuations, and for different scaling regimes, we prove the existence of a macroscopic limit in each case.

  3. Welding arc length control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

  4. Characteristic oscillatory motion of a camphor boat sensitive to physicochemical environment.

    PubMed

    Nakata, S; Yoshii, M; Matsuda, Y; Suematsu, N J

    2015-06-01

    A self-propelled camphor boat on water was investigated from the viewpoint of characteristic features of motion and mode-bifurcation depending on the diffusion length of camphor molecules. When a camphor disk was connected to the bottom of a larger plastic plate and then was placed on water, either oscillatory motion (repetition between rest and motion) or continuous motion was observed. In this paper, we report the novel features of this motion and mode-bifurcation as a function of the diffusion length of camphor molecules, e.g., multiple accelerations during oscillation, period-2 or irregular oscillatory motion, and reciprocating oscillation. These characteristic motion and mode-bifurcation are discussed in relation to the diffusion length of camphor molecules under the camphor boat and the development of camphor molecules from the camphor boat on water. PMID:26117135

  5. Characteristic oscillatory motion of a camphor boat sensitive to physicochemical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, S.; Yoshii, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Suematsu, N. J.

    2015-06-01

    A self-propelled camphor boat on water was investigated from the viewpoint of characteristic features of motion and mode-bifurcation depending on the diffusion length of camphor molecules. When a camphor disk was connected to the bottom of a larger plastic plate and then was placed on water, either oscillatory motion (repetition between rest and motion) or continuous motion was observed. In this paper, we report the novel features of this motion and mode-bifurcation as a function of the diffusion length of camphor molecules, e.g., multiple accelerations during oscillation, period-2 or irregular oscillatory motion, and reciprocating oscillation. These characteristic motion and mode-bifurcation are discussed in relation to the diffusion length of camphor molecules under the camphor boat and the development of camphor molecules from the camphor boat on water.

  6. Thin disc kinematic -dynamo models I. long length scale modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soward, A. M.

    The assumptions and approximations commonly used in thin disk kinematic dynamo theory are discussed and appraised. Here attention is restricted to those modes, which have a radial length scale long compared to the disk thickness but short compared to the disc radius, upon which the characteristics of the disc vary. One of the commonly employed approximations pivots on the assumption that the radial structure is determined by lateral diffusion in the disc, whereas on those long radial scales the role of the external potential field is more potent. Stix's (1975, 1978) -galactic dynamo in an oblate spheroid with aspect ratio, , is adopted as an illustrative example. He reports numerical results for models with as small as 1/30. Our perturbation methods are applied to three distinct modes, namely the steady dipole, the steady and unsteady quadrupole. Each has very different characteristics. It is shown that the determination of the radial structure of the solutions on the long radial length scale is extremely delicate in the limit 0. The higher order asymptotic theory, which determines these details, appears only to be valid for extremely small values of ; certainly far smaller than the value of 1/30 reached by Stix. Nevertheless, despite the limitations of the theory, the lowest order approximation, which determines the critical Dynamo number and the nature of the dynamo itself, gives generally reliable results, while the higher order theory predicts trends.

  7. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  8. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  9. Length Paradox in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto de A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

  10. Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.

  11. Editorial: Redefining Length

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2011-07-15

    Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see http://publish.aps.org/authors/length-guide. The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.

  12. The Relationship Between Selected Characteristics of Regional USMES Resource Teams to Differences in Levels of Implementation and Diffusion of the USMES Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edwin Phillip

    This dissertation study attempted to identify factors related to the success of 27 resource teams charged with the implementation and diffusion of the USMES Program. Thirty-four factors, grouped into three clusters (demographic, Resource Team Workshop, and organizational), were selected for study. The data analysis indicates a number of variables…

  13. Diffusive-Compressive Acceleration of Charged Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, J.; Kta, J.

    2001-12-01

    We consider the transport of energetic particles in a medium through which gradual (non-shock) compressions exist and propagate. As is the case with shocks, these compressions can accelerate charged particles. We have previously considered such acceleration in the specific context of CIRs (Giacalone, J., Jokipii, and Kta, Joint SOHO-ACE Symposium Proceedings, in press, 2001). There we suggested that it may explain CIR-related energetic particles observed in the inner Heliosphere, near 1 AU, well inside of the radius where the co-rotating shock has formed. Here we extend this concept to the general problem of acceleration by non-shock compressions, and consider primarily the limit in which the particle motion is diffusive. The relevant dimensionless parameter is the ratio Rc of the characteristic compression length scale L to the diffusive skin depth ? D = ? /U , where U is the velocity and ? is the diffusion coefficient. Clearly, Rc = U L/? . If Rc << 1 , the results reduce to those of diffusive shock acceleration. We present the results from solving the transport equation for a variety of compressive disturbances with various values of Rc, and find significant charged-particle acceleration. We discuss the physics of this acceleration and the dependence on the various parameters. Possible applications of this mechanism to heliospheric and other contexts will be discussed. We sugggest that in some cases this new form of acceleration may help to explain observations.

  14. Validity of the second Fick's law for modeling ion-exchange diffusion in non-crystalline viscoelastic media (glasses)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagantsev, D. K.; Ivanenko, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, in general case, the diffusion equation (or the second Fick's law) does not provide an adequate description of ion-exchange transport phenomena in viscoelastic media, including glassy or any other non-crystalline media. In this connection the general phenomenological model of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media has been developed. A theoretical analysis of the model shows that, in the case of a linear dependence of medium density on the concentration of diffusing ions, the necessary and sufficient condition of the absolute validity of the diffusion equation in viscoelastic media is Φ ≫ 1, where Φ = τD/τR is the dimensionless value (or criterion of similarity), with τD = L2/D being the characteristic time of diffusion and τR = η/G being the characteristic time of stress relaxation, where L, D, η, and G are the characteristic length of diffusion, the diffusivity, the viscosity, and the shear modulus, respectively. The value of 1/Φ characterizes the accuracy which is provided if the second Fick's law is used in the simulation of ion-exchange diffusion in viscoelastic media. We have demonstrated the applicability of this criterion experimentally. Our experimental studies on ion-exchange diffusion in an oxide glass (typical viscoelastic media) have shown that under the condition the Φ > 105 the experimental concentration profiles are close to those predicted by the second Fick's law to within an accuracy of 1%.

  15. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  16. Characteristics of WN{sub x}C{sub y} films deposited using remote plasma atomic layer deposition with ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO) for Cu diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jang, Woochool; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Yuh, Junhan

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion barrier characteristics of tungsten–nitride–carbide (WN{sub x}C{sub y}) thin films interposed between Cu and SiO{sub 2} layers were studied. The WN{sub x}C{sub y} films were deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) using a metal organic source, ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO), and ammonia. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis indicated the WN{sub x}C{sub y} films consisted of tungsten, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the film deposited at 350 °C was nanocrystalline. The resistivity of WN{sub x}C{sub y} film deposited by RPALD was very low compared to that in previous research because of the lower nitrogen content and different crystal structures of the WN{sub x}C{sub y}. To verify the diffusion barrier characteristics of the WN{sub x}C{sub y} film, Cu films were deposited by physical vapor deposition after WN{sub x}C{sub y} film was formed by RPALD on Si substrate. The Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si film stack was annealed in a vacuum by rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. Cu diffusion through the barrier layer was verified by XRD. Stable film properties were observed up to 500 °C, confirming that WN{sub x}C{sub y} film is suitable as a Cu diffusion barrier in microelectronic circuits.

  17. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  18. Designing molecular devices by altering bond lengths.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Vijay; Wilkinson, Suman J; Arora, Charu

    2011-12-01

    The work focuses on a theoretical approach to investigating the electric field (EF) dependence of bond-length alternation, the geometric and electronic structures of molecular wires used in the design of molecular electronic devices, the EF dependence of SCF energy, and the spatial distribution of the frontier orbitals of the molecular wires. Just as the bond length is an important influence on the conductance of the molecular wire, the dependence of the conductance on the chain length was also studied. We have also investigated how the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics change with bond length, as the bond length plays an important role in determining the conductance of molecular wires. PMID:21369931

  19. [Maintaining telomere length].

    PubMed

    Wysoczańska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes maintaining genome stability. The activity of telomerase enzyme, or alternatively the process of recombination, regulates the length of telomeres. In the absence of these mechanisms, excessive shortening of telomeres reach its critical level. Excessively shortened telomeres do not protect chromosome ends, the cell division cycle is stopped while the inactivity of replication process generates cellular senescence and cell death. On the other hand, critically shortened telomeres may promote chromosomal instability. These changes can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. In this process enzymatic activity of telomerase is reactivated. To maintain the protection of the chromosome ends, telomeres bind the stabilizing protein complex (shelterin). The presence of these protective proteins prevents undesirable DNA damage and initiates the repair system pathways. Molecular technologies enable the evaluation of telomere lengths, the analysis of telomerase expression and activity, and detection of mutations, polymorphic and epigenetic changes in telomere--shelterin--telomerase complex related genes. The purpose of research is to describe new mechanisms that affect the biology of telomere lengths, and to determine the impact on bone marrow failures, development of haematological malignancies, neurodegenerative diseases and others disorders associated with chromosomal instability. The model of modern therapies based on telomere biology explains the significance of the maintenance of telomere lengths in the process of cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. PMID:24379272

  20. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 − 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  1. Spin diffusion in ultracold spin-orbit-coupled 40K gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the steady-state spin diffusion for ultracold spin-orbit-coupled 40K gas by the kinetic spin Bloch equation approach both analytically and numerically. Four configurations, i.e., the spin diffusions along two specific directions with the spin polarization perpendicular (transverse configuration) and parallel (longitudinal configuration) to the effective Zeeman field are studied. It is found that the behaviors of the steady-state spin diffusion for the four configurations are very different, which are determined by three characteristic lengths: the mean free path l?, the Zeeman oscillation length l?, and the spin-orbit coupling oscillation length l?. It is analytically revealed and numerically confirmed that by tuning the scattering strength, the system can be divided into five regimes: I, weak scattering regime (l??l?,l? ); II, Zeeman field-dominated moderate scattering regime (l??l??l? ); III, spin-orbit coupling-dominated moderate scattering regime (l??l??l? ); IV, relatively strong scattering regime (l?c?l??l?,l? ); V, strong scattering regime (l??l?,l?,l?c ), with l?c representing the crossover length between the relatively strong and strong scattering regimes. In different regimes, the behaviors of the spacial evolution of the steady-state spin polarization are very rich, showing different dependencies on the scattering strength, Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling strength. The rich behaviors of the spin diffusions in different regimes are hard to understand in the framework of the simple drift-diffusion model or the direct inhomogeneous broadening picture in the literature. However, almost all these rich behaviors can be well understood by means of our modified drift-diffusion model and/or modified inhomogeneous broadening picture. Specifically, several anomalous features of the spin diffusion are revealed, which are in contrast to those obtained from both the simple drift-diffusion model and the direct inhomogeneous broadening picture.

  2. Characteristics of Signals Originating Near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, Juan; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Ron L.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Radford, Davis; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2013-02-11

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  3. Characteristics of Signals Originating near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, James R; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, Juan I.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J.E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S.I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P.N.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R.D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips II, D. G.; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  4. Force and Pressure Recovery Characteristics at Supersonic Speeds of a Conical Spike Inlet with a Bypass Discharging from the Top or Bottom of the Diffuser in an Axial Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J L; Beke, Andrew

    1953-01-01

    Force and pressure-recovery characteristics of a nacelle-type conical-spike inlet with a fixed-area bypass located in the top or bottom of the diffuser are presented for flight Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 for angles of attack from 0 degrees to 9 degrees. Top or bottom location of the bypass did not have significant effects on diffuser pressure-recovery, bypass mass-flow ratio, or drag coefficient over the range of angles of attack, flight Mach numbers, and stable engine mass-flow ratios investigated. A larger stable subcritical operating range was obtained with the bypass on the bottom at angles of attack from 3 degrees to 9 degrees at a flight Mach number of 2.0. At a flight Mach number of 2.0, the discharge of 14 percent of the critical mass flow of the inlet by means of a bypass increased the drag only one-fifth of the additive drag that would result for equivalent spillage behind an inlet normal shock without significant reductions in diffuser pressure recovery.

  5. The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq Dennis; Romick, Christopher; Powers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.

  6. Ballistic to diffusive transition in a two-dimensional quantum dot lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleri, Fabrizio

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional networks of ordered quantum dots beyond the percolation threshold are studied, as a typical example of conducting nanostructures with quenched random disorder. Theory predicts anomalous diffusion with stretched-exponential relaxation at short distances, and computer simulations on lattices of crossing, straight paths of random length confirm such a behavior. Anomalous diffusion is interpreted as resulting from the higher probability of taking straight, or ballistic, paths, when the traveled distance is comparable or shorter than the lattice characteristic length. Diffusion turns over to normal for longer traveled distances, whence all paths tend to become equiprobable. Such random lattice structures may represent a model for realistic quantum dot networks, with potential applications in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, or spintronics.

  7. Vowel length in Farsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shademan, Shabnam

    2001-05-01

    This study tests whether Farsi vowels are contrastive with respective to length. Farsi has a six-vowel system with three lax vowels and three tense vowels. Both traditional grammarians and modern linguists believe that Farsi tense vowels are longer than lax vowels, and that there are no vowel pairs that contrast only in length. However, it has been suggested that Farsi exhibits compensatory lengthening, which is triggered by the deletion of glottal consonants in coda position in informal speech (Darzi, 1991). As a result, minimal pairs such as [tar] and [tarh] should contrast only with respect to vowel length. A corpus of 90 words of the form CVC, CVCG, CVGC, and CVCC (where V=a vowel and G=a glottal consonant) was recorded, and durations of vowels in different contexts were measured and compared. Preliminary results show that lax vowel durations fall into three groups with CVCC longer than CVCG/CVGC, and the latter longer than CVC. It remains to be seen whether CVCG/CVGC words show compensatory lengthening when the glottal consonant is deleted.

  8. Optical and electrical investigation of a cylindrical diffuse-discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Cheng, Yong; Ma, Ning; Peng, Ming-yang; Liu, Ming-hai

    2015-03-15

    More and more attention has been attached to atmospheric-pressure air diffuse plasma due to its enormous potential applications. In this paper, we designed a large-scale, cylindrical diffuse-plasma chamber using wire electrodes and a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. The plasma chamber can be completely exposed in the open air without any barrier dielectric, and the length of cylindrical plasma chamber was extensible. Using optical and electrical measurements, we investigated the effects of electrode distance, electrode length, pulse repetition frequency, and electrode angle on the uniformity of discharge space. Four discharge regions were distinguished based on different spectral characteristics. Additionally, it was found that the discharge uniformity was improved as the electrode distance decreases, but remained almost constant with the variations of electrode length and pulse repetition frequency. Both of the plasma uniformity and the power density increased significantly as the electrode angle reduced.

  9. Diffusivity in turbulent fluid containing two dominant scales, and compressible shear layer according to a kinetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The solution of the two nonequilibrium-degree kinetic equation was first determined for the effective length scale and turbulence energy for a spatially homogeneous turbulence field with two characteristic length scales, where the source for one family of eddies exists. This solution was applied to the evaluation of the eddy diffusivity in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The result was compared with another existing solution. This was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining an effective length-scale equation within the context of the kinetic theory. A formulation and partial solution of the compressible plane shear layer are also presented.

  10. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  11. On collisional diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, S. S.

    2013-08-15

    The effect of particle collisions on the transport in a stochastic magnetic field in tokamaks is investigated. The model of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils at the plasma edge is used for the stochastic magnetic field. The particle collisions are simulated by a random walk process along the magnetic field lines and the jumps across the field lines at the collision instants. The dependencies of the local diffusion coefficients on the mean free path λ{sub mfp}, the diffusion coefficients of field lines D{sub FL}, and the collisional diffusion coefficients, χ{sub ⊥} are studied. Based on these numerical data and the heuristic arguments, the empirical formula, D{sub r}=χ{sub ⊥}+v{sub ||}D{sub FL}/(1+L{sub c}/λ{sub mfp}), for the local diffusion coefficient is proposed, where L{sub c} is the characteristic length of order of the connection length l{sub c}=πqR{sub 0}, q is the safety factor, R{sub 0} is the major radius. The formula quite well describes the results of numerical simulations. In the limiting cases, the formula describes the Rechester-Rosenbluth and Laval scalings.

  12. Spatial distribution and broad-band spectral characteristics of the diffuse X-ray background, 0.1 - 1.0 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.; Burrows, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary maps covering more than 85 percent of the sky are presented for three energy bands: the B band, the C band, and the M band. The study was undertaken to find evidence that most of the diffuse X-ray background at energies less than 1 keV is local to the galaxy and that it is most probably due to thermal radiation from a low density plasma which fills a substantial fraction of interstellar space. A preliminary analysis of the data is provided including a report that most of the B and C band flux has a common origin, probably in a 10 to the 6th power K region surrounding the Sun, and that most of the M band flux does not originate from the same material.

  13. Characteristics of signals originating near the lithium-diffused N+ contact of high purity germanium p-type point contact detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, D. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P. N.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, H.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2012-11-09

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Furthermore, experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  14. Characteristics of signals originating near the lithium-diffused N+ contact of high purity germanium p-type point contact detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; et al

    2012-11-09

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Furthermore, experiments that operate germanium detectors with a verymore » low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.« less

  15. Lengths on rotating platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, A.

    1999-02-01

    The paper treats the issue of the length of a rotating circumference as seen from on board the moving disk and from an inertial reference frame. It is shown that, properly defining a measuring process, the result is in both cases 2πR thus dissolving the Ehrenfest paradox. The same holds good when considering that, for the rotating observer, the perceived radius coincides with the curvature radius of a space-time helix and a complete round trip corresponds to an angle which differs from the one seen by the inertial observer. The apparent contradiction with the Lorentz contraction is discussed.

