NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, C. T.; Mathias, J. D.
1981-01-01
The influence of short wavelength light on the characteristic bulk minority carrier diffusion length of the ribbon silicon photovoltaic cell has been investigated. We have measured the intensity and wavelength dependence of the diffusion length in an EFG ribbon cell, and compared it with a standard Czochralski grown silicon cell. While the various short wavelength illuminations have shown no influence on the diffusion length in the CZ cell, the diffusion lengths in the ribbon cell exhibit a strong dependence on the volume generation rate as well as on the wavelength of the superimposed lights. We have concluded that the trap-filling phenomenon at various depths in the bulk neutral region of the cell is consistent with the experimental observation.
A Characteristic Particle Length
Roberts, Mark D
2015-01-01
It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.
Flame Length of Pulsed Diffusion Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dugnani, R.; Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.
1996-11-01
Experiments were conducted to study the flame length of pulsed diffusion flames. The delivery of ethylene and natural gas fuel to an axisymmetric nozzle was modulated by a solenoid valve controlled by an electronic circuit. The nozzle discharged into quiescent, ambient air. In all cases, the pulsed jets were fully-modulated (complete shut- off). Experiments were run for fixed fuel injection times of 25 ms, 50 ms, and 10 ms for frequencies of up to 10 Hz. The corresponding duty-cycle varied from 1/12 to 11/12. Nozzle injection Reynolds numbers under steady conditions ranged form 5,500 to 20,000. The flame length was determined by video imaging of the soot luminescence. The results indicate a modest decrease in flame length compared with the mean flame length for the corresponding steady jets. The decrease amounted to as much as 20of 2 Hz. The reduction in flame length was greatest, at a given frequency, for the pulses with the shortest injection times. For all injection times, the length of the pulsed flames approached that of the steady flame for frequencies greater than roughly 8 Hz.
Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2015-09-01
We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(?N/NK), where the estimates of parameter NK are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius rex, i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA.
Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited.
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2015-09-01
We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(-N/NK), where the estimates of parameter NK are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius rex, i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. PMID:26292079
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, L. D.
1996-01-01
Charge collected by diffusion from ion tracks in a semiconductor substrate may be influenced by the substrate diffusion length, which is related to recombination losses. A theoretical analysis shows that, excluding some extreme cases, charge collection is insensitive to spatial variations in the diffusion length funciton, so it is possible to define an effective diffusion length having the property that collected charge can be approximated by assuming a uniform diffusion length equal to this effective value.
Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani
2008-05-01
Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length LC combining the gravity characteristic length LG and viscous dissipation characteristic length LV . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm (“fine”) and 0.3-0.9 mm (“coarse”) to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of LG determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted LG value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and LC?LG ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere.
Determination of diffusion lengths in nanowires using cathodoluminescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafsson, Anders; Bolinsson, Jessica; Sköld, Niklas; Samuelson, Lars
2010-08-01
We used cathodoluminescence imaging to determine diffusion lengths in III-V semiconductor nanowires, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition seeded by gold nanoparticles. Intensity profiles were recorded either from the interface between the substrate and homogeneous nanowires, or from segments in nanowires containing axial heterostructures to determine the diffusion length. We determined diffusion lengths of 0.10 to 0.90 ?m, the shortest for uncapped wires. The reduction is attributed largely to surface recombination.
Long minority carrier diffusion lengths in bridged silicon nanowires.
Triplett, M; Yang, Y; Léonard, F; Talin, A Alec; Islam, M Saif; Yu, D
2015-01-14
Nanowires have large surface areas that create new challenges for their optoelectronic applications. Lithographic processes involved in device fabrication and substrate interfaces can lead to surface defects and substantially reduce charge carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Here, we show that using a bridging method to suspend pristine nanowires allows for circumventing detrimental fabrication steps and interfacial effects associated with planar device architectures. We report electron diffusion lengths up to 2.7 ?m in bridged silicon nanowire devices, much longer than previously reported values for silicon nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm. Strikingly, electron diffusion lengths are reduced to only 45 nm in planar devices incorporating nanowires grown under the same conditions. The highly scalable silicon nanobridge devices with the demonstrated long diffusion lengths may find exciting applications in photovoltaics, sensing, and photodetectors. PMID:25541642
Determination of the photocarrier diffusion length in intrinsic Ge nanowires.
Shin, Yun-Sok; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Jo, Moon-Ho
2011-03-28
We quantitatively determined the photocarrier diffusion length in intrinsic Ge nanowires (NWs) using scanning photocurrent microscopy. Specifically, the spatial mapping of one-dimensional decay in the photocurrent along the Ge NWs under the scanning laser beam (?= 532 nm) was analyzed in a one-dimensional diffusion rate equation to extract the diffusion length of ~4-5 ?m. We further attempt to determine the photocarrier lifetime under a finite bias across the Ge NWs, and discuss the role of surface scattering. PMID:21451635
Thirty years since diffuse sound reflection by maximum length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Trevor J.; D'Antonio, Peter
2005-09-01
This year celebrates the 30th anniversary of Schroeder's seminal paper on sound scattering from maximum length sequences. This paper, along with Schroeder's subsequent publication on quadratic residue diffusers, broke new ground, because they contained simple recipes for designing diffusers with known acoustic performance. So, what has happened in the intervening years? As with most areas of engineering, the room acoustic diffuser has been greatly influenced by the rise of digital computing technologies. Numerical methods have become much more powerful, and this has enabled predictions of surface scattering to greater accuracy and for larger scale surfaces than previously possible. Architecture has also gone through a revolution where the forms of buildings have become more extreme and sculptural. Acoustic diffuser designs have had to keep pace with this to produce shapes and forms that are desirable to architects. To achieve this, design methodologies have moved away from Schroeder's simple equations to brute force optimization algorithms. This paper will look back at the past development of the modern diffuser, explaining how the principles of diffuser design have been devised and revised over the decades. The paper will also look at the present state-of-the art, and dreams for the future.
Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard
2015-01-01
Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.
Permeability Description by Characteristic Length, Tortuosity, Constriction and Porosity
Berg, Carl Fredrik
2015-01-01
In this article we investigate the permeability of a porous medium as given in Darcy's law. The permeability is described by an effective hydraulic pore radius in the porous medium, the fluctuation in local hydraulic pore radii, the length of streamlines, and the fractional volume conducting flow. The effective hydraulic pore radius is related to a characteristic hydraulic length, the fluctuation in local hydraulic radii is related to a constriction factor, the length of streamlines is characterized by a tortuosity, and the fractional volume conducting flow from inlet to outlet is described by an effective porosity. The characteristic length, the constriction factor, the tortuosity and the effective porosity are thus intrinsic descriptors of the pore structure relative to direction. We show that the combined effect of our pore structure description fully describes the permeability of a porous medium. The theory is applied to idealized porous media, where it reproduces Darcy's law for fluid flow derived from t...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatos, H. C.; Watanabe, M.; Actor, G.
1977-01-01
Quantitative analysis of the electron beam-induced current and the dependence of the effective diffusion length of the minority carriers on the penetration depth of the electron beam were employed for the analysis of the carrier recombination characteristics in heavily doped silicon layers. The analysis is based on the concept of the effective excitation strength of the carriers which takes into consideration all possible recombination sources. Two dimensional mapping of the surface recombination velocity of P-diffused Si layers will be presented together with a three dimensional mapping of minority carrier lifetime in ion implanted Si. Layers heavily doped with As exhibit improved recombination characteristics as compared to those of the layers doped with P.
Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films under above-band-gap illumination
Park, J. D.; Son, B. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Sang Yong; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y. H.
2014-06-15
We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO{sub 2} nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 ?m as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 ?m. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.
Vibration Modes and Characteristic Length Scales in Amorphous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanguy, Anne
2015-08-01
The numerical study of the mechanical responses of amorphous materials at the nanometer scale shows characteristic length scales that are larger than the intrinsic length of the microstructure. In this article, we review the different scales appearing upon athermal elastoplastic mechanical load and we relate it to a detailed study of the vibrational response. We compare different materials with different microstructures and different bond directionality (from Lennard-Jones model materials to amorphous silicon and silicate glasses). This work suggests experimental measurements that could help to understand and, if possible, to predict plastic deformation in glasses.
Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric
2012-05-01
Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.
Determination of diffusion lengths in silicon by an X-ray method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamneck, J. H., Jr.
1970-01-01
By calibrating X-ray machine with cells of known diffusion lengths, measurements on test cells can be madeate rate of one every two minutes with standard deviation of less than two percent. test cells are compared with calibration cells whose diffusion lengths have been measured by an electron beam method.
Photoluminescence-based measurements of the energy gap and diffusion length of Zn3P2
Kimball, Gregory
Photoluminescence-based measurements of the energy gap and diffusion length of Zn3P2 Gregory M 2009; accepted 20 August 2009; published online 14 September 2009 The steady-state photoluminescence-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements, implying minority-carrier diffusion lengths of 7 m. © 2009 American Institute
Diffusion Correction to Slow Invariant Manifolds in a Short Length Scale Limit
Diffusion Correction to Slow Invariant Manifolds in a Short Length Scale Limit Joshua D. Mengers Abstract-- Slow Invariant Manifolds (SIM) are calculated for isothermal closed reaction-diffusion systems as a model reduction technique. Diffusion effects are examined using a Galerkin projection that rigorously
Cloud Shading Effects on Characteristic Boundary-Layer Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horn, G. L.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Sikma, M.
2015-07-01
We studied the effects of shading by shallow cumulus (shallow Cu) and the subsequent effect of inducing heterogeneous conditions at the surface on boundary-layer characteristics. We placed special emphasis on quantifying the changes in the characteristic length and time scales associated with thermals, shallow Cu and induced thermal circulation structures. A series of systematic numerical experiments, inspired by Amazonian thermodynamic conditions, was performed using a large-eddy simulation model coupled to a land-surface model. We used four different experiments to disentangle the effects of shallow Cu on the surface and the response of clouds to these surface changes. The experiments include a `clear case', `transparent clouds', `shading clouds' and a case with a prescribed uniform domain and reduced surface heat flux. We also performed a sensitivity study on the effect of introducing a weak background flow. Length and time scales were calculated using autocorrelation and two-dimensional spectral analysis, and we found that shading controlled by shallow Cu locally lowers surface temperatures and consequently reduces the sensible and latent heat fluxes, thus inducing spatial and temporal variability in these fluxes. The length scale of this surface heterogeneity is not sufficiently large to generate circulations that are superimposed on the boundary-layer scale, but the heterogeneity does disturb boundary-layer dynamics and generates a flow opposite to the normal thermal circulation. Besides this effect, shallow Cu shading reduces turbulent kinetic energy and lowers the convective velocity scale, thus reducing the mass flux. This hampers the thermal lifetime, resulting in a decrease in the shallow Cu residence time (from 11 to 7 min). This reduction in lifetime, combined with a decrease in mass flux, leads to smaller clouds. This is partially compensated for by a decrease in thermal cell size due to a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy. As a result, inter-cloud distance is reduced, leading to a larger population of smaller clouds, while maintaining cloud cover similar to the non-shading clouds experiment. Introducing a 1 m {s}^{-1} background wind speed increases the thermal size in the sub-cloud layer, but the diagnosed surface-cloud coupling, quantified by characteristic time and length scales, remains.
The Inability of Ambipolar Diffusion to set a Characteristic Mass Scale in Molecular Clouds
Oishi, J S; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac
2006-01-01
We investigate the question of whether ambipolar diffusion (ion-neutral drift) determines the smallest length and mass scale on which structure forms in a turbulent molecular cloud. We simulate magnetized turbulence in a mostly neutral, uniformly driven, turbulent medium, using a three-dimensional, two-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code modified from Zeus-MP. We find that substantial structure persists below the ambipolar diffusion scale because of the propagation of compressive slow MHD waves at smaller scales. Contrary to simple scaling arguments, ambipolar diffusion thus does not suppress structure below its characteristic dissipation scale as would be expected for a classical diffusive process. We have found this to be true for the magnetic energy, velocity, and density. Correspondingly, ambipolar diffusion leaves the clump mass spectrum unchanged. Ambipolar diffusion appears unable to set a characteristic scale for gravitational collapse and star formation in turbulent molecular clouds.
The Inability of Ambipolar Diffusion to set a Characteristic Mass Scale in Molecular Clouds
Jeffrey S. Oishi; Mordecai-Mark Mac Low
2005-10-12
We investigate the question of whether ambipolar diffusion (ion-neutral drift) determines the smallest length and mass scale on which structure forms in a turbulent molecular cloud. We simulate magnetized turbulence in a mostly neutral, uniformly driven, turbulent medium, using a three-dimensional, two-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code modified from Zeus-MP. We find that substantial structure persists below the ambipolar diffusion scale because of the propagation of compressive slow MHD waves at smaller scales. Contrary to simple scaling arguments, ambipolar diffusion thus does not suppress structure below its characteristic dissipation scale as would be expected for a classical diffusive process. We have found this to be true for the magnetic energy, velocity, and density. Correspondingly, ambipolar diffusion leaves the clump mass spectrum unchanged. Ambipolar diffusion appears unable to set a characteristic scale for gravitational collapse and star formation in turbulent molecular clouds.
Spin Diffusion Characteristics in Magnesium Nanowires Hiroshi Idzuchi1
Otani, Yoshichika
Spin Diffusion Characteristics in Magnesium Nanowires Hiroshi Idzuchi1Ã , Yasuhiro Fukuma2 , Le diffusion characteristics of magnesium have been investigated by using lateral spin-valve structures consisting of permalloy spin injector and detector electrodes bridged by a magnesium-nanowire. Large spin
Diffusion length damage coefficient and annealing studies in proton-irradiated InP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Bailey, Sheila G.; Williams, Wendell
1993-01-01
We report on the measurement of the diffusion length damage coefficient (K(sub L)) and the annealing characteristics of the minority carrier diffusion length (L(sub n)) in Czochralski-grown zinc-doped indium phosphide (InP), with a carrier concentration of 1 x 10(exp l8) cm(exp -3). In measuring K(sub L) irradiations were made with 0.5 MeV protons with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(exp 11) to 3 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Pre- and post-irradiation electron-beam induced current (EBIC) measurements allowed for the extraction of L(sub n) from which K(sub L) was determined. In studying the annealing characteristics of L(sub n) irradiations were made with 2 MeV protons with fluence of 5 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Post-irradiation studies of L(sub n) with time at room temperature, and with minority carrier photoinjection and forward-bias injection were carried out. The results showed that recovery under Air Mass Zero (AMO) photoinjection was complete. L(sub n) was also found to recover under forward-bias injection, where recovery was found to depend on the value of the injection current. However, no recovery of L(sub n) after proton irradiation was observed with time at room temperature, in contrast to the behavior of 1 MeV electron-irradiated InP solar cells reported previously.
Lou, Shishu; Zhu, Huishi; Hu, Shaoxu; Zhao, Chunhua; Han, Peide
2015-01-01
Characterization of the diffusion length of solar cells in space has been widely studied using various methods, but few studies have focused on a fast, simple way to obtain the quantified diffusion length distribution on a silicon wafer. In this work, we present two different facile methods of doing this by fitting photoluminescence images taken in two different wavelength ranges or from different sides. These methods, which are based on measuring the ratio of two photoluminescence images, yield absolute values of the diffusion length and are less sensitive to the inhomogeneity of the incident laser beam. A theoretical simulation and experimental demonstration of this method are presented. The diffusion length distributions on a polycrystalline silicon wafer obtained by the two methods show good agreement. PMID:26364565
Lou, Shishu; Zhu, Huishi; Hu, Shaoxu; Zhao, Chunhua; Han, Peide
2015-01-01
Characterization of the diffusion length of solar cells in space has been widely studied using various methods, but few studies have focused on a fast, simple way to obtain the quantified diffusion length distribution on a silicon wafer. In this work, we present two different facile methods of doing this by fitting photoluminescence images taken in two different wavelength ranges or from different sides. These methods, which are based on measuring the ratio of two photoluminescence images, yield absolute values of the diffusion length and are less sensitive to the inhomogeneity of the incident laser beam. A theoretical simulation and experimental demonstration of this method are presented. The diffusion length distributions on a polycrystalline silicon wafer obtained by the two methods show good agreement. PMID:26364565
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Wel, Gerko; Fischer, Hubertus; Meijer, Harro A. J.
2013-04-01
Stable water isotope signals retrieved from polar ice core records are smoothed by diffusion in the firn stage. The total amount of diffusion a layer has experienced can be quantified in terms of the diffusion length, which is the average displacement of a molecule due to diffusion. This length is a function of the firn temperature and the accumulation rate which makes it a valuable proxy for past local temperatures (Johnsen et al, 2000, Simonsen et al, 2011). In principle this proxy can be derived from either of the individual isotope signals (Oxygen-18 or Deuterium), but it is much better constrained when the difference in diffusion length between the two isotopes is used. The individual diffusion lengths and the differential diffusion lengths are commonly calculated using the power spectral densities (PSD) of the isotope data. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is often used for the calculation of the PSD, but other methods such as the fast fourier transform or ones based on the autocorrelation series of the isotope data can also be used. However, in all these methods a parameter has to be chosen, for example the auto regression order in the MEM. Additionally, it is necessary to define a cut off frequency in order to use only the red part of the power spectrum. These choices can significantly influence diffusion length obtained with these methods. We present a new method which circumvents these issues, based on the correlation between the Oxygen-18 and Deuterium records. The measured Deuterium record is numerically diffused, after which the correlation between this record and the measured Oxygen-18 record is calculated. The correlation reaches a maximum when the diffusion lengths of the two records are equal. This allows us to reconstruct the differential diffusion length. A large number of synthetic data sets were created to (1) test this correlation method and (2), for the MEM, find the optimum values for the parameters in this method. The values found by the correlation method need to be corrected for offsets resulting from the finite sampling resolution and measurement uncertainty. The two methods yield results with comparable precision. References: Johnsen, S. et al, 2000. Diffusion of stable isotopes in polar firn and ice: the isotope effect in diffusion. In: Physics of Ice Core Records, Ed: Hondoh, T., p.121-140, Hokkaido Press, Sapporo. Simonsen, S.B. et al, 2011. Past surface temperatures at the NorthGRIP drill site from the difference in firn diffusion of water isotopes. Climate of the Past 7, 1327-1335.
Diffusion length measurements using the scanning electron microscope. [in semiconductor devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weizer, V. G.
1975-01-01
A measurement technique employing the scanning electron microscope is described in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through the application of highly doped surface field layers. The influence of high injection level effects and low-high junction current generation on the resulting measurement was investigated. Close agreement is found between the diffusion lengths measured by this method and those obtained using a penetrating radiation technique.
Estimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Wel, G.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Meyer, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.
2015-08-01
Palaeoclimatic information can be retrieved from the diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow. The diffusion length, a measure for the amount of diffusion a layer has experienced, depends on the firn temperature and the accumulation rate. We show that the estimation of the diffusion length using power spectral densities (PSDs) of the record of a single isotope species can be biased by uncertainties in spectral properties of the isotope signal prior to diffusion. By using a second water isotope and calculating the difference in diffusion lengths between the two isotopes, this problem is circumvented. We study the PSD method applied to two isotopes in detail and additionally present a new forward diffusion method for retrieving the differential diffusion length based on the Pearson correlation between the two isotope signals. The two methods are discussed and extensively tested on synthetic data which are generated in a Monte Carlo manner. We show that calibration of the PSD method with this synthetic data is necessary to be able to objectively determine the differential diffusion length. The correlation-based method proves to be a good alternative for the PSD method as it yields precision equal to or somewhat higher than the PSD method. The use of synthetic data also allows us to estimate the accuracy and precision of the two methods and to choose the best sampling strategy to obtain past temperatures with the required precision. In addition to application to synthetic data the two methods are tested on stable-isotope records from the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, showing that reliable firn temperatures can be reconstructed with a typical uncertainty of 1.5 and 2 °C for the Holocene period and 2 and 2.5 °C for the last glacial period for the correlation and PSD method, respectively.
Estimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Wel, G.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Meyer, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.
2015-02-01
Paleoclimatic information can be retrieved from the diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow. The diffusion length, a measure for the amount of diffusion a layer has experienced, depends on the firn temperature and the accumulation rate. We show that the estimation of the diffusion length using Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the record of a single isotope species can be biased and is therefore not a reliable proxy for past temperature reconstruction. Using a second water isotope and calculating the difference in diffusion lengths between the two isotopes this problem is circumvented. We study the PSD method applied to two isotopes in detail and additionally present a new forward diffusion method for retrieving the differential diffusion length based on the Pearson correlation between the two isotope signals. The two methods are discussed and extensively tested on synthetic data which are generated in a Monte Carlo manner. We show that calibration of the PSD method with this synthetic data is necessary to be able to objectively determine the differential diffusion length. The correlation based method proofs to be a good alternative for the PSD method as it yields equal or somewhat higher precision than the PSD method. The use of synthetic data also allows us to estimate the accuracy and precision of the two methods and to choose the best sampling strategy to obtain past temperatures with the required precision. Additional to application to synthetic data the two methods are tested on stable isotope records from the EPICA ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, showing that reliable firn temperatures can be reconstructed with a typical uncertainty of 1.5 and 2 °C for the Holocene period and 2 and 2.5 °C for the last glacial period for the correlation and PSD method, respectively.
Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.
1978-01-01
Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luke, K. L.; Von Roos, O.; Cheng, L.-J.
1985-01-01
A systematic and quantitative analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of the shape (point, cube, Gaussian) and size of the generation volume, the surface recombination velocity, and the diffusion length on the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and its derivative (DEIC). Thick homogeneously doped samples exhibiting diffusion lengths in the low micron and submicron range are considered. The results are presented in computed EBIC curves as a function of scanning distance and of the ratio true diffusion length/effective diffusion length. Shown using these curves are: (1) a simple and yet rigorous method for the determination of the true diffusion length, taking into consideration all of the factors cited above, (2) a method for the rapid determination of the surface recombination velocity, (3) the condition under which the source shape becomes insignificant, and (4) a new value for the lower limit of the diffusion length which can be determined by the EBOC technique.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.
1978-01-01
In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.
Determination of the spin diffusion length via spin pumping and spin Hall effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Vlaminck, Vincent; Pearson, John; Divan, Ralu; Bader, Samuel; Hoffmann, Axel
2014-03-01
We present an experimental approach for determining the spin diffusion length of various metals by using spin pumping - spin Hall effect via a coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance (CPW-FMR) broadband technique. By studying the ratio of two voltage components (anisotropic magnetoresistance and inverse spin Hall effect) as a function of the metal layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of the material can be directly extracted. As examples, we determined spin diffusion lengths for paramagnetic Pt (1.2 nm), Pd (5 nm), Ir (0.5 nm), and antiferromagnetic IrMn (0.75 nm) at room temperature. In addition, temperature-dependent measurements show only weak dependence of these lengths with temperature. This approach for determining the spin diffusion length at any temperatures has the advantage that it does not require knowing the resistivity value of the metal layer, which changes with both thickness and temperature. Finally, the ratio of the two voltage components can also be used to probe the temperature-dependent proximity effect for metals such as Pt. This work, and use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials, was supported by the U.S. DOE-OS, BES, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabi, S.; Ghosh, A.
2012-10-01
We have presented conductivity spectra at different temperatures for mixed network former silver borophosphate glasses. By mapping the conductivity spectra onto time dependence of the mean square displacement of mobile ions in the framework of linear response theory, we have obtained two characteristic lengths of ion dynamics viz characteristic mean square displacement at which crossover from diffusive to subdiffusive ion dynamics and spatial extent of localized motion of mobile silver ions occur. We have shown that the mixed network effect in these glasses is correlated to these characteristic lengths which are strongly influenced by the Coulomb repulsion between the mobile silver ions as well as the interaction between the mobile ions and the glass network.
Zaccarelli, Emanuela
Disconnected Glass-Glass Transitions and Diffusion Anomalies in a Model with Two Repulsive Length-coupling-theory calculations, we report a novel scenario for multiple glass tran- sitions in a purely repulsive spherical6]. In the SWS, the first glass state is driven by repulsion like in the HSS and the second glass state is driven
Masahiro Daibo; Toshio Kikuchi; Masahito Yoshizawa
2003-01-01
We evaluated single crystal silicon wafers with a p-n junction structure using a laser superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope. A high temperature superconductor SQUID magnetometer was used to detect photogenerated magnetic signals with an amplitude of several pico-tesla. The relationship between the photogenerated magnetic fields and the wavelengths of the excitation light was investigated. The minority carrier diffusion length
Diffusion correction to slow invariant manifolds in a short length scale limit
of flames 3rd IWMRRF Corfu, Greece Diffusion Correction to SIM 27 April 2011 4 / 17 #12;Evolution gases Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions Element conservation Evolution of species zi t = (zn) + D of modified eigenvalue, 1 = 0 - 2D 2 , identifies a critical length where SIM start point changes character
Gate-Dependent Carrier Diffusion Length in Lead Selenide Quantum Dot Field-Effect Transistors
Yu, Dong
using scalable manufacturing processes such as ink jet printing make them attractive candidates for next microscopy, carrier diffusion length Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been intensively the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanowires and thin films18-25 and can provide valuable information
Stanley, H. Eugene
Disconnected Glass-Glass Transitions and Diffusion Anomalies in a Model with Two Repulsive Length-coupling-theory calculations, we report a novel scenario for multiple glass tran- sitions in a purely repulsive spherical potential: the square shoulder. The liquid-glass transition lines exhibit both melting by cooling
Diffusion length measurements in solar cells: An analysis and comparison of techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woollam, J. A.; Khan, A. A.; Soukup, R. J.; Hermann, A. M.
1982-01-01
A brief review of the major techniques for measuring minority carrier diffusion lengths in solar cells is given. Emphasis is placed on comparing limits of applicability for each method, especially as applied to silicon cells or to gallium arsenide cells, including the effects of radiation damage.
Epitaxial silicon minority carrier diffusion length by photoluminescence D. H. Baek,1,a
Schroder, Dieter K.
Epitaxial silicon minority carrier diffusion length by photoluminescence D. H. Baek,1,a S. B. Kim,2 2008; published online 3 September 2008 Photoluminescence PL is a convenient contactless method. INTRODUCTION Photoluminescence PL has been largely the domain of III-V semiconductor characterization
Dorenbos, G
2015-04-14
The effect of bimodal side chain length distributions on pore morphology and solvent diffusion within hydrated amphiphilic polymeric membranes is predicted. Seven polymeric architectures are constructed from hydrophobic backbones from which at regular intervals side chains branch off that are alternatingly short (composed of p hydrophobic A fragments or beads) and long (q A fragments, q > p). The side chains are end-linked with a hydrophilic C fragment. Pore morphologies at a water volume fraction of 0.16 are calculated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Water diffusion through the water containing pores is calculated by tracer diffusion calculations through 140 selected snapshots and from the water bead motions. Diffusion constants decrease with difference in side chain lengths, q - p. Overall, the distance between pores also decreases with q - p. The results are explained by counting for every architecture the average number of bonds ?N(bond)? between an A and the nearest C fragment. These results are in line with a database that contains more than 60 architectures. Diffusion constants tend to increase linearly with ?N(bond)?|C|(-1)|A|, where |C| and |A| are the C and A bead fractions within the architecture. ?N(bond)? is therefore expected to be an interesting design parameter for obtaining low percolation thresholds for solvent and/or proton diffusion. PMID:25703230
Characteristic length of an AdS/CFT superconductor
Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi
2008-11-15
We investigate in more detail the holographic model of a superconductor recently found by Hartnoll, Herzog, and Horowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 031601 (2008)], which is constructed from a condensate of a charged scalar field in AdS{sub 4}-Schwarzschild background. By analytically studying the perturbation of the gravitational system near the critical temperature T{sub c}, we obtain the superconducting coherence length proportional to 1/{radical}(1-T/T{sub c}) via AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence. By adding a small external homogeneous magnetic field to the system, we find that a stationary diamagnetic current proportional to the square of the order parameter is induced by the magnetic field. These results agree with Ginzburg-Landau theory and strongly support the idea that a superconductor can be described by a charged scalar field on a black hole via AdS/CFT duality.
Characteristic length of an AdS/CFT superconductor
Kengo Maeda; Takashi Okamura
2008-10-30
We investigate in more detail the holographic model of a superconductor recently found by Hartnoll, Herzog, and Horowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 031601], which is constructed from a condensate of a charged scalar field in AdS_4-Schwarzschild background. By analytically studying the perturbation of the gravitational system near the critical temperature T_c, we obtain the superconducting coherence length proportional to 1/\\sqrt{1-T/T_c} via AdS/CFT correspondence. By adding a small external homogeneous magnetic field to the system, we find that a stationary diamagnetic current proportional to the square of the order parameter is induced by the magnetic field. These results agree with Ginzburg-Landau theory and strongly support the idea that a superconductor can be described by a charged scalar field on a black hole via AdS/CFT duality.
A diffusion accelerated solution method for the nonlinear characteristic scheme
Wareing, T.A.; Walters, W.F.; Morel, J.E.
1995-02-01
Recently the nonlinear characteristic scheme for spatially discretizing the discrete-ordinate equations was introduced. This scheme is accurate for both optically thin and optically thick spatial meshes and produces strictly positive angular and scalar fluxes. The nonlinear characteristic discrete-ordinate equations can be solved using the source iteration method; however, it is well known that the this method converges prohibitively slowly for optically thick problems with scattering ratios at or near unity. In this paper we describe a diffusion accelerated solution method for solving the nonlinear characteristic equations in slab geometry.
Radosevich, Andrew J.; Yi, Ji; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Backman, Vadim
2013-01-01
Which range of structures contribute to light scattering in a continuous random media such as biological tissue? In this Letter, we present a model to study the structural length-scale sensitivity of scattering in continuous random media under the Born approximation. The scattering coefficient ?s, backscattering coefficient ?b, anisotropy factor g, and reduced scattering coefficient ?s? as well as the shape of the diffuse reflectance profile are calculated under this model. For media with a biologically relevant Henyey-Greenstein phase function with g ~ 0.93 at wavelength ? = 633 nm, we report that ?s? is sensitive to length-scales from 46.9 nm to 2.07 ?m (i.e. ?/13 to 3?), ?b is sensitive from 26.7 nm to 320 nm (i.e. ?/24 to ?/2), and the diffuse reflectance profile is sensitive from 30.8 nm to 2.71 ?m (i.e. ?/21 to 4?). PMID:23258058
Diffusion length measurements of thin GaAs solar cells by means of energetic electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonross, O.
1980-01-01
A calculation of the short circuit current density (j sub sc) of a thin GaAs solar cell induced by fast electrons is presented. It is shown that in spite of the disparity in thickness between the N-type portion of the junction and the P-type portion of the junction, the measurement of the bulk diffusion length L sub p of the N-type part of the junction is seriously hampered due to the presence of a sizable contribution to the j sub sc from the P-type region of the junction. Corrections of up to 50% had to be made in order to interpret the data correctly. Since these corrections were not amenable to direct measurements it is concluded that the electron beam method for the determination of the bulk minority carrier diffusion length, which works so well for Si solar cells, is a poor method when applied to thin GaAs cells.