  16. Puzzle of the Electrostatic Persistence Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, A. V.; Carrillo, J.-M. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in controlling properties of synthetic and biological polyelectrolytes. The change in the ionic environment in such systems can significantly influence their conformational properties. For semiflexible polyelectrolyte chains with ionic groups interacting via the screened Debye-Huckel potential the electrostatic contribution to the chain persistence length scales quadratically with the Debye screening length (OSF model). However, recent computer simulations of flexible polyelectrolyte chains with explicit counterions and salt ions show that in the wide interval of the solution ionic strengths the electrostatic contribution to chain persistence length is proportional to the Debye screening length, rD. To understand the crossover between flexible and semiflexible chain behavior and elucidate the effect of explicit ions on chain conformations we performed molecular dynamics of polyelectrolyte chains with degree of polymerization N = 300 and different values of the chain bending rigidity varying between K = 1 and K = 160. Our simulations have shown that the bond-bond correlation function describing chain's orientational memory can be approximated by a sum of two exponential functions manifesting the existence of the two characteristic length scales. One describes the chain's bending rigidity at the distances along the polymer backbone shorter than rD while another controls the long-length scale chain's orientational correlations. The long-length scale bending rigidity is proportional to rD for chains with bending rigidity smaller than a crossover bending rigidity K*. NSF DMR-1004576

  17. Length of stain dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

  18. Characterizing cosmic inhomogeneity with anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraljic, D.

    2015-08-01

    Dark matter (DM) clustering at the present epoch is investigated from a fractal viewpoint in order to determine the scale where the self-similar scaling property of the DM halo distribution transits to homogeneity. Methods based on well-established `counts-in-cells' as well as new methods based on anomalous diffusion and random walks are investigated. Both are applied to DM haloes of the biggest N-body simulation in the `Dark Sky Simulations' (DS) catalogue and an equivalent randomly distributed catalogue. Results based on the smaller `Millennium Run' (MR) simulation are revisited and improved. It is found that the MR simulation volume is too small and prone to bias to reliably identify the onset of homogeneity. Transition to homogeneity is defined when the fractal dimension of the clustered and random distributions cannot be distinguished within the associated uncertainties. The `counts-in-cells' method applied to the DS then yields a homogeneity scale roughly consistent with previous work (˜150 h-1 Mpc). The characteristic length-scale for anomalous diffusion to behave homogeneously is found to be at about 250 h-1 Mpc. The behaviour of the fractal dimensions for a halo catalogue with the same two-point function as the original but with shuffled Fourier phases is investigated. The methods based on anomalous diffusion are shown to be sensitive to the phase information, whereas the `counts-in-cells' methods are not.

  19. Stain length passive dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Sefton, M.V.; Kostas, A.V.; Lombardi, C.

    1982-11-01

    Passive dosimeters with instant readout capability have been devised by combining the principles of a gas indicator tube with membrane control of mass transfer. The membrane controls the diffusion of the gas or vapor to the reagent impregnanted support where it reacts to produce a stain. Results with H/sub 2/S and benzene monitors demonstrated that time weighted average concentration of ambient gas or vapor can be measured accurately and precisely by following the movement of the colored stain in the specially prepared and calibrated indicator tube. The 95% confidence interval of such measurements at the TLV (80 ppm-hrs) is +/- 20% for H/sub 2/S and +/- 15% for benzene, well within NIOSH limits of acceptability.

  20. Turing Pattern Formation in a Semiarid Vegetation Model with Fractional-in-Space Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Canrong

    2015-11-01

    A fractional power of the Laplacian is introduced to a reaction-diffusion system to describe water's anomalous diffusion in a semiarid vegetation model. Our linear stability analysis shows that the wavenumber of Turing pattern increases with the superdiffusive exponent. A weakly nonlinear analysis yields a system of amplitude equations, and the analysis of these amplitude equations shows that the spatial patterns are asymptotic stable due to the supercritical Turing bifurcation. Numerical simulations exhibit a bistable regime composed of hexagons and stripes, which confirm our analytical results. Moreover, the characteristic length of the emergent spatial pattern is consistent with the scale of vegetation patterns observed in field studies. PMID:26511752

  1. Correlated Diffusion of Colloidal Particles near a Liquid-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Song; Li, Na; Zhang, Jia zheng; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Optical microscopy and multi-particle tracking are used to investigate the cross-correlated diffusion of quasi two-dimensional colloidal particles near an oil-water interface. The behaviors of the correlated diffusion along longitudinal and transverse direction are asymmetric. It is shown that the characteristic length for longitudinal and transverse correlated diffusion are particle diameter and the distance from particle center to the interface, respectively, for large particle separation . The longitudinal and transverse correlated diffusion coefficient and are independent of the colloidal area fraction when , which indicates that the hydrodynamic interactions(HIs) among the particles are dominated by HIs through the surrounding fluid for small . For high area fraction , the power law exponent for the spatial decay of begins to decrease, which suggests the HIs are more contributed from the 2D particle monolayer self for large . PMID:24465498

  2. Tailoring diffusion in analog spacetimes.

    PubMed

    Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-04-01

    Diffusive transport is characterized by the scaling law (length)^{2}∝(time). In this paper we show that this relationship is significantly altered in curved analog spacetimes. This circumstance provides an opportunity to tailor diffusion: by a suitable design of the analog metric, it is possible to create materials where diffusion is either faster or slower than in normal media, as desired. This prediction can, in principle, be tested experimentally with optical analogs, curved graphene sheets, and so on (indeed with any analog spacetime). PMID:22680445

  3. Odd Length Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } < 2 r . Therefore Earth's diameter shrinks in the direction of motion, thus Earth becomes an ellipsoid - which is untrue. Planet Earth may increase or decrease its diameter (volume), but this would be for other natural reasons, not because of a...flying rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  4. Two-dimensional network simulation of diffusion driven coarsening of foam inside a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, D.; Patzek, T.W.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    In order to use foams in subsurface applications, it is necessary to understand their stability in porous media. Diffusion driven coarsening of a stationary or nonflowing foam in a porous medium results in changing gas pressures and a coarsening of the foam texture. A two-dimensional network simulation has been created that predicts the behavior of foam in a porous medium by physically specifying the locations of all the lamellae in the system and by solving the complete set of Young-Laplace and diffusion equations. An hourglass approximates the shape of the pores, and the pore walls are considered to be highly water wet. A singularity arises in the system of differential algebraic equations due to the curvature of the pore walls. This singularity is a signal that the system must undergo oscillations or sudden lamellar rearrangements before the diffusion process can continue. Newton-Raphson iteration is used along with Keller`s method of arc-length continuation and a new jump resolution technique to locate and resolve bifurcations in the system of coupled lamellae. Gas bubbles in pore throats are regions of encapsulated pressure. As gas is released from these bubbles during diffusion, the pressure of the bubbles in the pore bodies increases. When the pressure increase is scaled by the characteristic Young-Laplace pressure, the equilibrium time for the diffusion process is scaled by the ratio of the square of the characteristic length to the gas diffusivity and two dimensionless groups. One describes the ease with which gas can diffuse through a lamella, the second represents the amount of gas encapsulated within the pore throats initially. Given this scaling, the resulting plots of pressure versus time and normalized lamellae positions versus time are universal for all system sizes and characteristics. This is true as long as the initial lamella distribution is the same in each case.

  5. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  6. Helium-3 Diffusion MR Imaging of the Human Lung over Multiple Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Mugler, John P.; Wang, Chengbo; Miller, G. Wilson; Cates, Gordon D.; Mata, Jaime F.; Brookeman, James R.; de Lange, Eduard E.; Altes, Talissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Diffusion MRI with hyperpolarized 3He gas is a powerful technique for probing the characteristics of the lung microstructure. A key parameter for this technique is the diffusion time, which is the period during which the atoms are allowed to diffuse within the lung for measurement of the signal attenuation. The relationship between diffusion time and the length scales that can be explored is discussed, and representative, preliminary results are presented from ongoing studies of the human lung for diffusion times ranging from milliseconds to several seconds. Materials and Methods 3He diffusion MR imaging of the human lung was performed on a 1.5T Siemens Sonata scanner. Using gradient-echo-based and stimulated-echo-based techniques for short and medium-to-long diffusion times, respectively, measurements were performed for times ranging from 2 ms to 6.5 s in two healthy subjects, a subject with sub-clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a subject with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Results In healthy subjects, the apparent diffusion coefficient decreased by about 10-fold, from approximately 0.2 to 0.02 cm2/s, as the diffusion time increased from approximately 1 ms to 1 s. Results in subjects with disease suggest that measurements made at diffusion times substantially longer than 1 ms may provide improved sensitivity for detecting certain pathological changes in the lung microstructure. Conclusion With appropriately designed pulse sequences it is possible to explore the diffusion of hyperpolarized 3He in the human lung over more than a 1000-fold variation of the diffusion time. Such measurements provide a new opportunity for exploring and characterizing the microstructure of the healthy and diseased lung. PMID:18486006

  7. Channel length dependence of negative-bias-illumination-stress in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-μm. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length LD ˜ Ln ˜ 10-μm, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model also shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.

  8. Design and performance of thin cylindrical diffusers created in Ge-doped multimode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Vesselov, Leonid; Whittington, William; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-05-10

    Cylindrical fiber diffusers have become common tools for various medical therapies. However, their large outer diameters and short lengths restrict their clinical application in some newly developed light therapies. Here, a 250-microm outer-diameter diffuser with an active length that exceeds 5 cm is presented. Diffusers are created in photosensitive optical fibers with outer cladding diameters of 140 microm by use of a structured beam from an excimer laser. Predetermined emission profiles can be achieved. Photometric characteristics, including longitudinal, polar, and azimuthal emission diagrams, were determined by use of a goniometer to assess the light-emission performance of the diffuser. Longitudinal isotropy of better than +/- 10% was achieved. Polar and azimuthal emissions were within +/- 15% of those of an ideal linear Lambertian emitter. Polar uniformity could be improved by an insignificant increase in the outer diameter by use of a diffusing recoating compound. The residual leakage of light at the distal end of the diffuser can be as little as 1%. Other physical parameters tested include minimal bending radius after recoating (< 5 mm) and maximum power handling (> 1.0W cm(-1)). All materials employed were biocompatible. PMID:15945145

  9. Scattering Length Instability in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolotti, D. C. E.; Ronen, S.; Bohn, J. L.; Blume, D.

    2006-10-20

    We predict a new kind of instability in a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of dipolar particles. Namely, a comparatively weak dipole moment can produce a large, negative two-body scattering length that can collapse the Bose-Einstein condensate. To verify this effect, we validate mean-field solutions to this problem using exact, diffusion Monte Carlo methods. We show that the diffusion Monte Carlo energies are reproduced accurately within a mean-field framework if the variation of the s-wave scattering length with the dipole strength is accounted for properly.

  10. Characteristics of 0.8- and 0.2-microns gate length In(x)Ga(1-x) As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As/InP (0.53 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.70) modulation-doped field-effect transistors at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Richard; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Yang, David; Brock, Timothy L.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of InP-based In(x)Ga(1-x)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As (0.53 is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 0.70) pseudomorphic modulation-doped field-effect transistors (MODFET's) as a function of strain in the channel, gate, length, and temperature were investigated analytically and experimentally. The strain in the channel was varied by varying the In composition x. The temperature was varied in the range of 40-300 K and the devices have gate lengths L(sub g) of 0.8 and 0.2 microns. Analysis of the device was done using a one-dimensional self consistent solution of the Poisson and Schroedinger equations in the channel, a two-dimensional Poisson solver to obtain the channel electric field, and a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the carrier transit times in the channel. An increase in the value of the cutoff frequency is predicted for an increase in In composition, a decrease in temperature, and a decrease in gate length. The improvements seen with decreasing temperature, decreasing gate length, and increased In composition were smaller than those predicted by analysis. The experimental results on pseudomorphic InGaAs/InAlAs MODFET's showed that there is a 15-30 percent improvement in cutoff frequency in both the 0.8- and 0.2-micron gate length devices when the temperature is lowered from 300 to 40 K.

  11. Spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Gao, Nan; Lu, Nianduan; Liu, Ming; Bssler, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    An analytical theory for spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors is derived. It is based on percolation theory and variable range hopping in a disordered energy landscape with a Gaussian density of states. It describes universally the dependence of the spin diffusion on temperature, carrier density, material disorder, magnetic field, and electric field at the arbitrary magnitude of the Hubbard energy of charge pairs. It is found that, compared to the spin transport carried by carriers hopping, the spin exchange will hinder the spin diffusion process at low carrier density, even under the condition of a weak electric field. Importantly, under the influence of a bias voltage, anomalous spreading of the spin packet will lead to an abnormal temperature dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient and diffusion length. This explains the recent experimental data for spin diffusion length observed in Alq3.

  12. Effect of Solder Joint Length on Fracture Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Saeed; Nourani, Amir; Spelt, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture tests were conducted on copper-solder-copper joints of various lengths using double-cantilever-beam (DCB) specimens under mode I loading conditions. The thickness and length of the solder joints were large enough to neglect any anisotropy associated with the solder microstructure. It was found that the critical strain energy release rate at crack initiation, G ci, was insensitive to the length of the solder joint; however, for joints shorter than a characteristic length which was a function of the thickness and the mechanical properties of the solder layer and the substrates, the fracture load increased with increasing solder joint length. A sandwich model was developed for the analysis of the stress and strain in solder joints, taking into account the influence of both the bending deformation and the shear deformation of the substrates on the solder joint stresses. Consistent with the experimental results, it was found that solder joints longer than the characteristic length have a maximum peel stress that remains unchanged with joint length, causing the joint strength to become independent of the joint length. A closed-form analytical solution was developed for the characteristic length of DCB specimens under mode I loading. The experimental results were in good agreement with the analytical model and with finite element results. The generality of the G ci failure criterion was demonstrated by comparing the experimental results and the fracture load predictions of mode I DCB solder joints with different lengths.

  13. Fractal Aspects and Diffusion In The Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, J. M.; Gade, M.

    An important aspect of observations of the ocean surface by satellite is the ability of the sensors, both passive (Colour or IR) or active (SAR), to detect dinamical features that analysed spatially and temporally may be used to model and predict the complex topology of the ocean eddies and currents. Several ways of evaluating the horizontal turbulent diffusivities from the geometrical characteristics of the flow are presented, discussing the relevance of Richardson's law in different weather conditions. Multi- fractal aspects related to the surface roughness of the ocean, and the integral or corre- lation length-scales are used to identify several distinct features and thus, to provide better estimates of local turbulent diffusion in the ocean.

  14. Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-04-01

    Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.

  15. Sandstones of unexpectedly high diffusibility.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khairul; Tellam, John H

    2011-03-25

    Measurements have been made of diffusion coefficients (D(i)=-mass flux/concentration gradient) using a double reservoir, steady-state method with two tracers, CaBr(2) and amino-G-acid, on intact samples of Triassic red-bed sandstone from northwest England. Diffusibility (D'=D(i)/diffusion coefficient in water) averages 0.124, ranging between 0.075 and 0.215 (porosity 0.1 to 0.24), very similar for the two tracers. Implied tortuosities (actual path length/straight line length) average 1.21 (range 1.06 to 1.47), with constrictivities close to 1. In comparison with limited red-bed sandstone data from elsewhere, these D' values are up to 4 times greater, and tortuosity correspondingly lower. Re-interpretation of formation factor data from previous studies on shallow sandstone samples also from northwest England confirms that diffusibility is significantly higher in these sandstones than others from similar palaeoenvironment/stratigraphic units. The lower tortuosities appear to result from the relatively high permeability, open fabric of the rock, properties likely to be present in shallow sandstone systems used for water supply. It is concluded that diffusion rates may, in some shallow freshwater-containing continental sandstone systems, be significantly greater than is implied by estimates of sandstone diffusibility current in the literature. PMID:21146250

  16. A multi-length-scale theory of the anomalous mixing-length growth for tracer flow in heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang Zhang )

    1992-01-01

    The author develops a multi-length-scale (multifractal) theory for the effect of rock heterogeneity on the growth of the mixing layer of the flow of a passive tracer through porous media. The multifractal exponent of the size of the mixing layer is determined analytically from the statistical properties of a random velocity (permeability) field. The anomalous diffusion of the mixing layer can occur both on finite and on asymptotic length scales.

  17. Towards an interpretation of the scale diffusivity in liquid atomization process: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumouchel, Christophe; Ménard, Thibaut; Aniszewski, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    Recent investigations have presented an application of the scale entropy diffusion theory to model liquid atomization process. This theory describes multi-scale behavior by a diffusion equation of the scale entropy function. In atomization, this function is related to the scale-distribution which provides a measurement of the specific-length of the eroded liquid system according to the scale of erosion. The present paper performs a detailed description of the scale diffusion mechanism for the atomization process of a liquid jet emanating from a gasoline injector with the objective of determining the scale diffusivity parameter introduced by the diffusion theory. The 2-D description of the gasoline jet as a function of the injection pressure reveals that the scale space is divided into two regions according to the sign of the scale specific-length variation rate: The small-scale region refers to the scales that undergo an elongation mechanism whereas the large-scale region concerns the scales that undergo a contraction mechanism. Furthermore, two phases of the atomization process are identified depending on whether the elongation mechanism is governed by the jet dynamics or surface tension effects. A non-dimensional number segregating these two phases is established. During the atomization process, the contraction mechanism diffuses in the small scale region. This manifests by a temporal decrease of the scale with a zero specific-length variation. It is found that the scale diffusivity parameter can be determined from the evolution of this characteristic scale in the second phase of the atomization process.

  18. Use of cylindrical diffusing fibers as detectors for interstitial tissue spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2015-03-01

    Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) describes the use of implanted optical fibers for delivery of treatment light to activate photosensitizer in regions that can be located deep within the body. Since sensitive healthy structures are often located nearby, this requires careful treatment planning that is dependent on tissue optical properties. Determination of these values usually involves the insertion of additional fibers into the volume, or the use of flat-cleaved optical fibers as both treatment sources and detectors. The insertion of additional fibers is undesirable, and cylindrical diffusers have been shown to offer superior treatment characteristics compared to flat-cleaved fibers. Using cylindrical diffusers as detectors for spectroscopic measurement is therefore attractive. We describe the determination of the detection profile for a particular cylindrical diffuser design and derive the scatterer concentration gradient within the diffuser core. This detection profile is compared to previously characterized diffusers, and is shown to be dependent on the diffuser design. For diffusers with a constant scatterer concentration and distal mirror, the detection profile is localized to the proximal end of the diffusing region. For diffusers with variable scattering concentration along their length and no distal mirror, the detection profile is shown to be more uniform along the diffusing region. We also present preliminary results showing the recovery of optical properties using arrays of cylindrical diffusing fibers as sources and detectors, with a mean error of 4.4% in the determination of μeff. The accuracy of these results is comparable to those obtained with other methods of optical property recovery.

  19. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  20. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  1. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion

  2. Compressor and fan wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

    1978-01-01

    A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

  3. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    SciTech Connect

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  4. Revealing mesoscopic structural universality with diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Dmitry S.; Jensen, Jens H.; Helpern, Joseph A.; Fieremans, Els

    2014-01-01

    Measuring molecular diffusion is widely used for characterizing materials and living organisms noninvasively. This characterization relies on relations between macroscopic diffusion metrics and structure at the mesoscopic scale commensurate with the diffusion length. Establishing such relations remains a fundamental challenge, hindering progress in materials science, porous media, and biomedical imaging. Here we show that the dynamical exponent in the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient distinguishes between the universality classes of the mesoscopic structural complexity. Our approach enables the interpretation of diffusion measurements by objectively selecting and modeling the most relevant structural features. As an example, the specific values of the dynamical exponent allow us to identify the relevant mesoscopic structure affecting MRI-measured water diffusion in muscles and in brain, and to elucidate the structural changes behind the decrease of diffusion coefficient in ischemic stroke. PMID:24706873

  5. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of MHD generators and diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Vanka, S P; Ahluwalia, R K; Doss, E D

    1982-03-01

    The three-dimensional flow and heat transfer phenomena in MHD channels and diffusers are analyzed by solving the governing partial differential equations for flow and electrical fields. The equation set consists of the mass continuity equation, the three momentum equations, the equations for enthalpy, turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, and the Maxwell equations. This set of coupled equations is solved by the use of a finite-difference calculation procedure. The turbulence is represented by a two-equation model of turbulence in which partial differential equations are solved for the turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. Calculations have been performed for Faraday and diagonally-connected channels. Specifically, the AEDC (Faraday) and the UTSI (diagonal) channels have been analyzed, and the results are compared with experimental data. The agreement is fairly good for all the measured quantities. The effects of channel loading on the three-dimensional flow characteristics of Faraday and diagonally-connected generators have been also analyzed. A simple argument is presented to show qualitatively the role of MHD body forces in generating axial vorticity and hence secondary flows in the cross-stream. Calculations have also been made to study the flow evolution in MHD diffusers. The calculations show that the velocity overshoots and secondary flows decay along the diffusers length. Plots of velocity, skin friction and pressure recovery are presented to illustrate the flow development in MHD diffusers.

  7. Molecular characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy and pre-rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Morton, Lindsay M; Kim, Clara J; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bhatia, Kishor; Cockburn, Myles; Hawes, Debra; Wang, Sophia S; Chang, Cindy; Altekruse, Sean F; Engels, Eric A; Cozen, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection substantially elevates diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk, but its impact on the distinct DLBCL subtypes defined by cell of origin is unclear. We compared DLBCL molecular characteristics and prognosis in 51 HIV-infected and 116 HIV-uninfected cases diagnosed during 1977-2003. Using immunohistochemistry to classify cell of origin based on the Tally algorithm, activated B-cell (ABC)-DLBCL was substantially more common in HIV-infected (83%) than in HIV-uninfected (54%) cases (p < 0.001). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 63% of DLBCLs in HIV-infected cases, occurring almost exclusively in ABC-DLBCL (74% vs. 13% of germinal center B-cell [GCB]-DLBCL, p = 0.002), but was rarely detected in DLBCLs among HIV-uninfected cases (3%). Among HIV-uninfected cases, MYC/IgH [t(8;14)(q24;q32)] and IgH/BCL2 [t(14;18)(q32;q21)] translocations were significantly more common and BCL6/IgH [t(3;14)(q27;q32)] significantly less common in GCB-DLBCL than in ABC-DLBCL (p = 0.010, < 0.001 and = 0.039, respectively). Among HIV-infected cases, translocations other than MYC/IgH [t(8;14)(q24;q32)] (21%) were rare (≤ 6%) and unrelated to cell of origin. ABC-DLBCL was associated with adverse overall survival compared with GCB-DLBCL regardless of HIV status (pHIV-infected = 0.066; pHIV-uninfected = 0.038). Our data demonstrate key differences in the molecular characteristics, cell of origin and prognosis of DLBCL by HIV status in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pre-rituximab era, supporting biologic differences in lymphomagenesis in the presence of HIV. PMID:23772639

  8. Diffusion in random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrino, Juan C.; Zhang, Duan Z.

    2015-11-01

    The ensemble phase averaging technique is applied to model mass transport in a porous medium. The porous material is idealized as an ensemble of random networks, where each network consists of a set of junction points representing the pores and tortuous channels connecting them. Inside a channel, fluid transport is assumed to be governed by the one-dimensional diffusion equation. Mass balance leads to an integro-differential equation for the pores mass density. Instead of attempting to solve this equation, and equivalent set of partial differential equations is derived whose solution is sought numerically. As a test problem, we consider the one-dimensional diffusion of a substance from one end to the other in a bounded domain. For a statistically homogeneous and isotropic material, results show that for relatively large times the pore mass density evolution from the new theory is significantly delayed in comparison with the solution from the classical diffusion equation. In the short-time case, when the solution evolves with time as if the domain were semi-infinite, numerical results indicate that the pore mass density becomes a function of the similarity variable xt- 1 / 4 rather than xt- 1 / 2 characteristic of classical diffusion. This result was verified analytically. Possible applications of this framework include flow in gas shales. Work supported by LDRD project of LANL.

  9. Universality of modulation length and time exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Seidel, Alexander; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-10-01

    We study systems with a crossover parameter λ, such as the temperature T, which has a threshold value λ* across which the correlation function changes from exhibiting fixed wavelength (or time period) modulations to continuously varying modulation lengths (or times). We introduce a hitherto unknown exponent νL characterizing the universal nature of this crossover and compute its value in general instances. This exponent, similar to standard correlation length exponents, is obtained from motion of the poles of the momentum (or frequency) space correlation functions in the complex k-plane (or ω-plane) as the parameter λ is varied. Near the crossover (i.e., for λ→λ*), the characteristic modulation wave vector KR in the variable modulation length “phase” is related to that in the fixed modulation length “phase” q via |KR-q|∝|T-T*|νL. We find, in general, that νL=1/2. In some special instances, νL may attain other rational values. We extend this result to general problems in which the eigenvalue of an operator or a pole characterizing general response functions may attain a constant real (or imaginary) part beyond a particular threshold value λ*. We discuss extensions of this result to multiple other arenas. These include the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. By extending our considerations, we comment on relations pertaining not only to the modulation lengths (or times), but also to the standard correlation lengths (or times). We introduce the notion of a Josephson time scale. We comment on the presence of aperiodic “chaotic” modulations in “soft-spin” and other systems. These relate to glass-type features. We discuss applications to Fermi systems, with particular application to metal to band insulator transitions, change of Fermi surface topology, divergent effective masses, Dirac systems, and topological insulators. Both regular periodic and glassy (and spatially chaotic behavior) may be found in strongly correlated electronic systems.

  10. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  11. Steric effects on diffusion into bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Larsen; Doyoung Lee

    2006-02-01

    The reactions of maleic anhydride, cis-maleate esters, and acetylenedicarboxylate esters with Pittsburgh No. 8 or Illinois No. 6 coal using o-xylene or o-dichlorobenzene solvent are diffusion controlled. Diffusion is Fickian in all cases. The measured activation energies are between 5.4 and 7.6 kcal/mol. Diffusion rates decrease slowly with increasing alkyl chain length and sharply with branching. Diffusion rates are slightly faster with o-xylene than when o-dichlorobenzene is used. 40 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Ti diffusion in natural pyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti has been characterized in natural orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene under buffered conditions (IW, NNO, and QFM) and in air. In all pyroxene compositions studied, titanium diffusion appears relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation and oxygen fugacity under the range of investigated conditions. For Ti diffusion in a natural enstatite and a Kilbourne Hole orthopyroxene (KBH opx), we obtain the following Arrhenius relations for diffusion over the temperature range 950-1150 °C, D=1.45×10-11exp(-270±34kJ mol/RT)ms, D=3.70×10-11exp(-285±34kJ mol/RT)ms. For Ti diffusion in a natural diopside and a chromian diopside at temperatures 900-1250 °C we obtain the following Arrhenius relations, respectively, D=8.01×10-11exp(-282±20kJ mol/RT)ms, D=2.97×10-11exp(-282±40kJ mol/RT)ms. Diffusion rates of Ti in the Cr-diopside and KBH opx are essentially the same, whereas diffusion rates of Ti in the enstatite and diopside are only 1.3-1.8 times and 2.7-2.9 times that in the KBH opx, respectively. Titanium diffusion appears relatively insensitive to pyroxene composition, in contrast to findings for diffusion of some other cations. At magmatic temperatures, the rates of Ti diffusion in pyroxene are comparable to the rates of REE diffusion in opx and the rates of Al and MREE diffusion in diopside, although activation energies of Ti diffusion are considerably lower than those for REE diffusion in the pyroxenes. Finally, diffusion rates of Ti in pyroxenes are 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than those of Mg and Fe in pyroxenes. Diffusivities of Ti in pyroxenes obtained from this study can be used to understand a range of geochemical mass transfer problems involving diopside and orthopyroxene. The closure temperatures for Ti in orthopyroxene and diopside are very similar to each other for comparable pyroxene grain size. Subsolidus redistribution of Ti between orthopyroxene and diopside results in characteristic reverse Ti zoning in orthopyroxene and normal Ti zoning in diopside. Such zoning patterns in coexisting orthopyroxene and diopside may be used to infer cooling rate of two-pyroxene bearing ultramafic and mafic rocks.

  13. Amosphous diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, E.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M-A.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous W-Zr and W-N alloys were investigated as diffusion barriers in silicon metallization schemes. Data were presented showing that amorphous W-Zr crystallizes at 900 C, which is 200 C higher than amorphous W-Ni films, and that both films react with metallic overlayers at temperatures far below the crystllization temperature. Also, W-N alloys (crystalline temperature of 600 C) were successfully incorporated as a diffusion barrier in contact structures with both Al and Ag overlayers. The thermal stability of the electrical characteristics of shallow n(+)p junctions significantly improved by incorporating W-N layers in the contact system. One important fact demonstated was the critical influence of the deposition parameters during formation of these carriers.

  14. Effect of Increasing Diffusion Gradient Direction Number on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Fiber Tracking in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xufeng; Yu, Tonggang; Liang, Beibei; Xia, Tian; Huang, Qinming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of varying the number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGDs) on diffusion tensor fiber tracking (FT) in human brain white matter using tract characteristics. Materials and Methods Twelve normal volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning with NDGDs of 6, 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations. Three fiber tract groups, including the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), the entire CC, and the full brain tract, were reconstructed by deterministic DTI-FT. Tract architecture was first qualitatively evaluated by visual observation. Six quantitative tract characteristics, including the number of fibers (NF), average length (AL), fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA), mean diffusivity (MD), and volume ratio (VR) were measured for the splenium of the CC at the tract branch level, for the entire CC at tract level, and for the full brain tract at the whole brain level. Visual results and those of NF, AL, FA, RA, MD, and VR were compared among the five different NDGDs. Results The DTI-FT with NDGD of 11, 15, 21, and 31 orientations gave better tracking results compared with NDGD of 6 after the visual evaluation. NF, FA, RA, MD, and VR values with NDGD of six were significantly greater (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.042) than those with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations), whereas AL measured with NDGD of six was significantly smaller (smallest p = 0.001 to largest p = 0.041) than with four other NDGDs (11, 15, 21, or 31 orientations). No significant differences were observed in the results among the four NDGD groups of 11, 15, 21, and 31 directions (smallest p = 0.059 to largest p = 1.000). Conclusion The main fiber tracts were detected with NDGD of six orientations; however, the use of larger NDGD (≥ 11 orientations) could provide improved tract characteristics at the expense of longer scanning time. PMID:25741203

  15. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.

  16. Relations between Some Characteristic Lengths in a Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepf, Wolfram; Brede, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The paper's aim is to note a remarkable (and apparently unknown) relation for right triangles, its generalisation to arbitrary triangles and the possibility to derive these and some related relations by elimination using Groebner basis computations with a modern computer algebra system. (Contains 9 figures.)

  17. Length control of He atmospheric plasma jet plumes: Effects of discharge parameters and ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Q.; Xiong, Z.; Xian, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zou, C.; Hu, J.; Gong, W.; Jiang, Z.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2009-04-15

    The effects of various discharge parameters and ambient gas on the length of He atmospheric plasma jet plumes expanding into the open air are studied. It is found that the voltage and width of the discharge-sustaining pulses exert significantly stronger effects on the plume length than the pulse frequency, gas flow rate, and nozzle diameter. This result is explained through detailed analysis of the I-V characteristics of the primary and secondary discharges which reveals the major role of the integrated total charges of the primary discharge in the plasma dynamics. The length of the jet plume can be significantly increased by guiding the propagating plume into a glass tube attached to the nozzle. This increase is attributed to elimination of the diffusion of surrounding air into the plasma plume, an absence which facilitates the propagation of the ionization front. These results are important for establishing a good level of understanding of the expansion dynamics and for enabling a high degree of control of atmospheric pressure plasmas in biomedical, materials synthesis and processing, environmental and other existing and emerging industrial applications.

  18. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  19. Phase behavior, diffusion, structural characteristics, and pH of aqueous hydrophobic ionic liquid confined media: insights into microviscosity and microporsity in the [C4C4im][NTf2] + water system.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Raju; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-29

    We present our studies on the physicochemical properties of water confined in Dibutylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide) ([C4C4im][NTf2]) reverse micelles through the NMR relaxation measurements that provide us an understanding of microviscosity and pH in the confined condition. We present experimental results on phase behavior, diffusion, structural characteristics and pH in aqueous ionic liquid-confined media. The ternary phase diagram was constructed by the cloud point measurements and the microheterogeneous regions were detected by the measurement of bulk viscosity and diffusion coefficients of K4[Fe(CN)6] inside the homogeneous microemulsion systems through the cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. The size of the microemulsion systems was characterized by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. The (1)H NMR spectra of homogeneous microemulsion systems were taken which indicates the presence of bound and free water molecules inside the microemulsion system. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured and the reorientational correlation time (τc) of water molecules obtained from it indicates that the fluidity of homogeneous confined media decreases with the decrease in the composition of water. Microviscosity of the aqueous confined media was calculated from the measured T1 relaxation time values by applying the Debye-Stokes equation and correlated with the bulk viscosity of the samples. It was observed that both the microviscosity and bulk viscosity show inverse relationship. The fraction of bound and free water molecules were calculated from the measured T1 values. NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of water molecules in its homogeneous microemulsion systems were measured with the varying pH of the aqueous core. A change in the T2 relaxation time of the water proton was observed proposing an exchange of proton between the H2O and -OH group of the TX-100 molecules. Finally, methyl orange (MO) was used as a UV-vis spectrophotometric molecular probe and the measured λmax values of the probe were used for the detection of micropolarity of the homogeneous aqueous confined media and was found to be increase with the increase in the size of the confined media. PMID:25555212

  20. Diffusive acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholer, Manfred

    This paper reviews the properties of diffuse energetic ions observed at the quasi-parallel bow shock and at quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks. The first-order Fermi or diffusive acceleration mechanism can consistently explain the many detailed observational facts. In this model, it is assumed that particles are scattered approximately elastically in the solar wind frame, and gain energy by repeated scattering between the converging upstream and downstream flows or between the upstream flow and the shock. An essential feature at both the bow shock and at interplanetary shocks are self-excited low-frequency waves representing the scattering irregularities. The seed particles for the acceleration process at the bow shock are most probably solar wind ions. However, how and with what efficiency a certain fraction of the thermal solar wind population is injected into the acceleration process is at present only poorly understood. Whether the seed particles for the acceleration at interplanetary shocks are solar wind ions or more energetic ions is an open question.

  1. A Systematic Comparison of Mathematical Models for Inherent Measurement of Ciliary Length: How a Cell Can Measure Length and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Ludington, William B.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V.; Ritter, Alex; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio A.; Gunzenhauser, Julia; Kannegaard, Elisa; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2015-01-01

    Cells control organelle size with great precision and accuracy to maintain optimal physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so are largely unknown. Cilia and flagella are simple organelles in which a single measurement, length, can represent size. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport, and previous measurements suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates intraflagellar transport. But the question remains: how is a length-dependent signal produced to regulate intraflagellar transport appropriately? Several conceptual models have been suggested, but testing these models quantitatively requires that they be cast in mathematical form. Here, we derive a set of mathematical models that represent the main broad classes of hypothetical size-control mechanisms currently under consideration. We use these models to predict the relation between length and intraflagellar transport, and then compare the predicted relations for each model with experimental data. We find that three models—an initial bolus formation model, an ion current model, and a diffusion-based model—show particularly good agreement with available experimental data. The initial bolus and ion current models give mathematically equivalent predictions for length control, but fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments rule out the initial bolus model, suggesting that either the ion current model or a diffusion-based model is more likely correct. The general biophysical principles of the ion current and diffusion-based models presented here to measure cilia and flagellar length can be generalized to measure any membrane-bound organelle volume, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25809250

  2. A systematic comparison of mathematical models for inherent measurement of ciliary length: how a cell can measure length and volume.

    PubMed

    Ludington, William B; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V; Ritter, Alex; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio A; Gunzenhauser, Julia; Kannegaard, Elisa; Marshall, Wallace F

    2015-03-24

    Cells control organelle size with great precision and accuracy to maintain optimal physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so are largely unknown. Cilia and flagella are simple organelles in which a single measurement, length, can represent size. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport, and previous measurements suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates intraflagellar transport. But the question remains: how is a length-dependent signal produced to regulate intraflagellar transport appropriately? Several conceptual models have been suggested, but testing these models quantitatively requires that they be cast in mathematical form. Here, we derive a set of mathematical models that represent the main broad classes of hypothetical size-control mechanisms currently under consideration. We use these models to predict the relation between length and intraflagellar transport, and then compare the predicted relations for each model with experimental data. We find that three models-an initial bolus formation model, an ion current model, and a diffusion-based model-show particularly good agreement with available experimental data. The initial bolus and ion current models give mathematically equivalent predictions for length control, but fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments rule out the initial bolus model, suggesting that either the ion current model or a diffusion-based model is more likely correct. The general biophysical principles of the ion current and diffusion-based models presented here to measure cilia and flagellar length can be generalized to measure any membrane-bound organelle volume, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25809250

  3. Computer simulation of a wind tunnel test section with discrete finite-length wall slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, W. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A computer simulation of a slotted wind tunnel test section which includes a discrete, finite-length wall slot representation with plenum chamber constraints and accounts for the nonlinear effects of the dynamic pressure of the slot outflow jet and of the low energy of slot inflow air was developed. The simulation features were selected to be those appropriate for the intended subsequent use of the simulation in a wall interference assessment procedure using sparsely located wall pressure measurements. It is demonstrated that accounting for slot discreteness is important in interpreting wall pressure measured between slots, and that accounting for nonlinear slot flow effects produces significant changes in tunnel-induced velocity distributions and, in particular, produces a longitudinal component of tunnel-induced velocity due to model lift. A characteristic mode of tunnel flow interaction with constraints imposed by the plenum chamber and diffuser entrance is apparent in simulation results and is derived analytically through a simplified analysis.