Characterization of nonideal silicon in terms of lifetime and diffusion length
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.
1978-01-01
Experimental methods have been evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities which may be present in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Results obtained with these methods have been compared for mutual consistency. The effects of a number of impurities on bulk lifetime were determined from steady-state photoconductivity, and solar cells fabricated from this material were characterized in terms of diffusion length using a penetrating light technique. Comparison was made with results obtained by others using photoconductivity decay. General agreement was found in terms of the hierachy of impurities to which the lifetime is sensitive. The utility of the steady-state photoconductivity method is established even in the presence of considerable trapping.
Diffusion-gradient-induced length instabilities in the catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamalski, A.; Moore, E. S.; Treacy, M. M. J.; Sharma, R.; Rez, P.
2009-12-01
We report in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of length instabilities in the growth of straight-wall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are grown at: T <725 °C, P <80 mTorr by chemical vapor decomposition of acetylene on Fe nanoparticles formed in situ prior to tube growth. The growing nanotubes detach episodically from the catalyst particles, which then nucleate a fresh nanotube. Detachment is induced by the shedding of carbon-starved inner walls during diffusion-limited growth.
Minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Bailey, Sheila G.
1993-01-01
A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles in InP specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure the edge surface-recombination velocity. These values were used in a fit of the experimental EBIC data with a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC (Donolato, 1982) to obtain the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length.
Minority carrier diffusion length measurements - A review and comparison of techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khan, A. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Hermann, A. M.
1982-01-01
A review of the major techniques for measuring minority carrier diffusion lengths in solar cells is given. Limits of applicability are indicated for each method, as relevant to indirect bandgap materials such as silicon, and direct bandgap materials like gallium arsenide. A discussion and bibliography is presented for the following techniques: uniform generation, electron beam induced current, Schottky barrier (and other steady-state) photocurrent, surface photovoltage, transient decay, and luminescence.
S. R. Mirfayzi
2013-01-08
Neutron diffusion length in reactor grade graphite is measured both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes Monte Carlo (MC) coding using 'MCNP' and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coding suing 'COMSOL Multiphysics' and Matlab. The MCNP code is adopted to simulate the thermal neutron diffusion length in a reactor moderator of 2m x 2m with slightly enriched uranium ($^{235}U$), accompanied with a model designed for thermal hydraulic analysis using point kinetic equations, based on partial and ordinary differential equation. The theoretical work includes numerical approximation methods including transcendental technique to illustrate the iteration process with the FEA method. Finally collision density of thermal neutron in graphite is measured, also specific heat relation dependability of collision density is also calculated theoretically, the thermal neutron diffusion length in graphite is evaluated at $50.85 \\pm 0.3cm$ using COMSOL Multiphysics and $50.95 \\pm 0.5cm$ using MCNP. Finally the total neutron cross-section is derived using FEA in an inverse iteration form.
Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition
2013-01-01
To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 ?s at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 ?m by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays. PMID:23968156
Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors
Goldstein, Bernard (Princeton, NJ); Dresner, Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Szostak, Daniel J. (Mercerville, NJ)
1983-07-12
Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant-magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. An unmodulated illumination provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV. A vibrating Kelvin method-type probe electrode couples the SPV to a measurement system. The operating optical wavelength of an adjustable monochromator to compensate for the wavelength dependent sensitivity of a photodetector is selected to measure the illumination intensity (photon flux) on the silicon. Measurements of the relative photon flux for a plurality of wavelengths are plotted against the reciprocal of the optical absorption coefficient of the material. A linear plot of the data points is extrapolated to zero intensity. The negative intercept value on the reciprocal optical coefficient axis of the extrapolated linear plot is the diffusion length of the minority carriers.
Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R; Miller, John R
2015-06-18
Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17-127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence, and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps, the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF), and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization, and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ?50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length is LD = 34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length but not on trap depth, solvent polarity, or which trap group is present. PMID:25531034
Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.
2014-12-22
Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore »large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less
Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.
2014-12-22
Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.
Diffusion tensor characteristics of gyrencephaly using high resolution diffusion MRI in vivo at 7T.
Kleinnijenhuis, Michiel; van Mourik, Tim; Norris, David G; Ruiter, Dirk J; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Barth, Markus
2015-04-01
Gyrification of the human cerebral cortex allows for the surface expansion that accommodates many more cortical neurons in comparison to other mammals. For neuroimaging, however, it forms a feature that complicates analysis. For example, it has long been established that cortical layers do not occupy the same depth in gyri and sulci. Recently, in vivo diffusion imaging has provided insights into the fibre architecture of the cortex, usually showing radial tensor orientations. This makes it relevant to investigate whether cortical diffusion tensor metrics depend on the gyral pattern. High-resolution (1mm isotropic) diffusion weighted MRI of the medial wall of the hemispheres was performed at 7 T. Diffusion data were resampled to surfaces in the cortex and underlying white matter, where the cortical surfaces obeyed the equivolume principle for cortical laminae over the cortical curvature. Diffusion tensor metrics were averaged over bins of curvature to obtain maps of characteristic patterns in the gyrus. Diffusivity, anisotropy and radiality varied with curvature. Radiality was maximal in intermediate layers of the cortex next to the crown of the gyrus, not in white matter or on the crown. In the fundus, the deep cortical layers had tangential tensor orientations. In the white matter, tensor orientation changed from radial on the crown to tangential under the banks and fundus. White matter anisotropy gradually increased from the crown to the fundus. The characteristic pattern in the gyrus demonstrated here is in accordance with ex vivo diffusion MR microscopy and histological studies. The results indicate the necessity of taking into account the gyral pattern when cortical diffusion data is analysed. Additionally, the data suggest a confound for tractography approaches when reaching the gyrus, resulting in a possible bias towards the gyral crown. The implications for mechanisms that could drive cortical folding are discussed. PMID:25585019
Diffusion characteristics of ethylene glycol in skeletal muscle.
Oliveira, Luís M; Carvalho, Maria Inês; Nogueira, Elisabete M; Tuchin, Valery V
2015-05-01
Part of the optical clearing study in biological tissues concerns the determination of the diffusion characteristics of water and optical clearing agents in the subject tissue. Such information is sufficient to characterize the time dependence of the optical clearing mechanisms—tissue dehydration and refractive index (RI) matching. We have used a simple method based on collimated optical transmittance measurements made from muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG), to determine the diffusion time values of water and EG in skeletal muscle. By representing the estimated mean diffusion time values from each treatment as a function of agent concentration in solution, we could identify the real diffusion times for water and agent. These values allowed for the calculation of the correspondent diffusion coefficients for those fluids. With these results, we have demonstrated that the dehydration mechanism is the one that dominates optical clearing in the first minute of treatment, while the RI matching takes over the optical clearing operations after that and remains for a longer time of treatment up to about 10 min, as we could see for EG and thin tissue samples of 0.5 mm. PMID:25525766
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.
1993-01-01
Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamura, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka
2014-04-01
Exciton diffusion length and charge mobility in donor and acceptor materials are important factors for the energy conversion efficiency of organic voltaics. Here, we theoretically analyze these quantities for tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) and silylmethyl[60] fullerene (SIMEF) that have been exploited for the donor and acceptor of interpenetrating heterojunction organic solar cells. The exciton diffusion length and the charge mobility are calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and Fermi’s golden rule. The exciton diffusion length in the BP single crystal is found to be a few hundred nm. The charge mobility in the BP and SIMEF crystals exhibits a significant anisotropy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leon, R. P.
1987-01-01
Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic technique used was charge collection microscopy, also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line-scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended-generation and point-generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leon, R. P.
1987-01-01
Diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities were measured in GaAs diodes and InP finished solar cells. The basic techniques used was charge collection microscopy also known as electron beam induced current (EBIC). The normalized currents and distances from the pn junction were read directly from the calibrated curves obtained while using the line scan mode in an SEM. These values were then equated to integral and infinite series expressions resulting from the solution of the diffusion equation with both extended generation and point generation functions. This expands previous work by examining both thin and thick samples. The surface recombination velocity was either treated as an unknown in a system of two equations, or measured directly using low e(-) beam accelerating voltages. These techniques give accurate results by accounting for the effects of surface recombination and the finite size of the generation volume.
Temperature dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and minority electron mobility in GaInP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schultes, F. J.; Christian, T.; Jones-Albertus, R.; Pickett, E.; Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Liu, T.; Misra, P.; Sukiasyan, A.; Yuen, H.; Haegel, N. M.
2013-12-01
The mobility of electrons in double heterostructures of p-type Ga0.50In0.50P has been determined by measuring minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime. The minority electron mobility increases monotonically from 300 K to 5 K, limited primarily by optical phonon and alloy scattering. Comparison to majority electron mobility over the same temperature range in comparably doped samples shows a significant reduction in ionized impurity scattering at lower temperatures, due to differences in interaction of repulsive versus attractive carriers with ionized dopant sites. These results should be useful in modeling and optimization for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.
Temperature dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and minority electron mobility in GaInP
Schultes, F. J.; Haegel, N. M., E-mail: nmhaegel@nps.edu [Physics Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 (United States); Christian, T.; Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Jones-Albertus, R.; Pickett, E.; Liu, T.; Misra, P.; Sukiasyan, A.; Yuen, H. [Solar Junction, Inc., San Jose, California 95131 (United States)] [Solar Junction, Inc., San Jose, California 95131 (United States)
2013-12-09
The mobility of electrons in double heterostructures of p-type Ga{sub 0.50}In{sub 0.50}P has been determined by measuring minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime. The minority electron mobility increases monotonically from 300?K to 5?K, limited primarily by optical phonon and alloy scattering. Comparison to majority electron mobility over the same temperature range in comparably doped samples shows a significant reduction in ionized impurity scattering at lower temperatures, due to differences in interaction of repulsive versus attractive carriers with ionized dopant sites. These results should be useful in modeling and optimization for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.
Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.
1996-01-01
Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells were made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) by to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. Spire has made N/P InP/Si cells of sizes up to 2 cm by 4 cm with beginning-of-life (BOL) AM0 efficiencies over 13% (one-sun, 28C). These InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency and power density after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells after a fluence of about 2e15 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm. In this work, we investigate the minority carrier (electron) base diffusion lengths in the N/P InP/Si cells. A quantum efficiency model was constructed for a 12% BOL AM0 N/P InP/Si cell which agreed well with the absolutely measured quantum efficiency and the sun-simulator measured AM0 photocurrent (30.1 mA/sq. cm). This model was then used to generate a table of AM0 photocurrents for a range of base diffusion lengths. AM0 photocurrents were then measured for irradiations up to 7.7e16 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm (the 12% BOL cell was 8% after the final irradiation). By comparing the measured photocurrents with the predicted photocurrents, base diffusion lengths were assigned at each fluence level. A damage coefficient K of 4e-8 and a starting (unirradiated) base electron diffusion length of 0.8 microns fits the data well. The quantum efficiency was measured again at the end of the experiment to verify that the photocurrent predicted by the model (25.5 mA/sq. cm) agreed with the simulator-measured photocurrent after irradiation (25.7 mA/sq. cm).
On the determination of diffusion lengths by means of angle-lapped p-n junctions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Roos, O.
1979-01-01
A standard procedure for determining the minority carrier diffusion length by means of SEM consists of scanning an angle-lapped surface of a p-n junction and measuring the resulting short circuit current as a function of beam position. The present paper points out that the usual expression linking the short circuit current induced by the electron beam to the angle between the semiconductor surface and the junction plane is incorrect. The correct expression is discussed and it is noted that, for angles less than 10 deg, the new and the old expression are practically indistinguishable.
Multiwavelength analyzer for the determination of diffusion lengths. [in solar cell base region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stafsudd, O. M.; Davis, G. E.; Jansen, M.
1983-01-01
The minority carrier diffusion length Ln in the base or substrate region is an important parameter which governs a solar cell's performance. The present investigation is concerned with the development of a multiwavelength analyzer (MWA) technique for the nondestructive spatial testing of polycrystalline solar cells. The MWA method is based on the utilization of the short-circuit current generated by two or more light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operating at different wavelengths and modulated 180 deg out-of-phase. For a determination of Ln by the MWA technique, it is necessary to know the value of the absorption coefficient.
Diffusion length measurement using the scanning electron microscope. [for silicon solar cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weizer, V. G.
1975-01-01
The present work describes a measuring technique employing the scanning electron microscope in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through application of highly doped surface field layers. The effects of high injection level and low-high junction current generation are investigated. Results obtained with this technique are compared to those obtained by a penetrating radiation (X-ray) method, and a close agreement is found. The SEM technique is limited to cells that contain a back surface field layer.
Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan
2014-07-15
In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0?cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malmborg, Carin; Sjöbeck, Martin; Brockstedt, Sara; Englund, Elisabeth; Söderman, Olle; Topgaard, Daniel
2006-06-01
Finite gradient pulse lengths are traditionally considered a nuisance in q-space diffusion NMR and MRI, since the simple Fourier relation between the acquired signal and the displacement probability is invalidated. Increasing the value of the pulse length leads to an apparently smaller value of the estimated compartment size. We propose that q-space data at different gradient pulse lengths, but with the same effective diffusion time, can be used to identify and quantify components with free or restricted diffusion from multiexponential echo decay curves obtained on cellular systems. The method is demonstrated with experiments on excised human brain white matter and a series of model systems with well-defined free, restricted, and combined free and restricted diffusion behavior. Time-resolved diffusion MRI experiments are used to map the spatial distribution of the intracellular fraction in a yeast cell suspension during sedimentation, and observe the disappearance of this fraction after a heat treatment.
Diffusion length determination in thin film CdS/CuInSe2 solar cells by the EBIC method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouazzi, A.; Loferski, J. J.; Kwietniak, M.; Arya, R. R.; Sosnowski, M.
1984-06-01
Minority carrier diffusion lengths in thin films p-CuInSe2 and n-CdS were determined from the decay of the short-circuit current generated by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope for different accelerating voltages. The bulk diffusion lengths were determined taking into account the surface recombination velocity at the scanned surface: they were 0.6 micron in CuInSe2 and 1.17 micron in CdS.
Effect of grain boundaries in silicon on minority-carrier diffusion length and solar-cell efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daud, T.; Koliwad, K. M.; Allen, F. G.
1978-01-01
The spatial variation of minority-carrier diffusion length in the vicinity of a grain boundary for a polycrystalline silicon sheet has been measured by the use of the EBIC technique. The effect of such a variation on solar-cell output has then been computed as a function of grain size. Calculations show that the cell output drops considerably for grain size smaller than three times the bulk diffusion length.
Diffusion current characteristics of defect-limited nBn mid-wave infrared detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savich, G. R.; Sidor, D. E.; Du, X.; Morath, C. P.; Cowan, V. M.; Wicks, G. W.
2015-04-01
Mid-wave infrared, nBn detectors remain limited by diffusion current generated in the absorber region even when defect concentrations are elevated. In contrast, defect-limited conventional pn-junction based photodiodes are subject to Shockley-Read-Hall generation in the depletion region and subsequent carrier drift. Ideal nBn-architecture devices would be limited by Auger 1 generation; however, typical nBn detectors exhibit defect-dominated performance associated with Shockley-Read-Hall generation in the quasi-neutral absorbing region. Reverse saturation current density characteristics for defect-limited devices depend on the minority carrier diffusion length, absorbing layer thickness, and the dominant minority carrier generation mechanism. Unlike pn-based photodiodes, changes in nBn dark current due to elevated defect concentrations do not manifest at small biases, thus, the zero bias resistance area product, RoA, is not a useful parameter for characterizing nBn-architecture photodetector performance.
Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors
Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)
1984-01-01
Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.
Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors
Moore, Arnold R. (Princeton, NJ)
1984-02-21
Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.
Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.
1995-01-01
Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are being made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers compared to InP or germanium (Ge) wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells. In this work, base electron diffusion lengths in the N/P cell are extracted from measured AM0 short-circuit photocurrent at various irradiation levels out to an equivalent 1 MeV fluence of 1017 1 MeV electrons/sq cm for a 1 sq cm 12% BOL InP/Si cell. These values are then checked for consistency by comparing measured Voc data with a theoretical Voc model that includes a dark current term that depends on the extracted diffusion lengths.
2015-01-01
The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can calculate a sturdiness factor value so that an individual animal’s BMR and body mass can be simultaneously computed given its characteristic length awaits analysis of a data set that simultaneously reports all three of these items for individual animals. However for many of the addressed MMLE homogeneous groups, MMLE can predict the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the BMR and mass data using the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the mass and length data. This argues that MMLE may be able to accurately simultaneously compute BMR and mass for an individual animal.
Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Long, E. R., Jr.
1979-01-01
The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.
Double-Diffusive Mixing-Length Theory, Semiconvection, and Massive Star Evolution
Scott A. Grossman; Ronald E. Taam
1996-08-22
Double-diffusive convection refers to mixing where the effects of thermal and composition gradients compete to determine the stability of a fluid. In addition to the familiar fast convective instability, such fluids exhibit the slow, direct salt finger instability and the slow, overstable semiconvective instability. Previous approaches to this subject usually have been based on linear stability analyses. We develop here the nonlinear mixing-length theory (MLT) of double-diffusive convection, in analogy to the more familiar MLT for a fluid of homogeneous composition. We present approximate solutions for the mixing rate in the various regimes, and show that the familiar Schwarzschild and Ledoux stability criteria are good approximations to the precise criteria in stellar interiors. We have implemented the self-consistent computation of the temperature gradient and turbulent mixing rate in a stellar evolution code and solved a diffusion equation to mix composition at the appropriate rate. We have evolved $15\\msun$ and $30\\msun$ stars from the zero-age main sequence to the end of core He-burning. Semiconvective mixing is fast enough to alter stellar composition profiles on relevant time scales, but not so fast that instantaneous readjustment is appropriate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
See, Kwang-Seng; Lau, Wai-Shing; Liao, Hong; Eng, Chee-Wee; Tee, Kian-Meng; Quek, Elgin Kiok-Boone; Tee, Kheng-Chok; Chan, Lap-Hung
2004-03-01
Local lattice strain around the channel in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors of 0.13 ?m gate length using shallow trench isolation can be altered using different source-drain diffusion lengths (Lov). It is known that as Lov is reduced, the drive current of p-channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) transistors can be increased due to stress-enhanced hole mobility. However, in this study, we found that as Lov is reduced below 0.62 ?m, the effective channel length (Leff) of the PMOS transistors is also reduced. This unexpected Leff shortening effect for very small Lov has instead led to a reduction of ?eff, as shown through our calculations. We thus propose that the drive current increase for Lov reduction is due to stress-enhanced hole mobility for larger Lov and that the Leff shortening due to stress-enhanced diffusion is the secondary and the more dominating mechanism for Lov values below 0.62 ?m.
CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH OF ENERGY-CONTAINING STRUCTURES AT THE BASE OF A CORONAL HOLE
Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Cao, W. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States)
2013-08-20
An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that rely on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length {lambda} of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations (u{sup 2} and b{sup 2}) transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale directly defines the heating rate. We use a time series analysis of solar granulation and magnetic field measurements inside two CHs obtained with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A data set for transverse magnetic fields obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter on board the Hinode spacecraft was utilized to analyze the squared transverse magnetic field fluctuations b{sub t}{sup 2}. Local correlation tracking was applied to derive the squared transverse velocity fluctuations u {sup 2}. We find that for u {sup 2} structures, the Batchelor integral scale {lambda} varies in a range of 1800-2100 km, whereas the correlation length sigmav and the e-folding length L vary between 660 and 1460 km. Structures for b{sub t}{sup 2} yield {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 1600 km, sigmav Almost-Equal-To 640 km, and L Almost-Equal-To 620 km. An averaged (over {lambda}, sigmav, and L) value of the characteristic length of u {sup 2} fluctuations is 1260 {+-} 500 km, and that of b{sub t}{sup 2} is 950 {+-} 560 km. The characteristic length scale in the photosphere is approximately 1.5-50 times smaller than that adopted in previous models (3-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km). Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uno, Kazuyuki; Dobashi, Kazuma; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa
2013-04-01
A longitudinally excited CO2 laser pumped by a fast discharge emits a short laser pulse, similarly to TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. We investigated the relation between the discharge length and the laser pulse characteristics to develop a longitudinally excited CO2 laser producing a high spike laser pulse. We examined discharge lengths of 30, 45, and 60 cm, using the same mirrors and the same excitation circuit with the same input energy. A longer discharge length increased the discharge volume and improved the laser output energy. However, the longer discharge length caused a long discharge formation time (a slow fall time of the discharge voltage) due to the higher discharge impedance, which resulted in a long laser pulse tail. Therefore, the longitudinally excited CO2 laser had optimum conditions for obtaining a high spike laser pulse effectively.
Airflow characteristics in the outlet region of a vortex room air diffuser
S. C. Hu
2003-01-01
For turbulent type clean rooms, terminal devices with high diffusion performance are required because the supply flow rate is usually provided only in the margin value. Vortex diffuser is generally assumed with high diffusion performance. However, its detailed technology data are not available. In this study, the airflow characteristics in the outlet region of a generic vortex diffuser were experimentally
Length-force characteristics of in vivo human muscle reflected by supersonic shear imaging.
Sasaki, Kazushige; Toyama, Sho; Ishii, Naokata
2014-07-15
Recently, an ultrasound-based elastography technique has been used to measure stiffness (shear modulus) of an active human muscle along the axis of contraction. Using this technique, we explored 1) whether muscle shear modulus, like muscle force, is length dependent; and 2) whether the length dependence of muscle shear modulus is consistent between electrically elicited and voluntary contractions. From nine healthy participants, ankle joint torque and shear modulus of the tibialis anterior muscle were measured at five different ankle joint angles during tetanic contractions and during maximal voluntary contractions. Fascicle length, pennation angle, and tendon moment arm length of the tetanized tibialis anterior calculated from ultrasound images were used to reveal the length-dependent changes in muscle force and shear modulus. Over the range of joint angles examined, both force and shear modulus of the tetanized muscle increased with increasing fascicle length. Regression analysis of normalized data revealed a significant linear relationship between force and shear modulus (R(2) = 0.52, n = 45, P < 0.001). Although the length dependence of shear modulus was consistent, irrespective of contraction mode, the slope of length-shear modulus relationship was steeper during maximal voluntary contractions than during tetanic contractions. These results provide novel evidence that length-force relationship, one of the most fundamental characteristics of muscle, can be inferred from in vivo imaging of shear modulus in the tibialis anterior muscle. Furthermore, the estimation of length-force relationship may be applicable to voluntary contractions in which neural and mechanical interactions of multiple muscles are involved. PMID:24876360
Sperl, Matthias; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Sciortino, Francesco; Kumar, Pradeep; Stanley, H Eugene
2010-04-01
Building on mode-coupling-theory calculations, we report a novel scenario for multiple glass transitions in a purely repulsive spherical potential: the square shoulder. The liquid-glass transition lines exhibit both melting by cooling and melting by compression as well as associated diffusion anomalies, similar to the ones observed in water. Differently from all previously investigated models, we find for small shoulder widths a glass-glass line that is disconnected from the liquid phase. Upon increasing the shoulder width such a glass-glass line merges with the liquid-glass transition lines, featuring two distinct end point singularities that give rise to logarithmic decays in the dynamics. We analytically explain these findings by considering the interplay of different repulsive length scales. PMID:20481944
Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.
1980-01-01
Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.
Characteristics of Gaseous Diffusion Flames with High Temperature Combustion Air in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghaderi, M.; Gupta, A. K.
2003-01-01
The characteristics of gaseous diffusion flames have been obtained using high temperature combustion air under microgravity conditions. The time resolved flame images under free fall microgravity conditions were obtained from the video images obtained. The tests results reported here were conducted using propane as the fuel and about 1000 C combustion air. The burner included a 0.686 mm diameter central fuel jet injected into the surrounding high temperature combustion air. The fuel jet exit Reynolds number was 63. Several measurements were taken at different air preheats and fuel jet exit Reynolds number. The resulting hybrid color flame was found to be blue at the base of the flame followed by a yellow color flame. The length and width of flame during the entire free fall conditions has been examined. Also the relative flame length and width for blue and yellow portion of the flame has been examined under microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame length decreases and width increases with high air preheats in microgravity condition. In microgravity conditions the flame length is larger with normal temperature combustion air than high temperature air.
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Nandy, Dibyendu, E-mail: martens@solar.physics.montana.edu, E-mail: amunoz@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dnandi@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute for Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohampur 741252, West Bengal (India)
2011-01-20
The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.
Characteristics of liquid ethanol diffusion flames from mini tube nozzles
Chen, J.; Peng, X.F.; Yang, Z.L.; Cheng, J.
2009-02-15
A series of experiments was conducted to explore the combustion characteristics of a diffusion flames from mini tubes fueled by liquid ethanol with visual observations of the flame shape, the dynamic liquid-vapor interface during phase change inside the capillary tubes and the tube outer surface temperature using CCD and IR cameras. As the fuel supply rate increased, the interface location rose to the tube exit and the temperature gradient on the outer tube surface increased, consequently the evaporating became much stronger and the interface tended to be unstable. The combustion characteristics are closely related to the rapid phase change and violent evaporation and interfacial dynamics, with the violent evaporation, actually explosive boiling, inducing an explosive flame. The intensity of the explosive flame became stronger as the flowrate increased with the maximum flame height, interface location movement, and sound intensity all significantly increasing. The periodicity of the explosive flame was directly proportional to the interface moving distance and inversely proportional to the fuel flow rate. (author)
Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H
2015-06-01
Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. PMID:25899173
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leon, R. P.
1987-01-01
Accurate evaluations of diffusion lengths for heavily to moderately doped III-V semiconductors and/or radiation damaged solar cells have been made possible by using experimental and numerical techniques. The techniques employed were electron beam induced current and low voltage electron microscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koresawa, Ryo; Utaka, Yoshio
2014-12-01
Mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of water distribution relating to the microscopic conformation and oxygen diffusivity of GDL. A hybrid type carbon paper GDL with planar-distributed wettability is investigated for control of liquid water movement and distribution due to hydrophobic to hydrophilic areas that provide wettability differences in GDL and to achieve enhancement of both oxygen diffusion and moisture retention. Hybrid GDLs with different PTFE content were fabricated in an attempt to improve the oxygen diffusion characteristics. The effects of different PTFE contents on the oxygen diffusivity and water distribution were simultaneously measured and observed using galvanic cell oxygen absorber and X-ray radiography. The PTFE distribution was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The formation of oxygen diffusion paths was confirmed by X-ray radiography, where voids in the hybrid GDL were first formed in the hydrophobic regions and then spread to the untreated wetting region. Thus, the formation of oxygen diffusion paths enhanced the oxygen diffusion. In addition, the effects of local PTFE content in the hydrophobic region and the optimal amount of PTFE for hybrid GDL were elucidated.
Sharma, Manju; Yashonath, S
2011-04-01
Molecular dynamics investigation of model diatomic species confined to the ?-cages of zeolite NaY is reported. The dependence of self-diffusivity on the bond length of the diatomic species has been investigated. Three different sets of runs have been carried out. In the first set, the two atoms of the diatomic molecule interact with the zeolite atoms with equal strength (example, O(2), the symmetric case). In the second and third sets which correspond to asymmetric cases, the two atoms of the diatomic molecule interact with unequal strengths (example, CO). The result for the symmetric case exhibits a well-defined maximum in self-diffusivity for an intermediate bond length. In contrast to this, the intermediate asymmetry leads to a less pronounced maximum. For the large asymmetric case, the maximum is completely absent. These findings are analyzed by computing a number of related properties. These results provide a direct confirmation at the microscopic level of the suggestion by Derouane that the supermobility observed experimentally by Kemball has its origin in the mutual cancellation of forces. The maximum in diffusivity from molecular dynamics is seen at the value predicted by the levitation effect. Further, these findings suggest a role for symmetry in the existence of a diffusivity maximum as a function of diameter of the diffusant often referred to as the levitation effect. The nature of the required symmetry for the existence of anomalous diffusivity is interaction symmetry which is different from that normally encountered in crystallography. PMID:21401037
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duc, Le Duy; Le, Dang Thi Thanh; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Hieu, Nguyen Van
2014-04-01
Nanowire structured p-type CuO semiconductor is a promising material for gas-sensing applications because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this study, we demonstrate the length and density controlled synthesis of single crystal CuO nanowires (CuO NWs) by a simple and convenient thermal oxidation of high-purity copper foils in ambient atmosphere. The density and length of the CuO NWs are controlled by varying the oxidation temperature and heating duration to investigate their growth mechanism. As-synthesized materials are characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The gas-sensing characteristics of the CuO NWs are tested using hydrogen and ethanol gases. The results show that the CuO NWs could potentially sense hydrogen and ethanol gases given a working temperature of 400 °C.
Jiang,Tianzi
on diffusion tensor tractography: Application to patients with relapsing neuromyelitis optica Fuchun Lin,a,1 the pyramidal tract (PYT) of relapsing neuromyelitis optica (RNMO) patients without visible brain lesions-normalized parameterization; Diffusion indices; Pyramidal tract; Relapsing neuromyelitis optica Introduction Diffusion tensor
Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.
2014-10-28
We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.
Damian F. Abasto; Masoud Mohseni; Seth Lloyd; Paolo Zanardi
2011-05-20
Symmetric couplings among aggregates of $n$ chromophores increase the transfer rate of excitons by a factor $n^2$, a quantum mechanical phenomenon called "supertransfer." In this work we demonstrate how supertransfer effects induced by geometrical symmetries can enhance the exciton diffusion length by a factor $n$ along cylindrically symmetric structures, consisting of arrays of rings of chromophores, and along spiral arrays. We analyse both closed system dynamics and open quantum dynamics, modelled by combining a random bosonic bath with static disorder. In the closed system case, we use the symmetries of the system within a short-time approximation to obtain a closed analytical expression for the diffusion length that explicitly reveals the supertransfer contribution. When subject to disorder, we show that supertransfer can enhance excitonic diffusion lengths for small disorders and characterize the crossover from coherent to incoherent motion. Owing to the quasi-1D nature of the model, disorder ultimately localizes the excitons, diminishing but not destroying the effects of supertransfer. When dephasing effects are included, we study the scaling of diffusion with both time and number of chromophores and observe that the transition from a coherent, ballistic regime to an incoherent, random-walk regime occurs at the same point as the change from supertransfer to classical scaling.
Characteristic Length of Energy-Containing Structures at the Base of a Coronal Hole
Abramenko, V I; Dosch, A; Yurchyshyn, V B; Goode, P R; Ahn, K; Cao, W
2013-01-01
An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that rely on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length $\\lambda_{\\bot}$ of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations ($u^2$ and $b^2$) transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale defines directly the heating rate. We use a time series analysis of solar granulation and magnetic field measurements inside two CHs obtained with the New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A data set for transverse magnetic fields obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope/Spectro-Polarimeter (SOT/SP) aboard {\\it Hinode} spacecraft was utilized to analyze the squared transverse magnetic field fluctuations $b_t^2$. Local correlation tracking (LCT) was applied to derive the squared transverse velocity fluctuations $u^2$. We find that for $u^2$-structures, Batchelor integral scale $\\lambda$ varies in a rang...
Venus' superrotation, mixing length theory and eddy diffusion - A parametric study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Schatten, K. H.; Stevens-Rayburn, D. R.; Chan, K. L.
1988-01-01
The concept of the Hadley mechanism is adopted to describe the axisymmetric circulation of the Venus atmosphere. It is shown that, for the atmosphere of a slowly rotating planet such as Venus, a form of the nonliner 'closure' (self-consistent solution) of the fluid dynamics system which constrains the magnitude of the eddy diffusion coefficients can be postulated. A nonlinear one-layer spectral model of the zonally symmetric circulation was then used to establish the relationship between the heat source, the meridional circulation, and the eddy diffusion coefficients, yielding large zonal velocities. Computer experiments indicated that proportional changes in the heat source and eddy diffusion coefficients do not significantly change the zonal velocities. It was also found that, for large eddy diffusion coefficients, the meridional velocity is virtually constant; below a threshold in the diffusion rate, the meridional velocity decreases; and, for large eddy diffusion and small heating rates, the zonal velocities decrease with decreasing planetary rotation rates.
Measurement of minority carrier lifetime, mobility and diffusion length in heavily doped silicon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swirhun, S. E.; Swanson, R. M.
1986-01-01
Carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped silicon were examined. Data were presented for carrier diffusivity in both p- and n-type heavily doped silicon covering a broad range of doping concentrations from 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 20th power atoms/cu cm. One of the highlights of the results showed that minority carrier diffusivities are higher by a factor of 2 in silicon compared to majority carrier diffusivities.
Tao, X. D.; Feng, Z.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Wu, D.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Ding, H. F.
2014-05-07
We present the experimental study of the spin Hall angle (SHA) and spin diffusion length of Pd with the spin pumping and microwave photoresistance effects. The Py/Pd bilayer stripes are excited with an out-of-plane microwave magnetic field. The pure spin current is thus pumped and transforms into charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd layer, yielding an ISHE voltage. The ISHE voltage can be distinguished from the unwanted signal caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance according to their different symmetries. Together with Pd thickness dependent measurements of in and out-of-plane precessing angles and effective spin mixing conductance, the SHA and spin-diffusion length of Pd are quantified as 0.0056?±?0.0007 and 7.3?±?0.7?nm, respectively.
PREDICTION OF CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS IN DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION
Lam, P
2008-04-15
Finite element method was used to analyze the three-point bend experimental data of A533B-1 pressure vessel steel obtained by Sherry, Lidbury, and Beardsmore [1] from -160 to -45 C within the ductile-brittle transition regime. As many researchers have shown, the failure stress ({sigma}{sub f}) of the material could be approximated as a constant. The characteristic length, or the critical distance (r{sub c}) from the crack tip, at which {sigma}{sub f} is reached, is shown to be temperature dependent based on the crack tip stress field calculated by the finite element method. With the J-A{sub 2} two-parameter constraint theory in fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness (J{sub C} or K{sub JC}) can be expressed as a function of the constraint level (A{sub 2}) and the critical distance r{sub c}. This relationship is used to predict the fracture toughness of A533B-1 in the ductile-brittle transition regime with a constant {sigma}{sub f} and a set of temperature-dependent r{sub c}. It can be shown that the prediction agrees well with the test data for wide range of constraint levels from shallow cracks (a/W= 0.075) to deep cracks (a/W= 0.5), where a is the crack length and W is the specimen width.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hubbard, S. M.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Balley, S.; Rybickid, G.; Neudeck, P.; Raffaelle, R.
2004-01-01
Minority-Carrier diffusion lengths of n-type 6H-SiC were measured using the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) technique. Experimental values of primary beam current, EBIC, and beam voltage were obtained for a variety of SIC samples. This data was used to calculate experimental diode efficiency vs. beam voltage curves. These curves were fit to theoretically calculated efficiency curves, and the diffusion length and metal layer thickness were extracted. The hole diffusion length in n-6H SiC ranged from 0.93 +/- 0.15 microns.
Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.
1993-01-01
Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.
Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Pastore, Giovanni; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Tonks, Michael; Stanek, Christopher Richard
2014-11-07
This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO_{2} were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large X_{eU3O} cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.
McGehee, Michael
in organic semiconductors Shawn R. Scully and Michael D. McGeheea Department of Materials Science of high efficiency organic photovoltaics. Exciton diffusion studies require accurate experimental in the refractive indices of the quencher and organic material, as is the case for titania or C60 and most organic
Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi
2009-12-30
Measurements of the interfacial diffusion coefficient of the surface hydration layer of lipid vesicles in dilute solutions are presented. This was made possible by the greatly enhanced sensitivity and unique contrast provided by the site-specific and selective Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of solvent molecules that approach nitroxide radical-based spin labels within <5-10 A. All experiments were carried out using minute microliter sample volumes of lipid vesicle solutions, using low spin label concentrations (<2 mol %) and under physiological conditions. This presents unprecedented sensitivity for analyzing interfacial solvent diffusion of macromolecules and their assemblies in solutions and highlights the feasibility of investigating precious samples. Interfacial diffusion on DOTAP (1,2-DiOleoyl-3-TrimethylAmmonium-Propane) and DPPC (1,2-DiPalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-PhosphoCholine) surfaces are further analyzed as a function of temperature to determine the activation energy of their hydration layer dynamics. The temperature-dependent analysis across the phase transition of DPPC concludes that the hydration water with 100-200 ps dynamics displays Arrhenius behavior and does not undergo a phase transition unlike the lipid chains. We also discuss the advantages of determining the activation energy of diffusion as a general approach to comparing interfacial diffusivity on surfaces that have vastly different charge topologies and, thus, may display different distances of closest approach between the spin label placed at the surface and the protons of hydration water. The further development and application of this technique is expected to facilitate the study of membrane dynamics and their phase behavior, including the formation of lipid rafts, with lipid-specific resolution. PMID:19791740
Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak
1993-01-01
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).
Nogues, Gilles Den Hertog, Martien; Auzelle, Thomas; Gayral, Bruno; Daudin, Bruno
2014-03-10
We perform correlated studies of individual GaN nanowires in scanning electron microscopy combined to low temperature cathodoluminescence, microphotoluminescence, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that some nanowires exhibit well localized regions emitting light at the energy of a stacking fault bound exciton (3.42?eV) and are able to observe the presence of a single stacking fault in these regions. Precise measurements of the cathodoluminescence signal in the vicinity of the stacking fault give access to the exciton diffusion length near this location.
Matthias Sperl; Emanuela Zaccarelli; Francesco Sciortino; Pradeep Kumar; H. Eugene Stanley
2010-01-01
Building on mode-coupling-theory calculations, we report a novel scenario for multiple glass transitions in a purely repulsive spherical potential: the square shoulder. The liquid-glass transition lines exhibit both melting by cooling and melting by compression as well as associated diffusion anomalies, similar to the ones observed in water. Differently from all previously investigated models, we find for small shoulder widths
Conjecture on superrotation in planetary atmospheres - A diffusion model with mixing length theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Hartle, R. E.; Schatten, K. H.; Chan, K. L.
1985-01-01
The component of rigid shell superrotation on Venus is discussed in the context of comparative planetary atmospheres. A simplified, heuristic analysis, utilizing mixed length theory to describe the small scale nonlinear advections of energy and angular momentum, thereby providing a closure of the dynamic system, is presented, on the basis of which a crude estimate of zonal velocity is made. The rigid shell (global average) component on Venus was calculated to be 105 m/sec.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnyakov, Alexei V.; Stuchinsky, Victor A.; Brunev, Dmitry V.; Zverev, Alexei V.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.
2014-10-01
Two-dimensional diffusion model was used to analyze the charge-carrier diffusion process in the photosensitive film of photovoltaic HgCdTe IR FPA detectors with a continuous (without mesa-isolation of pixels) absorber layer. Some applications of the model and its inaccuracies are considered. Estimates of the local charge-carrier diffusion length values in the FPA regions under and outside photodiodes were obtained on the basis of spot-scan data.
Jeong Park; Do Hyung Lee; Sung Hwan Yoon; Tran Manh Vu; Jin Han Yun; Sang In Keel
2009-01-01
Numerical study is conducted to grasp flame characteristics in H2\\/CO syngas counterflow diffusion flames diluted with He and Ar. An effective fuel Lewis number, applicable to premixed burning regime and even to moderately stretched diffusion flames, is suggested through the comparison among fuel Lewis number, effective Lewis number, and effective fuel Lewis number. Flame characteristics with and without the suppression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.
1951-01-01
An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.
Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim
2009-01-01
Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early pre-cancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (LSC). When ls* < LSC, a diffusion approximation based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that pre-cancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties. PMID:21037980
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhnert, M.; Geiger, R.; Langen, T.; Gring, M.; Rauer, B.; Kitagawa, T.; Demler, E.; Adu Smith, D.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2013-03-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a coherently split one-dimensional Bose gas by measuring the full probability distribution functions of matter-wave interference. Observing the system on different length scales allows us to probe the dynamics of excitations on different energy scales, revealing two distinct length-scale-dependent regimes of relaxation. We measure the crossover length scale separating these two regimes and identify it with the prethermalized phase-correlation length of the system. Our approach enables a direct observation of the multimode dynamics characterizing one-dimensional quantum systems.
Wang, C.; Bai, C. [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People`s Republic of (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People`s Republic of (China); Li, X. [Department of Materials Physics, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083, People`s Republic of (China)] [Department of Materials Physics, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083, People`s Republic of (China); Shang, G.; Lee, I.; Wang, X.; Qiu, X.; Tian, F. [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People`s Republic of (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People`s Republic of (China)
1996-07-01
The characteristics of the nanostructure on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) involving field emitted electrons is examined with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A simple model based on the continuum electron diffusion is proposed and is compared with the experimental results. It suggests that the process could be associated with the diffusion of electrons at the vicinity of the injection position. It also implies that the characteristics of the as-produced nanometer sized craters could be correlated to the anisotropy degree of the transport properties of HOPG. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Placidi, E. Arciprete, F.; Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Patella, F.; Magri, R.
2014-09-15
An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.
Characteristics of methane diffusion flame in a reacting vortex ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safta, C.; Madnia, C. K.
2004-09-01
Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed methane flame vortex ring interactions are performed. The methane combustion was modelled using a detailed kinetic mechanism which consists of 36 species and 217 elementary reactions and involves C1, C2, and a small set of C3 kinetics. The vortex ring is generated by a brief discharge of cold fuel into a quiescent oxidizer ambient. The much higher oxidizer temperature leads to the auto-ignition of the vortex ring. The effects of fuel and oxidizer dilution and vortex ring strength on the dynamics of the interaction are studied. Three flame regions, front, top, and wake, are identified. Several combustion regimes are defined in the reacting vortex ring configuration. For the range of parameters accessible, unsteady, curvature and thickening effects on the flame structure are observed. Flame structure comparisons with steady counterflow diffusion flame (CFDF) results show that for a Damköhler number greater than 25, the unsteady effects on the flame become small. The contributions of time varying straining, fuel temperature and concentration to the unsteady effects on the front flame structure are separated through comparisons with unsteady CFDF simulations. For high initial Damköhler number simulations, none of these contributions are important since the flame becomes quasi-steady shortly after ignition. For intermediate initial Damköhler number simulations the unsteady effects are important at early times. At later times, a decrease in the straining and an increase in the fuel temperature reduce these effects. However, a decrease in the fuel concentration extends the duration for which the unsteady effects are important. If the initial Damköhler number is sufficiently low, the decrease in the fuel concentration overcomes the effects of straining and fuel temperature, and the flame remains unsteady for the entire simulation. Thickening and curvature effects on the flame structure are observed for the intermediate and low Damköhler number simulations. For runs with the flame close to the vortex ring, the curvature effects on the flame are important in the wake of the ring while the thickening effects are small. The curvature effects are small and the wake flame is thicker for the runs with the flame far from the ring. This article was chosen from Selected Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Sendai, Japan, 24 27 June 2003) ed N Kasagi et al.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, A.; Gómez, J. B.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A. F.
2003-04-01
Our literature review has yielded a data set on fault length, slip rate and earthquake return interval for many normal, reverse and strike-slip active fault systems found all over the world. The data were obtained from palaeoseismological studies, historical earthquake data, and measurements of the offset of dated geological features displaced by the faults. The characteristic earthquake model is assumed valid for these fault or fault segments, so that for each of them a characteristic earthquake mean return interval can be determined. In agreement with previous scaling relationships, it is observed that the longer the fault or fault segment, the faster its slip rate, and the smaller its characteristic earthquake return interval. A recently introduced minimalist model of a fault with characteristic earthquake behaviour (Vázquez Prada et al., 2002, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, v. 9, p. 513-519) has been modified to try to accommodate these slip-rate-dependent fault properties. In the model it is assumed that the slip rate is directly proportional to the rate of stress build-up on the fault. When the slip rate of the model fault is tuned to be length-dependent in a similar fashion as in real faults, the resulting scaling relationship between length and characteristic earthquake return interval agrees with that observed in real fault data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bomela, Christian Loangola
The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k--o turbulence model produced a mean flow velocity profile at the middle of the annular diffuser portion that had the best overall match with the experiment. The RNG k --epsilon, however, better predicted the diffuser performance along the exhaust diffuser length by means of the pressure recovery coefficient. These results were obtained using uniform inflow conditions and steady-state simulations. As such, the last phase of our investigations involved varying the inflow parameters like the turbulence intensity, the inlet flow temperature, and the flow angularity, which constitute important characteristics of the turbine blade wake, to investigate their impact on the diffuser design and performance. These isothermal CFD simulations revealed that by changing the flow temperature from 15 to 427°C, the pressure recovery coefficient significantly increased. However, it has been shown that the increase of temperature had no effects on the size of the reversed flow region and the thickness of the separated casing boundary layer, although the flow appears to be more turbulent. Furthermore, it has been established that an optimum turbulence intensity of about 4% produced comparable diffuser performance as the experiment. We also found that a velocity angle of about 2.5° at the last turbine stage will ensure a better exhaust diffuser performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, H. W.
1974-01-01
Performance, stability, and control tests at supersonic and hypersonic speeds have been performed on two versions of a shuttle orbiter configuration designed for reduced length. One of the test configurations had twin dorsal fins rolled out 15 deg the other a centerline single dorsal fin. Effects of elevon and body deg flap deflection, rudder flare, planform fillet, and aileron deflection were examined. The supersonic tests were over the Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number based on model length of 4,300,000. The hypersonic tests were conducted at a Mach number of 10.3 and Reynolds number of 670,000.
Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A. Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.
2014-03-03
In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph}???0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} ? 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maekawa, Hiroaki; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio; Ge, Nien-Hui
Two-dimensional infrared spectra of Z-(Aib)n-OtBu (n = 3, 5, 8 and 10) were measured to investigate how they depend on the peptide chain length. The onset of the 310-helical spectral signature appears to occur at the pentapeptide.
Diffusion characteristics and molecular size of DOM in plant and soil extracts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuß, Roland; Zsolnay, Ádám.; Munch, Jean Charles
2010-05-01
The main sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil are plant litter, root exudates, soil fauna, and the un-dissolved soil organic matter pool. A strong spatial heterogeneity of these sources, even on the microscale, is observed in soil. Consequently diffusion of DOM is an important transport process, which connects "hot-spots" of microbial activity and substrates. Therefore an experiment was conducted in order to measure diffusion constants of DOM and 2 inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, hydrodynamic diameters were calculated from these constants, which give an approximation of molecular size. The diffusion characteristics of several parameters in aqueous extracts of two soils and of barley were investigated. They were: Ammonium, nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 3 different fluorophore groups associated with DOM. The fluorophore groups were identified and quantified from fluorescence excitation emission spectra with the PARAFAC model. Two of the groups resembled groups, which have been used to imply the presence of humic substances (HS). Our results give reason to believe these groups can be regarded as indicators of dissolved HS in aqueous extracts only with caution. The other group, enriched in the barley extract, was the "tryptophan" group. However, its diffusion constant differed markedly between the soil and barley extracts, indicating that compounds other than tryptophan contributed to this fluorophore in soil extracts. When the Stokes-Einstein equation was applied to the diffusion coefficients of DOC (in all extracts about 0.27 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 4 °C), a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 1.0 nm for the DOC was calculated. The diffusion constants for the other DOM parameters were also similar, regardless of source, with the exception of the "tryptophan" fluorophore group from barley, which diffused about 1.5 times faster than that from the soils and was in good agreement with the theoretical diffusion coefficient of tryptophan. There was no evidence of macromolecules in DOM. The diffusion of the inorganic nitrogen species was up to 4 times as rapid as that for DOC. Therefore, where in situ metabolism is fuelled by diffusion, diffusion rates of dissolved nitrogen are not likely to be the limiting factor.
Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.
1982-01-01
The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.
Solar cells. Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 ?m in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals.
Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong
2015-02-27
Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. The long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source. PMID:25636799
Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 ?m in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong
2015-02-01
Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm?2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. The long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giles, Brandon L.; Yang, Zihao; Jamison, John; Myers, Roberto C.
The non-local spin detection geometry was developed to sample a pure electron spin current in the absence of an electric field, thereby removing parasitic transport effects. Here we demonstrate the non-local detection of magnon spins that are thermally injected via the spin Seebeck effect in single crystal YIG. A laser is used to thermally generate a spin current under an electrically isolated Pt absorbing pad. The spin current is detected on a remote Pt strip via the inverse spin Hall effect (VISHEnon - local) . Spatial maps of the spin current are acquired by measuring VISHEnon - local while scanning the laser to different absorbing pads. Temperature modeling shows the laser-induced temperature gradient contained within 50 ?m of the Pt absorbing pad. Thus, the spin detector is isolated from thermal effects unrelated to the spin current. Although the thermal magnon diffusion length at 21K is ~ 1 ?m, VISHEnon - local is detected at displacements of more than 150um with an exponential decay constant of 40 ?m at 25K. This work was supported by ARO-MURI W911NF-14-1-0016.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonroos, O.
1978-01-01
A standard procedure for the determination of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) consists in scanning across an angle-lapped surface of a P-N junction and measuring the resultant short circuit current I sub sc as a function of beam position. A detailed analysis of the I sub sc originating from this configuration is presented. It is found that, for a point source excitation, the I sub sc depends very simply on x, the variable distance between the surface and the junction edge. The expression for the I sub sc of a planar junction device is well known. If d, the constant distance between the plane of the surface of the semiconductor and the junction edge in the expression for the I of a planar junction is merely replaced by x, the variable distance of the corresponding angle-lapped junction, an expression results which is correct to within a small fraction of a percent as long as the angle between the surfaces, 2 theta sub 1, is smaller than 10 deg.
McDonald, ES; Schopp, J; Peacock, S; Olson, ML; DeMartini, WB; Rahbar, H; Lehman, CD; Partridge, SC
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE To assess associations between patient characteristics and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal breast fibroglandular tissue on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 tesla. MATERIALS and METHODS The retrospective study included 103 women with negative bilateral findings on 3T breast MR examinations (BI-RADS 1). DWI was acquired during clinical breast MRI scans using b = 0, 800 s/mm2. Mean ADC of normal breast fibroglandular tissue was calculated for each breast using a semi-automated software tool in which parenchyma pixels were selected by interactive thresholding of the b=0 s/mm2 image to exclude fat. Intrasubject right and left breast ADC values were compared and averaged together to evaluate the association of mean breast ADC with age, mammographic breast density and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE). RESULTS Overall mean breast ADC was 1.62±0.30 ×10?3mm2/s. Intrasubject right and left breast ADC measurements were highly correlated (R2=0.89, p<0.0001). Increased breast density was strongly associated with increased ADC (p=<0.0001). Age and BPE were not associated with ADC. CONCLUSION Normal breast parenchymal ADC values increase with mammographic density, but are independent of age and BPE. Since breast malignancies have been shown to have low ADC values, DWI may be particularly valuable in women with dense breasts due to greater lesion to normal tissue contrast. PMID:24758685
Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths
Gapinski, Jacek, E-mail: gapinski@amu.edu.pl; Patkowski, Adam [Molecular Biophysics Division, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); NanoBioMedical Center, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Pozna? (Poland); Nägele, Gerhard [Institute of Complex Systems (ICS-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)
2014-09-28
Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio.
Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths.
Gapinski, Jacek; Nägele, Gerhard; Patkowski, Adam
2014-09-28
Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio. PMID:25273449
Thermal diffusion characteristics of atmosphere-particle two phase flow in dust storm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xihua; Wang, Tijian; Tang, Jianping; Gu, Fan
2005-02-01
A model, coupling metrological dynamic model MM5 and dust transport model, is developed for the atmosphere-particle two phases flow of dust storm. The simulations of the dust storm events in north China with a geographic information database are performed using the model, and represent an overview of dust transport pathways and particles concentration distribution over the north China. The comparison between computations and practical observations shows that the simulations succeed in description of dust storm evolvement and particle transport behavior. Based on the computations and analysis, the characteristics of particle transport, especially well-concerning the factor of the particle thermal diffusion, are studied. A new definition of mass transfer Grd is put forward to discover the internal principle of particle thermal diffusion at various atmospheric layers. Several phenomena, such as thermal diffusion item QT Grd distribution, and relationships, Particle Grd probability function, are obtained. The investigation indicates particle thermal diffusion can be not ignored in mesoscale atmospheric-particle multiphase flow.
Growth ring characteristics, specific gravity and fiber length of rapidly grown loblolly pine
Taylor, F.W.; Burton, J.D.
1982-07-01
Intensive thinning, understory control, and green pruning of loblolly pine trees growing on a test area near Crossett, Arkansas, have produced trees with a diameter of 18.9 inches at breast heights in 35 years. Large increment borings extracted from experimental trees and control trees were examined for growth patterns and wood properties alterations related to growth rate differences. During some growth periods, radial growth of test trees was almost three times as great as radial growth of control trees. In the outer juvenile wood formed after the first thinning, growth rate differences were greatest between experimental trees. During the last 10 years of the study (mature wood zone), growth rate differences between treated and control trees were not as great, and there were no significant differences in latewood percentage or tracheid length. Specific gravity was not significantly influenced by growth rate differences in any growth zone. This result leads to the conclusion that trees can be rapidly grown without affecting specific gravity. (Refs. 19).
Cannoodt, L J; Knickman, J R
1984-01-01
To determine reasons for variations in length of stay (LOS) for surgical patients, a comprehensive statistical model was specified and estimated using 1978 discharge abstract data from New Jersey. The model distinguished preoperative LOS from postoperative LOS, and analyzed differences in the impacts of each determining factor on each segment of a hospital stay. The model included a large set of control variables, but the focus of discussion in this article is on factors which reflect the preferences, policies, and organizational routines of hospitals. The empirical findings suggest strategies that hospital managers and regulators can use for reducing average LOS. For example, afternoon admissions often result in extra preoperative days of care even after adjusting for severity of illness. Apparent scarcity of posthospital care in New Jersey also seems to translate into longer hospital stays. Using a comprehensive model and a large, reliable data set, the analysis confirms many hypotheses concerning reasons for LOS variation that have been suggested by earlier research. However, the analysis also raises questions concerning the interpretation of other earlier findings. PMID:6500957
Ren, Hao; Torres, César I; Parameswaran, Prathap; Rittmann, Bruce E; Chae, Junseok
2014-11-15
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical converter that can extract electricity from biomass by the catabolic reaction of microorganisms. This work demonstrates the impact of a small characteristic length in a Geobacteraceae-enriched, micro-scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) that achieved a high power density. The small characteristic length increased the surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) and the mass transfer coefficient. Together, these factors made it possible for the 100-µL MFC to achieve among the highest areal and volumetric power densities - 83 ?W/cm(2) and 3300 ?W/cm(3), respectively - among all micro-scale MFCs to date. Furthermore, the measured Coulombic efficiency (CE) was at least 79%, which is 2.5-fold greater than the previously reported maximum CE in micro-scale MFCs. The ability to improve these performance metrics may make micro-scale MFCs attractive for supplying power in sub-100 µW applications, especially in remote or hazardous conditions, where conventional powering units are hard to establish. PMID:24956566
Effects of Characteristic Length Scales on the Exciton Dynamics in Rubrene Single Crystals
Gieseking, Björn; Müller, Benjamin; Deibel, Carsten; Engels, Bernd; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Pflaum, Jens
2013-01-01
As for its inorganic counterparts the future developments in organic electronics are driven by an advanced device miniaturization. Therefore, the opto-electronic behavior of up-to-date devices is progressively governed by the local structural environment. However, there is a lack of organic semiconductor materials providing access to the fundamental structure-functionality relation, either due to limitations by their inherent growth or their optical characteristics. In this work we present a systematic investigation of the optical states, so-called excitons, and their temporal evolution in the prototypical organic semiconductor rubrene by means of time and temperature dependent photoluminescence studies. This material offers the unique possibility of preparing well-defined morphologies with adjustable degree of confinement. By this approach we are able to confirm the direct influence on the temperature dependent optical processes with picosecond resolution already for a spatial localization of excitation on t...
Monte Carlo Simulation Characteristics of Tracer Diffusion for Concentrated Lattice Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torpin, Trevor J.; Wentworth, Christopher D.
2007-10-01
Monte Carlo simulations of tracer diffusion for a concentrated lattice gas are presented for one, two, and three dimensional lattices. The model considered involves particles that can hop to nearest-neighbors only and that do not interact except that double occupancy of a lattice site is not allowed. We explore the time-dependence of the mean-square displacement of a tagged particle (the tracer) as characteristics of the model vary, including lattice dimensionality, lattice size, boundary conditions, and concentration of the lattice gas. The lattices considered include the one-dimensional chain, the square lattice, and the simple cubic lattice. For conditions that yield normal diffusion, the equilibrium value of the correlation factor is calculated as a function of concentration.
H. N. Kim; T. J. Kim; B. C. Choi; M. T. Lim
2008-01-01
The objective of this experimental study is to investigate the characteristics of the size distribution and the number concentration\\u000a of PM (particulate matters) emitted from the diffusion flame of a boiler burner, which has the same type of combustion as\\u000a a diesel engine. This study is performed to investigate the emission characteristics of nanoparticles generated from diffusion\\u000a combustion in diesel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Queijo, M J; Wolhart, Walter D
1951-01-01
An investigation was made to determine the effects of vertical-tail size and length and of fuselage shape and length on the static lateral stability characteristics of a model with wing and vertical tails having the quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees. The results indicate that the directional instability of the various isolated fuselages was about two-thirds as large as that predicted by classical theory.
Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slit-like micropores
S. O. Diallo
2015-04-10
The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasi- elastic neutron scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (\\sim 12 and 18 {\\AA}, denoted respectively ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient Dr and relaxation time of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed Dr values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient Dr of water within a nanoporous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature independent translational diffusion coefficient Dc associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio {\\theta} of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.
Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diallo, S. O.
2015-07-01
The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (˜12 and 18 Å, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient Dr and relaxation time of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed Dr values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient Dr of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient Dc associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio ? of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.
Huang, Chang-Chun; Li, Yun-Mei; Sun, De-Yong; Le, Cheng-Feng; Wu, Lan; Wang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Xing
2009-02-15
According to the optical property data measured in Taihu Lake at October and November 2006, the characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coeffcient (Kd), the contribution of each factor effecting on Kd and the effect of Kd on the aquatic ecology environment were analyzed. The results indicate that, the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd of Taihu Lake has two main trends in the whole visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). The first type is that, Kd decreases with the wavelengths by exponential style in the range of less than 571 nm wavelengths, and the second type is that, Kd is in the form of fluctuations in the range of larger than 571 nm wavelengths. In the range of 400-700 nm wavelength, the absorption coefficient of pigment particles is the first contributors of diffuse attenuation coefficient. Non-pigment particles absorption and scattering coefficients is the second contributor, and the rate of contribution of yellow substance is the smallest. The Kd of Taihu Lake determines the light factor of the Taihu water ecosystem. The "water window" shaped by the Kd provides the light base for different kinds of ecosystem and the appearance of Microcystic aentginosa which is the preponderant algae in the "algal blooms" phenomenon. PMID:19402480
Thermal Characteristics and Structure of Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.
2003-01-01
Turbulent jet diffusion flames are studied in microgravity and normal gravity under fully-modulated conditions for a range of injection times and a 50% duty cycle. Diluted ethylene was injected through a 2-mm nozzle at a Reynolds number of 5,000 into an open duct, with a slow oxidizer co-flow. Microgravity tests are conducted in NASA's 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Flames with short injection times and high duty cycle exhibit a marked increase in the ensemble-averaged flame length due to the removal of buoyancy. The cycle-averaged centerline temperature profile reveals higher temperatures in the microgravity flames, especially at the flame tip where the difference is about 200 K. In addition, the cycle-averaged measurements of flame radiation were about 30% to 60% greater in microgravity than in normal gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorobjev, V. G.; Roldugin, V. C.; Yagodkina, O. I.
2015-01-01
Optical characteristics of large amplitude undulations (LAU) of diffuse aurorae observed by all-sky cameras at Kola Peninsula on December 28, 2010 were examined. Both interplanetary medium conditions and characteristics of magnetic activity before and during LAU were analyzed. It was shown that the development of undulations could be activated by sharp short-living of ˜20 minutes solar wind dynamic pressure impulse and existence of the undulations during about two hours was supported by electric field of stationary magnetospheric convection originated from large smoothly changed southward IMF Bz component of about -12nT. The altitude of undulation luminosity determined by triangulation method was 120 ± 10 km. The undulations amplitude changed from about 100 to 300 km and the average wavelength was ˜250 km. The undulations were observed moving westward with the average phase velocity of ˜0.7 km/s. The pass of DMSP F16 spacecraft just along "the tongue" of undulations showed that the wave of luminosity was located in the region of the predominantly ion (proton) precipitation with the average energy of particles of ˜18 keV. Rayed auroral structures were observed continuously in the region of diffuse aurorae during time interval of LAU existence. These structures were observed moving westward with the velocity of about 2 km/s that corresponds to the northward electric field of ˜100 mV/m.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeow, Y. T.; Brinson, H. F.