  4. Study for noninvasive determination of optical properties of bio-tissue using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The optical characteristics of absorption and scattering of irradiated tissue determine light spatial distribution and the subsequent biological effects, which could decide the dosimetry for laser medical applications. Studys have shown that the optical properties of bio-tissue could be determined through some fitting algorithms with spatially resolved diffuse reflectance theory based on the measurement of diffuse reflectance. The regression of reflectance data with by diffusion theory model was important for optical properties estimation. In the paper, the reflectance versus distance data acquired from Monte Carlo method was by fit to diffusion theory model by the nonliear least-squares fitting algorithm to study the produre and mothod of determination of optical properties. And attention was especially paid to the influence of the radial step width Δr, length of radial distance rL and start value of radial distance r0 on the regression results. Preliminary results indicated that the radial step width and length of radial distance rL both have little influence on the fitting. Nevertheless, the start value of radial distance r0 of reflectance data has great influence on the fitting. Fitting deviation would become little while the start value of radial distance r0 grow greater. and an appropriate r0 was important for data fitting. Study also showd a more accurate light diffuse reflectance theoretical model was need for estimate the optical parameters by fitting the diffuse reflectance data accurately. Our work maybe be helpful to the experiment measurement of light diffuse reflectance data for noninvasive optical properties determination.

  5. Feg-EPMA and Nanosims Profiles of Zoned Crystals for Diffusion Chronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, K.; Buse, B.; Kilburn, M.; Kearns, S.; Blundy, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion chronometry is an alternative method that can be used to assess timescales of magmatic events. It relies on the chemical relaxation of chemical zoning within magmatic crystals. By studying a range of elements within a single crystal we can probe a range of magmatic processes and interrogate timescales of processes from days to millennia. Diffusion modifies the elemental concentrations of adjacent crystal zones. The timescales that can be investigated are limited not only by the diffusivity of an element and the available diffusion coefficients but also the resolution of the measured chemical profile and hence the analytical technique used to acquire these profiles. To obtained reliable diffusion timescales the analytical length scale must be shorter than the characteristic diffusion length. In addition sufficient analytical points must be present on the profile to ensure that the profile is 'real' and not a convolution artefact. Thus in some cases, sub-micron spatial resolution is required. Two such possible techniques that can achieve nanoscale resolution are field emission gun electron probe micro analyser (FEG-EPMA) and NanoSIMS. Plagioclase and pyroxene crystals were analysed by FEG-EPMA and NanoSIMS to investigate the achievable spatial resolution that could be attained. For quantitative analyses, analytical protocols for FEG-EPMA for plagioclase and pyroxene have been developed that can achieve spot analyses of down to 300 nm diameters with 300 nm spacing for major and trace elements. NanoSIMS can achieve a 200 nm spot diameter, but currently the chemical profiles are only qualitative. This increase in spatial resolution of analytical techniques has demonstrated that compositional boundaries within zoned crystals are relatively sharp (< 2 microns). Thus assuming step-profiles as an initial condition in simple 1D diffusion models is appropriate in many cases.

  6. Word length effects in Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Whitney, Carol

    2005-06-01

    Numerous lateralization studies have reported that word length has a stronger effect in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF) for right-handed people due to hemispheric asymmetry for language processing. Alternatively, early perceptual learning theory argued that the length effects might depend on the frequency of having read words at various lengths displayed at different retinal locations. The two alternatives were tested with right-handers participants who were native speakers of Hebrew which is read from right to left, that is Hebrew readers have a different perceptual experience than English readers. We found the predicted interaction between word length and hemifield; however, longer latencies to longer letter strings were found at both visual fields. We argue that these results are best accounted by the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding. PMID:15922165

  7. The Lengths of Admixture Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Mason; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of admixture tract lengths has received considerable attention, in part because it can be used to infer the timing of past gene flow events between populations. It is commonly assumed that these lengths can be modeled as independently and identically distributed (iid) exponential random variables. This assumption is fundamental for many popular methods that analyze admixture using hidden Markov models. We compare the expected distribution of admixture tract lengths under a number of population-genetic models to the distribution predicted by the Wright–Fisher model with recombination. We show that under the latter model, the assumption of iid exponential tract lengths does not hold for recent or for ancient admixture events and that relying on this assumption can lead to false positives when inferring the number of admixture events. To further investigate the tract-length distribution, we develop a dyadic interval-based stochastic process for generating admixture tracts. This representation is useful for analyzing admixture tract-length distributions for populations with recent admixture, a scenario in which existing models perform poorly. PMID:24770332

  8. Exploratory laboratory study of lateral turbulent diffusion at the surface of an alluvial channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, William W.; Chamberlain, A.R.

    1964-01-01

    In natural streams turbulent diffusion is one of the principal mechanisms by which liquid and suspended-particulate contaminants are dispersed in the flow. A knowledge of turbulence characteristics is therefore essential in predicting the dispersal rates of contaminants in streams. In this study the theory of diffusion by continuous movements for homogeneous turbulence is applied to lateral diffusion at the surface of an open channel in which there is uniform flow. An exploratory-laboratory investigation was conducted in which the lateral dispersion at the water surface of a sand-Led flume was studied by measuring the lateral spread from a point source of small floating polyethylene articles. The experiment was restricted to a single set of low and channel geometry conditions. The results of the study indicate that with certain restrictions lateral dispersion in alluvial channels may be successfully described by the theory of diffusion by continuous movements. The experiment demonstrates a means for evaluating the lateral diffusion coefficient and also methods for quantitatively estimating fundamental turbulence properties, such as the intensity and the Lagrangian integral scale of turbulence in an alluvial channel. The experimental results show that with increasing distance from the source the coefficient of lateral turbulent diffusion increases initially but tends toward a constant limiting value. This result is in accordance with turbulent diffusion theory. Indications are that the distance downstream from the source required for the diffusion coefficient to reach its limiting value is actually very small when compared to the length scale of most diffusion phenomena in natural streams which are of practical interest.

  9. Ambipolar diffusion in complex plasma.

    PubMed

    Losseva, T V; Popel, S I; Yu, M Y; Ma, J X

    2007-04-01

    A self-consistent model of the ambipolar diffusion of electrons and ions in complex (dusty) plasmas accounting for the local electric fields, the dust grain charging process, and the interaction of the plasma particles with the dust grains and neutrals is presented. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the interaction of the electrons and ions with the dust grains as well as with the neutrals are investigated. It is shown that increase of the dust density leads to a reduction of the diffusion scale length, and this effect is enhanced at higher electron densities. The dependence of the diffusion scale length on the neutral gas pressure is found to be given by a power law, where the absolute value of the power exponent decreases with increase of the dust density. The electric field gradient and its effects are shown to be significant and should thus be taken into account in studies of complex plasmas with not very small dust densities. The possibility of observing localized coherent dissipative nonlinear dust ion-acoustic structures in an asymmetrically discharged double plasma is discussed. PMID:17501000

  10. Ambipolar diffusion in complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Losseva, T. V.; Popel, S. I.; Yu, M. Y.; Ma, J. X.

    2007-04-15

    A self-consistent model of the ambipolar diffusion of electrons and ions in complex (dusty) plasmas accounting for the local electric fields, the dust grain charging process, and the interaction of the plasma particles with the dust grains and neutrals is presented. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the interaction of the electrons and ions with the dust grains as well as with the neutrals are investigated. It is shown that increase of the dust density leads to a reduction of the diffusion scale length, and this effect is enhanced at higher electron densities. The dependence of the diffusion scale length on the neutral gas pressure is found to be given by a power law, where the absolute value of the power exponent decreases with increase of the dust density. The electric field gradient and its effects are shown to be significant and should thus be taken into account in studies of complex plasmas with not very small dust densities. The possibility of observing localized coherent dissipative nonlinear dust ion-acoustic structures in an asymmetrically discharged double plasma is discussed.

  11. Tortuosity measurement and the effects of finite pulse widths on xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Sen, P. N.; Schwartz, L. M.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have extended the utility of NMR as a technique to probe porous media structure over length scales of approximately 100-2000 microm by using the spin 1/2 noble gas 129Xe imbibed into the system's pore space. Such length scales are much greater than can be probed with NMR diffusion studies of water-saturated porous media. We utilized Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the xenon gas filling the pore space to study further the measurements of both the pore surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V(p), and the tortuosity (pore connectivity) of the medium. In uniform-size glass bead packs, we observed D(t) decreasing with increasing t, reaching an observed asymptote of approximately 0.62-0.65D(0), that could be measured over diffusion distances extending over multiple bead diameters. Measurements of D(t)/D(0) at differing gas pressures showed this tortuosity limit was not affected by changing the characteristic diffusion length of the spins during the diffusion encoding gradient pulse. This was not the case at the short time limit, where D(t)/D(0) was noticeably affected by the gas pressure in the sample. Increasing the gas pressure, and hence reducing D(0) and the diffusion during the gradient pulse served to reduce the previously observed deviation of D(t)/D(0) from the S/V(p) relation. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate between the long and short time limits in D(t). While the short time D(t) points lay above the interpolation line in the case of small beads, due to diffusion during the gradient pulse on the order of the pore size, it was also noted that the experimental D(t) data fell below the Pade line in the case of large beads, most likely due to finite size effects.

  12. Laminar smoke points of nonbuoyant jet diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderland, P.B; Mortazavi, S.; Faeth, G.M. . Dept. of Aerospace Engineering); Urban, D.L. . Microgravity Science Section)

    1994-01-01

    The laminar smoke point properties of jet diffusion flames -- the luminous flame length, the residence time, and the fuel flow rate, at the onset of soot emission from the flames -- have proven to be useful global measures of the soot properties of nonpremixed flames. These measures provide a means to rate several aspects of sooting properties: the relative tendency of various fuels to emit soot from flames the relative effects of fuel structure, flame temperature, and pressure on the soot properties of flames and the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames. However, recent studies suggest potential for fundamental differences between the laminar smoke point properties of buoyant and non-buoyant flames. Thus, the overall objective of present investigation was to measure the laminar smoke point properties of nonbuoyant flames, due to their relevance to many industrial processes where effects of buoyancy are small. Prior to this work, no experiments have been reported to assess these potential effects of buoyancy on laminar smoke point properties. Thus, the present objective was to measure the laminar smoke point flame lengths and residence times of nonbuoyant flames. The scope of the study was limited to round ethylene and propane jet diffusion flames burning in slightly vitiated air at pressures of 0.5--2.0 atm. A low-gravity test environment was used to obtain nonbuoyant flames at the small flow velocities characteristic of laminar smoke point conditions.

  13. A diffusion-diffusion model for percutaneous drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Ishizaki, T

    1986-08-01

    Several theories describing percutaneous drug absorption have been proposed, incorporating the mathematical solutions of differential equations describing percutaneous drug absorption processes where the vehicle and skin are regarded as simple diffusion membranes. By a solution derived from Laplace transforms, the mean residence time MRT and the variance of the residence time VRT in the vehicle are expressed as simple elementary functions of the following five pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing the percutaneous drug absorption: kd, which is defined as the normalized diffusion coefficient of the skin, kc, which is defined as the normalized skin-capillary boundary clearance, the apparent length of diffusion of the skin 1d, the effective length of the vehicle lv, and the diffusion coefficient of the vehicle Dv. All five parameters can be obtained by the methods proposed here. Results of numerical computation indicate that: concentration-distance curves in the vehicle and skin approximate two curves which are simply expressed using trigonometric functions when sufficient time elapses after an ointment application; the most suitable condition for the assumption that the concentration of a drug in the uppermost epidermis can be considered unchanged is the case where the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, and the constancy of drug concentration is even more valid when the effective length of the vehicle is large; and the amount of a drug in the vehicle or skin and the flow rate of the drug from vehicle into skin or from skin into blood becomes linear on a semilogarithmic scale, and the slopes of those lines are small when Dv is small, when the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, when lv is large, or when kc is small. A simple simulation method is also proposed using a biexponential for the concentration-time curve for the skin near the skin-capillary boundary, that is, the flow rate-time curve for drug passing from skin into blood. PMID:3772740

  14. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  15. Continuously variable focal length lens

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  16. Improvement of Spatial Uniformity of Nanosecond-Pulse Diffuse Discharges in a Multi-Needle-to-Plane Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale non-thermal plasmas generated by nanosecond-pulse discharges have been used in various applications, including surface treatment, biomedical treatment, flow control etc. In this paper, atmospheric-pressure diffuse discharge was produced by a homemade nanosecond-pulse generator with a full width at half maximum of 100 ns and a rise time of 70 ns. In order to increase the discharge area, multi-needle electrodes with a 3×3 array were designed. The electrical characteristics of the diffuse discharge array and optical images were investigated by the voltage-current waveforms and discharge images. The experimental results showed that the intensity of diffuse discharges in the center was significantly weaker than those at the margins, resulting in an inhomogeneous spatial uniformity in the diffuse discharge array. Simulation of the electric field showed that the inhomogeneous spatial uniformity was caused by the non-uniform distribution of the electric field in the diffuse discharge array. Moreover, the spatial uniformity of the diffuse discharge array could be improved by increasing the length of the needle in the centre of the array. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the simulation results, and the spatial uniformity of the nanosecond-pulse diffuse discharge array was significantly improved. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51222701, 51477164) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB239505-3)

  17. Can Transabdominal Cervical Length Measurement Exclude Short Cervix?

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Janine S; Park, Jennifer M; Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2016-04-01

    Objective This study aims to determine if transabdominal (TA) cervical length may be used to rule out a short cervix on transvaginal (TV) ultrasound. Study Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of women undergoing routine anatomic survey at 17 to 23 weeks gestation. TA and TV cervical length measurements were obtained in each patient. A short cervix was defined as TV cervical length < 30 mm. Predictive characteristics were calculated for different cutoff values of TA cervical length. Results There were 404 patients enrolled, a TA cervical length could not be obtained in 83 women (20.6%) and 318 women had both TA and TV measurements. Of those, 14 (4.4%) had a TV cervical length < 30 mm. TA cervical length measurement ≥ 35 mm excluded the possibility of TV cervical length < 30 mm (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.4; 100%). In our cohort, 67.6% (95% CI, 62.2; 72.7%) of TV ultrasounds could have been avoided using a TA cervical length cutoff of ≥ 35 mm. Conclusion ATA cervical length of at least 35 mm excludes a short cervix of < 30 mm. While TA cervical length screening may not be feasible in 1 in 5 women, it may be used to decrease the burden of universal TV cervical length screening. PMID:26523740

  18. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering in long-scale-length plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombant, D. G.; Manheimer, Wallace M.; Gardner, J.

    1983-10-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering in long-scale-length plasmas is calculated using a wave kinetic model. In these calculations use is made of computed hydrodynamic profiles for these plasmas. Results are presented for the parameters of the joint Naval Research Laboratory-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory experiments and for reactor size pellets of 5 mm characteristic length. Means of reducing high levels of backscattering for the latter case are investigated.

  19. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  20. Slip length measurement using BBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadzadegan, Adib; Snoeyink, Craig

    2015-11-01

    We will be presenting experimental characterizations of slip lengths of fluids in nano/micro channels. These channels are becoming increasingly important in sensor and separations applications. However, crucial questions still remain on the mechanisms that govern slip-length behavior. We used Bessel Beam microscopy (BBM), a novel super-resolution imaging system, in conjunction with TIRF system. These two, together led us to be able to do Particle Tracking Velocimetry with significantly higher accuracy than previously possible. We will be presenting results demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and advantages that make this method unique.

  1. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  2. Electromigration proximity effects of two neighboring fast-diffusion segments in single-crystal aluminum lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Y.-C.; Thompson, C. V.; Baker, S. P.; Arzt, E.

    1999-02-01

    In near-bamboo lines, electromigration-induced damage initiates at polygranular clusters which are longer than a critical length and which act as fast-diffusion segments. It has been proposed that two neighboring subcritical clusters can also lead to damage through the interaction of their stress fields. In order to prove the existence of, and to study, such proximity effects, artificial clusters were generated by creating continuous segments of plastic deformation in single-crystal aluminum lines using nanoindentation. Pairs of segments having different separation distances and lengths were made. In situ electromigration tests showed that these segments generated damage in the form of voids and hillocks even when the individual segments were shorter than the critical length. The void growth rate was found to be a function of the separation distance and segment length. A simple analytical model for the electromigration flux in these structures is shown to be consistent with the measured void growth rates. Electromigration characteristics such as the diffusivity, the effective charge, and the critical stress for void formation can be extracted from a comparison between experimental results and model predictions.

  3. Breakdown characteristics in atmosphere by TEA-CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Masugata, Katsumi; Kuroda, Takahiro; Ohmomo, Yoshihito; Imada, Go; Satoh, S.; Goto, Tatsumi; Yasuoka, Koichi; Tamagawa, Tohru

    1993-05-01

    The breakdown characteristics of a short-distance discharge gap in an atmosphere by TEA- CO2 laser have been studied to control the lightning artificially. It is efficient to enhance the probability of electrical breakdown induced if the focal point is set behind the discharge gap axis or near the negative high-voltage electrode. The length of the optical-breakdown plasma channel is elongated by using the micro-particles diffused in an atmosphere. Using 3 micrometers -diam. aluminum particles, the optical-breakdown threshold is lowered to 15 MW/cm2 compared to 0.5 GW/cm2 in the absence of the micro-particles.