1977-01-01
Uniaxial tensile tests conducted on a variety of graphite/epoxy laminates, containing narrow rectangular slits, square or circular holes with various aspect ratios are discussed. The techniques used to study stable crack or damage zone growth--namely, birefringence coatings, COD gages, and microscopic observations are discussed. Initial and final fracture modes are discussed as well as the effect of notch size and shape, and laminate type on the fracture process. Characteristic lengths are calculated and compared to each other using the point, average and inherent flaw theories. Fracture toughnesses are calculated by the same theories and compared to a boundary integral equation technique. Finite width K-calibration factors are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pizzuto, James; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg; Williamson, Elyse; Karwan, Diana L.; O'Neal, Michael; Marquard, Julia; Aalto, Rolf; Newbold, Denis
2014-02-01
Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A theory is developed that describes the downstream movement of suspended sediment particles accounting for the time particles spend in storage given sediment budget data (by grain size fraction) and information on particle transit times through storage reservoirs. The theory is used to define a suspended sediment transport length scale that describes how far particles are carried during transport events, and to estimate a downstream particle velocity that includes time spent in storage. At 5 upland watersheds of the mid-Atlantic region, transport length scales for silt-clay range from 4 to 60 km, while those for sand range from 0.4 to 113 km. Mean sediment velocities for silt-clay range from 0.0072 km/yr to 0.12 km/yr, while those for sand range from 0.0008 km/yr to 0.20 km/yr, 4-6 orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of water in the channel. These results suggest lag times of 100-1000 years between BMP implementation and effectiveness in receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay (where BMPs are located upstream of the characteristic transport length scale). Many particles likely travel much faster than these average values, so further research is needed to determine the complete distribution of suspended sediment velocities in real watersheds.
Pizzuto, James; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg; Williamson, Elyse; Karwan, Diana L.; O'Neal, Michael; Marquard, Julia; Aalto, Rolf; Newbold, Denis
2014-01-01
Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A theory is developed that describes the downstream movement of suspended sediment particles accounting for the time particles spend in storage given sediment budget data (by grain size fraction) and information on particle transit times through storage reservoirs. The theory is used to define a suspended sediment transport length scale that describes how far particles are carried during transport events, and to estimate a downstream particle velocity that includes time spent in storage. At 5 upland watersheds of the mid-Atlantic region, transport length scales for silt-clay range from 4 to 60 km, while those for sand range from 0.4 to 113 km. Mean sediment velocities for silt-clay range from 0.0072 km/yr to 0.12 km/yr, while those for sand range from 0.0008 km/yr to 0.20 km/yr, 4–6 orders of magnitude slower than the velocity of water in the channel. These results suggest lag times of 100–1000 years between BMP implementation and effectiveness in receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay (where BMPs are located upstream of the characteristic transport length scale). Many particles likely travel much faster than these average values, so further research is needed to determine the complete distribution of suspended sediment velocities in real watersheds.
Harder, Amy Marie
2009-05-15
in the innovation-decision process, characteristics of agents, characteristics of the innovation, and barriers to adoption affect the diffusion of eXtension. A random sample of 237 agents was selected for participation in the study. A majority of agents reported...
Ingrid Åslund; Daniel Topgaard
2009-01-01
A new pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR protocol for assessing the local self-diffusion coefficient D0 of water confined within living cells is proposed. Equations for the apparent mean-square displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatas, Ahmet Emre
High-pressure soot formation and flame stability characteristics were studied experimentally in laminar diffusion flames. For the former, radially resolved soot volume fraction and temperature profiles were measured in axisymmetric co-flow laminar diffusion flames of pre-vaporized n-heptane-air, undiluted ethylene-air, and nitrogen and carbon dioxide diluted ethylene-air at elevated pressures. Abel inversion was used to re-construct radially resolved data from the line-of-sight spectral soot emission measurements. For the latter, flame extinction strain rate was measured in counterflow laminar diffusion flames of C1-4 alcohols and hydrocarbon fuels of n-heptane, n-octane, iso-octane, toluene, Jet-A, and biodiesel. The luminous flame height, as marked by visible soot radiation, of the nitrogen- and helium-diluted n-heptane and nitrogen- and carbon dioxide-diluted ethylene flames stayed constant at all pressures. In pure ethylene flames, flame heights initially increased with pressure, but changed little above 5 atm. The maximum soot yield as a function of pressure in nitrogen-diluted n-heptane diffusion flames indicate that n-heptane flames are slightly more sensitive to pressure than gaseous alkane hydrocarbon flames at least up to 7 atm. Ethylene's maximum soot volume fractions were much higher than those of ethane and n-heptane diluted with nitrogen (fuel to nitrogen mass flow ratio is about 0.5). Pressure dependence of the peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel's carbon content converted to soot, was assessed and compared to previous measurements with other gaseous fuels. Maximum soot volume fractions were consistently lower in carbon dioxide-diluted flames between 5 and 15 atm but approached similar values to those in nitrogen-diluted flames at 20 atm. This observation implies that the chemical soot suppression effect of carbon dioxide, previously demonstrated at atmospheric pressure, is also present at elevated pressures up to 15 atm, but fades off beyond 15 atm. In flame stability experiments, the extinction strain rates increased with decreasing dilution. In general, the fuels with higher carbon number and fuels with more compact structures were found to be more prone to extinction. Counterflow laminar diffusion flames established at the impingement of reactants with a top-hat (axially uniform) velocity profile were found to be more resistant to extinction than those with a parabolic exit velocity profile. Multiple solutions to the flame stability were observed for certain hydrocarbons.
Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)
2014-04-21
High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3?dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15??m, which accords with the simulation results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Moeller, Hans J.; Bailey, Sheila
1991-01-01
The minority carrier diffusion length (Lp) and the surface recombination velocity (Vs) were measured as a function of distance (x) from the p-n junction in GaAs p/n concentrator solar cells. The measured Vs values were used in a theoretical expression for the normalized electron-beam-induced current. A fitting procedure was then used to fit this expression with experimental values to obtain Lp. The results show that both Vs and Lp vary with x. Lp measured in irradiated cells showed a marked reduction. These values were compared to those measured previously which did not account for Vs.
Mixing characteristics and structure of a turbulent jet diffusion flame stabilized on a bluff-body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung Hyun; Pitsch, Heinz
2006-07-01
Flow dynamics, scalar mixing, and pollutant formation in a turbulent jet diffusion flame stabilized on a bluff-body are investigated using large-eddy simulation. The density weighted filtered equations for the flow and mixing fields are solved using dynamic models for the subfilter quantities. Subfilter combustion processes are modeled by the conditional filtering method. An integrated formulation that considers only axial variation of conditionally filtered quantities is presented. Results show that vortex shedding from the coflow stream and its interaction with the high speed main jet play an important role in the generation of high dissipation layers in the intense mixing region. The mechanisms that generate the high dissipation layers in the intense mixing region are identified. The relatively uniform composition of combustion products in the recirculation zone helps the flame stabilization by maintaining low scalar dissipation rate and high temperature in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surfaces. The present integrated formulation is shown to reproduce these characteristics of the mixing field and to predict the flame structure and NO formation well. The weighted integral formulation of the conditional velocity allows the entrainment of the combustion products in the intense mixing region into the recirculation zone. The proper prediction of low conditional scalar dissipation in the recirculation zone is shown to be crucial for accurately describing the stabilization process. The decrease of NO at the end of the recirculation zone is reproduced due to the well-predicted mixing characteristics.
Allison, S; Chen, C; Stigter, D
2001-01-01
In this work, boundary element modeling is used to study the transport of highly charged rod-like model polyions of various length under a variety of different aqueous salt conditions. Transport properties considered include free solution electrophoretic mobility, translational diffusion, and the components of the "tether force" tensor. The model parameters are chosen to coincide with transport measurements of duplex DNA carried out under six different salt/temperature conditions. The focus of the analysis is on the length dependence of the free solution electrophoretic mobility. In a solution containing 0.04 M Tris-acetate buffer at 25 degrees C, calculated mobilities using straight rod models show a stronger dependence on fragment length than that observed experimentally. By carrying out model studies on curved rod models, it is concluded that the "leveling off" of mobility with fragment length is due, in part at least, to the finite curvature of DNA. Experimental mobilities of long duplex DNA in monovalent alkali salts are reasonably well explained once account is taken of long-range bending and the simplifying assumptions of the model studies. PMID:11606270
Kedem, Nir; Brenner, Thomas M; Kulbak, Michael; Schaefer, Norbert; Levcenko, Sergiu; Levine, Igal; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David
2015-07-01
High band gap, high open-circuit voltage solar cells with methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite absorbers are of interest for spectral splitting and photoelectrochemical applications, because of their good performance and ease of processing. The physical origin of high performance in these and similar perovskite-based devices remains only partially understood. Using cross-sectional electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements, we find an increase in carrier diffusion length in MAPbBr3(Cl)-based solar cells upon low intensity (a few percent of 1 sun intensity) blue laser illumination. Comparing dark and illuminated conditions, the minority carrier (electron) diffusion length increases about 3.5 times from Ln = 100 ± 50 nm to 360 ± 22 nm. The EBIC cross section profile indicates a p-n structure between the n-FTO/TiO2 and p-perovskite, rather than the p-i-n structure, reported for the iodide derivative. On the basis of the variation in space-charge region width with varying bias, measured by EBIC and capacitance-voltage measurements, we estimate the net-doping concentration in MAPbBr3(Cl) to be 3-6 × 10(17) cm(-3). PMID:26266721
Xie, S.Y.; Yoon, S.F.; Wang, S.Z.
2005-04-01
We report the effects of ex situ thermal annealing on the deep-level defects and the minority-carrier electron diffusion length in Be-doped, p-type In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} grown by solid source molecular-beam epitaxy. Deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements reveal two majority-carrier hole traps, HT1 (0.18 eV) and HT4 (0.59 eV), and two minority-carrier electron traps, ET1 (0.09 eV) and ET3 (0.41 eV), in the as-grown sample. For the sample with postgrowth thermal annealing, the overall deep-level defect-concentration is decreased. Two hole traps, HT2 (0.39 eV) and HT3 (0.41 eV), and one electron trap, ET2 (0.19 eV), are observed. We found that the minority-carrier electron diffusion length increases by {approx}30% and the leakage current of the InGaAsN/GaAs p-n junction decreases by 2-3 orders after thermal annealing. An increase of the net acceptor concentration after annealing is also observed and can be explained by a recently proposed three-center-complex model.
The report gives results of Phase I of a laboratory assessment of the permeability and diffusion characteristics of Florida concretes. (NOTE: The ability of concrete to permit air flow under pressure (permeability) and the passage of radon gas without any pressure difference (dif...
The report gives results of Phase I of a laboratory assessment of the permeability and diffusion characteristics of Florida concretes. (NOTE: The ability of concrete to permit air flow under pressure (permeability) and the passage of radon gas without any pressure difference (dif...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Toshihiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Kanno, Toshiyuki
2013-05-01
Materials and structures for water vapor barrier sealing are now actively studied, as the commercialization of organic electronic devices has become a reality. In this paper, we focus on the edge sealing barriers, in which diffusion plays an essential role. In the past, the diffusion-limited gas barrier properties were analyzed in the steady-state approximation, which is never reached within the device lifetime in the application for organic electronics. We analyze them using a simple analytical model. The diffusion before reaching the steady state is a strongly non-linear process, as is well known, and the length scale of approximately 1-10 mm is very important when a practical polymer resin is used for the edge seal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.
1978-01-01
Test results are described for two abrupt area change annular diffusers with provisions for maintaining suction stabilized toroidal vortices at the area discontinuity. Both diffusers had an overall area ratio of 4.0 with the prediffuser area ratio being 1.18 for diffuser A and 1.4 for diffuser B. Performance was evaluated at near atmospheric pressure and temperature for a range of inlet Mach numbers from 0.18 to 0.41 and suction rates from 0 to 18%. Static pressure recovery improved significantly as the suction rate was increased to approximately 11%. Results obtained with diffuser A were superior to that obtained with diffuser B. Flat radial profiles of exit velocity were not obtained since the flow showed preferential hub or tip attachment at moderate suction rates. At high suction rates the diffuser exit flow became circumferentially nonuniform and unstable.
Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A
2014-05-01
Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. PMID:24704169
Kim, Boeun; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Seoyeon; Choi, Mincheol
2014-01-01
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping are functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for detecting water diffusion. DWI and the ADC map were performed for intracranial lesions in two dogs. In necrotizing leukoencephalitis, cavitated lesions contained a hypointense center with a hyperintense periphery on DWI, and hyperintense signals on the ADC maps. In metastatic sarcoma, masses including a necrotic region were hypointense with DWI, and hyperintense on the ADC map with hyperintense perilesional edema on DWI and ADC map. Since DWI and ADC data reflect the altered water diffusion, they can provide additional information at the molecular level. PMID:24675836
Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dillon, C. R.; Todd, N.; Payne, A.; Parker, D. L.; Christensen, D. A.; Roemer, R. B.
2013-10-01
While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD = 0.0-2.0 °C), temporal sampling (tacq = 1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res = 0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies.
Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie
2015-01-30
The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. PMID:25526672
H. S. Zhen; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung
2011-01-01
Two swirl-stabilized flames, a premixed flame (PMF-s) and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF-s), were investigated experimentally in order to obtain information on their thermal, emission and heat transfer characteristics. The two flames, having different global air\\/fuel mixing mechanisms, were compared under identical air and fuel flow rates. Results showed that the two flames have similar visual features such as flame
The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, L. M.; Carvalho, M. I.; Nogueira, E. M.; Tuchin, V. V.
2013-07-01
The study of agent diffusion in biological tissues is very important to understand and characterize the optical clearing effects and mechanisms involved: tissue dehydration and refractive index matching. From measurements made to study the optical clearing, it is obvious that light scattering is reduced and that the optical properties of the tissue are controlled in the process. On the other hand, optical measurements do not allow direct determination of the diffusion properties of the agent in the tissue and some calculations are necessary to estimate those properties. This fact is imposed by the occurrence of two fluxes at optical clearing: water typically directed out of and agent directed into the tissue. When the water content in the immersion solution is approximately the same as the free water content of the tissue, a balance is established for water and the agent flux dominates. To prove this concept experimentally, we have measured the collimated transmittance of skeletal muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of glucose. After estimating the mean diffusion time values for each of the treatments we have represented those values as a function of glucose concentration in solution. Such a representation presents a maximum diffusion time for a water content in solution equal to the tissue free water content. Such a maximum represents the real diffusion time of glucose in the muscle and with this value we could calculate the corresponding diffusion coefficient.
Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B
2013-10-10
Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (?r) have been measured as a function of viscosity (?) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation ?r = A(?/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight. PMID:24070127
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Shinpei; Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Suzawa, Hideomi; Sakakura, Masayuki; Hanaoka, Kazuya; Okazaki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Hondo, Suguru; Hamada, Takashi; Sasagawa, Shinya; Nagai, Masaharu; Hata, Yuki; Maruyama, Tetsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Shunpei
2014-01-01
A channel length of a c-axis aligned crystal indium gallium zinc oxide (CAAC-IGZO) transistor having low off-state current at a yA/µm level was decreased to 100 nm, and the electrical characteristics and short-channel effect of the CAAC-IGZO transistor were researched. As a result, we found that, in the CAAC-IGZO transistor with L = 100 nm, even with a gate insulator film having an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) = 11 nm, an extremely small off-state current of 380 yA/µm at 85 °C is maintained, in addition channel length dependence of the electrical characteristics is hardly seen. Favorable values of characteristics of the CAAC-IGZO transistor can be obtained, such as subthreshold slope (SS) = 77 mV/dec, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 73 mV/V, threshold voltage (Vth) = 0.65 V, and on-state current (Ion) = 65 µA/µm. These results suggest the possibility that the CAAC-IGZO transistor can be applied to an LSI in a deep submicron region.
Akutsu, Keiichi; Kawakami, Hideki; Suzuno, Mitsushi; Yaguchi, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jiptner, Karolin; Chen, Jun; Sekiguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ootsuka, Teruhisa [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)
2011-06-15
We have epitaxially grown undoped {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films on Si(111) substrates via atomic-hydrogen-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films grown without atomic hydrogen exhibited p-type conduction with a hole density of over 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at room temperature (RT). In contrast, those prepared with atomic hydrogen showed n-type conduction and had a residual electron density that was more than two orders of magnitude lower than the hole density of films grown without atomic hydrogen (of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at RT). The minority-carrier diffusion length was estimated to be approximately 16 {mu}m using an electron-beam-induced current technique; this value is twice as large as that for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} prepared without atomic hydrogen. This result could be well explained in terms of the minority-carrier lifetimes measured by a microwave photoconductance decay technique. The 1/e decay time using a 904 nm laser pulse was approximately 17 {mu}s, which is much longer than that for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} prepared without atomic hydrogen (3 {mu}s). The photoresponsivity reached 13 mA/W at 1.31 {mu}m, which is the highest value ever reported for {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} films.
Zhao, Yixin; Nardes, Alexandre M; Zhu, Kai
2014-02-01
We report on the effect of TiO2 film thickness on charge transport and recombination in solid-state mesostructured perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (via one-step coating) solar cells using spiro-MeOTAD as the hole conductor. Intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies show that the transport and recombination properties of solid-state mesostructured perovskite solar cells are similar to those of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Charge transport in perovskite cells is dominated by electron conduction within the mesoporous TiO2 network rather than from the perovskite layer. Although no significant film-thickness dependence is found for transport and recombination, the efficiency of perovskite cells increases with TiO2 film thickness from 240 nm to about 650-850 nm owing primarily to the enhanced light harvesting. Further increasing film thickness reduces cell efficiency associated with decreased fill factor or photocurrent density. The electron diffusion length in mesostructured perovskite cells is longer than 1 ?m for over four orders of magnitude of light intensity. PMID:26276597
Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Rigutti, L.; Pizzini, S.; Le Donne, A.; Binetti, S.
2006-02-01
The effects of low-temperature annealing in 8.2 MeV electron-irradiated 4H-SiC Schottky diodes were investigated. Deep-level transient spectroscopy and minority-carrier diffusion length (L{sub d}) measurements were carried out on not-irradiated samples and on irradiated samples before and after thermal treatments up to T=450 deg. C. We found that several deep levels in the upper half band gap (S1 with enthalpy E{sub T}=0.27 eV, S2 with E{sub T}=0.35 eV, S4 with E{sub T}=0.71 eV, and S5 with E{sub T}=0.96 eV) anneal out or modify at temperature values lower or equal to T=450 deg. C, whereby their progressive annealing out is accompanied by a net increase of L{sub d}, up to 50% of the value in the as-irradiated sample. We drew some conclusions regarding the microscopic nature of the defects related to the deep levels, according to their annealing behavior.
2013-01-01
This study examined how content characteristics of antitobacco messages affect smokers’ selective exposure to and social sharing of those messages. Results from an experiment revealed that content features predicting smokers’ selection of antismoking messages are different from those predicting whether those messages are shared. Antismoking messages smokers tend to select are characterized by strong arguments (odds ratio = 2.02, P = .02) and positive sentiments (odds ratio = 3.08, P = .03). Once selected, the messages more likely to be retransmitted by smokers were those with novel arguments (B = .83, P = .002) and positive sentiments (B = 1.65, P = .005). This research adds to the literature about the content characteristics driving the social diffusion of antitobacco messages and contributes to our understanding of the role of persuasive messages about smoking cessation in the emerging public communication environment. PMID:24395989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.; Seidel, P.
2007-09-01
We have solved numerically a system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of N intrinsic junctions and obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of the stack. The coupling dependence of the branch’s slopes is investigated and demonstrated that the equidistance of the branch structure in capacitively coupled Josephson junctions (CCJJ) model is broken at small values of coupling parameter. Changes in the parameters of the boundary conditions and the use of periodic boundary conditions do not affect this result. In the framework of the CCJJ model with the diffusion current we simulate an experiment and obtain the IV-characteristic with equidistant branch structure at different values of model parameters.
E. Mastorakos; A. M. K. P. Taylor; J. W. Whitelaw
1992-01-01
In this paper, a turbulent counterflow diffusion flame of natural gas stabilized between two opposed jets discharging from straight tubes of 25.4 mm diameter fitted with turbulence-promoting perforated plates is examined in terms of its appearance, extinction limits, and mean and fluctuating temperatures as measured by numerically compensated fine-wire thermocouples. It is observed that the flame was flat, blue, and
Wear characteristics of a diffusion bonded sintered steel with short term surface treatments
D. Grimanelis; T. S. Eyre
2007-01-01
A pin on disc machine was used to investigate the tribological behavior of a diffusion bonded sintered steel, with and without surface treatments of steam oxidation and manganese phosphating, over a wide range of speed (0.2–4m\\/s) and applied load (4–500N) in conditions of dry sliding and starved lubrication by oil impregnation of the porous structure of the materials. Besides the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamachi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Taku; Kawaguchi, Yukio; Tsuno, Hiroshi
The high loading rate oxidation ditch (OD) system with dual dissolved oxygen (DO) control has been developed for the purpose of advanced wastewater treatment and cost saving. For the purpose of scale-up to the real scale, the clean water experiments were conducted, with the full scale oxidation ditch with diffused aeration and vertical flow boosters, to examine the effect to the dual DO control by the design and operational factors, which include a flow characteristics and a oxygen supply capability. In this study, the flow characteristics of the OD channel were analyzed using a tank number and circulation ratio as the parameters. The analysis showed the complicated flow characteristics of the OD channel, which changed from the plug flow to the completely mixing transiently. Based on the tank number N =65~100 which were obtained from the tracer tests, a model of DO mass balance was constructed, then the accurate method for estimate the overall oxygen transfer coefficients was proposed. The potential error of the conventional method in the specific conditions was indicated. In addition, the effect of the flow characteristics on the design and operational parameters of the dual DO control, which include the circulation time or the DO profile, was clarified.
Koda, S.; Fujiwara, O.; Ohnishi, T.
1986-07-01
The properties of chain ignition of silane (SiH/sub 4/) gas have been studied under reduced pressures by several previous researchers, but the flame properties at ordinary pressures seem to be very rarely studied in spite of the fact that this gas is now widely used in semiconductor manufacture. Very recently other researchers reported a counterflow diffusion flame technique applied to studying the SiO/sub x/ formation from silane in the flame of H/sub 2//O/sub 2/, but the properties of self sustaining flames of silane itself with air are not made clear.
A new laboratory technique to estimate gas diffusion characteristics of coal
Harpalani, S.; Ouyang, S.
1999-07-01
This paper describes a new experimental technique developed to measure the diffusion coefficient (D) for a coal-methane system using the transient flow mechanism, and examine its dependency on factors that change with continued flow-pressure and gas concentration. Although developed primarily for coalbed methane reservoirs and coal in the gob regions, it also has application in situations where a second gas is injected in coal since it utilizes the principle of counter-diffusion. The results show that there is a continuous decrease in the value of D with decreasing mean concentration of methane in coal. The logarithm of D varies directly with the pressure. Two effects may be responsible for this decrease. The first is a possible change in the flow mechanism with decreasing methane concentration due to the existence of varying pore sizes in coal. The other is the volumetric strain of solid coal matrix induced by desorption of gas, the so called shrinkage effect. This matrix shrinkage may be resulting in reduced pore sizes, and consequently, a decrease in the value of D.
Characteristics of diffusion-tensor imaging for healthy adult rhesus monkey brains
Zhao, Xinxiang; Pu, Jun; Fan, Yaodong; Niu, Xiaoqun; Yu, Danping; Zhang, Yanglin
2013-01-01
Diffusion-tensor imaging can be used to observe the microstructure of brain tissue. Fractional sotropy reflects the integrity of white matter fibers. Fractional anisotropy of a young adult brain is low in gray matter, high in white matter, and highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Thus, we selected the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, head of the caudate nucleus, semioval center, thalamus, and corpus callosum (splenium and genu) as regions of interest when using diffusion-tensor imaging to observe fractional anisotropy of major white matter fiber tracts and the deep gray matter of healthy rhesus monkeys aged 4–8 years. Results showed no laterality ferences in fractional anisotropy values. Fractional anisotropy values were low in the head of date nucleus and thalamus in gray matter. Fractional anisotropy values were highest in the splenium of corpus callosum in the white matter, followed by genu of the corpus callosum and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Fractional anisotropy values were lowest in the semioval center and posterior limb of internal capsule. These results suggest that fractional anisotropy values in major white matter fibers and the deep gray matter of 4–8-year-old rhesus monkeys are similar to those of healthy young people. PMID:25206616
Hyeok Gyu Kwon; Woo Mok Byun; Sang Ho Ahn; Su Min Son; Sung Ho Jang
2011-01-01
The stria terminalis (ST) connects the amygdale (AM) with the hypothalamus, anterior commissure, preoptic area, and septal region. Many animal studies have reported on the anatomy and function of the ST; in contrast, little is known about its anatomy and function in the human brain. In the current study, we attempted to investigate the anatomical characteristics of the ST in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Peng-Fei; Cui, Zhong-Hui; Fan, Wu-Gang; Guo, Xiang-Xin
2013-03-01
As essential electrochromic (EC) materials are related to energy savings in fenestration technology, tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been intensively studied recently. In order to achieve better understanding of the mechanism of EC properties, and thus facilitate optimization of device performance, clarification of the correlation between cation storage and transfer properties and the coloration performance is needed. In this study, transparent polycrystalline and amorphous WO3 thin films were deposited on SnO2:F-coated glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Investigation into optical transmittance in a wavelength range of 400-800 nm measured at a current density of 130 ?A · cm-2 with the applied potential ranging from 3.2 to 2.2 V indicates that polycrystalline films have a larger optical modulation of ~ 30% at 600 nm and a larger coloration switch time of 95 s in the whole wavelength range compared with amorphous films (~ 24% and 50 s). Meanwhile, under the same conditions, polycrystalline films show a larger lithium storage capacity corresponding to a Li/W ratio of 0.5, a smaller lithium diffusion coefficient (2×10-12 cm2·s-1 for Li/W=0.24) compared with the amorphous ones, which have a Li/W ratio of 0.29 and a coefficient of ~2.5×10-11 cm2·s-1 as Li/W=0.24. These results demonstrate that the large optical modulation relates to the large lithium storage capacity, and the fast coloration transition is associated with fast lithium diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. S.
2000-03-01
The nonlinear dynamics of striped diffusion flames, formed in the two-dimensional counterflow field by the diffusional-thermal instability with Lewis numbers sufficiently less than unity, is investigated numerically by examining the nonlinear two-dimensional transient flame-structure solutions bifurcating from the one-dimensional steady solution by various initial perturbations. The Lewis numbers for the fuel and oxidizer are assumed to be identical and an overall single-step Arrhenius-type chemical reaction rate is employed as the chemistry model. Attention is focused on two nonlinear phenomena, namely the development of the two-dimensional flame-stripe structure and the extension of the flammability limit beyond the static extinction condition of a one-dimensional flame. A time-dependent solution, carried out for a Damköhler number slightly above the static extinction Damköhler number, exhibited the developmental procedure of flame stripes with the most unstable wavelength from a long-wave initial perturbation with a small amplitude. In contrast to the chaotic cellular premixed-flame structures predicted from numerical integration of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the stripe structure in diffusion flames is found to be stationary, consequently leading to the conclusion that the nonlinear term in the corresponding nonlinear bifurcation equation would be a simple cubic term. Two-dimensional flame-stripe solutions are also found to be able to survive Damköhler numbers significantly below the static extinction Damköhler number of the one-dimensional flame structure. Extension of the flammability is found to be greatest if the imposed initial perturbation possesses the wavenumber of the fastest growing mode.
Man, Jian-guo; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-wen; Zhang, Yong-li; Shi, Yu
2013-08-01
Taking the high-yielding winter wheat variety Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2010-2012 to study the effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on the soil water distribution in winter wheat growth period and the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Three micro-sprinkling hose lengths were designed, i. e., 40 m (T40), 60 m (T60) and 80 m (T80). Under the micro-sprinkling irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, the uniformity of the horizontal distribution of irrigation water in soil increased significantly with the decrease of hose length from 80 to 40 m. When irrigated at jointing stage, the water content of 0-200 cm soil layer in each space of wheat rows had no significant difference within the 0-40 m distanced from the border initial in treatments T40 and T60. When measured at the 38-40 m, 58-60 m, and 78-80 m distanced from the border initial in treatment T80 at jointing and anthesis stages, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layer had the same change pattern, i. e., decreased with the increasing distance from micro-sprinkling hose. The water consumption amounts in 40-60 cm soil layer from jointing to anthesis stages and in 20-80 cm soil layer from anthesis to maturing stages were higher in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. However, the soil water consumption amount, irrigation amount at anthesis stage, total irrigation amount, and total water consumption amount were significantly lower in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. The grain yield, yield water use efficiency increased with the hose length decreased from 80 to 40 m, but the flow decreased. Therefore, the effective irrigation area per unit time decreased with the same irrigation amounts. Considering the grain yield, water use efficiency, and the flow through micro-sprinkling hose, 40 and 60 m were considered to be the appropriate micro-sprinkling hose lengths under this experimental condition. PMID:24380337
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.
1979-01-01
A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo has been conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material had been processed above the beta transus (approximately 1275 K) while the rolled form had been subjected to work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.
Sen, Anirudh; Raghavan, Vasudevan; Shet, U.S.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 206A TDCE Lab., Chennai 600036 (India)
2009-03-15
A preliminary study of the shape and the extinction characteristics of a diffusion flame established over a circular liquid fuel surface under the influence of an opposed air flow, is presented. Renewable liquid fuel such as ethanol is employed. A simple heterogeneous combustion setup, which consists of a cylindrical tube containing ethanol located at the bottom, is exposed to an opposed air flow from a coaxial circular pipe of same size located at the top at a fixed separation distance. Axial and radial extents of flame for different air flow rates are qualitatively analyzed. Burning rates of ethanol for different separation distances and air flow rates are recorded. For a fixed separation distance, at a particular air flow rate the flame extinction takes place. Extinction air flow rates and corresponding strain rates for different separation distances are presented. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarei, A.; Z. R. R. Rosdin, R.; M. Ali, N.; H., Ahmad; W. Harun, S.
2014-05-01
A single-wavelength Brillouin laser is demonstrated by using a 3-m-long erbium doped fiber (EDF) in a ring cavity. The EDF is used to provide both nonlinear and linear gains to generate a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and to amplify the generated SBS, respectively. The Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) operates at 1561.5 nm, where the operating wavelength is up-shifted by 0.08nm from the Brillouin pump. The operation wavelength is also tunable within 1560.6-1562.6 nm. The BEFL also shows a self-pulsing characteristic with repetition of 66.7 kHz when the BP is set around the threshold pump power of 13mW. Compared to the conventional Brillouin fiber laser with a long cavity length, the proposed BEFL exhibits a significantly lower amplitude of pulse. This laser has many potential applications, such as in optical communication and sensors.
Tolo Diebkilé, Aïssata; Kouakou, Boidy; N'dhatz, Emeraude; Nanho, Clotaire D.; Meité, N'Dogomo; Ayémou, Roméo; Sekongo, Mamadou Y.; Kouéhion, Paul; Konan, Mozart; Koffi, Gustave K.; Sanogo, Ibrahima
2012-01-01
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have been little studied in black Africans. The purpose of our study was to determine the characteristics and results of the management of these lymphomas. Patients and Methods. In a descriptive and analytic retrospective study we studied the medical records of 63 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma hospitalized during the period from 1991 to 2007. The diagnosis was made after lymph node or organ biopsy. Response to treatment, OS, PFS, and toxicity were studied. The complete response has been analyzed univariate and multivariate analysis. Results. The median age was 42 years. The sex ratio was 2. The HIV serology was positive in 11 cases, and 8 patients had antiretroviral therapy. In 71% the lymphoma was at stages III and IV of Ann Arbor. IPI was ?3 in 65%. Complete remission was achieved in 43%. Only 43% of patients had had a good compliance. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 32%, and overall survival at 3 years was 50%. 13% of patients were lost to follow up, and 51% of them died. In terms of analysis the complete remission rate was influenced by the stage of Ann Arbor (P < 0.0001), biological b symptoms (P < 0.01), the IPI (P < 0.0001), and the socioeconomic standing (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only IPI and stage of Ann Arbor influence the complete remission. PMID:22693514
Mastorakos, E.; Taylor, A.M.K.P.; Whitelaw, J.W. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1992-10-01
In this paper, a turbulent counterflow diffusion flame of natural gas stabilized between two opposed jets discharging from straight tubes of 25.4 mm diameter fitted with turbulence-promoting perforated plates is examined in terms of its appearance, extinction limits, and mean and fluctuating temperatures as measured by numerically compensated fine-wire thermocouples. It is observed that the flame was flat, blue, and located around the symmetry plane, that its appearance did not change with initial premixing of the fuel stream with air, and that a premixed flame could also be stabilized provided the equivalence ratio was smaller than that of the rich flammability limit. The bulk velocity for extinction of the nonpremixed flame increased with tube separation and with initial premixing, but decreased with an increase in turbulent intensity. The present results for the total strain rate at extinction provide a quantitative description of the effect of partial premixing on flame stability and can be used to predict the extinction of nonpremixed flames in other geometries. The maximum mean temperature of the flame did not change as extinction was approached and was about 1300 {plus minus} 50 K for all flow conditions measured, while the rms fluctuations were about 450 K; this insensitivity is attributed to a low-frequency (as indicated by high-pass filtering the temperature time series) flame motion, which also resulted in broad temperature probability density functions.
Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu
2008-04-01
An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials. PMID:17482812
Stemper, Brian D; Shah, Alok S; Pintar, Frank A; McCrea, Michael; Kurpad, Shekar N; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Olsen, Christopher; Budde, Matthew D
2015-05-01
A majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in motor vehicle crashes and sporting environments are mild and caused by high-rate acceleration of the head. For injuries caused by rotational acceleration, both magnitude and duration of the acceleration pulse were shown to influence injury outcomes. This study incorporated a unique rodent model of rotational acceleration-induced mild TBI (mTBI) to quantify independent effects of magnitude and duration on behavioral and neuroimaging outcomes. Ninety-two Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to head rotational acceleration at peak magnitudes of 214 or 350 krad/s(2) and acceleration pulse durations of 1.6 or 3.4 ms in a full factorial design. Rats underwent a series of behavioral tests including the Composite Neuroscore (CN), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and Morris Water Maze (MWM). Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the fixed brains was conducted to assess the effects of rotational injury on brain microstructure as revealed by the parameter fractional anisotropy (FA). While the injury did not cause significant locomotor or cognitive deficits measured with the CN and MWM, respectively, a main effect of duration was consistently observed for the EPM. Increased duration caused significantly greater activity and exploratory behaviors measured as open arm time and number of arm changes. DTI demonstrated significant effects of both magnitude and duration, with the FA of the amygdala related to both the magnitude and duration. Increased duration also caused FA changes at the interface of gray and white matter. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that the consequences of rotational acceleration mTBI were more closely associated with duration of the rotational acceleration impulse, which is often neglected as an independent factor, and highlight the need for animal models of TBI with strong biomechanical foundations to associate behavioral outcomes with brain microstructure. PMID:25344352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuster, J. R.; Chen, L. J.; Bessho, N.; Li, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.; Argall, M. R.; Daughton, W. S.
2014-12-01
Electron distribution functions can provide "smoking-gun" evidence for the detection of electron diffusion regions in collisionless magnetic reconnection. Knowledge of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron distributions during reconnection is significantly lacking, and will further elucidate the outstanding questions of how, where, and when electrons are energized during reconnection. Based on spacecraft observations and PIC simulations of symmetric reconnection, electrons in the inflow region are known to exhibit a temperature anisotropy Te// > Te?. Studies of exhaust electrons have reported hot and isotropic electrons, while others have reported anisotropic exhaust structures. Electron distributions in the vicinity of the X-line have a triangular, 3D velocity space structure with distinct striations corresponding to the number of times electrons reflect within the electron current layer. Here, we report the spatial and temporal evolution of electron distributions from the vicinity of the X-line to the end of the electron outflow jet, with the discovery that the discrete striations swirl and rotate as electrons re-magnetize, forming arc and ring structures. Highly structured, time-dependent electron anisotropy develops in the exhaust distributions only near or after the peak reconnection rate, explaining the previous discrepancy concerning the degree of electron anisotropy in the exhaust, and suggesting a technique to infer the evolution stage of reconnection using spacecraft measurements. We also present a theory for predicting the spacing of the striations of electron distributions in the vicinity of the X-line based on local measurements, which could be directly tested by spacecraft observations. Electron data from Cluster magnetotail reconnection inflows and exhausts exhibit many anisotropic structures as predicted by simulation. Observed distributions near the reconnection mid-plane (Bx ~ 0 nT) are often highly structured with populations exhibiting Te? > Te// in addition to lower energy field-aligned beams. Our work advances the understanding of electron distribution evolution, setting a foundation to successfully interpret the high resolution electron data anticipated from NASA's upcoming Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission.
YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI
2000-11-22
Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica by Mobil scientists in 1992, mesostructured silica has been synthesized in various forms including thin films, powders, particles, and fibers. In general, mesostructured silica has potential applications, such as in separation, catalysis, sensors, and fluidic microsystems. In respect to these potential applications, mesostructured silica in the form of thin films is perhaps one of the most promising candidates. The preparation of mesostructured silica films through preferential solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has recently received much attention in the laboratories. However, no amphiphile/silica films with reverse mesophases have ever been made through this EISA procedure. Furthermore, templates employed to date have been either surfactants or poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers, such as pluronic P-123, both of which are water-soluble and alcohol-soluble. Due to their relatively low molecular weight, the templated silica films with mesoscopic order have been limited to relatively small characteristic length scales. In the present communication, the authors report a novel synthetic method to prepare mesostructured amphiphilic/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases of large characteristic length scales. This method involves evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers. In the present study, the PS-b-PEO diblocks are denoted as, for example, PS(215)-b-PEO(100), showing that this particular sample contains 215 S repeat units and 100 EO repeat units. This PS(215)-b-PEO(100) diblock possesses high molecular weight and does not directly mix with water or alcohol. To the authors knowledge, no studies have reported the use of water-insoluble and alcohol-insoluble amphiphilic diblocks as structure-directing agents in the synthesis of mesostructured silica films through EISA. It is believed that the present system is the first to yield amphiphile/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases, as well as curved multi-bilayer mesostructures, through EISA. The ready formation of the diblock/silica films with multi-bilayer vesicular mesostructures is discussed.
Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng, E-mail: swffrog@seu.edu.cn [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)
2014-04-14
Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrecker, G. O.; Maus, J. R.
1974-01-01
An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise and flow field characteristics of internal-flow jet-augmented flap configurations (abbreviated by the term jet flap throughout the study) is presented. The first part is a parametric study of the influence of the Mach number (subsonic range only), the slot nozzle aspect ratio and the flap length on the overall radiated sound power and the spectral composition of the jet noise, as measured in a reverberation chamber. In the second part, mean and fluctuating velocity profiles, spectra of the fluctuating velocity and space correlograms were measured in the flow field of jet flaps by means of hot-wire anemometry. Using an expression derived by Lilley, an attempt was made to estimate the overall sound power radiated by the free mixing region that originates at the orifice of the slot nozzle (primary mixing region) relative to the overall sound power generated by the free mixing region that originates at the trailing edge of the flap (secondary mixing region). It is concluded that at least as much noise is generated in the secondary mixing region as in the primary mixing region. Furthermore, the noise generation of the primary mixing region appears to be unaffected by the presence of a flap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir; Gherabli, Rivka; Lefort, Philippe; Prat, Marc
2014-05-01
The hydraulic properties of the layer at the vicinity of the soil surface have significant impact on evaporation and could be harnessed to reduce water losses. The effect of the properties of the upper layer on the evolution of phase distribution during the evaporation process is first illustrated from three-dimensional pore network simulations. This effect is then studied from experiments carried out on soil columns under laboratory conditions. Comparisons between homogeneous columns packed with coarse (sand) and fine (sandy loam) materials and heterogeneous columns packed with layers of fine overlying coarse material and coarse overlying fine material of different thicknesses are performed to assess the impact of upper layer properties on evaporation. Experiments are analyzed using the classical approach based on the numerical solution of Richards equation and semianalytical theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis is based on the clear distinction between two drying regimes, namely, the capillary regime and the gravity-capillary regime, which are the prevailing regimes in our experiments. Simple relationships enabling to estimate the duration of stage 1 evaporation (S1) for both regimes are proposed. In particular, this led to defining the characteristic length for the gravity-capillary regime from the consideration of viscous effects at low water content differently from available expressions. The duration of S1, during which most of the water losses occur, for both the homogeneous and two-layer columns is presented and discussed. Finally, the impact of liquid films and its consequences on the soil hydraulic conductivity function are briefly discussed.
Iwatsubo, T.; Saido, T. C.; Mann, D. M.; Lee, V. M.; Trojanowski, J. Q.
1996-01-01
The amino- and carboxyl-terminal properties of the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides deposited in diffuse plaques, one of the earliest forms of A beta deposition, were examined in the brains of patients with Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals without dementia by immunocytochemistry. This was done using a panel of antibodies that specifically discriminate the terminal structures and modifications at the amino and carboxyl termini of A beta. Diffuse plaques found in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, neostriatum, and hypothalamus of Down's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and nondemented brains were strongly immunoreactive for A beta N1(L-Asp), A beta N1(L-isoAsp), A beta N1(D-Asp), and A beta N3(pyroGlu) and weakly positive for A beta N11(pyroGlu) and A beta N17(Leu). Diffuse plaques also were positive for A beta 42(43) but negative for A beta 40, using carboxyl-terminal-specific anti-A beta antibodies. These results suggest that the amino termini of the A beta species that initially deposit in diffuse plaques begin with A beta N1(Asp) with or without structural modifications (isomerization and racemization), as well as with A beta N3(pyroGlu), and terminate preferentially at A beta 42(43) rather than A beta 40. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8952519
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.
1979-01-01
Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Seong Woo
2013-10-01
Using extrusion compounding followed by compression molding processes, polycarbonate-based optical diffusers with uniform dispersion of diffusing particles could be prepared for application in direct-lit LED backlight unit. Inorganic porous silica and organic silicone microsphere particles were employed as diffusing agents. The inclusion of diffusing particles up to 3 wt % substantially improved the luminance uniformity with respect to both location and viewing angle, and the effect was shown to be more prominent for the silicone particles. Alternatively, inorganic silica particles could yield diffusers with enhanced absolute luminance and thermal resistance property. The thermo-mechanical property of the elastic modulus was revealed to be improved upon addition of diffusing particles of silica and silicone with cross-linked structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Roos, O.; Luke, K. L.
1984-01-01
The short circuit current generated by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope in p-n junctions is reduced by enhanced recombination at grain boundaries in polycrystalline material. Frequently, grain boundaries separate the semiconductor into regions possessing different minority carrier life times. This markedly affects the short circuit current I(sc) as a function of scanning distance from the grain boundary. It will be shown theoretically that (1) the minimum of the I(sc) in crossing the grain boundary with the scanning electron beam is shifted away from the grain boundary toward the region with smaller life time (shorter diffusion length), (2) the magnitude of the minimum differs markedly from those calculated under the assumption of equal diffusion lengths on either side of the grain boundary, and (3) the minimum disappears altogether for small surface recombination velocities (s less than 10,000 cm/s). These effects become negligible, however, for large recombination velocities s at grain boundaries. For p-type silicon this happens for s not less than 100,000 cm/s.
Resistive characteristics of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x thin films under diffusion of indium atoms
Mikheenko, P.N. (Donetsk Physicol-Tecnical Inst., Ukrainian Academy of Science, R. Luxemburg Str. 72, 340114 Donetsk (SU)); Sobolev, V.L.; Usoskin, A.I. (Kharkov Inst. of Single Crystals, Lenin Ave. 60, 310141 Kharkov (SU))
1992-01-20
A series of elementary dissipative formations in superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films under diffusion of In atoms in them is observed. In this paper it is shown that diffusion weakens intergranular bonds, but granules remain superconductive. Time dependence of main superconducting parameters is analyzed.
A large meteorological wind tunnel was used to simulate a suburban atmospheric boundary layer. The model-prototype scale was 1:300 and the roughness length was approximately 1.0 m full scale. The model boundary layer simulated full scale dispersion from ground-level and elevated ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
This lesson introduces students to the measurable attribute of length and provides practice in measuring length using non-standard units. The lesson is launched using the story Ladybug on the Move by Richard Fowler. Lesson objectives, teaching ideas, and handouts are included.
Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B
2012-10-25
In an attempt to find out whether the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation has a bearing on solute rotation, temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropies of three structurally similar solutes have been measured in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides. Solute-solvent coupling constants obtained from the experimentally measured reorientation times with the aid of Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory indicate that there is no influence of the length of the alkyl chain on the rotation of nonpolar, anionic, and cationic solutes 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA), fluorescein (FL), and rhodamine 110 (R110), respectively. It has also been noticed that the rotational diffusion of 9-PA is closer to the predictions of slip hydrodynamics, whereas the rotation of negatively charged FL and positively charged R110 is almost identical and follows stick hydrodynamics in these ionic liquids. Despite having similar shape and size, ionic solutes rotate slower by a factor of 3-4 compared to the nonpolar solute. Interplay of specific and electrostatic interactions between FL and the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquids, and between R110 and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, appear to be responsible for the observed behavior. These results are an indication that the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation does not alter their physical properties in a manner that has an effect on solute rotation. PMID:23013036
Maswadeh, Waleed M; Snyder, A Peter
2015-05-30
Variable responses are fundamental for all experiments, and they can consist of information-rich, redundant, and low signal intensities. A dataset can consist of a collection of variable responses over multiple classes or groups. Usually some of the variables are removed in a dataset that contain very little information. Sometimes all the variables are used in the data analysis phase. It is common practice to discriminate between two distributions of data; however, there is no formal algorithm to arrive at a degree of separation (DS) between two distributions of data. The DS is defined herein as the average of the sum of the areas from the probability density functions (PDFs) of A and B that contain a?percentage of A and/or B. Thus, DS90 is the average of the sum of the PDF areas of A and B that contain ?90% of A and/or B. To arrive at a DS value, two synthesized PDFs or very large experimental datasets are required. Experimentally it is common practice to generate relatively small datasets. Therefore, the challenge was to find a statistical parameter that can be used on small datasets to estimate and highly correlate with the DS90 parameter. Established statistical methods include the overlap area of the two data distribution profiles, Welch's t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). The area between the ROC curve and diagonal (ACD) and the length of the ROC curve (LROC) are introduced. The established, ACD, and LROC methods were correlated to the DS90 when applied on many pairs of synthesized PDFs. The LROC method provided the best linear correlation with, and estimation of, the DS90. The estimated DS90 from the LROC (DS90-LROC) is applied to a database, as an example, of three Italian wines consisting of thirteen variable responses for variable ranking consideration. An important highlight of the DS90-LROC method is utilizing the LROC curve methodology to test all variables one-at-a-time with all pairs of classes in a dataset. PMID:25998456
Du, Jun; Li, Kun; Zhang, Weisheng; Wang, Shaowu; Song, Qingwei; Liu, Ailian; Miao, Yanwei; Lang, Zhijin; Zhang, Lina; Zheng, Minting
2015-01-01
Abstract We used intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to explore the possibility of preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue tumors (STTs). This prospective study enrolled 23 patients. Conventional MRI and IVIM examinations were performed on a 3.0T MR imager. Eight (35%) hemangiomas, 11 (47%) benign soft tissue tumors excluding hemangiomas (BSTTEHs) and 4 soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) were assessed. The mean tumor size was about 1652.36?±?233.66?mm2. Ten b values (0–800?s/mm2) were used to evaluate diffusion and perfusion characteristics of IVIM. IVIM parameters (ADCstandard, ADCslow, ADCfast, and f) of STTs were measured and evaluated for differentiating hemangiomas, BSTTEHs, and STSs. ADCslow and ADCfast value were different for hemangiomas, BSTTEHs, and STSs separately (P?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Miss Lerdahl
2010-01-26
Practice measuring length. Play this fun game to work on length. Measure the teddy Next, practice measuring to the nearest 1/2 inch. Measure to 1/2 inches If your ready for a challenge, practice this next game: Measure to 1/4 inches Play the Fish Tales game! *Once you have played all the games, have an adult sign your planner that you practiced these games! You'll ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, A. B., Jr.; Stallings, R. L., Jr.
1986-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted at Mach numbers of 1.50, 2.16, and 2.86 to obtain axial-force data on a metric rectangular-box cavity with various length-to-depth ratios. The model was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to -2 deg. The results are summarized to show variations in cavity axial-force coefficient for deep- and shallow-cavity configurations with detached and attached cavity flow fields, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that for a wide range of cavity lengths and depths, good correlations of the cavity axial-force coefficients (based on cavity rear-face area) are obtained when these coefficients are plotted as a function of cavity length-to-depth ratio. Abrupt increases in the cavity axial-force coefficients at an angle of attack of 0 deg. reflect the transition from an open (detached) cavity flow field to a closed (attached) cavity flow field. Cavity length-to-depth ratio is the dominant factor affecting the switching of the cavity flow field from one type to the other. The type of cavity flow field (open or closed) is not dependent on the test angles of attack except near the critical value of length-to-depth ratio.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Science Update
2005-03-28
Although life experience plays a huge role in shaping who we are, the foundations of our personality begin in the womb. This Science Update describes a recent study that looks to finger length for signs of a man's pre-natal exposure to testosterone.
Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.
1988-06-28
An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.
The report gives results of a study to: (1) establish the capability of measuring concrete's permeability and diffusivity, (2) measure these parameters in a small sampling of the typical types of Florida concrete, and (3) if possible, correlate the physical parameters of the conc...
Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.
1990-06-26
An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.
Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1990-01-01
An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.
Huang, Kuan-Chun Andrew
1976-01-01
dominated by the defects generated during oxidation and by nonunif'orm temperature distribution. Therefore, it is con- eluded that for most practical semiconductor processings, di f f us i on ~uncs- aW the-. same-Revel -e4'-4eping wcncsn~t i on 'll * h... of Silicon F-N Junctions. (December 19~&6) Ku~w-Chun Andrew Huang, B. S. , exas ARM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. A. Porter Mater' al and electrical characteristics of semiconductor- . junctions formed by impurity diffusion using...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitlow, J. B., Jr.
1976-01-01
Sideline noise and takeoff field length were varied for two types of Mach 2.32 cruise airplane to determine their effect on engine cycle selection. One of these airplanes was the NASA/Langley-LTV arrow wing while the other was a Boeing modified delta-plus-tail derived from the earlier 2707-300 concept. Advanced variable cycle engines were considered. A more conventional advanced low bypass turbofan engine was used as a baseline for comparison. Appropriate exhaust nozzle modifications were assumed, where needed, to allow all engines to receive either an inherent co-annular or annular jet noise suppression benefit. All the VCE's out-performed the baseline engine by substantial margins in a design range comparison, regardless of airplane choice or takeoff restrictions. The choice among the three VCE's considered, however, depends on the field length, noise level, and airplane selected.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )
2005-03-28
This Science Update explores male agression patterns and their correlation to pre-natal testosterone exposure. Although life experience plays a huge role in shaping who we are, the foundations of our personality begin in the womb. One recent study looks to finger length for signs of a man's pre-natal exposure to testosterone.n women, the index and ring finger are roughly equal in length. But in most men, the ring finger is longer. That's a result of fetal exposure to testosterone. Psychologists Alison Bailey and Pete Hurd, of the University of Alberta in Canada, studied these finger ratios in male college students. And they found that men with more dramatic differences tended to be more aggressive. Additional links to resources are given for further inquiry.
LENGTH SCALES, MULTIFRACTALS AND NONFICKIAN Qiang Zhang
New York at Stoney Brook, State University of
LENGTH SCALES, MULTIFRACTALS AND NONFICKIAN DIFFUSION Qiang Zhang Department of Applied developed a multi length scale theory for the growth of the mixing region induced by a general random. The scaling behavior of the mixing layer in a general random velocity field is determined over all length
Ahmed, Salwa F; Shaheen, Hind I; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Mostafa, Manal; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Sayed, Abdel Nasser El; Frenck, Robert W; Sanders, John W; Klena, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F
2014-10-01
A total of 220 enteroadherent Escherichia coli were identified from 729 Egyptian children with diarrhea using the HEp-2 adherence assay. Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC = 38) was common among children <6 months old and provoked vomiting, while diffuse-adhering E.coli (DAEC = 109) induced diarrheal episodes of short duration, and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC = 73) induced mild non-persistent diarrhea. These results suggest that EPEC is associated with infantile diarrhea in Egyptian children. PMID:25122630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Kazuhiko; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Komura, Shigeyuki
2011-08-01
The diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions, a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane, are studied. The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths, which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the characteristic equation. The conditions for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown.
Yamamoto, T; Wakisaka, N; Nakae, T; Kamano, T; Serichantalergs, O; Echeverria, P
1996-09-01
Escherichia coli 73-1 (serotype O73:H33) and 5-2 (serotype O89:H-) isolated from patients with diarrhea adhered to tissue culture cells (HeLa and HEp-2) as well as coverslips (plastic and glass) in a diffuse pattern. Adherence of strain 73-1 was mediated by a 110-kbp plasmid designated pEDA1 and correlated with D-mannose-resistant hemagglutinin (MRHA) detected with bovine, sheep, or human erythrocytes. The MRHA region was duplicated on pEDA1 and mediated the production of the 57-kDa outer membrane protein whose N-terminal amino acid sequence was hydrophobic. In accordance with MRHA and adherence, the 57-kDa outer membrane protein was observed best at 37 degrees C and to a lesser extent at 25 degrees C. In human intestine, adherence to mucus and colonic epithelium was obvious. No detectable pili were observed. The enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene, whose nucleotide sequence was 99.1% homologous to that of enteroaggregative E. coli, was present adjacent to the MRHA region on pEDA1. Strain 5-2 also exhibited MRHA activities and adherence and had sequences corresponding to those of the MRHA region and EAST1 gene. The data suggest that strain 73-1 (and strain 5-2), which has characteristics of both diffusely adhering E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, possesses a novel hemagglutinin associated with diffuse adherence. PMID:8751919
2013-01-01
Background Many households in sub-Saharan Africa utilize the private sector as a primary source of treatment for malaria episodes. Expanding access to effective treatment in private drug shops may help reduce incidence of severe disease and mortality. This research leveraged a longitudinal survey of stocking of subsidized artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), an effective anti-malarial, in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) in two regions of Tanzania. This provided a unique opportunity to explore shop and market level determinants of product diffusion in a developing country retail market. Methods 356 ADDOs in the Rukwa and Mtwara regions of Tanzania were surveyed at seven points between Feb 2011 and May 2012. Shop level audits were used to measure the availability of subsidized ACTs at each shop. Data on market and shop level factors were collected during the survey and also extracted from GIS layers. Regression and network based methodologies were used. Shops classified as early and late adopters, following Rogers’ model of product diffusion, were compared. The Bass model of product diffusion was applied to determine whether shops stocked ACTs out of a need to imitate market competitors or a desire to satisfy customer needs. Results Following the introduction of a subsidy for ACTs, stocking increased from 12% to nearly 80% over the seven survey rounds. Stocking was influenced by higher numbers of proximal shops and clinics, larger customer traffic and the presence of a licensed pharmacist. Early adopters were characterized by a larger percentage of customers seeking care for malaria, a larger catchment and sourcing from specific wholesalers/suppliers. The Bass model of product diffusion indicated that shops were adopting products in response to competitor behavior, rather than customer demand. Conclusions Decisions to stock new pharmaceutical products in Tanzanian ADDOs are influenced by a combination of factors related to both market competition and customer demand, but are particularly influenced by the behavior of competing shops. Efforts to expand access to new pharmaceutical products in developing country markets could benefit from initial targeting of high profile shops in competitive markets and wholesale suppliers to encourage faster product diffusion across all drug retailers. PMID:24350611
Generalized Drift-Diffusion Model In Semiconductors
Mesbah, S.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.
2008-09-23
A new drift-diffusion model is proposed based on the computation of the stationary nonlocal current density. The semi classical Boltzmann equation is solved keeping all the anisotropies of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conductivity is calculated in the linear approximation and for arbitrary collision frequency with respect to Kv{sub t} where K{sup -1} is the characteristic length scale of the system and V{sub t} is the thermal velocity. The nonlocal conductivity can be used to close the generalized drift-diffusion equations valid for arbitrary collisionality.
Incommensurate Diffusion in Confined Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S.; Maesen, T. L.; Smit, B.
2003-06-01
Molecular simulations corroborate the existence of the disputed window effect, i.e., an increase in diffusion rate by orders of magnitude when the alkane chain length increases so that the shape of the alkane is no longer commensurate with that of a zeolite cage. This window effect is shown to be characteristic for molecular sieves with pore openings that approach the diameter of the adsorbate. Furthermore, the physical compatibility between the adsorbate and the adsorbent has a direct effect on the heat of adsorption, the Henry coefficients, the activation energy, and the frequency factors.
Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Oddy, V Hutton; Hopkins, David L
2015-07-01
Meat tenderness is known to be affected by sarcomere length (SL), proteolysis and collagen content (CC). Sixty lambs were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was sampled. Samples for shear force (SF), SL, proteolysis indicators (desmin degradation, particle size: PS) and CC were taken after the allotted ageing periods (1, 7, and 14 days). PS explained a large part of the variation in shear force (approximately 34%) when modelled across ageing periods. Other factors (CC, SL) combined with proteolysis indicators (PS, desmin degradation) explained just under 40% of the variation in shear force. Within ageing periods SL explained a small, but significant, part of the variation in shear force after 14 days of ageing (8%) and at day 1 of ageing desmin degradation explained 17% of the variation in shear force. Methods to improve the tenderness of lamb longissimus muscle should focus on increasing the extent of post-mortem proteolysis, when processing conditions are sufficient to prevent muscle fibre shortening. PMID:25768395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
See, Kwang-Seng; Lau, Wai-Shing; Toh, Suey-Li; Liao, Hong; Lee, Jae Gon; Li, Kun; Quek, Elgin Kiok-Boone; Tee, Kheng-Chok; Chan, Lap-Hung
2005-04-01
The effect of reduced source-drain diffusion length (Lov) on hot-carrier induced degradation of NMOS I/O transistors using 0.11 ?m dual gate oxide (DGO) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology will be reported. An understanding of hot-carrier induced degradation would be very important for modern DGO CMOS integrated circuits. And since hot carrier degradation is usually more serious in n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistors, we will focus our discussion on the effect of Lov reduction on hot-carrier induced degradation in n-channel thick gate oxide I/O MOS transistors. It is discovered that as Lov decreases, which then gives rise to compressive strain in the channel region of the transistor, hot-carrier induced degradation in NMOS I/O transistors is reduced. Direct-current current-voltage (DCIV) spectrum suggests that no additional interface traps (? Nit) generation or charge trapping was created when using shorter Lovs.
Experimental study of vortex diffusers
Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
1995-11-01
This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuster, J. R.; Chen, L.-J.; Hesse, M.; Argall, M. R.; Daughton, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Bessho, N.
2015-04-01
Based on particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection, the spatiotemporal evolution of electron velocity distributions in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is reported to illustrate how electrons are accelerated and heated. Approximately when the reconnection rate maximizes, electron distributions in the vicinity of the X line exhibit triangular structures with discrete striations and a temperature (Te) twice that of the inflow region. Te increases as the meandering EDR populations mix with inflowing electrons. As the distance from the X line increases within the electron outflow jet, the discrete populations swirl into arcs and gyrotropize by the end of the jet with Te about 3 times that of the X line. Two dominant processes increase Te and produce the spatially and temporally evolving EDR distributions: (1) electric field acceleration preferential to electrons which meander in the EDR for longer times and (2) cyclotron turning by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujari, Murali; Agarwal, Amrita; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil
2014-06-01
This work addresses the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/porous stainless steel (PSS) composite membranes in comparison with Pd/PSS membranes. While Pd/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.1 ?m nominal pore size PSS supports, Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.5 and 0.1 ?m nominal pore size PSS supports. Both Ni and Pd films were deposited using an identified novel electroless plating process that characterizes the optimal utilization of surfactant, sonication and reducing agent contacting pattern in Pd electroless plating baths. It was observed that the combinatorial plating characteristics for Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were significantly different and poorer in comparison with those obtained for the Pd/PSS membranes. In summary, it has been inferred that the introduction of nickel interdiffusion barrier was not fruitful to reduce the critical thickness of dense Pd film without jeopardizing upon the pore densification.
Length-Scale Dependent Viscosity in Semidilute Polyelectrolyte Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poling-Skutvik, Ryan; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Conrad, Jacinta
2015-03-01
Using optical microscopy and particle tracking algorithms, we measured the mean-squared displacements (MSDs) of fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameters ranging from 300 nm to 2 ?m suspended in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The solutions had polymer concentrations ranging from 0.67 to 67c*, where c* is the overlap concentration, and estimated correlation lengths of ~ 100 to 900 nm. At short times, the particles exhibited subdiffusive behavior characterized by MSD ~t? with ? < 1 . On long time scales, the particles transitioned to Fickian diffusion (? = 1) and their diffusivity was calculated from the slope of the MSD. Whereas the large particles agreed with predictions using the Stokes-Einstein equation and bulk zero-shear viscosity, the smaller particles diffused much faster than predicted. The relative diffusivities do not collapse onto a single curve, but rather form a continuum that varies with particle size. This indicates that the particles experience a size-dependent effective viscosity mediated by the ratio of particle diameter to characteristic length scales in the polymer solution.