  4. Diffusion of bed load particles subject to different flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchetto, Martina; Cotterle, Luca; Tregnaghi, Matteo; Tait, Simon; Marion, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An in-depth understanding of sediment motion in rivers has acquired increasing importance lately in order to plan restoration activities that provide ecological benefit. River beds constitute the interfacial environment where several species live and mass exchange of sediments/nutrients/pollutants can take place. Moving grains interacting with the bed deposit and can locally change the bed surface topography they can also act as carriers for contaminants associated with the grains. Study the motion of grains on the bed, in particular the extent and variability of their travel distance with regards to the flow conditions can provide information on the transport of grain associated contaminants. The results of a series of experimental tests, in which increasing levels of boundary shear stress were applied over a bed deposit of natural river gravel, are reported. Image databases consisted of a series of bed images acquired at a frequency of 45 Hz were collected. Analysis of the images has provided time and position data to plot the trajectories of more than 200 moving grains for each test. This data enables the derivation of the statistics of the un-truncated probability distribution of the detected particles' step length, which is consider as the distance moved by a particle from the moment it is entrained to the instant it stops on the bed. In recent studies the movement of bed load material has been indicated as diffusive, but little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of this diffusion. The analysis of the longitudinal and transverse trajectories for the tracked particles has here revealed three regimes of diffusion: a ballistic diffusion which takes place at the very beginning of particles motion, an anomalous intermediate regime, and a normal subdiffusion which occurs for larger times. Characteristic time scales separate these three diffusive regimes. Results show that in experiments with higher shear stresses the time scale separating the ballistic from the intermediate regime decreases, whereas an opposite trend is observed for the boundary between the intermediate and the final subdiffusion regime. This suggests that flow intensity influences the particle traveling time depending on the diffusive regime. An equivalent pattern emerges for the transversal diffusion, even if it is characterized by much smaller time scales. The simultaneous measurement of the 3D near bed flow field via a PIV system has allowed the grain velocity to be linked to the spatial averaged fluid velocity. Understanding the type of advective and diffusive process along with its mechanics can potentially allow for derivation of bed-load transport rate equations, able to replicate this behaviour, without the need of experimental measurements.

  5. Turbulence reduces magnetic diffusivity in DTS liquid sodium experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, S.; Schaeffer, N.; Nataf, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Earth, Sun and many other astrophysical bodies produce their own magnetic field by dynamo action, where induction of magnetic field by fluid motion overcomes the Joule dissipation when the magnetic Reynolds number Rm = UL/η is large enough (U and L are characteristic velocity and length-scale and η the magnetic diffusivity). Large scale motion of a conducting medium shearing pre-existing magnetic field lines is a well known process to produce large scale magnetic field by omega-effect. However, such a process cannot sustain a self-excited dynamo and small-scale turbulent motions are usually invoked as the appropriate mechanism to dynamo action. The contribution of turbulent fluctuations to the induction of mean magnetic field is investigated in our liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment, with an imposed magnetic field. Many measurements are used through an inversion technique to obtain a radial profile of alpha and beta effects together with the mean flow at magnetic Reynolds number Rm = 100. It appears that the small scale turbulent fluctuations can be modeled as a strong contribution to the magnetic diffusivity which is negative in the interior region and positive close to the outer shell.Direct numerical simulations of our experiment support these results. The lowering of the effective magnetic diffusivity by small scale fluctuations implies that turbulence can actually help to achieve self-generation of large scale magnetic fields.

  6. Turbulence Reduces Magnetic Diffusivity in DTS Liquid Sodium Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Simon; Nataf, Henri-Claude; Schaeffer, Nathanael

    2015-04-01

    Earth, Sun and many other astrophysical bodies produce their own magnetic field by dynamo action, where induction of magnetic field by fluid motion overcomes the Joule dissipation when the magnetic Reynolds number Rm = UL/η is large enough (U and L are characteristic velocity and length-scale and η the magnetic diffusivity). Large scale motion of a conducting medium shearing pre-existing magnetic field lines is a well known process to produce large scale magnetic field by omega-effect. However, such a process cannot sustain a self-excited dynamo and small-scale turbulent motions are usually invoked as the appropriate mechanism to dynamo action. The contribution of turbulent fluctuations to the induction of mean magnetic field is investigated in our liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment, with an imposed magnetic field. Many measurements are used through an inversion technique to obtain a radial profile of α and β effects together with the mean flow at magnetic Reynolds number Rm = 100. It appears that the small scale turbulent fluctuations can be modeled as a strong contribution to the magnetic diffusivity which is negative in the interior region and positive close to the outer shell.Direct numerical simulations of our experiment support these results. The lowering of the effective magnetic diffusivity by small scale fluctuations implies that turbulence can actually help to achieve self-generation of large scale magnetic fields.

  7. Mapping the exciton diffusion in semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

    PubMed

    Kholmicheva, Natalia; Moroz, Pavel; Bastola, Ebin; Razgoniaeva, Natalia; Bocanegra, Jesus; Shaughnessy, Martin; Porach, Zack; Khon, Dmitriy; Zamkov, Mikhail

    2015-03-24

    Colloidal nanocrystal solids represent an emerging class of functional materials that hold strong promise for device applications. The macroscopic properties of these disordered assemblies are determined by complex trajectories of exciton diffusion processes, which are still poorly understood. Owing to the lack of theoretical insight, experimental strategies for probing the exciton dynamics in quantum dot solids are in great demand. Here, we develop an experimental technique for mapping the motion of excitons in semiconductor nanocrystal films with a subdiffraction spatial sensitivity and a picosecond temporal resolution. This was accomplished by doping PbS nanocrystal solids with metal nanoparticles that force the exciton dissociation at known distances from their birth. The optical signature of the exciton motion was then inferred from the changes in the emission lifetime, which was mapped to the location of exciton quenching sites. By correlating the metal-metal interparticle distance in the film with corresponding changes in the emission lifetime, we could obtain important transport characteristics, including the exciton diffusion length, the number of predissociation hops, the rate of interparticle energy transfer, and the exciton diffusivity. The benefits of this approach to device applications were demonstrated through the use of two representative film morphologies featuring weak and strong interparticle coupling. PMID:25682881

  8. Resolving and measuring diffusion in complex interfaces: Exploring new capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd M.

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory LDRD targeted the use of a new high resolution spectroscopic diffusion capabilities developed at Sandia to resolve transport processes at interfaces in heterogeneous polymer materials. In particular, the combination of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments were used to directly explore interface diffusion within heterogeneous polymer composites, including measuring diffusion for individual chemical species in multi-component mixtures. Several different types of heterogeneous polymer systems were studied using these HRMAS NMR diffusion capabilities to probe the resolution limitations, determine the spatial length scales involved, and explore the general applicability to specific heterogeneous systems. The investigations pursued included a) the direct measurement of the diffusion for poly(dimethyl siloxane) polymer (PDMS) on nano-porous materials, b) measurement of penetrant diffusion in additive manufactures (3D printed) processed PDMS composites, and c) the measurement of diffusion in swollen polymers/penetrant mixtures within nano-confined aluminum oxide membranes. The NMR diffusion results obtained were encouraging and allowed for an improved understanding of diffusion and transport processes at the molecular level, while at the same time demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity that can be resolved using HRMAS NMR PFG diffusion experiment must be larger than ~μm length scales, expect for polymer transport within nanoporous carbons where additional chemical resolution improves the resolvable heterogeneous length scale to hundreds of nm.

  9. Persistent Criminality and Career Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

  10. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  11. SLOW DIFFUSIVE GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY BEFORE DECOUPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Todd A.

    2010-02-01

    Radiative diffusion damps acoustic modes at large comoving wavenumber (k) before decoupling ('Silk damping'). In a simple WKB analysis, neglecting moments of the temperature distribution beyond the quadrupole (the tight-coupling limit), damping appears in the acoustic mode as a term of order ik{sup 2}tau-dot{sup -1}, where tau-dot is the scattering rate per unit conformal time. Although the Jeans instability is stabilized on scales smaller than the adiabatic Jeans length, I show that the medium is linearly unstable to first order in tau-dot{sup -1} to a slow diffusive mode. At large comoving wavenumber, the characteristic growth rate becomes independent of spatial scale and constant: (t{sub KH} a){sup -1} approx (128piG/9kappa{sub T} c)(rho{sub m}/rho{sub b}), where a is the scale factor, rho{sub m} and rho{sub b} are the matter and baryon energy density, respectively, and kappa{sub T} is the Thomson opacity. This is the characteristic timescale for a fluid parcel to radiate away its total thermal energy content at the Eddington limit, analogous to the Kelvin-Helmholz (KH) timescale for a radiation pressure-dominated massive star or the Salpeter timescale for black hole growth. Although this mode grows at all times prior to decoupling and on scales smaller than roughly the horizon, the growth time is long, about 100 times the age of the universe at decoupling. Thus, it modifies the density and temperature perturbations on small scales only at the percent level. The physics of this mode in the tight-coupling limit is already accounted for in the popular codes CMBFAST and CAMB, but is typically neglected in analytic studies of the growth of primordial perturbations. The goal of this work is to clarify the physics of this diffusive instability in the epoch before decoupling, and to emphasize that the universe is formally unstable on scales below the horizon, even in the limit of very large tau-dot. Analogous instabilities that might operate at yet earlier epochs are also mentioned.

  12. Seismic Hazard and Fault Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N. M.; Jackson, D. D.; Mualchin, L.

    2005-12-01

    If mx is the largest earthquake magnitude that can occur on a fault, then what is mp, the largest magnitude that should be expected during the planned lifetime of a particular structure? Most approaches to these questions rely on an estimate of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, obtained by regression (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) of fault length (or area) and magnitude. Our work differs in two ways. First, we modify the traditional approach to measuring fault length, to allow for hidden fault complexity and multi-fault rupture. Second, we use a magnitude-frequency relationship to calculate the largest magnitude expected to occur within a given time interval. Often fault length is poorly defined and multiple faults rupture together in a single event. Therefore, we need to expand the definition of a mapped fault length to obtain a more accurate estimate of the maximum magnitude. In previous work, we compared fault length vs. rupture length for post-1975 earthquakes in Southern California. In this study, we found that mapped fault length and rupture length are often unequal, and in several cases rupture broke beyond the previously mapped fault traces. To expand the geologic definition of fault length we outlined several guidelines: 1) if a fault truncates at young Quaternary alluvium, the fault line should be inferred underneath the younger sediments 2) faults striking within 45° of one another should be treated as a continuous fault line and 3) a step-over can link together faults at least 5 km apart. These definitions were applied to fault lines in Southern California. For example, many of the along-strike faults lines in the Mojave Desert are treated as a single fault trending from the Pinto Mountain to the Garlock fault. In addition, the Rose Canyon and Newport-Inglewood faults are treated as a single fault line. We used these more generous fault lengths, and the Wells and Coppersmith regression, to estimate the maximum magnitude (mx) for the major faults in southern California. Then we compared our mx values with those proposed by CALTRANS, and those assumed in the 2002 USGS/CGS hazard model. To calculate the planning magnitude mp we assumed a truncated Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with parameters a, b, and mx. We fixed b and solved for the a-value in terms of mx, b, and the tectonic moment rate. For many faults mp is relatively insensitive to mx and typically falls off at higher magnitudes because the a-value decreases with increasing mx when the moment rate is constrained. Furthermore, we find that by increasing mx the cumulative earthquake rate actually decreases for smaller magnitude (5 and 6) events. This suggests that fewer magnitude 5 and 6 earthquakes are required to balance the moment budget if larger, but highly infrequent, earthquakes are allowed to occur.

  13. Multiport Diffuser as Line Source of Momentum in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph H.; Jirka, Gerhard H.

    1980-08-01

    Multiport diffusers are linear structures consisting of many closely spaced nozzles which inject a series of high-velocity jets into an ambient fluid. The discharge of heated water into the shallow coastal zone is considered herein as a typical practice for cooling water disposal from steam electric power generation. The flow and temperature fields, induced in the otherwise stagnant and homogeneous fluid layer, are analyzed by representing the diffuser as a line source of fluid momentum in a two-dimensional coordinate system, thus neglecting the initial momentum transfer zone in which the three-dimensional jets merge to produce a vertically fully mixed flow. A scaling argument which considers the effect of pressure deviations, turbulent bottom friction, and lateral turbulent diffusion shows that the flow field can be divided into the near field, of order of the diffuser length, and into the far field, at longer distances. The near field is characterized by a predominantly inviscid behavior and gives rise to a contracting slipstream motion, qualitatively similar to the slipstream produced by an airscrew. The shape of the slip streamline is found by mapping the complex potential of the flow into the log hodograph plane. The boundary conditions at the diffuser line are assumed to be a uniform normal velocity and a uniform longitudinal acceleration. The interior velocity and pressure distribution are determined through a finite difference solution using the known geometry of the slipstream. Results indicate a strong separation angle (60°) of the slipstream at the diffuser and a rapid approach to the asymptotic contraction value (½). An integral model is developed for the depth-averaged temperature and velocity in the far field of the `diffuser plume' (i.e., a localized current with elevated temperatures with weaker velocities and a uniform temperature outside). The model includes the effect of turbulent friction at the plume bottom, described by a quadratic friction law, and of lateral turbulent entrainment, described by the entrainment hypothesis of Morton et al. (1956). The far-field model is combined with the inviscid near-field solution, thus superimposing the real fluid effects onto the properties of the contracting slipstream. Two distinctive features characterize the diffuser plume. First, it experiences an exponential loss of fluid momentum through turbulent bottom friction which leads to an ultimate plume stagnation at a characteristic distance ƒ0LD/(16H), where ƒ0 is a quadratic friction coefficient, LD the diffuser length, and H the water depth, and also puts a limit on the total lateral entrainment flow. Second, the initial plume characteristics, and thus its rate of entrainment, are controlled by the accelerating high-velocity slipstream in the vicinity of the line source. Experiments in a shallow laboratory basin corroborate the theoretical results, both as regards the qualitative features of the contracting slipstream and the quantitative observations of induced velocities and flow rates.

  14. Numerical analysis of a vortex controlled diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spall, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of a prototypical vortex controlled diffuser is performed. The basic diffuser geometry consists of a step expansion in a pipe of area ratio 2.25:1. The incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, employing the K-epsilon turbulence model, are solved. Results are presented for bleed rates ranging from 1 to 7 percent. Diffuser efficiencies in excess of 80 percent are obtained. Reattachment lengths are reduced by a factor of up to 3. These results are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental work. However, differences in some basic details of experimentally observed and the present numerically generated flowfields exist. The effect of swirl is also investigated.

  15. Linear study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a diffusive quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, Mahdi

    2013-08-15

    The linear Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an incompressible quantum plasma is investigated on the basis of quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the occurrence of RT instability depends on density-temperature inhomogeneity (characteristic lengths) on one hand, and the system layer size on the other. It is also observed that the combined effects of external magnetic field, diffusivity, and quantum pressure significantly modify the dispersion properties of system in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. For any case, the imaginary and real parts of dispersion relation are presented and the possibility and conditions for the instability growth rate are discussed.

  16. Efficient document rendering with enhanced run length encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Bouman, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Document imaging and transmission systems (typically MFPs) require both effective and efficient image rendering methods that support standard data formats for a variety of document types, and allow for real time implementation. Since most conventional raster formats (e. g. TIFF, PDF, JPEG) are designed for use with either black and white text, or continuous-tone images, more specialized rendering methods are often required for representing mixed content documents. The baseline TIFF format supports a few binary compression options: PackBits, CCITT G3 and G4. Conventionally, halftoning algorithms, such as error diffusion, can be used to create a binary representation of a document image in the TIFF format. However, PackBits, CCITT G3 and G4 compression generally do not produce desired compression on halftone images. In this paper, we propose an efficient error diffusion algorithm optimized for PackBits compression. This method, which we refer to as POED (PackBits optimized error diffusion), is a form of threshold modulation error diffusion which takes advantage of the byte-oriented run length structure of PackBits compression by encouraging repetition of bytes in the resulting binary image. To maintain the sharpness of text, a binary segmentation algorithm is provided to switch off the adaptive error diffusion procedure and switch on the Floyd Steinberg error diffusion procedure in text regions. The POED method with PackBits compression yields higher compression ratios than the conventional error diffusion method, while maintaining desirable visual quality with low computational and memory requirements. We show experimental results to compare our method with the Floyd Steinberg error diffusion method.

  17. Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station facilities, cannot involve soot emitting flames in order to ensure that test chamber windows used for experimental observations are not blocked by soot deposits, thereby compromising unusually valuable experimental results. Another important motivation to define conditions where soot is present in diffusion flames is that flame chemistry, transport and radiation properties are vastly simplified when soot is absent, making such flames far more tractable for detailed numerical simulations than corresponding soot-containing flames. Motivated by these observations, the objectives of this phase of the investigation were as follows: (1) Observe flame-sheet shapes (the location of the reaction zone near phi=1) of nonluminous (soot free) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of flame-sheet shapes for these conditions; (2) Observe luminous flame boundaries of luminous (soot-containing) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of luminous flame boundaries for these conditions. In order to fix ideas here, maximum luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point conditions were sought, i.e., luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point; (3) Observe effects of coflow on laminar soot- and smoke-point conditions because coflow has been proposed as a means to control soot emissions and minimize the presence of soot in diffusion flames.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  20. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  1. The correlation length for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A.; Sari, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is argued that it is appropriate to consider two correlation lengths for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. For particles with gyro-radii large enough to encounter and be scattered by large-scale tangential discontinuities in the field (particles with energies greater than or approximately equal to several GeV/nucleon) the appropriate correlation length is simply the mean spatial separation between the discontinuities, L approximately 2 x 10 to the 11th power. Particles with gyro-radii much less than this mean separation (energies less than or approximately equal to 100 MeV/nucleon) appear to be unaffected by the discontinuities and respond only to smaller-scale field fluctuations. For these particles the correlation length is shown to be L approximately 10 to the 10th power cm. With this system of two correlation lengths the cosmic-ray diffusion tensor may be altered from what was predicted by, for example, Jokipii and Coleman, and the objections raised recently by Klimas and Sandri to the diffusion analysis of Jokipii may apply only at relatively low energies (approximately 50 MeV/nucleon).