Cheema, M S; Groth, S; Marriott, C
1988-01-01
Measurement of pulmonary clearance of an inhaled aerosol of technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (DTPA) by external detection methods has been used widely as an index of permeability across alveolar epithelium and bronchial mucosa. To determine the applicability of the tracer to measurement of permeability in the airways the diffusion and binding characteristics of 99mTc DTPA and the chemically related ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid labelled with carbon-14 (14C EDTA) was studied in purified respiratory tract mucus glycoprotein from patients with chronic bronchitis. The diffusion coefficients for 99mTc DTPA and 14C EDTA through mucus gels were significantly lower than those for tritiated water. Both molecules bound to the mucus gels with high affinity at two independent low capacity sites. Appreciable amounts of 99mTc DTPA or 14C EDTA are therefore unlikely to cross mucus layers of physiological thickness over periods of four or five hours. This suggests that when pulmonary clearance is determined by the 99mTc DTPA method the tracer retained in mucus lined airways will provide background activity. This study supports the assumption that pulmonary clearance measurements are mainly measuring alveolar epithelial permeability and should not be used to study bronchial epithelial permeability. PMID:3143162
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry
Hirn, Matthew
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.
1985-01-01
A methodological evaluation for two-finite differencing schemes for computer-aided gas turbine design is presented. The two computational schemes include; a Bounded Skewed Finite Differencing Scheme (BSUDS); and a Quadratic Upwind Differencing Scheme (QSDS). In the evaluation, the derivations of the schemes were incorporated into two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Teaching Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically (TEACH) computer code. Assessments were made according to performance criteria for the solution of problems of turbulent, laminar, and coannular turbulent flow. The specific performance criteria used in the evaluation were simplicity, accuracy, and computational economy. It is found that the BSUDS scheme performed better with respect to the criteria than the QUDS. Some of the reasons for the more successful performance BSUDS are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wen-Ting; Liang, Tian-Ran; Wang, Hua-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu
2007-05-01
Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform ? mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.
ESTIMATION OF TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY WITH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF STELLAR CONVECTION
Hotta, H.; Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.
2012-05-20
We investigate the value of horizontal turbulent diffusivity {eta} by numerical calculation of thermal convection. In this study, we introduce a new method whereby the turbulent diffusivity is estimated by monitoring the time development of the passive scalar, which is initially distributed in a given Gaussian function with a spatial scale d{sub 0}. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) assuming the relation {eta} = L{sub c} v{sub rms}/3, where v{sub rms} is the root-mean-square (rms) velocity, the characteristic length L{sub c} is restricted by the shortest one among the pressure (density) scale height and the region depth. (2) The value of turbulent diffusivity becomes greater with the larger initial distribution scale d{sub 0}. (3) The approximation of turbulent diffusion holds better when the ratio of the initial distribution scale d{sub 0} to the characteristic length L{sub c} is larger.
Pattern Formation and Localized Structures in Reaction-Diffusion Systems with Non-Fickian Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clerc, M. G.; Tirapegui, E.; Trejo, M.
2006-10-01
We study the robust dynamical behaviors of reaction-diffusion systems where the transport gives rise to non-Fickian diffusion. A prototype model describing the deposition of molecules in a surface is used to show the generic appearance of Turing structures which can coexist with homogeneous states giving rise to localized structures through the pinning mechanism. The characteristic lengths of these structures are in the nanometer region in agreement with recent experimental observations.
Jung, Yun Hwa; Woo, In Sook; Han, Chi Wha
2015-01-01
Background/Aims: Among diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, determining the appropriate dose and chemotherapy schedule to balance toxicity and efficacy is harder in elderly than in younger patients. Moreover, there are no currently available clinical factors that consistently identify patients who are unfit to receive chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients with DLBCL and the causes of treatment-related death were investigated in this study. Methods: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of 44 elderly (? 70 years of age) patients diagnosed with DLBCL between January 2005 and June 2013 were evaluated. Variable clinical data along with the response rate, overall survival (OS), and causes of treatment-related death or treatment interruption were investigated. Results: The median OS was 18.6 months, and 19 patients completed curative treatment. The mean average relative dose intensity of adriamycin in patients who completed chemotherapy was 0.617, and of these patients, 16 achieved complete remission. Chemotherapy incompletion, infectious complications, ex tranoda l involvement, high lactate dehydrogenase, poor performance status, and low albumin level at diagnosis were related to a shorter OS. However, multivariate analysis revealed that only infections and chemotherapy incompletion were significantly related to poor prognosis. The most common cause of treatment-related death was infection, and patients who had experienced infectious complications tended to have lower albumin levels than those of patients without such complications. Conclusions: In the treatment of elderly lymphoma patients, the dose intensity of adriamycin is not as important as it is in young patients. However, in elderly patients, infections are particularly dangerous, especially in patients with low albumin levels. PMID:26354063
Kato, Harumi; Karube, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Takizawa, Jun; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kanda, Teru; Katayama, Miyuki; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Okamoto, Masataka; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Koichi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Morishima, Yasuo; Seto, Masao
2014-01-01
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly (EBV[+]DLBCL-E) is classified as a subtype of DLBCL. Until now, its molecular pathogenesis has remained unknown. To identify pathways characteristic of EBV(+)DLBCL-E, gene expression profiling of five EBV(+)DLBCL-E and seven EBV-negative DLBCL (EBV[?]DLBCL) cases was undertaken using human oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis and gene ontology analysis showed that gene sets of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathways were enriched in EBV(+)DLBCL-E cases. To confirm the results of the expression profiles, in vitro analysis was performed. Expression profiling analysis showed that high activation of the JAK-STAT and NF-?B pathways was induced by EBV infection into DLBCL cell lines. Activation of the NF-?B pathway was confirmed in EBV-infected cell lines using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Western blot analysis revealed an increased protein expression level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in an EBV-infected cell line. Protein expression of phosphorylated STAT3 was frequently observed in lymphoma cells of EBV(+)DLBCL-E clinical samples using immunohistochemistry (EBV[+]DLBCL-E: 80.0% [n = 20/25] versus EBV[?]DLBCL: 38.9% [n = 14/36]; P = 0.001). The results of the present study suggest that activation of the JAK-STAT and NF-?B pathways was characteristic of EBV(+)DLBCL-E, which may reflect the nature of EBV-positive tumor cells. Targeting these pathways as therapies might improve clinical outcomes of EBV(+)DLBCL-E. PMID:24581222
The diffusive idealization of charged particle transport in random magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Earl, J. A.
1974-01-01
The transport of charged particles diffusing in a random magnetic field parallel to a relatively large guiding field is presented. The same coefficient of diffusion is obtained by three methods. Two corrections must be added to the expression in which the diffusive flux is proportional to the gradient of the density. Explicit expressions are given for a characteristic time and a characteristic length which describe the corrections. The well known divergence of the coefficient of diffusion, which is implied by the quasilinear analysis of pitch angle scattering, does not occur if the scattering rate is finite at 90 deg pitch angle. This effect is illustrated by formulas which give the coefficient of diffusion when the quasilinear expression is perturbed by a variable amount of isotropic scattering.
Separating viscoelasticity and poroelasticity of gels with different length and time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qi-Ming; Mohan, Anirudh C.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Zhao, Xuan-He
2014-02-01
Viscoelasticity and poroelasticity commonly coexist as time-dependent behaviors in polymer gels. Engineering applications often require knowledge of both behaviors separated; however, few methods exist to decouple viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of gels. We propose a method capable of separating viscoelasticity and poroelasticity of gels in various mechanical tests. The viscoelastic characteristic time and the poroelastic diffusivity of a gel define an intrinsic material length scale of the gel. The experimental setup gives a sample length scale, over which the solvent migrates in the gel. By setting the sample length to be much larger or smaller than the material length, the viscoelasticity and poroelasticity of the gel will dominate at different time scales in a test. Therefore, the viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of the gel can be probed separately at different time scales of the test. We further validate the method by finite-element models and stress-relaxation experiments. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Cheng, Xiaojun; Lockerman, Yitzchak; Genack, Azriel Z
2014-06-01
We follow the trajectories of phase singularities at nulls of intensity in the speckle pattern of waves transmitted through random media as the frequency of the incident radiation is scanned in microwave experiments and numerical simulations. Phase singularities are observed to diffuse with a linear increase of the square displacement ?R2? with frequency shift. The product of the diffusion coefficient of phase singularities in the transmitted speckle pattern and the photon diffusion coefficient through the random medium is proportional to the square of the effective sample length. This provides the photon diffusion coefficient and a method for characterizing the motion of dynamic material systems. PMID:24876050
Characteristic oscillatory motion of a camphor boat sensitive to physicochemical environment.
Nakata, S; Yoshii, M; Matsuda, Y; Suematsu, N J
2015-06-01
A self-propelled camphor boat on water was investigated from the viewpoint of characteristic features of motion and mode-bifurcation depending on the diffusion length of camphor molecules. When a camphor disk was connected to the bottom of a larger plastic plate and then was placed on water, either oscillatory motion (repetition between rest and motion) or continuous motion was observed. In this paper, we report the novel features of this motion and mode-bifurcation as a function of the diffusion length of camphor molecules, e.g., multiple accelerations during oscillation, period-2 or irregular oscillatory motion, and reciprocating oscillation. These characteristic motion and mode-bifurcation are discussed in relation to the diffusion length of camphor molecules under the camphor boat and the development of camphor molecules from the camphor boat on water. PMID:26117135
Definition of Magnetic Exchange Length
Abo, GS; Hong, YK; Park, J; Lee, J; Lee, W; Choi, BC
2013-08-01
The magnetostatic exchange length is an important parameter in magnetics as it measures the relative strength of exchange and self-magnetostatic energies. Its use can be found in areas of magnetics including micromagnetics, soft and hard magnetic materials, and information storage. The exchange length is of primary importance because it governs the width of the transition between magnetic domains. Unfortunately, there is some confusion in the literature between the magnetostatic exchange length and a similar distance concerning magnetization reversal mechanisms in particles known as the characteristic length. This confusion is aggravated by the common usage of two different systems of units, SI and cgs. This paper attempts to clarify the situation and recommends equations in both systems of units.
J. H. Lee; C. H. Jeong; H. B. Kim; J. T. Lim; S. J. Kyung; G. Y. Yeom
2006-01-01
SiOxNy thin films were deposited by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICP-PECVD) using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, 99.9%)\\/NH3\\/O2\\/Ar at a low temperature, and examined for use as a water vapor diffusion barrier. The film characteristics were investigated as a function of the O2:NH3 ratio. An increase in the O2:NH3 ratio decreased the level of impurities such as –CHx, N–H in
A Multiscale Analysis of Diffusions on Rapidly Varying Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, A. B.; Elliott, C. M.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stuart, A. M.
2015-04-01
Lateral diffusion of molecules on surfaces plays a very important role in various biological processes, including lipid transport across the cell membrane, synaptic transmission, and other phenomena such as exo- and endocytosis, signal transduction, chemotaxis, and cell growth. In many cases, the surfaces can possess spatial inhomogeneities and/or be rapidly changing shape. Using a generalization of the model for a thermally excited Helfrich elastic membrane, we consider the problem of lateral diffusion on quasi-planar surfaces, possessing both spatial and temporal fluctuations. Using results from homogenization theory, we show that, under the assumption of scale separation between the characteristic length and timescales of the membrane fluctuations and the characteristic scale of the diffusing particle, the lateral diffusion process can be well approximated by a Brownian motion on the plane with constant diffusion tensor that depends on a highly nonlinear way on the detailed properties of the surface. The effective diffusion tensor will depend on the relative scales of the spatial and temporal fluctuations, and for different scaling regimes, we prove the existence of a macroscopic limit in each case.
Invariant lengths using existing Special Relativity
Christopher D. Burton
2009-12-14
A field of random space-time events exhibiting complete spatial-temporal randomness appears statistically identical to all observers. Boost invariant lengths naturally emerge when we examine fluctuation scales of this field such as the nearest neighbor distance. If we interpret Planck's length as the characteristic fluctuation scale of quantum gravity, its boost invariance can then be understood without modifying Special Relativity.
Numerical analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation-diffusion responses of sedimentary rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arns, Christoph H.; AlGhamdi, Tariq; Arns, Ji-Youn
2011-01-01
The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation-diffusion response of porous reservoir rock is frequently used, e.g. in oil field applications, to extract characteristic length scales of pore space or information about saturating fluids. External gradients are typically applied to encode for diffusion. In reservoir rocks, field inhomogeneities due to internal gradients can even at low fields be strong enough to interfere with this encoding. Furthermore, the encoding for diffusion coefficients of fluids takes a finite amount of time, during which diffusing fluid molecules can experience restricted diffusion. Both effects can combine to make the interpretation of the diffusion dimension of a relaxation-diffusion measurement difficult. We use x-ray-CT images of porous rock samples to define the solid and fluid phases of reservoir rock and simulate the full experimental pulse sequence, taking into account the static applied field, external gradients and internal gradients as a function of susceptibility of each component, and surface and bulk relaxation properties of fluids and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces. We carry out simulations of NMR relaxation-diffusion measurements, while explicitly tracking the time-dependent diffusion coefficient in each fluid as well as associated local gradients. This allows us to quantify the influence of restricted diffusion and internal gradients for common choices of experimental parameters.
EINSTEIN'S RANDOM WALK AND THERMAL DIFFUSION YONG-JUNG KIM
Kim, Yong Jung
EINSTEIN'S RANDOM WALK AND THERMAL DIFFUSION YONG-JUNG KIM Abstract. Thermal diffusion has been, the physics of thermal diffusion remains poorly understood. In this paper Ludwig's thermal diffusion of the random walk to reflect the temperature gradient of thermal diffusion. Hence, the walk length and the walk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tidwell, Vincent C.; Meigs, Lucy C.; Christian-Frear, Tracy; Boney, Craig M.
2000-03-01
High-resolution X-ray absorption imaging was used to investigate the effects of spatially heterogeneous porosity on matrix diffusion. Experiments were performed on four, centimeter-scale slabs of Culebra dolomite taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. These tests involved the diffusion of potassium iodide into a single edge of each brine-saturated rock slab, while X-ray absorption imaging was used to measure the two-dimensional relative concentration distribution at different times during the experiment. X-ray imaging was also used to measure the heterogeneous, two-dimensional porosity distribution of each rock slab. The resulting high-resolution data provide unique insight into the spatially varying diffusion characteristics of each heterogeneous rock sample, which traditional methods such as through-diffusion experiments cannot. In these tests, significant variations in the diffusion coefficient were calculated over the relatively small length (centimeter) and time scales (months) investigated. Results also indicated that these variations were related to the heterogeneous porosity characteristics of each rock sample. Not only were the diffusion coefficients found to depend on the magnitude of the porosity but also on its spatial distribution. Specifically, the geometry, position, and orientation of the heterogeneous porosity features populating each rock slab appeared to influence the diffusion characteristics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott
2007-01-01
Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…
Measuring Thermodynamic Length
Crooks, Gavin E
2007-09-07
Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.
Spin diffusion in ultracold spin-orbit-coupled 40K gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.
2015-07-01
We investigate the steady-state spin diffusion for ultracold spin-orbit-coupled 40K gas by the kinetic spin Bloch equation approach both analytically and numerically. Four configurations, i.e., the spin diffusions along two specific directions with the spin polarization perpendicular (transverse configuration) and parallel (longitudinal configuration) to the effective Zeeman field are studied. It is found that the behaviors of the steady-state spin diffusion for the four configurations are very different, which are determined by three characteristic lengths: the mean free path l?, the Zeeman oscillation length l?, and the spin-orbit coupling oscillation length l?. It is analytically revealed and numerically confirmed that by tuning the scattering strength, the system can be divided into five regimes: I, weak scattering regime (l??l?,l? ); II, Zeeman field-dominated moderate scattering regime (l??l??l? ); III, spin-orbit coupling-dominated moderate scattering regime (l??l??l? ); IV, relatively strong scattering regime (l?c?l??l?,l? ); V, strong scattering regime (l??l?,l?,l?c ), with l?c representing the crossover length between the relatively strong and strong scattering regimes. In different regimes, the behaviors of the spacial evolution of the steady-state spin polarization are very rich, showing different dependencies on the scattering strength, Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling strength. The rich behaviors of the spin diffusions in different regimes are hard to understand in the framework of the simple drift-diffusion model or the direct inhomogeneous broadening picture in the literature. However, almost all these rich behaviors can be well understood by means of our modified drift-diffusion model and/or modified inhomogeneous broadening picture. Specifically, several anomalous features of the spin diffusion are revealed, which are in contrast to those obtained from both the simple drift-diffusion model and the direct inhomogeneous broadening picture.
Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashidnia, Nasser
2001-01-01
A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.
Y. Senoo
1984-01-01
The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser
Optical and electrical investigation of a cylindrical diffuse-discharge chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Cheng, Yong; Ma, Ning; Peng, Ming-yang; Liu, Ming-hai
2015-03-01
More and more attention has been attached to atmospheric-pressure air diffuse plasma due to its enormous potential applications. In this paper, we designed a large-scale, cylindrical diffuse-plasma chamber using wire electrodes and a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. The plasma chamber can be completely exposed in the open air without any barrier dielectric, and the length of cylindrical plasma chamber was extensible. Using optical and electrical measurements, we investigated the effects of electrode distance, electrode length, pulse repetition frequency, and electrode angle on the uniformity of discharge space. Four discharge regions were distinguished based on different spectral characteristics. Additionally, it was found that the discharge uniformity was improved as the electrode distance decreases, but remained almost constant with the variations of electrode length and pulse repetition frequency. Both of the plasma uniformity and the power density increased significantly as the electrode angle reduced.
Sharpe, Colin R.
1983-01-01
Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327
Laterally Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Model for Device and Circuit Optimization
Masahiro Yokomichi; Norio Sadachika; Masataka Miyake; Takahiro Kajiwara; Hans Juergen Mattausch; Mitiko Miura-Mattausch
2008-01-01
A laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) device enables the realization of a wide range of application voltages by varying impurity concentration and the length of the lightly doped drain contact region. However, this resistive contact region causes the abnormal characteristics observed in capacitances. Here, the HiSIM-LDMOS model based on a complete surface-potential description is demonstrated, which simulates the features
On collisional diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field
Abdullaev, S. S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
2013-08-15
The effect of particle collisions on the transport in a stochastic magnetic field in tokamaks is investigated. The model of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils at the plasma edge is used for the stochastic magnetic field. The particle collisions are simulated by a random walk process along the magnetic field lines and the jumps across the field lines at the collision instants. The dependencies of the local diffusion coefficients on the mean free path ?{sub mfp}, the diffusion coefficients of field lines D{sub FL}, and the collisional diffusion coefficients, ?{sub ?} are studied. Based on these numerical data and the heuristic arguments, the empirical formula, D{sub r}=?{sub ?}+v{sub ||}D{sub FL}/(1+L{sub c}/?{sub mfp}), for the local diffusion coefficient is proposed, where L{sub c} is the characteristic length of order of the connection length l{sub c}=?qR{sub 0}, q is the safety factor, R{sub 0} is the major radius. The formula quite well describes the results of numerical simulations. In the limiting cases, the formula describes the Rechester-Rosenbluth and Laval scalings.
Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, James R; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, Juan I.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J.E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S.I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P.N.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R.D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips II, D. G.; et al.
2013-01-01
A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.
Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, Juan; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Ron L.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Radford, Davis; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir
2013-02-11
A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.
The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion
Aslam, Tariq Dennis; Romick, Christopher; Powers, Joseph
2010-01-01
Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.
Tiantao, Zhao; Youcai, Zhao; Lijie, Zhang; Haoquan, Chen; Feng, Shi; Haiyan, Zhou
2011-11-01
Acetylene has been found to significantly inhibit biological activity of methanogens and thus might be applicable for reducing the generation and emission of methane from municipal solid waste landfills. However, acetylene is gaseous and so it is considered physically infeasible to directly apply this gas to waste in landfill conditions. In the present study, a novel acetylene release mechanism was tested, using a matrix of acetylene entrapped in high hydrophobic paraffin wax and/or rosin and calcium carbide capsules with a ratio of 1.0?g?g(-1) matrix and a diameter of 10?mm to facilitate the gradual release of acetylene. A diffusion mechanism model (Q = &b.gamma; × t (0.5)) for the matrix was derived based on the T. Higuchi equation, and the effective diffusion coefficients (D(e)) were acquired by linear fitting. Additionally, it was found that D(e) remained constant when the rosin content was up to more than 20% g?g(-1) matrix. PMID:21172951
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Steven C.; Narciso, Hugh L., Jr.; Mai, David; Doiron, Daniel R.
1994-07-01
Cardiovascular Photodynamic Therapy requires the uniform application of laser energy over the length of an atherosclerotic lesion, thus ensuring equal treatment to all parts of the lesion. The total amount of laser energy delivered to the lesion also affects the results of the treatment. Uniform light distribution both radially and axially of a cylindrical diffuser during Photodynamic Therapy prevents miscalculated dosimetry and uneven treatment. Maximizing the amount of laser power delivered to the cylindrical diffuser tip (without inducing temperature elevation) minimizes the exposure time thus reducing the overall treatment time. Power output uniformity and power output capabilities are thus crucial factors in the design of a cardiovascular cylindrical diffuser. This paper will discuss the output characteristics and performance of six guidewire compatible cylindrical diffusers. Each diffuser consists of an array of fiber optics surrounding an inner guidewire lumen. This assembly is covered by an outer sheath. The fibers launch into an elastomer which contains a scattering medium. In this way a light diffusing tip is created. The total length of the fiber system is 3.0 meters. The total length of the difffuser tip is 2.0 cm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlisch, D.; Appenzeller, J.; Tietze, M. F.; Schäpers, Th.; Hollfelder, M.; Lüth, H.
1998-01-01
Ballistic transport of hot electrons was used to characterize the relevant transport lengths in the two-dimensional electron gas formed in an In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.76Ga0.24As/InP heterostructure. This method allows a distinction between impurity scattering, alloy scattering, and electron-electron scattering. Using adjacent point contacts separated by only a few hundred nanometers, we determine the ballistic mean free path for cold electrons to be approximately Lbal=970 nm. Fitting the electron excess energy-dependent peak height of the focusing maxima, good agreement can be obtained by including the energy dependence of ionized impurity scattering. The mean distance between impurities Limp is determined to be approximately 1.2 ?m and the alloy scattering length Lalloy is 4.5 ?m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Hidenao
Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccammon, D.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.; Burrows, D. N.
1979-01-01
Preliminary maps covering more than 85 percent of the sky are presented for three energy bands: the B band, the C band, and the M band. The study was undertaken to find evidence that most of the diffuse X-ray background at energies less than 1 keV is local to the galaxy and that it is most probably due to thermal radiation from a low density plasma which fills a substantial fraction of interstellar space. A preliminary analysis of the data is provided including a report that most of the B and C band flux has a common origin, probably in a 10 to the 6th power K region surrounding the Sun, and that most of the M band flux does not originate from the same material.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martins, Roberto de A.
1978-01-01
Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)
Characterizing cosmic inhomogeneity with anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraljic, D.
2015-08-01
Dark matter (DM) clustering at the present epoch is investigated from a fractal viewpoint in order to determine the scale where the self-similar scaling property of the DM halo distribution transits to homogeneity. Methods based on well-established `counts-in-cells' as well as new methods based on anomalous diffusion and random walks are investigated. Both are applied to DM haloes of the biggest N-body simulation in the `Dark Sky Simulations' (DS) catalogue and an equivalent randomly distributed catalogue. Results based on the smaller `Millennium Run' (MR) simulation are revisited and improved. It is found that the MR simulation volume is too small and prone to bias to reliably identify the onset of homogeneity. Transition to homogeneity is defined when the fractal dimension of the clustered and random distributions cannot be distinguished within the associated uncertainties. The `counts-in-cells' method applied to the DS then yields a homogeneity scale roughly consistent with previous work (˜150 h-1 Mpc). The characteristic length-scale for anomalous diffusion to behave homogeneously is found to be at about 250 h-1 Mpc. The behaviour of the fractal dimensions for a halo catalogue with the same two-point function as the original but with shuffled Fourier phases is investigated. The methods based on anomalous diffusion are shown to be sensitive to the phase information, whereas the `counts-in-cells' methods are not.
Diffusion in an absorbing porous medium : from microscopic geometry to macroscopic transport
Forney, David C., III
2007-01-01
Two physical models of diffusion in absorbing porous media are proposed on two length scales. One models diffusion in the pore space of a random medium with absorbing interfaces while the other is a reaction diffusion model ...
Sprouse, Gene D.
2011-07-15
Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see http://publish.aps.org/authors/length-guide. The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin
2015-06-01
We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-?m. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length LD ˜ Ln ˜ 10-?m, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model also shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Hui; Yin, Yan; Su, Hang; Shan, Yunpeng; Gao, Renjie
2015-02-01
A newly built static vacuum water vapor diffusion chamber was built to measure the concentration of ice nuclei (INs) at the top of Huangshan (the Yellow Mountains) in Southeast China. The experiments were conducted under temperatures between - 15 °C and - 23 °C and supersaturations with respect to ice between 4% and 25%. The results show that the average IN concentration was in the range of 0.27 to 7.02 L- 1, when the temperature was varied from - 15 °C to - 23 °C. The changes in IN concentrations with time were correlated with the change of number concentration of the aerosol particles of 0.5-20 ?m in diameter. The square correlation coefficients (R2) between IN and coarse aerosol particles (0.5-20 ?m in diameter) were all higher than 0.60, much higher than that (0.10) between IN and smaller particles (0.01-0.5 ?m). The concentration of ice nuclei at 14:00 LST was significantly higher than that at 08:00 LST, which is correlated with the diurnal variation of the concentration of aerosol particles. A parametric equation was developed based on measurements to represent the variations of IN concentration with temperature and supersaturation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilsabeck, T. J.; O'Neil, T. M.
2001-02-01
Diocotron modes are discussed for a finite length nonneutral plasma column under the assumption of bounce averaged E×B drift dynamics and small Debye length. In this regime, which is common to experiments, Debye shielding forces the mode potential to be constant along field lines within the plasma (i.e., ???/?z=0). One can think of the plasma as a collection of magnetic-field aligned rods that undergo E×B drift across the field and adjust their length so as to maintain the condition ???/?z=0 inside the plasma. Using the Green function (for a region bounded by a conducting cylinder) to relate the perturbed charge density and the perturbed potential, imposing the constraint ???/?z=0, and discretizing yields a matrix eigenvalue problem. The mode eigenvector ?Nl,?(rj)??dz ?nl,?(rj,z) is the lth azimuthal Fourier component of the z-integrated density perturbation, and the frequency ? is the eigenvalue. The solutions include the full continuum and discrete stable and unstable diocotron modes. Finite column length introduces a new set of discrete diocotron-like modes. Also, finite column length makes possible the exponential growth of l=1 diocotron modes, long observed in experiments. The paper focuses on these two problems. To approach quantitative agreement with experiment for the l=1 instabilities, the model is extended to include the dependence of a particle's bounce averaged rotation frequency on its axial energy. For certain distributions of axial energies, this dependence can substantially affect the instability.
Relativistic Length Agony Continued
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redzic, D. V.
2014-06-01
We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.
Rotational diffusion of magnetic nickel nanorods in colloidal dispersions.
Günther, A; Bender, P; Tschöpe, A; Birringer, R
2011-08-17
Colloidal dispersions of Ni nanorods were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into nanoporous aluminum oxide layers followed by dissolution of the templates. Geometrical characterization of the nanorods by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allowed us to determine the average length (100-250 nm) and diameter (20-40 nm) of the rods and to estimate the thickness of the polyvinylpyrrolidone surfactant layer. Due to their acicular shape, nanorods of the given size are uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain particles and exhibit a distinct anisotropic polarizability. These two characteristic properties are the physical basis for magnetic field-dependent optical transmission and allow us to investigate the rotational diffusion of the nanorods in liquid dispersion. In the present study, we employed AC magnetization measurements, dynamical light scattering and optical transmission measurements in a rotating magnetic field to determine the rotational diffusion coefficient. The results from all three methods were consistent and agree with theory within a factor of 2. PMID:21757802
Identifying anomalous diffusion and melting in dusty plasmas
Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin
2010-09-15
Anomalous diffusion in liquids and the solid-liquid phase transition (melting) are studied in two-dimensional Yukawa systems. The self-intermediate scattering function (self-ISF), calculated from simulation data, exhibits a temporal decay, or relaxation, with a characteristic relaxation time. This decay is found to be useful for distinguishing normal and anomalous diffusion in a liquid, and for identifying the solid-liquid phase transition. For liquids, a scaling of the relaxation time with length scale is found. For the solid-liquid phase transition, the shape of the self-ISF curve is found to be a sensitive indicator of phase. Friction has a significant effect on the timing of relaxation, but not the melting point.
Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon
Wei, Chenyu
Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites Chenyu Wei* NASA for polymer-nanotube interface are used to investigate the thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics to increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients
Use of cylindrical diffusing fibers as detectors for interstitial tissue spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.
2015-03-01
Interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) describes the use of implanted optical fibers for delivery of treatment light to activate photosensitizer in regions that can be located deep within the body. Since sensitive healthy structures are often located nearby, this requires careful treatment planning that is dependent on tissue optical properties. Determination of these values usually involves the insertion of additional fibers into the volume, or the use of flat-cleaved optical fibers as both treatment sources and detectors. The insertion of additional fibers is undesirable, and cylindrical diffusers have been shown to offer superior treatment characteristics compared to flat-cleaved fibers. Using cylindrical diffusers as detectors for spectroscopic measurement is therefore attractive. We describe the determination of the detection profile for a particular cylindrical diffuser design and derive the scatterer concentration gradient within the diffuser core. This detection profile is compared to previously characterized diffusers, and is shown to be dependent on the diffuser design. For diffusers with a constant scatterer concentration and distal mirror, the detection profile is localized to the proximal end of the diffusing region. For diffusers with variable scattering concentration along their length and no distal mirror, the detection profile is shown to be more uniform along the diffusing region. We also present preliminary results showing the recovery of optical properties using arrays of cylindrical diffusing fibers as sources and detectors, with a mean error of 4.4% in the determination of ?eff. The accuracy of these results is comparable to those obtained with other methods of optical property recovery.
Tailoring diffusion in analog spacetimes.
Smerlak, Matteo
2012-04-01
Diffusive transport is characterized by the scaling law (length)^{2}?(time). In this paper we show that this relationship is significantly altered in curved analog spacetimes. This circumstance provides an opportunity to tailor diffusion: by a suitable design of the analog metric, it is possible to create materials where diffusion is either faster or slower than in normal media, as desired. This prediction can, in principle, be tested experimentally with optical analogs, curved graphene sheets, and so on (indeed with any analog spacetime). PMID:22680445
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lai, Richard; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Yang, David; Brock, Timothy L.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Downey, Alan N.
1993-01-01
The performance characteristics of InP-based In(x)Ga(1-x)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As (0.53 is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 0.70) pseudomorphic modulation-doped field-effect transistors (MODFET's) as a function of strain in the channel, gate, length, and temperature were investigated analytically and experimentally. The strain in the channel was varied by varying the In composition x. The temperature was varied in the range of 40-300 K and the devices have gate lengths L(sub g) of 0.8 and 0.2 microns. Analysis of the device was done using a one-dimensional self consistent solution of the Poisson and Schroedinger equations in the channel, a two-dimensional Poisson solver to obtain the channel electric field, and a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the carrier transit times in the channel. An increase in the value of the cutoff frequency is predicted for an increase in In composition, a decrease in temperature, and a decrease in gate length. The improvements seen with decreasing temperature, decreasing gate length, and increased In composition were smaller than those predicted by analysis. The experimental results on pseudomorphic InGaAs/InAlAs MODFET's showed that there is a 15-30 percent improvement in cutoff frequency in both the 0.8- and 0.2-micron gate length devices when the temperature is lowered from 300 to 40 K.
Knudsen Diffusion in Silicon Nanochannels
Gruener, Simon
2008-01-01
Measurements on helium and argon gas flow through an array of parallel, linear channels of 12 nm diameter and 200 micrometer length in a single crystalline silicon membrane reveal a Knudsen diffusion type transport from 10^2 to 10^7 in Knudsen number Kn. The classic scaling prediction for the transport diffusion coefficient on temperature and mass of diffusing species,D_He ~ sqrt(T), is confirmed over a T range from 40 K to 300 K for He and for the ratio of D_He/D_Ar ~ sqrt(m_Ar/m_He). Deviations of the channels from a cylindrical form, resolved with transmission electron microscopy down to subnanometer scales, quantitatively account for a reduced diffusivity as compared to Knudsen diffusion in ideal tubular channels. The membrane permeation experiments are described over 10 orders of magnitude in Kn, encompassing the transition flow regime, by the unified flow model of Beskok and Karniadakis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handley, John C.
1991-01-01
Discussion of sampling methods used in information science research focuses on Fussler's method for sampling catalog cards and on sampling by length. Highlights include simple random sampling, sampling with probability equal to size without replacement, sampling with replacement, and examples of estimating the number of books on shelves in certain…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Utah LessonPlans
2012-09-18
In this math lesson, learners explore the concept of using units to measure length. Learners first read "Ladybug on the Move" by Richard Fowler and measure the distance the ladybug travels on each page using yarn. Next, learners make their own "Go Ladybug Go!" books and use lima beans and a ladybug ruler to make and record measurements.
Evens, Andrew M; Kanakry, Jennifer A; Sehn, Laurie H; Kritharis, Athena; Feldman, Tatyana; Kroll, Aimee; Gascoyne, Randy D; Abramson, Jeremy S; Petrich, Adam M; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Al-Mansour, Zeina; Adeimy, Camille; Hemminger, Jessica; Bartlett, Nancy L; Mato, Anthony; Caimi, Paolo F; Advani, Ranjana H; Klein, Andreas K; Nabhan, Chadi; Smith, Sonali M; Fabregas, Jesus C; Lossos, Izidore S; Press, Oliver W; Fenske, Timothy S; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Vose, Julie M; Blum, Kristie A
2015-09-01
Gray zone lymphoma (GZL) with features between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a recently recognized entity reported to present primarily with mediastinal disease (MGZL). We examined detailed clinical features, outcomes, and prognostic factors among 112 GZL patients recently treated across 19 North American centers. Forty-three percent of patients presented with MGZL, whereas 57% had non-MGZL (NMGZL). NMGZL patients were older (50 versus 37 years, P?=?0.0001); more often had bone marrow involvement (19% versus 0%, P?=?0.001); >1 extranodal site (27% versus 8%, P?=?0.014); and advanced stage disease (81% versus 13%, P?=?0.0001); but they had less bulk (8% versus 44%, P?=?0.0001), compared with MGZL patients. Common frontline treatments were cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone +/- rituximab (CHOP+/-R) 46%, doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine +/- rituximab (ABVD+/-R) 30%, and dose-adjusted etoposide-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) 10%. Overall and complete response rates for all patients were 71% and 59%, respectively; 33% had primary refractory disease. At 31-month median follow-up, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival rates were 40% and 88%, respectively. Interestingly, outcomes in MGZL patients seemed similar compared with that of NMGZL patients. On multivariable analyses, performance status and stage were highly prognostic for survival for all patients. Additionally, patients treated with ABVD+/-R had markedly inferior 2-year PFS (22% versus 52%, P?=?0.03) compared with DLBCL-directed therapy (CHOP+/-R and DA-EPOCH-R), which persisted on Cox regression (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.83; P?=?0.04). Furthermore, rituximab was associated with improved PFS on multivariable analyses (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.69; P?=?0.002). Collectively, GZL is a heterogeneous and likely more common entity and often with nonmediastinal presentation, whereas outcomes seem superior when treated with a rituximab-based, DLBCL-specific regimen. Am. J. Hematol. 90:778-783, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26044261
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, A. M.; Borisov, M. M.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Sajti, S.; Tancziko, F.; Deak, L.; Bottyan, L.; Khaydukov, Yu. N.; Aksenov, V. L.
2011-09-01
Layered superconducting ferromagnetic nanosystems Cu(32 nm)/V(40-80 nm)/Fe(0.5-4 nm)/MgO(001) have been investigated by reflectometry and the diffuse scattering of synchrotron radiation. The data obtained make it possible to determine the important characteristics of samples such as the layer thickness and the rms heights and lateral correlation lengths of roughness at the interfaces.
A. de Haan; P. A. Huijing; M. R. van der Vliet
2003-01-01
The interaction of relative muscle length and force-velocity characteristics was investigated in the fully activated rat medial gastrocnemius muscle in situ. Average maximal isometric force (as a percentage of the of the maximal isometric force at Lo,iso) at relative lengths measured below isometric optimum (Lo,iso) was 96% at Lo,isoф mm, 88% at Lo,isoц mm and 58% at Lo,isoш mm. Force-velocity
Einstein's random walk and thermal diffusion
Yong-Jung Kim
2013-07-17
Thermal diffusion has been studied for over 150 years. Despite of the long history and the increasing importance of the phenomenon, the physics of thermal diffusion remains poorly understood. In this paper Ludwig's thermal diffusion is explained using Einstein's random walk. The only new structure added is the spatial heterogeneity of the random walk to reflect the temperature gradient of thermal diffusion. Hence, the walk length and the walk speed are location dependent functions in this paper. Then, a mathematical understanding of such a random walk gives the foundation of the thermal diffusion as clearly as the original homogeneous case of Einstein.
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This site addresses the concepts of diffusion, rate of diffusion, osmosis, osmotic pressure are explained on this site as well as how to measure osmotic pressure and membrane transport. Definition is the main thrust of the website, it features clearly defined sections concerning each topic. Along with the definition, each term has a graphic which corresponds to the concept.
Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF
2015-01-01
Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a subjective loss of penile length. PMID:24430278
The Thermal Diffusion Length Problem in an Array of Plates
Cassell, J.S.; Williams, M.M.R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Engineering (United Kingdom)
2004-11-15
An exact solution is developed for a plane source of thermal neutrons embedded in an infinite array of absorbing plates. Using methods based on generating functions and the theory of complex variables, we can obtain explicit values for the flux at the plate surfaces and hence at any position within the lattice.The effect on the flux distribution of allowing the plate absorption parameter (Galanin's constant) to be a random variable, uniformly distributed between an upper and lower limit, is calculated. It is found that randomness leads to a reduced rate of decay with distance from the source, in agreement with other theories concerning this problem.
Approximate sample sizes required to estimate length distributions
Miranda, L.E.
2007-01-01
The sample sizes required to estimate fish length were determined by bootstrapping from reference length distributions. Depending on population characteristics and species-specific maximum lengths, 1-cm length-frequency histograms required 375-1,200 fish to estimate within 10% with 80% confidence, 2.5-cm histograms required 150-425 fish, proportional stock density required 75-140 fish, and mean length required 75-160 fish. In general, smaller species, smaller populations, populations with higher mortality, and simpler length statistics required fewer samples. Indices that require low sample sizes may be suitable for monitoring population status, and when large changes in length are evident, additional sampling effort may be allocated to more precisely define length status with more informative estimators. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.
Variable Length Unordered Codes
Laura Pezza; Luca G. Tallini; Bella Bose
2012-01-01
In an unordered code, no code word is contained in any other code word. Unordered codes are all unidirectional error detecting (AUED) codes. In the binary case, it is well known that among all systematic codes with $k$ information bits, Berger codes are optimal unordered codes with $r=\\\\lceil\\\\log_{2}(k+1)\\\\rceil\\\\simeq\\\\log_{2}k$ check bits. This paper gives some new theory on variable length unordered
Public good diffusion limits microbial mutualism.
Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S
2015-04-24
Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration. PMID:25955075
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shademan, Shabnam
2001-05-01
This study tests whether Farsi vowels are contrastive with respective to length. Farsi has a six-vowel system with three lax vowels and three tense vowels. Both traditional grammarians and modern linguists believe that Farsi tense vowels are longer than lax vowels, and that there are no vowel pairs that contrast only in length. However, it has been suggested that Farsi exhibits compensatory lengthening, which is triggered by the deletion of glottal consonants in coda position in informal speech (Darzi, 1991). As a result, minimal pairs such as [tar] and [tarh] should contrast only with respect to vowel length. A corpus of 90 words of the form CVC, CVCG, CVGC, and CVCC (where V=a vowel and G=a glottal consonant) was recorded, and durations of vowels in different contexts were measured and compared. Preliminary results show that lax vowel durations fall into three groups with CVCC longer than CVCG/CVGC, and the latter longer than CVC. It remains to be seen whether CVCG/CVGC words show compensatory lengthening when the glottal consonant is deleted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pramod; Sharan, Maithili
2012-03-01
Parameterizations of the vertical eddy diffusivity over homogeneous terrain in neutral, stable and unstable conditions for the entire atmospheric boundary layer are proposed using the mixing length theory. The formulation utilizes the theoretically derived local mixing length scale that is composed of three component length scales. Proposed profiles of the eddy diffusivity in various stability conditions are compared to those reported in the literature. The proposed profiles of the eddy diffusivity are used in a generalized analytical model for dispersion of pollutants released from a continuous source in the atmospheric boundary layer. The dispersion model describing the crosswind integrated concentrations is briefly presented. By considering the proposed and other commonly applied parameterizations of eddy diffusivity, the dispersion model is evaluated with the tracer observations obtained from Copenhagen diffusion experiment in unstable conditions, Prairie Grass experiment in both unstable and stable conditions and Hanford experiment in stable conditions. The dispersion model with proposed parameterizations of the eddy diffusivity is performing reasonably well with the observations and demonstrates throughout a consistent and good performance in the concentration estimation for elevated and surface releases from a continuous point source in various stability conditions. Though the magnitudes of the various eddy diffusivities are different from the proposed one, the profiles of all parameterizations in terms of the shape have almost similar characteristics. The differences in the magnitudes of diffusion produced by various parameterizations cause minor but noticeable changes in the simulation of ground level concentrations from the dispersion model. In very stable conditions, the agreement of the model evaluations with measurements is less satisfactory and none of the parameterizations used here including proposed one is adequate to describe the atmospheric dispersion process in these conditions.
Path-length resolved reflectance in tendon and muscle.
Fan, Chuanmao; Shuaib, Ali; Yao, Gang
2011-04-25
Optical diffuse reflectance in fibrous tissues depends on measurement angles in relation to fiber orientation. In this study, path-length resolved optical reflectance was measured in tendon and skeletal muscle samples using a low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The results show that the angular dependency in reflectance was eliminated in tendon tissue when representing reflectance as a function of mean path-length. Our analysis indicated that this observation can be understood in the frame work of anisotropic diffuse theory. However the same phenomenon was not observed in muscles, suggesting involvement of additional scattering mechanisms. PMID:21643141
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance diffusion simulations in two phases in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valfouskaya, A.; Adler, P. M.
2005-11-01
Time-dependent diffusion simulations which can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were numerically performed in consolidated reconstructed porous media saturated by two immobile fluids. The phase distributions were obtained by an immiscible lattice Boltzmann technique which incorporates interfacial tension and wetting. The apparent diffusion coefficient in each fluid was determined by a random walk algorithm. Permeability and conductivity tensors were calculated by finite-difference schemes. The major properties valid for a single phase could be generalized to two phases. First, the characteristic length ? introduced by Johnson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2564 (1986)] is of the order of twice the phase volume to surface ratio. Second, the apparent diffusion coefficients for all porosities, saturations, and phases can be represented by a single dimensionless curve.
Influence of phase space localization on the energy diffusion in a quantum chaotic billiard
D. A. Wisniacki; E. Vergini
1998-11-10
The quantum dynamics of a chaotic billiard with moving boundary is considered in this work. We found a shape parameter Hamiltonian expansion which enables us to obtain the spectrum of the deformed billiard for deformations so large as the characteristic wave length. Then, for a specified time dependent shape variation, the quantum dynamics of a particle inside the billiard is integrated directly. In particular, the dispersion of the energy is studied in the Bunimovich stadium billiard with oscillating boundary. The results showed that the distribution of energy spreads diffusively for the first oscillations of the boundary (${ =2 D t$). We studied the diffusion contant $D$ as a function of the boundary velocity and found differences with theoretical predictions based on random matrix theory. By extracting highly phase space localized structures from the spectrum, previous differences were reduced significantly. This fact provides the first numerical evidence of the influence of phase space localization on the quantum diffusion of a chaotic system.
Revisiting Surface Diffusion in Random Deposition
Baisakhi Mal; Subhankar Ray; J. Shamanna
2011-02-10
An investigation of the effect of surface diffusion in random deposition model is made by analytical methods and reasoning. For any given site, the extent to which a particle can diffuse is decided by the morphology in the immediate neighbourhood of the site. An analytical expression is derived to calculate the probability of a particle at any chosen site to diffuse to a given length, from first principles. Using the method, the probabilities for different diffusion lengths are calculated and their dependence on system size and the number of deposited layers is studied. Numerical simulation of surface diffusion in random deposition model with varying extents of diffusion are performed and their results are interpreted in the light of the analytical calculations. Thus, a clearer understanding of the diffusion process and the effect of diffusion length on surface roughness is obtained. Systems with surface diffusion show nearly random deposition-like behaviour upto monolayer deposition. Their interface widths, in a logarithmic plot, are initially linear, as in random deposition. With increase in the number of layers, correlation effects between neighbouring columns become dominant. The interface deviates from its initial linear growth and eventually becomes saturated. An explanation for this behaviour is discussed and the point of departure from the linear form is estimated analytically.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.
Short cervical length dilemma.
Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo
2015-06-01
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. PMID:26002164
The long and short of food-chain length
David M. Post
2002-01-01
Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that has attracted considerable attention for over 75 years because it strongly affects community structure, ecosystem processes and contaminant concentrations. Conventional wisdom holds that either resource availability or dynamical stability limit food-chain length; however, new studies and new techniques challenge the conventional wisdom and broaden the discourse on food-chain length. Recent
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers
Bigelow, Stephen
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon Akos Dobay John C. Kern numerical simulations to investigate how the chain length and topology of freely fluctuating knotted polymer of a characteristic changes with the chain size and how this change depends on the topology of the modeled polymers
Stimulated Brillouin backscatter in long scale length plasmas
Colombant, D.G.; Manheimer, W.M.; Gardner, J.H.
1983-06-24
Stimulated Brillouin backscatter in long scale length plasmas is calculated using a wave kinetic model. These calculations make use of computer hydrodynamic profiles for these plasmas. Results are presented for the parameters of the joint NRL-LLNL experiments and for reactor size pellets of 5 mm characteristic length. Means of reducing high levels of backscatter for the latter case are investigated.
Wang, Yue; Qi, Yan; Blatov, Vladislav A; Zheng, Jimin; Li, Qun; Zhang, Chao
2014-10-28
Two new zinc coordination complexes, namely [Zn2(tib)4/3(L(1))2]·DMA (1) and [Zn2(tib)4/3(L(2))2]·H2O (2) (tib = 1,3,5-tris(1-imidazolyl)benzene, H2L(1) = biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H2L(2) = 4,4'-(2,2'-oxybis(ethane-2,1-diyl)bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), are obtained using achiral mixed ligands and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 both display intriguing structural features of both interpenetration and self-catenation. By careful inspection of the two structures, we found that the Zn(ii) cations, the tib ligands, and the dicarboxylic anions show the same coordination modes or analogous configurations. Compound 1 is chiral, which was confirmed by measuring the optical rotation of the bulk samples using solid-state circular dichroism (CD). It is comprised of two crystallographically independent interpenetrated 3D motifs, each containing interlaced triple-stranded right- and left-handed Zn-L(1)-Zn helical chains and chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3] layers. Both motifs display binodal (3,4)-coordinated 3D self-catenated networks with the point symbol (10(3))2(10(6))3 and the vertex symbols [10(13)·10(13)·10(13)] and [10(7)·10(7)·10(8)·10(10)·10(11)·10(11)]. However, the two types of helical chains are not racemic due to the differences between the two kinds of L(1) anions, and the two types of chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3](2+) layers are not enantiomeric either due to the different configurations of the tib ligands. Therefore, the two motifs are not enantiomers. Compound 2 is achiral, containing Zn-L(2)-Zn zigzag chains that span into three directions and chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3] layers. The overall 3D network is a new binodal (3,4)-coordinated self-catenated network with the point symbol (10(3))2(10(6))3 and the vertex symbols [10(7)·10(7)·10(7)] and [10(2)·10(4)·10(5)·10(5)·10(5)·10(5)]. Two of these networks interpenetrate. Their chiral and achiral structures are mainly modulated by the length of the dicarboxylates. As expected, compounds 1 and 2 show photoluminescence behaviors and compound 1 shows a ferroelectric behavior. Thermogravimetric studies of 1 and 2 have also been performed. We examined all 48 known structures containing the tib ligand and drew the conclusion that the metal + tib combination, modulated by the prolonged L ligands, can be a good basis for new chiral and catenated structures. PMID:25182167
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lueck, Dale E. (inventor)
1994-01-01
Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lueck, Dale E.
1994-04-01
Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ju-Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Chung, Chin-Wook
2015-07-01
The gap length effect on plasma parameters is investigated in a planar type inductively coupled plasma at various conditions. The spatial profiles of ion densities and the electron temperatures on the wafer level are measured with a 2D probe array based on the floating harmonic method. At low pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameters rarely changed by various gap lengths, which indicates that nonlocal kinetics are dominant at low pressures. However, at relatively high pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameter changed dramatically. These plasma distribution profile characteristics should be considered for plasma reactor design and processing setup, and can be explained by the diffusion of charged particles and the local kinetics.
Feg-EPMA and Nanosims Profiles of Zoned Crystals for Diffusion Chronometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saunders, K.; Buse, B.; Kilburn, M.; Kearns, S.; Blundy, J. D.
2014-12-01
Diffusion chronometry is an alternative method that can be used to assess timescales of magmatic events. It relies on the chemical relaxation of chemical zoning within magmatic crystals. By studying a range of elements within a single crystal we can probe a range of magmatic processes and interrogate timescales of processes from days to millennia. Diffusion modifies the elemental concentrations of adjacent crystal zones. The timescales that can be investigated are limited not only by the diffusivity of an element and the available diffusion coefficients but also the resolution of the measured chemical profile and hence the analytical technique used to acquire these profiles. To obtained reliable diffusion timescales the analytical length scale must be shorter than the characteristic diffusion length. In addition sufficient analytical points must be present on the profile to ensure that the profile is 'real' and not a convolution artefact. Thus in some cases, sub-micron spatial resolution is required. Two such possible techniques that can achieve nanoscale resolution are field emission gun electron probe micro analyser (FEG-EPMA) and NanoSIMS. Plagioclase and pyroxene crystals were analysed by FEG-EPMA and NanoSIMS to investigate the achievable spatial resolution that could be attained. For quantitative analyses, analytical protocols for FEG-EPMA for plagioclase and pyroxene have been developed that can achieve spot analyses of down to 300 nm diameters with 300 nm spacing for major and trace elements. NanoSIMS can achieve a 200 nm spot diameter, but currently the chemical profiles are only qualitative. This increase in spatial resolution of analytical techniques has demonstrated that compositional boundaries within zoned crystals are relatively sharp (< 2 microns). Thus assuming step-profiles as an initial condition in simple 1D diffusion models is appropriate in many cases.
Extraction of ?? Scattering Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, C. J.; Akikawa, H.; Aoki, K.; Fukao, Y.; Funahashi, H.; Hayata, M.; Imai, K.; Miwa, K.; Okada, H.; Saito, N.; Sato, H. D.; Shoji, K.; Takahashi, H.; Taketani, K.; Asai, J.; Kurosawa, M.; Ieiri, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Sato, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hibi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Ahn, J. K.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, S. H.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Song, J. S.; Yoon, C. S.; Tanida, K.; Ohnishi, A.
2010-10-01
We determine ?? scattering parameters from a ?? invariant mass spectrum that was obtained by 12C(K-,K+??) reaction at the KEK Proton Synchrotron. In the framework of Watson's procedure, the obtained scattering length a{? ? } = - 0.10 {}{ - 2.37}{ + 0.45} ± 0.04 and effective range r{? ? } = 13.90 {}{ < - 13.90}{ > + 16.10} ± 9.48 {fm} are most consistent with the values predicted by using the Nijmegen soft core models (NSC97's). However, the predicted values by using the Nijmegen hard-core ND (G-matrix) and the extended soft-core (ESC00) models are out of two standard deviations from the determined scattering parameters.
Extraction of ?? Scattering Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, C. J.; Akikawa, H.; Aoki, K.; Fukao, Y.; Funahashi, H.; Hayata, M.; Imai, K.; Miwa, K.; Okada, H.; Saito, N.; Sato, H. D.; Shoji, K.; Takahashi, H.; Taketani, K.; Asai, J.; Kurosawa, M.; Ieiri, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Sato, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hibi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Ahn, J. K.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, S. H.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Song, J. S.; Yoon, C. S.; Tanida, K.; Ohnishi, A.
We determine ?? scattering parameters from a ?? invariant mass spectrum that was obtained by 12C(K-, K+??) reaction at the KEK Proton Synchrotron. In the framework of Watson's procedure, the obtained scattering length a{? ? } = - 0.10 {- 2.37}{+ 0.45} ± 0.04 and effective range r{? ? } = 13.90 {< - 13.90}{> + 16.10} ± 9.48 {fm} are most consistent with the values predicted by using the Nijmegen soft core models (NSC97's). However, the predicted values by using the Nijmegen hard-core ND (G-matrix) and the extended soft-core (ESC00) models are out of two standard deviations from the determined scattering parameters.
Puzzle of the Electrostatic Persistence Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrynin, A. V.; Carrillo, J.-M. Y.
2013-03-01
Electrostatic interactions play an important role in controlling properties of synthetic and biological polyelectrolytes. The change in the ionic environment in such systems can significantly influence their conformational properties. For semiflexible polyelectrolyte chains with ionic groups interacting via the screened Debye-Huckel potential the electrostatic contribution to the chain persistence length scales quadratically with the Debye screening length (OSF model). However, recent computer simulations of flexible polyelectrolyte chains with explicit counterions and salt ions show that in the wide interval of the solution ionic strengths the electrostatic contribution to chain persistence length is proportional to the Debye screening length, rD. To understand the crossover between flexible and semiflexible chain behavior and elucidate the effect of explicit ions on chain conformations we performed molecular dynamics of polyelectrolyte chains with degree of polymerization N = 300 and different values of the chain bending rigidity varying between K = 1 and K = 160. Our simulations have shown that the bond-bond correlation function describing chain's orientational memory can be approximated by a sum of two exponential functions manifesting the existence of the two characteristic length scales. One describes the chain's bending rigidity at the distances along the polymer backbone shorter than rD while another controls the long-length scale chain's orientational correlations. The long-length scale bending rigidity is proportional to rD for chains with bending rigidity smaller than a crossover bending rigidity K*. Electrostatic interactions play an important role in controlling properties of synthetic and biological polyelectrolytes. The change in the ionic environment in such systems can significantly influence their conformational properties. For semiflexible polyelectrolyte chains with ionic groups interacting via the screened Debye-Huckel potential the electrostatic contribution to the chain persistence length scales quadratically with the Debye screening length (OSF model). However, recent computer simulations of flexible polyelectrolyte chains with explicit counterions and salt ions show that in the wide interval of the solution ionic strengths the electrostatic contribution to chain persistence length is proportional to the Debye screening length, rD. To understand the crossover between flexible and semiflexible chain behavior and elucidate the effect of explicit ions on chain conformations we performed molecular dynamics of polyelectrolyte chains with degree of polymerization N = 300 and different values of the chain bending rigidity varying between K = 1 and K = 160. Our simulations have shown that the bond-bond correlation function describing chain's orientational memory can be approximated by a sum of two exponential functions manifesting the existence of the two characteristic length scales. One describes the chain's bending rigidity at the distances along the polymer backbone shorter than rD while another controls the long-length scale chain's orientational correlations. The long-length scale bending rigidity is proportional to rD for chains with bending rigidity smaller than a crossover bending rigidity K*. NSF DMR-1004576
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mair, R. W.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Sen, P. N.; Schwartz, L. M.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.
2001-01-01
We have extended the utility of NMR as a technique to probe porous media structure over length scales of approximately 100-2000 microm by using the spin 1/2 noble gas 129Xe imbibed into the system's pore space. Such length scales are much greater than can be probed with NMR diffusion studies of water-saturated porous media. We utilized Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the xenon gas filling the pore space to study further the measurements of both the pore surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V(p), and the tortuosity (pore connectivity) of the medium. In uniform-size glass bead packs, we observed D(t) decreasing with increasing t, reaching an observed asymptote of approximately 0.62-0.65D(0), that could be measured over diffusion distances extending over multiple bead diameters. Measurements of D(t)/D(0) at differing gas pressures showed this tortuosity limit was not affected by changing the characteristic diffusion length of the spins during the diffusion encoding gradient pulse. This was not the case at the short time limit, where D(t)/D(0) was noticeably affected by the gas pressure in the sample. Increasing the gas pressure, and hence reducing D(0) and the diffusion during the gradient pulse served to reduce the previously observed deviation of D(t)/D(0) from the S/V(p) relation. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate between the long and short time limits in D(t). While the short time D(t) points lay above the interpolation line in the case of small beads, due to diffusion during the gradient pulse on the order of the pore size, it was also noted that the experimental D(t) data fell below the Pade line in the case of large beads, most likely due to finite size effects.
Exploratory laboratory study of lateral turbulent diffusion at the surface of an alluvial channel
Sayre, William W.; Chamberlain, A.R.
1964-01-01
In natural streams turbulent diffusion is one of the principal mechanisms by which liquid and suspended-particulate contaminants are dispersed in the flow. A knowledge of turbulence characteristics is therefore essential in predicting the dispersal rates of contaminants in streams. In this study the theory of diffusion by continuous movements for homogeneous turbulence is applied to lateral diffusion at the surface of an open channel in which there is uniform flow. An exploratory-laboratory investigation was conducted in which the lateral dispersion at the water surface of a sand-Led flume was studied by measuring the lateral spread from a point source of small floating polyethylene articles. The experiment was restricted to a single set of low and channel geometry conditions. The results of the study indicate that with certain restrictions lateral dispersion in alluvial channels may be successfully described by the theory of diffusion by continuous movements. The experiment demonstrates a means for evaluating the lateral diffusion coefficient and also methods for quantitatively estimating fundamental turbulence properties, such as the intensity and the Lagrangian integral scale of turbulence in an alluvial channel. The experimental results show that with increasing distance from the source the coefficient of lateral turbulent diffusion increases initially but tends toward a constant limiting value. This result is in accordance with turbulent diffusion theory. Indications are that the distance downstream from the source required for the diffusion coefficient to reach its limiting value is actually very small when compared to the length scale of most diffusion phenomena in natural streams which are of practical interest.
Chromosome-length polymorphism in fungi.
Zolan, M E
1995-01-01
The examination of fungal chromosomes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed that length polymorphism is widespread in both sexual and asexual species. This review summarizes characteristics of fungal chromosome-length polymorphism and possible mitotic and meiotic mechanisms of chromosome length change. Most fungal chromosome-length polymorphisms are currently uncharacterized with respect to content and origin. However, it is clear that long tandem repeats, such as tracts of rRNA genes, are frequently variable in length and that other chromosomal rearrangements are suppressed during normal mitotic growth. Dispensable chromosomes and dispensable chromosome regions, which have been well documented for some fungi, also contribute to the variability of the fungal karyotype. For sexual species, meiotic recombination increases the overall karyotypic variability in a population while suppressing genetic translocations. The range of karyotypes observed in fungi indicates that many karyotypic changes may be genetically neutral, at least under some conditions. In addition, new linkage combinations of genes may also be advantageous in allowing adaptation of fungi to new environments. PMID:8531892
Eliminating the Effects of a Status Characteristic
Freese, Lee; Cohen, Bernard P
2015-08-12
The authors propose a theory in which status generalization from a diffuse status characteristic such as age, race or gender can be eliminated by introducing contradictory information about a specific status characteristic such as task ability...
Computer simulation of a wind tunnel test section with discrete finite-length wall slots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemp, W. B., Jr.
1986-01-01
A computer simulation of a slotted wind tunnel test section which includes a discrete, finite-length wall slot representation with plenum chamber constraints and accounts for the nonlinear effects of the dynamic pressure of the slot outflow jet and of the low energy of slot inflow air was developed. The simulation features were selected to be those appropriate for the intended subsequent use of the simulation in a wall interference assessment procedure using sparsely located wall pressure measurements. It is demonstrated that accounting for slot discreteness is important in interpreting wall pressure measured between slots, and that accounting for nonlinear slot flow effects produces significant changes in tunnel-induced velocity distributions and, in particular, produces a longitudinal component of tunnel-induced velocity due to model lift. A characteristic mode of tunnel flow interaction with constraints imposed by the plenum chamber and diffuser entrance is apparent in simulation results and is derived analytically through a simplified analysis.
Critical Waves and the Length Problem of Biology
Laughlin, R B
2015-01-01
It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and fringe counting. It is shown that suitable linear chemical potential waves can, in fact, be manufactured by tuning to criticality conventional reaction-diffusion with a small number substances. Min oscillations in E. coli are cited as precedent resonant length measurement using chemical potential waves analogous to laser detection. Mitotic structures in eucaryotes are identified as candidates for such an effect at higher frequency. The engineering principle is shown to be very general and functionally the same as that used by hearing organs. PNAS Significance Statement: This paper invokes physical principles to address the question of how living things might use reaction-diffusion to measure out and regulate the many thou...