  2. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  3. Critical waves and the length problem of biology

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and fringe counting. It is shown that suitable linear chemical potential waves can, in fact, be manufactured by tuning to criticality conventional reaction–diffusion with a small number substance. Min oscillations in Escherichia coli are cited as precedent resonant length measurement using chemical potential waves analogous to laser detection. Mitotic structures in eukaryotes are identified as candidates for such an effect at higher frequency. The engineering principle is shown to be very general and functionally the same as that used by hearing organs. PMID:26240329

  4. Design Optimization of Mixed-flow Pump Impellers and Diffusers in a Fixed Meridional Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung; Choi, Young-Seok; Lee, Kyoung-Yong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, design optimization for mixed-flow pump impellers and diffusers has been studied by using a commercial CFD code and DOE(design of experiments). We also discussed how to improve the performance of the mixed-flow pump by designing the impeller and diffuser in the mixed-flow pump. Geometric design variables were defined by the vane plane development which indicates the blade-angle distributions and length of the impeller and the diffusers. The vane plane development was controlled by using blade-angle in a fixed meridional shape. First the design optimization of the defined impeller geometric variables was done, and then the flow characteristics were analyzed in the point of incidence angle at the diffuser leading edge for the optimized impeller. Then design optimizations of the defined diffuser shape variables were performed. The importance of the geometric design variables was analyzed by using 2k factorial designs, and the design optimization of the geometric variables were determined using the response surface method. The objective functions are defined as the total head and the total efficiency at the design flow-rate. From the comparison of CFD results between optimized pump and base design model, the reason for the performance improvement was discussed.

  5. Diffusive Propagation of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Propagation Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisio, R.; Berezinsky, V.

    2004-09-01

    We present a detailed analytical study of the propagation of ultra-high-energy (UHE) particles in extragalactic magnetic fields. The crucial parameter that affects the diffuse spectrum is the separation between sources. In the case of a uniform distribution of sources with a separation between them much smaller than all characteristic propagation lengths, the diffuse spectrum of UHE particles has a universal form, independent of the mode of propagation. This statement has the status of theorem. The proof is obtained using the particle number conservation during propagation and also using the kinetic equation for the propagation of UHE particles. This theorem can be also proved with the help of the diffusion equation. In particular, it is shown numerically how the diffuse fluxes converge to this universal spectrum, when the separation between sources diminishes. We study also the analytic solution of the diffusion equation in weak and strong magnetic fields with energy losses taken into account. In the case of strong magnetic fields and for a separation between sources large enough, the GZK cutoff can practically disappear, as it has been found early in numerical simulations. In practice, however, the source luminosities required are too large for this possibility.

  6. Topological spin transport by Brownian diffusion of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2015-12-01

    We propose thermally populated domain walls (DWs) in an easy-plane ferromagnetic insulator as robust spin carriers between two metals. The chirality of a DW, which serves as a topological charge, couples to the metal spin accumulation via spin-transfer torque and results in the chirality-dependent thermal nucleation rates of DWs at the interface. After overpopulated DWs of a particular (net) chirality diffuse and leave the ferromagnet at the other interface, they reemit the spin current by spin pumping. The conservation of the topological charge supports an algebraic decay of spin transport as the length of the ferromagnet increases; this is analogous to the decaying behavior of superfluid spin transport but contrasts with the exponential decay of magnon spin transport. We envision that similar spin transport with algebraic decay may be implemented in materials with exotic spin phases by exploiting topological characteristics and the associated conserved quantities of their excitations.

  7. Softness Correlations Across Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Shavit, Amit; Rieser, Jennifer; Schoenholz, Samuel; Cubuk, Ekin; Durian, Douglas; Liu, Andrea; Riggleman, Robert

    In disordered systems, it is believed that mechanical failure begins with localized particle rearrangements. Recently, a machine learning method has been introduced to identify how likely a particle is to rearrange given its local structural environment, quantified by softness. We calculate the softness of particles in simulations of atomic Lennard-Jones mixtures, molecular Lennard-Jones oligomers, colloidal systems and granular systems. In each case, we find that the length scale characterizing spatial correlations of softness is approximately a particle diameter. These results provide a rationale for why localized rearrangements--whose size is presumably set by the scale of softness correlations--might occur in disordered systems across many length scales. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  8. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  9. Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  10. Critical length limiting superlow friction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452

  11. Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Rungaldier, Harald; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Schultz, Donald

    1997-01-01

    For about a half century, the stabilization of a steady planar deflagration on a heat-sink-type flat-flame burner has been of extraordinary service for the theoretical modeling and diagnostic probing of combusting gaseous mixtures. However, most engineering devices and most unwanted fire involve the burning of initially unmixed reactants. The most vigorous burning of initially separated gaseous fuel and oxidizer is the diffusion flame. In this useful idealization (limiting case), the reactants are converted to product at a mathematically thin interface, so no interpenetration of fuel and oxidizer occurs. This limit is of practical importance because it often characterizes the condition of optimal performance (and sometimes environmentally objectionable operation) of a combustor. A steady planar diffusion flame is most closely approached in the laboratory in the counterflow apparatus. The utility of this simple-strain-rate flow for the modeling and probing of diffusion flames was noted by Pandya and Weinberg 35 years ago, though only in the last decade or so has its use become internationally common place. However, typically, as the strain rate a is reduced below about 20 cm(exp -1), and the diffusion-flame limit (reaction rate much faster than the flow rate) is approached, the burning is observed to become unstable in earth gravity. The advantageous steady planar flow is not available in the diffusion-flame limit in earth gravity. This is unfortunate because the typical spatial scale in a counterflow is (k/a)(sup 1/2), where k denotes a characteristic diffusion coefficient; thus, the length scale becomes large, and the reacting flow is particularly amenable to diagnostic probing, as the diffusion-flame limit is approached. The disruption of planar symmetry is owing the fact that, as the strain rate a decreases, the residence time (l/a) of the throughput in the counterflow burner increases. Observationally, when the residence time exceeds about 50 msec, the inevitably present convective (Rayleigh-Benard) instabilities, associated with hot-under-cold (flame-under-fresh-reactant) stratification of fluid in a gravitational field, have time to grow to finite amplitude during transit of the burner.

  12. AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION HEATING IN TURBULENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pak Shing; Myers, Andrew; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: atmyers@berkeley.edu

    2012-11-20

    The temperature of the gas in molecular clouds is a key determinant of the characteristic mass of star formation. Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is considered one of the most important heating mechanisms in weakly ionized molecular clouds. In this work, we study the AD heating rate using two-fluid turbulence simulations and compare it with the overall heating rate due to turbulent dissipation. We find that for observed molecular clouds, which typically have Alfven Mach numbers of {approx}1 and AD Reynolds numbers of {approx}20, about 70% of the total turbulent dissipation is in the form of AD heating. AD has an important effect on the length scale where energy is dissipated: when AD heating is strong, most of the energy in the cascade is removed by ion-neutral drift, with a comparatively small amount of energy making it down to small scales. We derive a relation for the AD heating rate that describes the results of our simulations to within a factor of two. Turbulent dissipation, including AD heating, is generally less important than cosmic-ray heating in molecular clouds, although there is substantial scatter in both.

  13. Process length scales and longitudinal damping in karst conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, M. D.; Luhmann, A. J.; Wicks, C. M.; Saar, M. O.

    2012-03-01

    Simple mathematical models often allow an intuitive grasp of the function of physical systems. We develop a mathematical framework to investigate reactive or dissipative transport processes within karst conduits. Specifically, we note that for processes that occur within a characteristic timescale, advection along the conduit produces a characteristic process length scale. We calculate characteristic length scales for the propagation of thermal and electrical conductivity signals along karst conduits. These process lengths provide a quantitative connection between karst conduit geometry and the signals observed at a karst spring. We show that water input from the porous/fractured matrix is also characterized by a length scale and derive an approximation that accounts for the influence of matrix flow on the transmission of signals through the aquifer. The single conduit model is then extended to account for conduits with changing geometries and conduit flow networks, demonstrating how these concepts can be applied in more realistic conduit geometries. We introduce a recharge density function, ϕR, which determines the capability of an aquifer to damp a given signal, and cast previous explanations of spring variability within this framework. Process lengths are a general feature of karst conduits and surface streams, and we conclude with a discussion of other potential applications of this conceptual and mathematical framework.

  14. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A.; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50 μ m at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

  15. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Kirby, Neil; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-24

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

  16. Flux saturation length of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, T.; Kok, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment transport along the surface ("bedload", "saltation") drives geophysical phenomena as diverse as wind erosion and dune formation. The main length-scale controlling the dynamics of sediment erosion and deposition is the saturation length L, which characterizes the flux response to a change in transport conditions. L partially determines the dynamics of bedforms, such as dunes, for instance by dictating the wavelength of elementary dunes on a sediment surface and the minimal size of crescent-shaped barchan dunes. Here, we present an analytical model predicting L as a function of the average sediment velocity under different physical environments. Our model accounts for both the characteristics of sediment entrainment and the saturation of particle and fluid velocities, and has only two physical parameters which we estimated directly from independent experiments. We show that our model is consistent with measurements of L in both aeolian and subaqueous transport regimes over at least five orders of magnitude in the ratio of fluid and particle density, including on Mars.

  17. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  18. Nanoparticle Diffusion in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kalathi, Jagannathan; Yamamoto, Umi; Schweizer, Kenneth; Grest, Gary S.; Kumar, Sanat

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations show that nanoparticle (NP) diffusivity in weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymer melts has two very different classes of behavior depending on their size. NP relaxation times and their diffusivities are completely described by the local, Rouse dynamics of the polymer chains for NPs smaller than the polymer entanglement mesh size. The motion of larger NPs, which are comparable to the entanglement mesh size, is significantly slowed by chain entanglements, and is not describable by the Stokes-Einstein relationship. Our results are in essentially quantitative agreement with a force-level generalized Langevin equation theory for all the NP sizes and chain lengths explored, and imply that for these lightly entangled systems, activated NP hopping is not important.

  19. Cylindrical diffuser performance using a truncated plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanga, F. L.; Mueller, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Cylindrical diffuser performance for a truncated plug nozzle without external flow was tested in a blowdown wind tunnel. The nozzle was designed for an exit Mach number of 1.9 and the plug was conical in shape from the throat and converged to the axis of symmetry at an angle of 10 degrees. The diffuser section was fashioned into two 13.97 cm lengths to facilitate boring of the duct diameter and to allow for testing of two different duct lengths. A slotted hypotube was installed in the base of the diffuser to measure pressure distribution down the centerline of the diffuser. The data obtained included: the typical centerline and sidewall pressure ratio variation along the diffuser, cell pressure ratio vs overall pressure ratio for long and short diffusers and a comparison of minimum experimental cell pressure ratio vs area ratio.

  20. Diffusion tensor MRI phantom exhibits anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Allen Q; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Zhou, Feng-Lei; Yin, Ziying; Parker, Geoff J M; Magin, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports diffusion weighted MRI measurements of cyclohexane in a novel diffusion tensor MRI phantom composed of hollow coaxial electrospun fibers (average diameter 10.2 ?m). Recent studies of the phantom demonstrated its potential as a calibration standard at low b values (less than 1000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>) for mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. In this paper, we extend the characterization of cyclohexane diffusion in this heterogeneous, anisotropic material to high b values (up to 5000 s/mm<;sup>2<;/sup>), where the apparent diffusive motion of the cyclohexane exhibits anomalous behavior (i.e., the molecular mean squared displacement increases with time raised to the fractional power 2?/?). Diffusion tensor MRI was performed at 9.4 T using an Agilent imaging scanner and the data fit to a fractional order Mittag-Leffler (generalized exponential) decay model. Diffusion along the fibers was found to be Gaussian (2?/?=l), while diffusion across the fibers was sub-diffusive (2?/?<;l). Fiber tract reconstruction of the data was consistent with scanning electron micrograph images of the material. These studies suggest that this phantom material may be used to calibrate MR systems in both the normal (Gaussian) and anomalous diffusion regimes. PMID:25570066

  1. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  2. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  3. Cooperative Length Scale and Fragility of Polystyrene under Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Guo, Yunlong; Priestley, Rodney

    2012-02-01

    While thin films are an attractive model system to investigate the impact of confinement on glassy behavior, extending studies beyond thin films to geometries of higher dimensionalities is vital from both scientific and technological viewpoints. In this talk, we present the impact of confinement on the characteristic length at the glass transition as well as the fragility for confined polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles under isochoric conditions. We measure the glass transition temperature (Tg), fictive temperature (Tf) and isochoric heat capacity of silica-capped PS nanoparticles as a function of diameter via differential scanning calorimetry. From the measurement of Tf, we obtain the isochoric fragility, and via the fluctuation formula, the characteristic length at the glass transition. We illustrate that confinement under isochoric conditions for PS nanoparticles leads to a significant increase in the isochoric fragility while the characteristic length is reduced with size. At the minimum the results demonstrate a relationship between fragility and the characteristics length of isochorically-confined polymer that is not intuitive from the Adam-Gibbs theory.

  4. The Length of Time's Arrow

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-08-21

    An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergencebetween trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time's arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.

  5. Significance of Tumor Length as Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeybek, Arife; Erdoğan, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length ≥3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length ≤3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

  6. Control of arc length during gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Madigan, R.B.; Quinn, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    An arc-length control system has been developed for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) under spray transfer welding conditions. The ability to monitor and control arc length during arc welding allows consistent weld characteristics to be maintained and therefore improves weld quality. Arc length control has only been implemented for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), where an automatic voltage control (AVC) unit adjusts torch-to-work distance. The system developed here compliments the voltage- and current-sensing techniques commonly used for control of GMAW. The system consists of an arc light intensity sensor (photodiode), a Hall-effect current sensor, a personal computer and software implementing a data interpretation and control algorithms. Arc length was measured using both arc light and arc current signals. Welding current was adjusted to maintain constant arc length. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was used. Gains were automatically selected based on the desired welding conditions. In performance evaluation welds, arc length varied from 2.5 to 6.5 mm while welding up a sloped workpiece (ramp in CTWD) without the control. Arc length was maintained within 1 mm of the desired (5 mm ) with the control.

  7. Length dependence of carbon nanotube thermal conductivity and the "problem of long waves"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingo, N.; Broido, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first calculations of finite length carbon nanotube thermal conductivity that extend from the ballistic to the diffusive regime, throughout a very wide range of lengths and temperatures. The long standing problem of vanishing scattering of the "long wavelength phonf dramatically here, making the thermal conductivity diverge as the nanotube length increases. We show that the divergence disappears if 3-phonon scattering processes are considered to second or higher order. Nevertheless, for defect free nanotubes, the thermal conductivity keeps increasing up to very large lengths (10 gm at 300 K). Defects in the nanotube are also able to remove the long wavelength divergence.

  8. Telomere length and cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2012-06-01

    Telomeres are located at the end of chromosomes. They are composed of repetitive TTAGGG tandem repeats and associated proteins of crucial importance for telomere function. Telomeric DNA is shortened by each cell division until a critical length is achieved and the cell enters senescence and eventually apoptosis. Telomeres are therefore considered a 'biological clock' of the cell. Telomerase adds nucleotides to telomeric DNA thereby contributing to telomere maintenance, genomic stability, functions, and proliferative capacity of the cell. In certain rare forms of progeria, point mutations within the telomere lead to accelerated telomere attrition and premature aging. Endogenous factors causing telomere shortening are aging, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is inhibited by estrogen and endogenous antioxidants. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as age, gender, obesity, smoking, sedentary life-style, excess alcohol intake, and even mental stress. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and CV aging are usually but not invariably associated with shorter telomeres than in healthy subjects. LTL appears to be a biomarker of CV aging, reflecting the cumulative burden of endogenous and exogenous factors negatively affecting LTL. Whether accelerated telomere shortening is cause or consequence of CV aging and disease is not clear. PMID:22713142

  9. Topological analysis of polymeric melts: Chain-length effects and fast-converging estimators for entanglement length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Robert S.; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length Ne which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for Ne from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

  10. CALIBRATION OF THE MIXING-LENGTH THEORY FOR CONVECTIVE WHITE DWARF ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Steffen, M.

    2015-02-01

    A calibration of the mixing-length parameter in the local mixing-length theory (MLT) is presented for the lower part of the convection zone in pure-hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. The parameterization is performed from a comparison of three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD simulations with a grid of one-dimensional (1D) envelopes with a varying mixing-length parameter. In many instances, the 3D simulations are restricted to the upper part of the convection zone. The hydrodynamical calculations suggest, in those cases, that the entropy of the upflows does not change significantly from the bottom of the convection zone to regions immediately below the photosphere. We rely on this asymptotic entropy value, characteristic of the deep and adiabatically stratified layers, to calibrate 1D envelopes. The calibration encompasses the convective hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the effective temperature range 6000 ≤ T {sub eff} (K) ≤15, 000 and the surface gravity range 7.0 ≤ log g ≤ 9.0. It is established that the local MLT is unable to reproduce simultaneously the thermodynamical, flux, and dynamical properties of the 3D simulations. We therefore propose three different parameterizations for these quantities. The resulting calibration can be applied to structure and envelope calculations, in particular for pulsation, chemical diffusion, and convective mixing studies. On the other hand, convection has no effect on the white dwarf cooling rates until there is a convective coupling with the degenerate core below T {sub eff} ∼ 5000 K. In this regime, the 1D structures are insensitive to the MLT parameterization and converge to the mean 3D results, hence they remain fully appropriate for age determinations.

  11. Reactor core length, externally configured thermionic converter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Rouklove, P.

    1971-01-01

    Results of testing a converter having an external emitter configuration for 190 hours using RF induction heating. The converter was assembled with a rhenium emitter, 25.4 cm long, having a 91.2 sq cm emitting area, and a niobium collector with a molybdenum coating to improve its electronic property. The collector was water-cooled. The test included: static power output measurements, dynamic characteristics, and the effects of the temperature distribution along the emitter. The maximum power output achieved from the converter at an emitter temperature of 1942 K was 178 W at 0.48 V output, with a power density of 1.95 W/sq cm and an efficiency of 5.5%. The static characteristics also indicated that, with a constant power input, the converter power output does not vary with the output voltage as a result of self-adjustment of the emitter temperature. An investigation of the effects of the temperature distribution along the emitter length showed a 33% improvement in the converter output power with a flattening of the emitter temperature.

  12. Applicability of Mixing Length Theory to a Turbulent Vortex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, Robert G.

    1961-01-01

    The ability of mixing length theory to correlate vortex data is evaluated. Expressions are derived for eddy diffusivity by applying the techniques of von Karman and Prandtl which have been established for pipe flow. Total and static pressures were measured from the outer radius to the exhaust-nozzle radius of a vortex generator for a range of mass flows. These data are combined with Navier-Stokes solutions for this region of a compressible vortex to determine turbulent Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds number is related to Prandtl and Karman functions for various assumed boundary conditions, and the experimental data are used to determine the usefulness of these expressions. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Mixing length functions developed by applying von Karman's similarity hypothesis to vortex motion correlate the data better than do Prandtl functions obtained with the assumption that mixing length is proportional to radius. (2) Some of the expressions developed do not adequately represent the experimental data. (3) The data are correlated with acceptable scatter by evaluating the fluid radial inertia at the outer boundary and the shear stress at the inner boundary. The universal constant K was found to be 0.04 to 0.08, rather than the value of 0.4 which is accepted for rectilinear flow. (4) The data are best correlated by a modified Karman expression which includes an effect of radial inertia, as well as shear stress, on eddy diffusivity.

  13. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  14. Geometry of area without length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  15. The response of the upper atmosphere to perturbations from diffusive equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is generally assumed that, in the atmosphere above 120 km, the deviations from diffusive equilibrium are small, though a minor constituent may show some deviation. The response of such a constituent to perturbations from diffusive equilibrium was analyzed qualitatively. It is shown that the magnitude of these deviations is mainly determined by the characteristic diffusion time. For a time-dependent perturbation, the ratio of the characteristic time of the perturbation to the characteristics diffusion time is an important parameter.

  16. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  17. Enhancing phosphorylation cascades by anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, M.; Heermann, D. W.; Weiss, M.

    2012-03-01

    A key event in many cellular signaling cascades is the multiple phosphorylation of proteins by specialized kinases. A prototypical example is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that alters the cell's gene transcription after having been phosphorylated twice by the same kinase. Here, we show that anomalous diffusion, induced, for example, by cytoplasmic crowding, can significantly improve the activation of MAPK. Our results on anomalous diffusion with the characteristics of fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion compare favorably to very recent biochemical data on MAPK activation at varying degrees of cytoplasmic crowding. Our results predict any Michaelis-Menten scheme in which a substrate is modified by the same enzyme several times to show an increased performance due to anomalous diffusion when dissociation rates of the intermediate enzyme-substrate complexes are high while the irreversible catalytic step is slow. Thus, crowding-induced anomalous diffusion can strongly alter the behavior of many cellular signaling pathways.

  18. The Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Contributed papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Drawing a coherent picture of the observational characteristics of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB's) and the physical and chemical properties of its proposed carriers was the focus of this NASA sponsored conference. Information relating to absoption spectra, diffuse radiation carriers, carbon compounds, stellar composition, and interstellar extinction involving T-Tauri stars, Reflection Nebulae, Red Giants, and accretion discs are discussed from those papers presented at the conference, which are included in this analytic.

  19. An Efficient Variable-Length Data-Compression Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Kiely, Aaron B.

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive variable-length coding scheme for compression of stream of independent and identically distributed source data involves either Huffman code or alternating run-length Huffman (ARH) code, depending on characteristics of data. Enables efficient compression of output of lossless or lossy precompression process, with speed and simplicity greater than those of older coding schemes developed for same purpose. In addition, scheme suitable for parallel implementation on hardware with modular structure, provides for rapid adaptation to changing data source, compatible with block orientation to alleviate memory requirements, ensures efficiency over wide range of entropy, and easily combined with such other communication schemes as those for containment of errors and for packetization.

  20. Modeling Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Degradation due to Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP uses a solar diffuser (SD) as on-board radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band (RSB) calibration. Solar diffuser is made of Spectralon (one type of fluoropolymer) and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region and its near-Lambertian reflectance profile. Spectralon is known to degrade in reflectance at the blue end of the spectrum due to exposure to space radiations such as solar UV radiation and energetic protons. These space radiations can modify the Spectralon surface through breaking C-C and C-F bonds and scissioning or cross linking the polymer, which causes the surface roughness and degrades its reflectance. VIIRS uses a SDSM (Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 um wavelength range and provide a correction to the calibration constants. The H factor derived from SDSM reveals that reflectance of 0.4 to 0.6um channels of VIIRS degrades faster than the reflectance of longer wavelength RSB channels. A model is developed to derive characteristic parameters such as mean SD surface roughness height and autocovariance length of SD surface roughness from the long term spectral degradation of SD reflectance as monitored by SDSM. These two parameters are trended to assess development of surface roughness of the SD over the operation period of VIIRS.

  1. UPDATING APPLIED DIFFUSION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Socie...

  2. The transition from diffuse to dense clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Theodore P.

    Studies of the relatively diffuse interstellar clouds where variations in the properties of the diffuse interstellar bands occur are reviewed, and the possible relationship between dust properties, as indicated by UV extinction, and other cloud characteristics is explored, with emphasis placed on relatively dense diffuse clouds. Some results from the literature on transitional or intermediate clouds are reviewed, and some recent findings are presented on one particular cloud, in front of the star BD+31 deg 643, in the small open cluster IC348, which is part of the Perseus II complex of dark clouds and OB associations. Tentative speculations about the possible status of the transitional clouds are discussed.

  3. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  4. Electron spin diffusion and transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Wu, M. W.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the spin diffusion and transport in a graphene monolayer on SiO2 substrate by means of the microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach. The substrate causes a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling field ~0.15 meV, which might be accounted for by the impurities initially present in the substrate or even the substrate-induced structure distortion. By surface chemical doping with Au atoms, this Rashba spin-orbit coupling is further strengthened as the adatoms can distort the graphene lattice from sp2 to sp3 bonding structure. By fitting the Au doping dependence of spin relaxation from Pi [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.187201 104, 187201 (2010)], the Rashba spin-orbit coupling coefficient is found to increase approximately linearly from 0.15 to 0.23 meV with the increase of Au density. With this strong spin-orbit coupling, the spin diffusion or transport length is comparable with the experimental values. In the strong scattering limit (dominated by the electron-impurity scattering in our study), the spin diffusion is uniquely determined by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength and insensitive to the temperature, electron density, as well as scattering. With the presence of an electric field along the spin injection direction, the spin transport length can be modulated by either the electric field or the electron density. It is shown that the spin diffusion and transport show an anisotropy with respect to the polarization direction of injected spins. The spin diffusion or transport lengths with the injected spins polarized in the plane defined by the spin-injection direction and the direction perpendicular to the graphene are identical, but longer than that with the injected spins polarized vertical to this plane. This anisotropy differs from the one given by the two-component drift-diffusion model, which indicates equal spin diffusion or transport lengths when the injected spins are polarized in the graphene plane and relatively shorter lengths when the injected spins are polarized perpendicular to the graphene plane.

  5. Comparison of diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods to monitor volatile organic compounds in ground water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 1999-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to pumped-sampling methods in a long-term monitoring program, such as at the Massachusetts Military Reservation.

  6. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  7. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  8. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and

  9. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  10. Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Hydrogen Gas Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, Burt W.; Agrawal, Ajay K.; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were performed in earth-gravity to determine how buoyancy affected transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hydrogen gas jet diffusion flames. The jet exit Froude number characterizing buoyancy in the flame was varied from 1.65 x 10(exp 5) to 1.14 x 10(exp 8) by varying the operating pressure and/or burner inside diameter. Laminar fuel jet was discharged vertically into ambient air flowing through a combustion chamber. Flame characteristics were observed using rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a line-of-site optical diagnostic technique. Results show that the breakpoint length for a given jet exit Reynolds number increased with increasing Froude number. Data suggest that buoyant transitional flames might become laminar in the absence of gravity. The schlieren technique was shown as effective in quantifying the flame characteristics.

  11. Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Wolfgang

    2011-04-27

    We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

  12. Fibreoptic diffuse-light irradiators of biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Vladimir V; Loshchenov, V B; Konov, Vitalii I; Kononenko, Vitalii V

    2010-10-15

    We report techniques for the fabrication of laser radiation diffusers for interstitial photodynamic therapy. Using chemical etching of the distal end of silica fibre with a core diameter of 200 - 600 {mu}m, we have obtained long (up to 40 mm) diffusers with good scattering uniformity. Laser ablation has been used to produce cylindrical diffusers with high emission contrast and a scattering uniformity no worse than {approx}10 % in their middle part. The maximum length of the diffusers produced by this method is 20 - 25 mm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. The gravel-sand transition: Sediment dynamics in a diffuse extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, Jeremy G.; Domarad, Natalia; Church, Michael; Rennie, Colin D.

    2015-06-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine in the downstream direction, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bedded conditions. The prevailing theory for why abrupt gravel-sand transitions emerge is based on bed load sorting of a bimodal sediment. The abruptness is thought to be a consequence of sand overwhelming the gravel-sand mixture once it reaches a critical coverage on the bed. The role suspension plays in the development of gravel-sand transitions has not been fully appreciated. The Fraser River, British Columbia, is an archetypical abrupt gravel-sand transition with a "diffuse extension" composed of a sand bed with some patches of gravel. We examine flow, shear stress, and suspended sediment flux in the diffuse extension to better understand sediment dynamics where the sand bed emerges. Sand is carried in suspension upstream of the primary abrupt gravel-sand transition, but in the diffuse extension, sand is moved as both bed load and suspended load. We do not observe downstream gradients in shear stress or suspended sand flux through the diffuse extension that would suggest a gradual "rain out" of sand moving downstream, which raises the question, how is the sand bed formed? Sediment advection length scales indicate that with the exception of very fine sand that moves as wash load in the diffuse extension, fractions coarser than the median sand size cannot be carried in suspension for more than one channel width. This suggests that sand is deposited en masse at the beginning of the diffuse extension, forming a sediment slug at low flood flows that is smeared downstream at high flood flows to form the sand reach.

  14. Numerical study of a macroscopic finite pulse model of the diffusion MRI signal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Rebecca; Nguyen, Hang Tuan; Nguyen, Dang Van; Haddar, Houssem; Coatléven, Julien; Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is an imaging modality that probes the diffusion characteristics of a sample via the application of magnetic field gradient pulses. The dMRI signal from a heterogeneous sample includes the contribution of the water proton magnetization from all spatial positions in a voxel. If the voxel can be spatially divided into different Gaussian diffusion compartments with inter-compartment exchange governed by linear kinetics, then the dMRI signal can be approximated using the macroscopic Karger model, which is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs), under the assumption that the duration of the diffusion-encoding gradient pulses is short compared to the diffusion time (the narrow pulse assumption). Recently, a new macroscopic model of the dMRI signal, without the narrow pulse restriction, was derived from the Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation (PDE) using periodic homogenization techniques. When restricted to narrow pulses, this new homogenized model has the same form as the Karger model. We conduct a numerical study of the new homogenized model for voxels that are made up of periodic copies of a representative volume that contains spherical and cylindrical cells of various sizes and orientations and show that the signal predicted by the new model approaches the reference signal obtained by solving the full Bloch-Torrey PDE in O(ε(2)), where ε is the ratio between the size of the representative volume and a measure of the diffusion length. When the narrow gradient pulse assumption is not satisfied, the new homogenized model offers a much better approximation of the full PDE signal than the Karger model. Finally, preliminary results of applying the new model to a voxel that is not made up of periodic copies of a representative volume are shown and discussed. PMID:25314082

  15. Numerical study of a macroscopic finite pulse model of the diffusion MRI signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-Rebecca; Nguyen, Hang Tuan; Van Nguyen, Dang; Haddar, Houssem; Coatléven, Julien; Le Bihan, Denis

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is an imaging modality that probes the diffusion characteristics of a sample via the application of magnetic field gradient pulses. The dMRI signal from a heterogeneous sample includes the contribution of the water proton magnetization from all spatial positions in a voxel. If the voxel can be spatially divided into different Gaussian diffusion compartments with inter-compartment exchange governed by linear kinetics, then the dMRI signal can be approximated using the macroscopic Karger model, which is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs), under the assumption that the duration of the diffusion-encoding gradient pulses is short compared to the diffusion time (the narrow pulse assumption). Recently, a new macroscopic model of the dMRI signal, without the narrow pulse restriction, was derived from the Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation (PDE) using periodic homogenization techniques. When restricted to narrow pulses, this new homogenized model has the same form as the Karger model. We conduct a numerical study of the new homogenized model for voxels that are made up of periodic copies of a representative volume that contains spherical and cylindrical cells of various sizes and orientations and show that the signal predicted by the new model approaches the reference signal obtained by solving the full Bloch-Torrey PDE in O (ε2) , where ε is the ratio between the size of the representative volume and a measure of the diffusion length. When the narrow gradient pulse assumption is not satisfied, the new homogenized model offers a much better approximation of the full PDE signal than the Karger model. Finally, preliminary results of applying the new model to a voxel that is not made up of periodic copies of a representative volume are shown and discussed.

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  17. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  18. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  1. Real-Valued Semigroups and (Causal) Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kowar, Richard

    2011-09-22

    It can be shown that a process modeled by a strongly continuous real-valued semigroup (that has a space convolution operator as infinitesimal generator) cannot satisfy causality. By causality we mean that a characteristic feature of a process like an interface or a front must propagate with a finite speed. We present and discuss a causal model of diffusion that satisfies the semigroup property at a discrete set of time instants M:={l_brace}m{tau}|m is an element of N{sub 0}{r_brace} and that in contrast to the classical diffusion model is not smooth. More precisely, if v denotes the concentration of a substance diffusing with constant speed, then v is continuous but its time derivative is discontinuous at the discrete set M of time instants. It is this property of (causal) diffusion that forbids the classical limit procedure {tau}{yields}0 that leads to the noncausal diffusion model in Stochastics. Finally, we give two explanations why in some cases the discretization of the noncausal diffusion model can be considered as an approximation of the causal diffusion model. In particular, we present an inhomogeneous wave equation with a time dependent coefficient that is satisfied by causal diffusion.

  2. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319

  3. Titanium diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti has been characterized in natural olivine and synthetic forsterite. Experiments on the natural olivines were run under buffered conditions (IW and NNO), and those on synthetic forsterite were run in air. Titanium diffusion appears relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation and oxygen fugacity under the range of investigated conditions, and diffusivities are similar for Fe-bearing olivine and forsterite. For Ti diffusion in synthetic forsterite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for diffusion over the temperature range 900-1400 °C:

  4. Diffusion in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusion in heterogeneous media has been investigated for over forty years. However, the fundamental equations for bulk (effective) diffusivity in multi-phase systems were incorrect because of the use of an inappropriate similarity between diffusion and other physical properties such as thermal conductivity. The mistake has permeated through the literature and textbooks. Specifically, the role of concentration partitioning between different phases in diffusion was not considered in such similarity relations. In this work, we present the correct method to derive such relations in heterogeneous media. Barrer [1] used the similarity between diffusivity and thermal conductivity to derive the relation between the bulk (effective) diffusivity and the individual-phase diffusivities. The approach was followed by many others [2-4]. Unfortunately the similarity approach by Barrer [1] is incorrect because there is also dissimilarity. The key difference is that, even though heat conduction and mass diffusion are characterized by a similar flux equation, in heat conduction, T is continuous across phase boundaries, whereas in diffusion, C is usually not continuous across phase boundaries. The concentration in each phase plays a major role in controlling the contribution by the phase to the bulk diffusive flux and hence the bulk diffusivity. For example, if the concentration of a component in a phase is very low, even if the diffusivity in the phase is high, the contribution of diffusion in that phase to the bulk diffusion flux can still be negligible. Hence, previous models for diffusivity in composite materials or multi-mineral rocks, no matter how sophisticated, are fundamentally wrong because the foundation is a mistake. Correcting the mistake is straightforward. The mass flux can be written in terms of chemical potential and mobility [5,6]. Because chemical potential is continuous across phase boundaries, the relation between bulk mobility and individual-phase mobilities is the same as that between bulk heat conductivity and individual-phase heat conductivities. That is, all previous relations for diffusion cannot be directly applied to diffusivities, but can be applied to mobilities. Then, from the relation between diffusivity and mobility, the correct equations can be obtained, as will be shown in the presentation. [1] Barrer (1968) Diffusion in Polymers, Academic Press, 165. [2] Crank (1975) The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press. [3] Brady (1983) Am. J. Sci. 283A, 181. [4] Torquato et al. (1999) J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1560. [5] Lesher (1994) J Geophys. Res. 99, 9585. [6] Zhang (1993) J Geophys. Res. 98, 11901.

  5. Compact noninvasive electron bunch-length monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B.; Mammei, R. R.; Poelker, M.; McCarter, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    A compact rf cavity was constructed that simultaneously resonates at many harmonic modes when excited by a repetitive bunched electron beam passing through its bore. The excitation of these modes provides a Fourier description of the temporal characteristics of the bunch train. The cavity was used to noninvasively characterize electron bunches produced from thin and thick GaAs photocathodes inside a DC high voltage photogun illuminated with 37 ps (full width half maximum, FWHM) laser pulses at repetition rates near 1500 MHz, at average beam current from 5 to 500μA, and at beam energy from 75 to 195 keV. The cavity bunch-length monitor could detect electron bunches as short as 57 ps (FWHM) when connected directly to a sampling oscilloscope, and could clearly distinguish bunches with varying degrees of space-charge induced growth and with different tail signatures. Efforts are under way to detect shorter bunches by designing cavities with increased bandwidth. This demonstration lends credibility to the idea that these cavities could also be used for other applications, including bunching and shaping, when driven with external rf.

  6. Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: simplicity behind complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Herein, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures. PMID:26245801

  7. Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: simplicity behind complexity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Herein, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures. PMID:26245801

  8. Trouble with diffusion: Reassessing hillslope erosion laws with a particle-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Gregory E.; Bradley, D. Nathan

    2010-03-01

    Many geomorphic systems involve a broad distribution of grain motion length scales, ranging from a few particle diameters to the length of an entire hillslope or stream. Studies of analogous physical systems have revealed that such broad motion distributions can have a significant impact on macroscale dynamics and can violate the assumptions behind standard, local gradient flux laws. Here, a simple particle-based model of sediment transport on a hillslope is used to study the relationship between grain motion statistics and macroscopic landform evolution. Surface grains are dislodged by random disturbance events with probabilities and distances that depend on local microtopography. Despite its simplicity, the particle model reproduces a surprisingly broad range of slope forms, including asymmetric degrading scarps and cinder cone profiles. At low slope angles the dynamics are diffusion like, with a short-range, thin-tailed hop length distribution, a parabolic, convex upward equilibrium slope form, and a linear relationship between transport rate and gradient. As slope angle steepens, the characteristic grain motion length scale begins to approach the length of the slope, leading to planar equilibrium forms that show a strongly nonlinear correlation between transport rate and gradient. These high-probability, long-distance motions violate the locality assumption embedded in many common gradient-based geomorphic transport laws. The example of a degrading scarp illustrates the potential for grain motion dynamics to vary in space and time as topography evolves. This characteristic renders models based on independent, stationary statistics inapplicable. An accompanying analytical framework based on treating grain motion as a survival process is briefly outlined.

  9. Measurement of Diffusion in Entangled Rod-Coil Triblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, B. D.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-01

    Although rod-coil block copolymers have attracted increasing attention for functional nanomaterials, their dynamics relevant to self-assembly and processing have not been widely investigated. Because the rod and coil blocks have different reptation behavior and persistence lengths, the mechanism by which block copolymers will diffuse is unclear. In order to understand the effect of the rigid block on reptation, tracer diffusion of a coil-rod-coil block copolymer through an entangled coil polymer matrix was experimentally measured. A monodisperse, high molecular weight coil-rod-coil triblock was synthesized using artificial protein engineering to prepare the helical rod and bioconjugaiton of poly(ethylene glycol) coils to produce the final triblock. Diffusion measurements were performed using Forced Rayleigh scattering (FRS), at varying ratios of the rod length to entanglement length, where genetic engineering is used to control the protein rod length and the polymer matrix concentration controls the entanglement length. As compared to PEO homopolymer tracers, the coil-rod-coil triblocks show markedly slower diffusion, suggesting that the mismatch between rod and coil reptation mechanisms results in hindered diffusion of these molecules in the entangled state.

  10. The effect of cavitation on the hydrofoil dynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhi, F. L.

    2013-12-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic machinery usually causes a change of fluid dynamic characteristics. In order to predict the effect of cavitation on hydrofoil characteristics, the cavitation around a hydrofoil was studied numerically. The full cavitation model and a modified RNG k ε-turbulence model were used. The finite volume method with the SIMPLEC scheme was used to discretize the time-dependent equations. The second-order upwind scheme was used for the convection terms with the central difference scheme used for the diffusion terms. Fluid dynamic characteristics including cavity's length, shedding frequency, pressure coefficient and lift and drag force coefficients features in a range of cavitation number were analyzed. Computations were made on the three-dimensional flow field around a NACA66 hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack. The recording force signals exhibit periodic behaviours with the time. And the cavity shedding frequency increases with the cavitation number, however the length of cavity decreases with the cavitation number, which result in changing of lift-drag ratio. Especially for larger cavitation numbers, the lift drag ratio of cavitation field is getting closer and closer to that of non-cavitation field.

  11. Analysis of factors important for measurements of focal length of optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, P.; Opat, J.; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Novák, P.

    2015-09-01

    A focal length is a basic optical characteristic of an optical system. Thus, it is important to be able to measure this value for a given optical system very accurately in practice. At present there exist various physical principles of the focal length measurement which can achieve a different measurement accuracy. In our work we analyse several methods of measurement of the focal length with respect to factors, which are important for a measurement accuracy. The analysis is performed on examples.

  12. Diffusion of Particles in Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liheng; Rubinstein, Michael

    2010-03-01

    We use scaling theory to derive the time dependence of the mean-square-displacement <δr^2> of a probe particle of size d in an entangled semidilute polymer solution. Particles with size smaller than solution correlation length ξ undergo ordinary diffusion (<δr^2 (t)>˜t) with diffusion coefficient determined by the solvent viscosity. The motion of particles with intermediate sizes (ξ˜t^1/2) at short time scales since their motion is affected by sub-sections of polymer chains. At long time scales the motion of these particles is diffusive and their diffusion coefficient is determined by effective viscosity of a polymer solution with chains of size comparable to particle diameter d. The motion of particles larger than tube diameter (d>a) at time scales shorter than the relaxation time of an entanglement strand τe is similar to the motion of particles with intermediate sizes. At longer time scales (t>τe) large particles (d>a) are trapped by entanglement mesh and cannot move until the surrounding chains relax at the reptation time scale τrep. At longer times t>τrep, the motion of large particles becomes diffusive with diffusion coefficient determined by the bulk viscosity of the entangled polymer solution.

  13. Instability of Stratified Shear Flow: Intermittency and Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Odier, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The stability of stratified shear flows which occur in oceanic overflows, wind-driven thermoclines, and atmospheric inversion layers is governed by the Richardson Number Ri , a non-dimensional balance between stabilizing stratification and destabilizing shear. For a shear flow with velocity difference U, density difference Δρ and characteristic length H, one has Ri = g (Δρ / ρ) H /U2 . A more precise definition is the gradient Richardson Number Rig =N2 /S2 where the buoyancy frequency N =√{ (g / ρ) ∂ρ / ∂z } , the mean strain S = ∂U / ∂z with z parallel to gravity and with ensemble or time averages defining the gradients. We explore the stability and mixing properties of a wall-bounded shear flow for 0 . 1 < Rig < 1 using simultaneous measurements of density and velocity fields. The flow, confined from the top by a horizontal boundary, is a lighter alcohol-water mixture injected from a nozzle into quiescent heavier salt-water fluid. The injected flow is turbulent with Taylor Reynolds number about 75. We compare a set of length scales that characterize the mixing properties of our turbulent stratified shear flow including Thorpe Length LT, Ozmidov Length LO, and Ellison Length LE.

  14. Static lengths in glass-forming monodisperse hard-sphere fluids from periodic array pinning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxing; Milner, Scott T

    2015-12-23

    We explore the static length in glass-forming hard-sphere liquids revealed by the response of dynamical properties (diffusion coefficient D and α relaxation time τα) to a regular array of pinned particles. By assuming a universal scaling form, we find data can be excellently collapsed onto a master curve, from which relative length scales can be extracted. By exploiting a crystal-avoiding simulation method that suppresses crystallization while preserving dynamics, we can study monodisperse as well as polydisperse systems. The static length obtained from dynamical property Q (τα and D) scales as log Q ∼ ξ, with ψ ≈ 1. PMID:26473276

  15. Going up in time and length scales in modeling polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.

    Polymer properties depend on a wide range of coupled length and time scales, with unique macroscopic viscoelastic behavior stemming from interactions at the atomistic level. The need to probe polymers across time and length scales and particularly computational modeling is inherently challenging. Here new paths to probing long time and length scales including introducing interactions into traditional bead-spring models and coarse graining of atomistic simulations will be compared and discussed. Using linear polyethylene as a model system, the degree of coarse graining with two to six methylene groups per coarse-grained bead derived from a fully atomistic melt simulation were probed. We show that the degree of coarse graining affects the measured dynamic. Using these models we were successful in probing highly entangled melts and were able reach the long-time diffusive regime which is computationally inaccessible using atomistic simulations. We simulated the relaxation modulus and shear viscosity of well-entangled polyethylene melts for scaled times of 500 µs. Results for plateau modulus are in good agreement with experiment. The long time and length scale is coupled to the macroscopic viscoelasticity where the degree of coarse graining sets the minimum length scale instrumental in defining polymer properties and dynamics. Results will be compared to those obtained from simple bead-spring models to demonstrate the additional insight that can be gained from atomistically inspired coarse grained models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Quantitative diffusion coefficient maps using fast spin-echo MRI.

    PubMed

    Brockstedt, S; Thomsen, C; Wirestam, R; Holts, S; Sthlberg, F

    1998-10-01

    In this work, we have evaluated the performance of a diffusion-sensitive fast spin-echo (FSE) pulse sequence. The proposed pulse sequence utilises velocity-compensating diffusion-encoding gradients and includes the collection of navigator echoes. Spoiler gradients were inserted in the slice-selecting direction to minimise effects from stimulated echoes. Calculations of the b values showed that cross-terms between imaging gradients and diffusion gradients only led to a marginal increase of b values. Pixel-wise calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps was performed numerically, considering cross-terms between diffusion-encoding and imaging gradients. The sequences investigated used echo train lengths of 16, 8 and 4 echoes and were encoded in either the slice-, frequency- or phase-encoding direction. In order to allow for higher b values a pulse-sequence version using non-motion compensating diffusion-encoding gradients was written. Phantom measurements were performed and the diffusion coefficients of water and acetone were reasonable. Seven healthy volunteers (age 28-50 years) were examined and apparent diffusion coefficient values agreed well with expected values. Diffusion-weighted images, apparent diffusion coefficient maps and images corresponding to the trace of the diffusion tensor of good quality were retrieved in vivo. PMID:9814769

  17. Holographic diffuser by use of a silver halide sensitized gelatin process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Yoon Sun; Ham, Yong Nam; Park, Chong Yun; Kim, Jong Man

    2003-05-10

    Diffusers play an important role in liquid crystal display (LCD) application as a beam-shaping device, a brightness homogenizer, a light-Scattering device, and an imaging screen. The transmittance and diffusing angle of the diffusers are the critical aspects for the applications to the LCD. The holographic diffusers by use of various processing methods have been investigated. The diffusing characteristics of different diffusing materials and processing methods have been evaluated and compared. The microstructures of holographic diffuse have been investigated by use of using scanning electron microscopy. The holographic diffusers by use of the silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) method have the structural merits for the improvement of the quality of diffusers. The features of holographic diffuser were exceptional in terms of transmittance and diffusing angle. The replication method by use of the SHSG process can be directly used for the manufacturing of diffusers for the display application. PMID:12749559

  18. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2004-05-01

    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.

  19. Polarization characteristics of a linearly polarized laser beam after hollow light pipe in projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, PengFei; Zhang, Shengtao; Wang, Yanhong; Shi, Yunbo; Chen, XuYuan

    2012-11-01

    In this work, a multilayered dielectric film and metallic film are used as reflecting surface to fabricate light pipe. Linearly polarized laser beam with wave length of 532nm enters into the light pipe. After multi-reflection process, laser beam come out from the light pipe. We have found that the polarization state of linearly polarized incident light after reflection are different for the light pipe coated with metal and multilayered dielectric film. We also found a distributed polarization characteristic in the output optical field. The polarization degree has been simulated by using ZEMAX software. Laser speckle contrast from a glass diffuser is measured to exam the simulated result.

  20. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2000-02-04

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  1. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  2. Effect of ion-chelating chain lengths in thiophene-based monomers on in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization and photovoltaic performances.

    PubMed

    Song, In Young; Kim, Minjun; Park, Taiho

    2015-06-01

    We synthesized thiophene-based monomers (bis-EDOTs) with different ethylene glycol oligomer (EGO) lengths (TBO3, TBO4, and TBO5) and investigated their polymerization characteristics during photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) at the surfaces of dye (D205)-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline particles. During the PEP reaction, monomers were expected to diffuse toward neighboring dyes through the growing polymer layers to enable continuous chain growth. We found that the less bulky monomer (TBO3) formed a more compact polymer layer with a high molecular weight. Its diffusion to the active sites through the resulting growing polymer layer was, therefore, limited. We deployed layers of the polymers (PTBO3, PTBO4, and PTBO5) in iodine-free solid-state hybrid solar cells to investigate the lithium ion chelating properties of the polymers as a function of the number of oxygen atoms present in the EGOs. PTBO4 and PTBO5 were capable of chelating lithium ions, yielding a photovoltaic performance that was 142% of the performance obtained without the polymer layers (3.0→5.2%). PMID:25977990

  3. Numerical study of a cylinder model of the diffusion MRI signal for neuronal dendrite trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nguyen, Dang; Grebenkov, Denis; Le Bihan, Denis; Li, Jing-Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    We study numerically how the neuronal dendrite tree structure can affect the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) signal in brain tissue. For a large set of randomly generated dendrite trees, synthetic dMRI signals are computed and fitted to a cylinder model to estimate the effective longitudinal diffusivity DL in the direction of neurites. When the dendrite branches are short compared to the diffusion length, DL depends significantly on the ratio between the average branch length and the diffusion length. In turn, DL has very weak dependence on the distribution of branch lengths and orientations of a dendrite tree, and the number of branches per node. We conclude that the cylinder model which ignores the connectivity of the dendrite tree, can still be adapted to describe the apparent diffusion coefficient in brain tissue.

  4. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. PMID:24892564

  5. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  6. Multinomial diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-24

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  7. Rumor diffusion in an interests-based dynamic social network.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911

  8. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  9. Microwave enhanced diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D. ); Kenkre, V.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The observation of more rapid reaction and/or sintering during microwave processing of ceramics has lead to speculation that microwave processing results in enhanced diffusion.'' The loss mechanisms by which microwaves interact with a crystal lattice have been reviewed. These mechanisms were evaluated with regard to the atomic theory of diffusion. The potential for these loss mechanisms to influence atomic diffusion, and thus produce enhancement will be discussed. Existing evidence, both direct and indirect, regarding microwave enhanced diffusion has been reviewed and will be discussed along with recent experimental data. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Multicomponent diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, S. H.

    2006-07-01

    The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.

  11. Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2015-01-01

    Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers. PMID:25478850

  12. Macromolecular Diffusion in Dynamic Polymer Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Cargnello, Matteo; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen; Composto, Russell

    2015-03-01

    We consider diffusion of tracer polymers in the presence of mobile nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). These nanoparticles are mobile on the time scale of polymer diffusion and have dimensions less than the entanglement mesh size (i.e., tube diameter). The PNC consists of titanium dioxide nanorods (NR, diameter=4.5nm; length=30.1nm) grafted with phenyl groups uniformly dispersed in a polystyrene (P=650kg/mol; tube diameter=8nm) matrix up to 10 volume percent. Three deuterated polystyrenes (dPS; M=800, 1800 and 3200 kg/mol) are chosen because their diffusion relative to NR allows for investigating fixed and mobile NR by simply changing M. For all M, the reduced tracer diffusivities are observed to decrease monotonically as NR loading increases. However, the reduced diffusivity of dPS (3200 kg/mol) is faster than expected compared to the fixed NR case. These findings suggest that mobile NR do not effectively slow down tracer diffusion relative to fixed particles. To test this hypothesis, dPS diffusion is investigated in a high molecular weight matrix PS (2000 kg/mol) in order to slow down NR diffusion relative to dPS (3200 kg/mol). New models are needed to incorporate these mobility dependent entanglements into a comprehensive understanding of dynamics in PNCs. Primary fundings: NSF/EPSRC Materials World Network DMR-1210379 (KIW, RJC) and EP/5065373/1 (NC). Support also by the NSF/MRSEC-DMR 11-20901, and Polymer Programs DMR 09-07493.

  13. A Simple Single Step diffusion and Emitter Etching Process for High Efficiency Gallium Antimonide Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rajagopalan; N.S. Reddy; E. Ehsani; I.B. Bhat; P.S. Dutta; R.J. Gutmann; G. Nichols; G.W. Charache; O. Sulima

    2003-08-29

    A single step diffusion followed by precise etching of the diffused layer has been developed to obtain a diffusion profile appropriate for high efficiency GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells. The junction depth was controlled through monitoring of light current-voltage (I-V) curves (photovoltaic response) during the post diffusion emitter etching process. The measured photoresponses (prior to device fabrication) have been correlated with the quantum efficiencies and the open circuit voltages in the fabricated devices. An optimum junction depth for obtaining highest quantum efficiency and open circuit voltage is presented based on diffusion lengths (or monitoring carrier lifetimes), carrier mobility and typical diffused impurity profile in GaSb.

  14. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  15. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  16. Curved and diffuse interface effects on the nuclear surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Lukyanov, S. V.; Sanzhur, A. I.

    2012-08-01

    We redefine the surface tension coefficient for a nuclear Fermi-liquid drop with a finite diffuse layer. Following the Gibbs-Tolman concept, we introduce the equimolar radius Re of the droplet surface at which the surface tension is applied and the radius of tension surface Rs which provides the minimum of the surface tension coefficient σ. This procedure allows us to derive both the surface tension and the corresponding curvature correction (Tolman length) correctly for the curved and diffuse interface. We point out that the curvature correction depends significantly on the finite diffuse interface. We show that Tolman's length ξ is negative for a nuclear Fermi-liquid drop. The value of the Tolman length is only slightly sensitive to the Skyrme force parametrization and equals ξ=-0.36 fm.

  17. The platinum microelectrode/Nafion interface - An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of oxygen reduction kinetics and Nafion characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Arvind; Dave, Bhasker; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, John A.; Martin, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the oxygen-reduction reaction under lower humidification conditions than previously studied. The EIS technique permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction, mass transport of O2 in the membrane, and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Electrode-kinetic parameters for the oxygen-reduction reaction, corrosion current densities for Pt, and double-layer capacitances were calculated. The production of water due to electrochemical reduction of oxygen greatly influenced the EIS response and the electrode kinetics at the Pt/Nafion interface. From the finite-length Warburg behavior, a measure of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion and diffusion-layer thickness was obtained. An analysis of the EIS data in the high-frequency domain yielded membrane and interfacial characteristics such as ionic conductivity of the membrane, membrane grain-boundary capacitance and resistance, and uncompensated resistance.

  18. Laser glass marking: influence of pulse characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolo, Ana; Coelho, João; Pires, Margarida

    2005-09-01

    Laser glass marking is currently used in several glass materials for different purposes, such as bar codes for product tracking, brand logos or just decoration. Systems with a variety of different laser sources, with inherent power ranges, wavelengths and pulse regimes have been used, namely CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer, Ti-Sapphire lasers. CO2 Lasers systems, although being a reliable tool for materials processing, and very compact in the case of sealed low power lasers, are usually associated with a localized thermal loading on the material, causing brittle materials like glass to crack around the irradiated area. In this experimental study a pulsed CO2 laser was used to direct marking the glass surface. The temporal characteristics of the laser pulse--pulse length, period and duty cycle were varied, and glass materials with different thermal properties were used in order to correlate the marking process--cracking or softening with or without material removal with the laser and material characteristics. Glass materials with major industrial application, such as soda-lima, borosilicate (PYREX) glasses and crystal have been investigated. Laser marked areas have been characterized in terms of surface optical properties, like diffuse and direct reflectance and transmittance for white light, directly related with marked surface quality.

  19. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  20. Invariant length of a cosmic string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Malcolm R.

    1990-06-01

    The world sheet of a cosmic string is characterized by a function l, invariant under both coordinate and gauge transformations, which can be interpreted as the ``invariant length'' of the string. In flat space, l reduces to the invariant length of Vachaspati and Vilenkin, and gives an upper bound for the actual length of the string, and a lower bound for its energy, as measured by any inertial observer. In curved spacetime, time variations in the invariant length divide naturally into two parts: one due to the tidal tensor at points exterior to the world sheet and one due to the tidal tensor at points on the world sheet itself.