Coaxial atomizer liquid intact lengths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eroglu, Hasan; Chigier, Norman; Farago, Zoltan
1991-01-01
Average intact lengths of round liquid jets generated by airblast coaxial atomizer were measured from over 1500 photographs. The intact lengths were studied over a jet Reynolds number range of 18,000 and Weber number range of 260. Results are presented for two different nozzle geometries. The intact lengths were found to be strongly dependent on Re and We numbers. An empirical equation was derived as a function of these parameters. A comparison of the intact lengths for round jets and flat sheets shows that round jets generate shorter intact lengths.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, Barry G.
1977-01-01
Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah
2013-01-01
Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…
Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion.
Moroz, Vitaly
Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion. From Analysis to Physics and Geometry Juan Swansea, July 2008 Juan L. VÂ´azquez - Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion Equations Â p. 1/?? #12;Introduction Main topic after 1981: Nonlinear Diffusion Juan L. VÂ´azquez - Nonlinear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbour, S. Lee; Hendry, M. Jim; Wassenaar, Leonard I.
2012-04-01
Solute transport in clay-rich aquitards is characterized as molecular diffusion- or advection-dominated based on the Péclet number (Pe). However, few field-based measurements of the coefficient of molecular diffusion (De) exist, and none with a range of advection- or diffusion-dominated conditions in the same aquitard. In this long-term field experiment, standing water in a recovering well was spiked with deuterium (2H), then water-level recovery and ?2H values were monitored as the well returned to static conditions over 1054 days. After a second 2H spike, water levels and ?2H values were monitored to day 1644 while under near static conditions. Modeling of the second spike was used to define the De of 2H as (3-4) × 10- 10 m2 s- 1 for an accessible porosity of 0.31. Reservoir concentrations from the initial spike were modeled to define the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport. This occurred after 200 days, consistent with a transition in Pe from < 1 to > 1 when the length term is taken as the radial extent of the tracer plume (normalized concentration < 0.05). This study verifies plume extent as the characteristic length term in the calculation of Pe and demonstrates the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport as the value of Pe decreases below unity.
Barbour, S Lee; Hendry, M Jim; Wassenaar, Leonard I
2012-04-01
Solute transport in clay-rich aquitards is characterized as molecular diffusion- or advection-dominated based on the Péclet number (P(e)). However, few field-based measurements of the coefficient of molecular diffusion (D(e)) exist, and none with a range of advection- or diffusion-dominated conditions in the same aquitard. In this long-term field experiment, standing water in a recovering well was spiked with deuterium ((2)H), then water-level recovery and ?(2)H values were monitored as the well returned to static conditions over 1054 days. After a second (2)H spike, water levels and ?(2)H values were monitored to day 1644 while under near static conditions. Modeling of the second spike was used to define the D(e) of (2)H as (3-4)× 10(-10)m(2)s(-1) for an accessible porosity of 0.31. Reservoir concentrations from the initial spike were modeled to define the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport. This occurred after 200 days, consistent with a transition in P(e) from <1 to >1 when the length term is taken as the radial extent of the tracer plume (normalized concentration <0.05). This study verifies plume extent as the characteristic length term in the calculation of P(e) and demonstrates the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport as the value of P(e) decreases below unity. PMID:22343012
Determinants of hospital length of stay.
Lutjens, L R
1993-04-01
An example of the inefficiency of cost-based reimbursement is that wide variations were observed between hospitals and between regions in the cost of treating similar diagnoses, with no apparent differences in quality. To correct these variations, the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act and its concomitant prospective payment system based on DRGs was implemented. However, wide variations continued to exist among hospitals and regions in the United States. The attempt by the medical profession to refine the prospective payment system by severity adjustments has received lukewarm support. The work by Halloran et al on the relationship between nursing diagnosis and length of stay shows some promise. Studies on nursing intensity have produced mixed results. Recently, the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission decided to discontinue efforts to develop nursing intensity adjustments for DRG weights. Additionally, institutional characteristics, except for discharge planning programs, and patient characteristics have exhibited mixed results in attempts to explain hospital length of stay. Concern over continuing variations that DRGs and their proposed adjustments have been unable to correct led to the formation of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, which was brought about by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989. This agency seems to believe that practice patterns offer the greatest hope of reducing excessive hospital lengths of stay and concomitant costs. PMID:8473939
Reaction-diffusion front in a system with strong quenched disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koza, Zbigniew; Taitelbaum, Haim
1997-12-01
Using the Sinai model, we study the effect imposed by strong quenched disorder on the dynamic properties of the reaction front formed in A+B-->C reaction-diffusion systems with initially separated reactants. We confirm that the general scaling ansatz is valid also for disordered systems and find that a single characteristic length controls the asymptotic properties of the entire system. We compare our results with those obtained for different types of disorder as well as with results derived for a translationally invariant space.
Correlated diffusion of membrane proteins and their effect on membrane viscosity
Naomi Oppenheimer; Haim Diamant
2008-09-24
We extend the Saffman theory of membrane hydrodynamics to account for the correlated motion of membrane proteins, along with the effect of protein concentration on that correlation and on the response of the membrane to stresses. Expressions for the coupling diffusion coefficients of protein pairs and their concentration dependence are derived in the limit of small protein size relative to the inter-protein separation. The additional role of membrane viscosity as determining the characteristic length scale for membrane response leads to unusual concentration effects at large separation -- the transverse coupling increases with protein concentration, whereas the longitudinal one becomes concentration-independent.
Linear study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a diffusive quantum plasma
Momeni, Mahdi
2013-08-15
The linear Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an incompressible quantum plasma is investigated on the basis of quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the occurrence of RT instability depends on density-temperature inhomogeneity (characteristic lengths) on one hand, and the system layer size on the other. It is also observed that the combined effects of external magnetic field, diffusivity, and quantum pressure significantly modify the dispersion properties of system in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. For any case, the imaginary and real parts of dispersion relation are presented and the possibility and conditions for the instability growth rate are discussed.
Analysis of ReactionAdvectionDiffusion Spectrum of Laminar Premixed Flames
, Graham's Law of DIffusion length vs. reaction time: = D #12;Outline · Introduction · Simple one species reactionadvectiondiffusion problem. · Simple two species reactiondiffusion problem. · Laminar premixedAnalysis of ReactionAdvectionDiffusion Spectrum of Laminar Premixed Flames Ashraf N. Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokri, N.; Or, D.
2011-09-01
Early stages of evaporation from porous media are marked by relatively high evaporation rates supplied by capillary liquid flow from a receding drying front to vaporization surface. At a characteristic drying front depth, hydraulic continuity to the surface is disrupted marking the onset of stage-2 evaporation where a lower evaporative flux is supported by vapor diffusion. Observations suggest that in some cases the transition is accompanied by a jump in the vaporization plane from the surface to a certain depth below. The resulting range of evaporation rates at the onset of stage-2 is relatively narrow (0.5-2.5 mm d-1). The objective is to estimate the depth of the vaporization plane that defines vapor diffusion length at the onset of stage-2. The working hypothesis is that the jump length is determined by a characteristic length of connected clusters at the secondary drying front that obeys a power law with the system's Bond number. We conducted evaporation experiments using sands and glass beads of different particle size distributions and extracted experimental data from the literature for model comparison. Results indicate the jump length at the end of stage-1 was affected primarily by porous media properties and less so by boundary conditions. Results show power law relationships between the length of the vaporization plane jump and Bond number with an exponent of -0.48 in good agreement with the percolation theory theoretical exponent of -0.47. The results explain the origins of a relatively narrow range of evaporation rates at the onset of stage-2, and provide a means for estimating these rates.
Mapping the exciton diffusion in semiconductor nanocrystal solids.
Kholmicheva, Natalia; Moroz, Pavel; Bastola, Ebin; Razgoniaeva, Natalia; Bocanegra, Jesus; Shaughnessy, Martin; Porach, Zack; Khon, Dmitriy; Zamkov, Mikhail
2015-03-24
Colloidal nanocrystal solids represent an emerging class of functional materials that hold strong promise for device applications. The macroscopic properties of these disordered assemblies are determined by complex trajectories of exciton diffusion processes, which are still poorly understood. Owing to the lack of theoretical insight, experimental strategies for probing the exciton dynamics in quantum dot solids are in great demand. Here, we develop an experimental technique for mapping the motion of excitons in semiconductor nanocrystal films with a subdiffraction spatial sensitivity and a picosecond temporal resolution. This was accomplished by doping PbS nanocrystal solids with metal nanoparticles that force the exciton dissociation at known distances from their birth. The optical signature of the exciton motion was then inferred from the changes in the emission lifetime, which was mapped to the location of exciton quenching sites. By correlating the metal-metal interparticle distance in the film with corresponding changes in the emission lifetime, we could obtain important transport characteristics, including the exciton diffusion length, the number of predissociation hops, the rate of interparticle energy transfer, and the exciton diffusivity. The benefits of this approach to device applications were demonstrated through the use of two representative film morphologies featuring weak and strong interparticle coupling. PMID:25682881
Turbulence Reduces Magnetic Diffusivity in DTS Liquid Sodium Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabanes, Simon; Nataf, Henri-Claude; Schaeffer, Nathanael
2015-04-01
Earth, Sun and many other astrophysical bodies produce their own magnetic field by dynamo action, where induction of magnetic field by fluid motion overcomes the Joule dissipation when the magnetic Reynolds number Rm = UL/? is large enough (U and L are characteristic velocity and length-scale and ? the magnetic diffusivity). Large scale motion of a conducting medium shearing pre-existing magnetic field lines is a well known process to produce large scale magnetic field by omega-effect. However, such a process cannot sustain a self-excited dynamo and small-scale turbulent motions are usually invoked as the appropriate mechanism to dynamo action. The contribution of turbulent fluctuations to the induction of mean magnetic field is investigated in our liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment, with an imposed magnetic field. Many measurements are used through an inversion technique to obtain a radial profile of ? and ? effects together with the mean flow at magnetic Reynolds number Rm = 100. It appears that the small scale turbulent fluctuations can be modeled as a strong contribution to the magnetic diffusivity which is negative in the interior region and positive close to the outer shell.Direct numerical simulations of our experiment support these results. The lowering of the effective magnetic diffusivity by small scale fluctuations implies that turbulence can actually help to achieve self-generation of large scale magnetic fields.
Turbulence reduces magnetic diffusivity in DTS liquid sodium experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabanes, S.; Schaeffer, N.; Nataf, H. C.
2014-12-01
Earth, Sun and many other astrophysical bodies produce their own magnetic field by dynamo action, where induction of magnetic field by fluid motion overcomes the Joule dissipation when the magnetic Reynolds number Rm = UL/? is large enough (U and L are characteristic velocity and length-scale and ? the magnetic diffusivity). Large scale motion of a conducting medium shearing pre-existing magnetic field lines is a well known process to produce large scale magnetic field by omega-effect. However, such a process cannot sustain a self-excited dynamo and small-scale turbulent motions are usually invoked as the appropriate mechanism to dynamo action. The contribution of turbulent fluctuations to the induction of mean magnetic field is investigated in our liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment, with an imposed magnetic field. Many measurements are used through an inversion technique to obtain a radial profile of alpha and beta effects together with the mean flow at magnetic Reynolds number Rm = 100. It appears that the small scale turbulent fluctuations can be modeled as a strong contribution to the magnetic diffusivity which is negative in the interior region and positive close to the outer shell.Direct numerical simulations of our experiment support these results. The lowering of the effective magnetic diffusivity by small scale fluctuations implies that turbulence can actually help to achieve self-generation of large scale magnetic fields.
Ludington, William B; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V; Ritter, Alex; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio A; Gunzenhauser, Julia; Kannegaard, Elisa; Marshall, Wallace F
2015-03-24
Cells control organelle size with great precision and accuracy to maintain optimal physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so are largely unknown. Cilia and flagella are simple organelles in which a single measurement, length, can represent size. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport, and previous measurements suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates intraflagellar transport. But the question remains: how is a length-dependent signal produced to regulate intraflagellar transport appropriately? Several conceptual models have been suggested, but testing these models quantitatively requires that they be cast in mathematical form. Here, we derive a set of mathematical models that represent the main broad classes of hypothetical size-control mechanisms currently under consideration. We use these models to predict the relation between length and intraflagellar transport, and then compare the predicted relations for each model with experimental data. We find that three models-an initial bolus formation model, an ion current model, and a diffusion-based model-show particularly good agreement with available experimental data. The initial bolus and ion current models give mathematically equivalent predictions for length control, but fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments rule out the initial bolus model, suggesting that either the ion current model or a diffusion-based model is more likely correct. The general biophysical principles of the ion current and diffusion-based models presented here to measure cilia and flagellar length can be generalized to measure any membrane-bound organelle volume, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25809250
IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR
KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.
2005-05-15
We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.
Multiport Diffuser as Line Source of Momentum in Shallow Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joseph H.; Jirka, Gerhard H.
1980-08-01
Multiport diffusers are linear structures consisting of many closely spaced nozzles which inject a series of high-velocity jets into an ambient fluid. The discharge of heated water into the shallow coastal zone is considered herein as a typical practice for cooling water disposal from steam electric power generation. The flow and temperature fields, induced in the otherwise stagnant and homogeneous fluid layer, are analyzed by representing the diffuser as a line source of fluid momentum in a two-dimensional coordinate system, thus neglecting the initial momentum transfer zone in which the three-dimensional jets merge to produce a vertically fully mixed flow. A scaling argument which considers the effect of pressure deviations, turbulent bottom friction, and lateral turbulent diffusion shows that the flow field can be divided into the near field, of order of the diffuser length, and into the far field, at longer distances. The near field is characterized by a predominantly inviscid behavior and gives rise to a contracting slipstream motion, qualitatively similar to the slipstream produced by an airscrew. The shape of the slip streamline is found by mapping the complex potential of the flow into the log hodograph plane. The boundary conditions at the diffuser line are assumed to be a uniform normal velocity and a uniform longitudinal acceleration. The interior velocity and pressure distribution are determined through a finite difference solution using the known geometry of the slipstream. Results indicate a strong separation angle (60°) of the slipstream at the diffuser and a rapid approach to the asymptotic contraction value (½). An integral model is developed for the depth-averaged temperature and velocity in the far field of the `diffuser plume' (i.e., a localized current with elevated temperatures with weaker velocities and a uniform temperature outside). The model includes the effect of turbulent friction at the plume bottom, described by a quadratic friction law, and of lateral turbulent entrainment, described by the entrainment hypothesis of Morton et al. (1956). The far-field model is combined with the inviscid near-field solution, thus superimposing the real fluid effects onto the properties of the contracting slipstream. Two distinctive features characterize the diffuser plume. First, it experiences an exponential loss of fluid momentum through turbulent bottom friction which leads to an ultimate plume stagnation at a characteristic distance ƒ0LD/(16H), where ƒ0 is a quadratic friction coefficient, LD the diffuser length, and H the water depth, and also puts a limit on the total lateral entrainment flow. Second, the initial plume characteristics, and thus its rate of entrainment, are controlled by the accelerating high-velocity slipstream in the vicinity of the line source. Experiments in a shallow laboratory basin corroborate the theoretical results, both as regards the qualitative features of the contracting slipstream and the quantitative observations of induced velocities and flow rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, X.; Dai, J.; Lei, H. C.; Fan, P.
2005-01-01
A precipitation enhancement operation using an aircraft was conducted from 1415 to 1549 LST 14 March 2000 in Shaanxi Province. The NOAA-14 satellite data received at 1535 LST soon after the cloud seeding shows that a vivid cloud track appears on the satellite image. The length, average width and maximum width of the cloud track are 301 km, 8.3 and 11 km, respectively. Using a three-dimensional numerical model of transport and diffusion of seeding material within stratiform clouds, the spatial concentration distribution characteristics of seeding material at different times, especially at the satellite receiving time, are simulated. The model results at the satellite receiving time are compared with the features of the cloud track. The transported position of the cloud seeding material coincides with the position of the track. The width, shape and extent of diffusion of the cloud seeding material axe similar to that of the cloud track. The spatial variation of width is consistent with that of the track. The simulated length of each segment of the seeding line accords with the length of every segment of the track. Each segment of the cloud track corresponds to the transport and diffusion of each segment of the seeding line. These results suggest that the cloud track is the direct physical reflection of cloud seeding at the cloud top. The comparison demonstrates that the numerical model of transport and diffusion can simulate the main characteristics of transport and diffusion of seeding material, and the simulated results are sound and trustworthy. The area, volume, width, depth, and lateral diffusive rate corresponding to concentrations 1, 4, and 10 L-1 are simulated in order to understand the variations of influencing range.
Moving contact line dynamics: from diffuse to sharp interfaces
Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M
2015-01-01
We reconcile two scaling laws that have been proposed in the literature for the slip length associated with a moving contact line in diffuse interface models, by demonstrating each to apply in a different regime of the ratio of the microscopic interfacial width $l$ and the macroscopic diffusive length $l_D= (M\\eta)^{1/2}$, where $\\eta$ is the fluid viscosity and $M$ the mobility governing intermolecular diffusion. For small $l_D/l$ we find a diffuse interface regime in which the slip length scales as $\\xi \\sim(l_Dl)^{1/2}$. For larger $l_D/l>1$ we find a sharp interface regime in which the slip length depends only on the diffusive length, $\\xi \\sim l_D \\sim (M\\eta)^{1/2}$, and therefore only on the macroscopic variables $\\eta$ and $M$, independent of the microscopic interfacial width $l$. We also give evidence that modifying the microscopic interfacial terms in the model's free energy functional appears to affect the value of the slip length only the diffuse interface regime, consistent with the slip length d...
Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station facilities, cannot involve soot emitting flames in order to ensure that test chamber windows used for experimental observations are not blocked by soot deposits, thereby compromising unusually valuable experimental results. Another important motivation to define conditions where soot is present in diffusion flames is that flame chemistry, transport and radiation properties are vastly simplified when soot is absent, making such flames far more tractable for detailed numerical simulations than corresponding soot-containing flames. Motivated by these observations, the objectives of this phase of the investigation were as follows: (1) Observe flame-sheet shapes (the location of the reaction zone near phi=1) of nonluminous (soot free) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of flame-sheet shapes for these conditions; (2) Observe luminous flame boundaries of luminous (soot-containing) laminar jet diffusion flames in both still and coflowing air and use these results to develop simplified models of luminous flame boundaries for these conditions. In order to fix ideas here, maximum luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point conditions were sought, i.e., luminous flame boundaries at the laminar smoke point; (3) Observe effects of coflow on laminar soot- and smoke-point conditions because coflow has been proposed as a means to control soot emissions and minimize the presence of soot in diffusion flames.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math
2009-01-28
This is Lesson 1 of a five lesson unit. "This lesson focuses students' attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement, their feet. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length." (from NCTM Illuminations)
Dense gas flow in minimum length nozzles
Aldo, A.C.; Argrow, B.M.
1995-06-01
Recently, dense gases have been investigated for many engineering applications such as for turbomachinery and wind tunnels. Supersonic nozzle design can be complicated by nonclassical dense-gas behavior in the transonic flow regime. In this paper, a method of characteristics (MOC) is developed for two-dimensional (planar) and axisymmetric flow of a van der Waals gas. A minimum length nozzle design code is developed that employs the MOC procedure to generate an inviscid wall contour. The van der Waals results are compared to perfect gas results to show the real-gas effects on the flow properties and inviscid wall contours.
Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs
Hoeinghaus, David J.
Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved
The word-length effect in reading: a review.
Barton, Jason J S; Hanif, Hashim M; Eklinder Björnström, Laura; Hills, Charlotte
2014-01-01
The finding that visual processing of a word correlates with the number of its letters has an extensive history. In healthy subjects, a variety of methods, including perceptual thresholds, naming and lexical decision times, and ocular motor parameters, show modest effects that interact with high-order effects like frequency. Whether this indicates serial processing of letters under some conditions or indexes low-level visual factors related to word length is unclear. Word-length effects are larger in pure alexia, where they probably reflect a serial letter-by-letter strategy, due to failure of lexical whole-word processing and variable dysfunction in letter encoding. In pure alexia, the word-length effect is systematically related to mean naming latency, with the word-length effect becoming proportionally greater as naming latency becomes more delayed in severe cases. Other conditions may also generate enhanced word-length effects. This occurs in right hemianopia: Computer simulations suggest a criterion of 160?ms/letter to distinguish hemianopic dyslexia from pure alexia. Normal reading development is accompanied by a decrease in word-length effects, whereas persistently elevated word-length effects are characteristic of developmental dyslexia. Little is known about word-length effects in other reading disorders. We conclude that the word-length effect captures the efficiency of the perceptual reading process in development, normal reading, and a number of reading disorders, even if its mechanistic implications are not always clear. PMID:24665973
Does femur length affect the stride length? Forensic implications.
Krishan, Kewal
2010-01-01
All the long bones in the human body have a linear and positive relationship with stature. This principle has been used by forensic scientists and anthropologists to estimate stature in many kinds of medico-legal and forensic examinations. The present proposition states that the femur length may have a positive relationship with stride length. This relationship can help the forensic scientist to estimate stride length from the length of the femur and vice versa which can further be extended to formulate opinion in person's gait, biomechanics, movement, and posture analysis of the suspects in forensic case work. This can further be used to give opinion while handling certain evidences like closed-circuit television footage and video surveillance system in crime scene investigation. PMID:20201916
Hand-ginned cotton length distributions
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Instrumentation such as the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS™) analyzes cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber length distributions because variations in fiber length distribution impacts spinning performance. AFIS provides mean length, upper quartile length, fineness, and maturity for fibers ...
Properties of chord length distributions of nonconvex bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzolo, Alain; Roesslinger, Benoît; Gille, Wilfried
2003-12-01
Cauchy's formula which relates the mean chord length (isotropic uniform random chords) of a convex body in Rn with its volume and surface is extended to the case of nonconvex bodies in the framework of integral geometry. This allows us to generalize the extended Cauchy's formula recently discovered by Blanco and Fournier [Europhys. Lett. 61 (2), 168 (2003)], in the field of diffusive random walks, to nonconvex bodies. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate these points in R2 and in R3.
Experimental Evaluation of Rocket Exhaust Diffusers for Altitude Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sivo, Joseph N.; Meyer, Carl L.; Peters, Daniel J.
1960-01-01
An experimental investigation of exhaust diffusers has been conducted to evaluate various methods of minimizing the overall pressure ratio (from chamber to ambient pressure) required to establish and maintain full expansion of the nozzle flow (altitude simulation). Exhaust-diffuser configurations investigated were (1) cylindrical diffusers, (2) diffusers with contraction, and (3) diffusers including a right-angle turn. Cylindrical diffusers were evaluated with primary nozzles of various area ratios and types, as well as two clustered configurations; the other diffusers were evaluated with individual nozzles of constant area ratio and varied type. Air was the working fluid, except for two check points obtained with JP-4 fuel and liquid-oxygen rocket engines and cylindrical diffusers. The minimum length-diameter ratio of cylindrical diffusers was about 6 for minimum pressure-ratio requirements. With cylindrical diffusers of adequate length, the pressure-ratio requirements were primarily a function of the ratio of diffuser to nozzle-throat areas and were essentially independent of primary-nozzle type (including two clustered configurations) or area ratio. The two check points obtained with rocket engines indicated the pressure-ratio requirements at given ratios of diffuser to nozzle-throat areas were lowered, as compared with the requirements with air, as a result of the reduced ratio of specific heats. The minimum length-diameter ratio of the contraction throat of convergent-divergent diffusers was also about 6 for minimum pressure-ratio requirements. With adequate contraction-throat length, the pressure-ratio requirements of such diffusers were appreciably below those of comparable cylindrical diffusers when used with conical and cutoff-isentropic nozzles, but not when used with a bell nozzle. Minimum pressure-ratio requirements of a diffuser including a simple long-radius right-angle turn at maximum diffuser area, obtained with the center of radius of the turn a minimum of 2 diffuser diameters downstream of the nozzle exit, were not appreciably above those of a comparable optimum cylindrical diffuser. A diffuser including a long-radius right-angle turn at a contraction minimum area had somewhat lower pressure-ratio requirements than the aforementioned simple turn.
Counterflow Diffusion Flames with Unsteady Strain Rates
H. G. IM; J. K. BECHTOLD; C. K. LAW
1995-01-01
The counterflow diffusion flame subject to time-varying strain rates is studied analytically in order to assess the effect that unsteadiness caused by turbulent flows might have on laminar flamelets. The characteristic unsteady time considered is of the same order as the characteristic flame time, which is represented by the reciprocal of the strain rate, such that the flame structure consists
The response of the upper atmosphere to perturbations from diffusive equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blum, P. W.
1972-01-01
It is generally assumed that, in the atmosphere above 120 km, the deviations from diffusive equilibrium are small, though a minor constituent may show some deviation. The response of such a constituent to perturbations from diffusive equilibrium was analyzed qualitatively. It is shown that the magnitude of these deviations is mainly determined by the characteristic diffusion time. For a time-dependent perturbation, the ratio of the characteristic time of the perturbation to the characteristics diffusion time is an important parameter.
Optimal Patent Length and Breadth
Richard Gilbert; Carl Shapiro
1990-01-01
In providing rewards to innovators, there is a tradeoff between patent length and breadth. This article provides conditions under which the optimal patent policy involves infinitely-lived patents, with patent breadth adjusting to provide the required reward for innovation.
Fluid diffusion in porous silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCann, Lowell I.
Fluid motion in porous media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of porous silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (?, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a porous material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 ?m which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of porous silica, manufactured to create a narrow distribution of pore sizes in each sample, the normalized diffusion coefficient depends upon ? as D/Do~ (/phi - ?c)1.5, as ? approaches a critical porosity ? c. Here, D o and D are the diffusion coefficients of the free fluid and the fluid within the porous sample, respectively. This result is compared with predictions of diffusion on a percolating cluster of identical pores as well as with continuum models based on networks with a distribution of pore sizes. While diffusion in these materials might be expected to behave according to a continuum model of porous networks based on the aggregation of spherical particles (the 'Swiss-cheese' model), the behavior seen agrees with the prediction for networks whose smallest bonds have a non-singular distribution of conductances. This experiment is unique in that the materials chosen appear to produce a system that is close enough to the percolation threshold to allow a measurement of the percolation exponents. The diffusion coefficient in these samples is also shown to depend on the average pore radius as D/Do ~ (Rp - Rc)0.49 a result which, while unpredicted, is shown to be consistent with a previous study of fluid diffusion in silica.
AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION HEATING IN TURBULENT SYSTEMS
Li, Pak Shing [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Myers, Andrew [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.edu, E-mail: atmyers@berkeley.edu, E-mail: cmckee@berkeley.edu [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2012-11-20
The temperature of the gas in molecular clouds is a key determinant of the characteristic mass of star formation. Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is considered one of the most important heating mechanisms in weakly ionized molecular clouds. In this work, we study the AD heating rate using two-fluid turbulence simulations and compare it with the overall heating rate due to turbulent dissipation. We find that for observed molecular clouds, which typically have Alfven Mach numbers of {approx}1 and AD Reynolds numbers of {approx}20, about 70% of the total turbulent dissipation is in the form of AD heating. AD has an important effect on the length scale where energy is dissipated: when AD heating is strong, most of the energy in the cascade is removed by ion-neutral drift, with a comparatively small amount of energy making it down to small scales. We derive a relation for the AD heating rate that describes the results of our simulations to within a factor of two. Turbulent dissipation, including AD heating, is generally less important than cosmic-ray heating in molecular clouds, although there is substantial scatter in both.
Christopher G. Filippi; Mark A. Edgar; Aziz M. Ulug; Joan C. Prowda; Linda A. Heier; Robert D. Zimmerman
2001-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Malignant and atypical meningiomas are prone to recur- rence and aggressive growth, which affects treatment planning and prognostication. Investi- gators have used diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps to compare tumor grade and cellularity with the histopathologic findings of intraaxial primary brain neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the signal characteristics
Segmental colonic length and mobility.
Phillips, M; Patel, A; Meredith, P; Will, O; Brassett, C
2015-09-01
Introduction Locoregional variation in the human colon is important in surgical practice; the length and mobility of different colonic regions impacts on laparoscopic and endoscopic colorectal procedures. The aim of this study was to refine anatomical understanding of the colon in terms of segmental length and mobility. Methods The colons of 35 cadavers were examined to determine lengths of caecum as well as ascending, transverse, descending and rectosigmoid colon, and to characterise colonic mobility at each location in terms of the mesenteric attachments. The presence of Jackson's membrane (a congenital peritoneal band of the right colon) was also documented. Results The mean total colonic length was 131.2cm (standard deviation [SD]: 13.4cm). There was no correlation with height, age or sex; the best predictor of total colonic length was the length of the rectosigmoid segment. The mean height of the transverse mesocolon was 7.4cm (SD: 3.6cm) and that of the sigmoid mesocolon was 6.3cm (SD: 2.6cm). Two-thirds of the subjects had a mobile portion of the ascending colon and nearly one-third had a mobile descending colon. A mobile ascending colon was significantly more common in females. Jackson's membrane was present in 66% of the subjects. Conclusions This cadaveric study suggests that rectosigmoid length accounts for most of the variability in total colonic length. The significant proportion of colons with mobility of the ascending and descending segments prompts revision of the traditional anatomical teaching of these segments as fixed and retroperitoneal. Mobility of the ascending colon may account for the anecdotal finding that colonoscopy is more challenging in female patients. Jackson's membrane was identified in most colons. PMID:26274737
Is Arnold diffusion relevant to global diffusion?
Seiichiro Honjo; Kunihiko Kaneko
2003-07-27
Global diffusion of Hamiltonian dynamical systems is investigated by using a coupled standard maps. Arnold web is visualized in the frequency space, using local rotation numbers, while Arnold diffusion and resonance overlaps are distinguished by the residence time distributions at resonance layers. Global diffusion in the phase space is shown to be accelerated by diffusion across overlapped resonances generated by the coupling term, rather than Arnold diffusion along the lower-order resonances. The former plays roles of hubs for transport in the phase space, and accelerate the diffusion.
NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem
Erdem, Erkut
NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 9th, 2013 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Total Variation (TV) Regularization 5 3 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 8 References 11 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use
Erdem, Erkut
LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University February 24th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Linear Diffusion 1 2 Appendix - The Calculus of Variations 5 References 6 1 LINEAR DIFFUSION The linear diffusion (heat (noisy) input image and u(x, t) be initialized with u(x, 0) = u0(x) = f (x). Then, the linear diffusion
Diffusion of Singlet Excitons in Tetracene Crystals
G. Vaubel; H. Baessler
1970-01-01
The diffusion length ls of singlet excitons in crystalline tetracene was measured in the temperature range 293 to 160 °K utilizing the quenching effect exerted on the crystal fluorescence by exciton traps located at the crystal surface. It is found that ls = 120 ± 10 Å at room temperature. It increases exponentially with decreasing temperature until it approaches a
Self-heating and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics in bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viljas, J. K.; Fay, A.; Wiesner, M.; Hakonen, P. J.
2011-05-01
We demonstrate by experiments and numerical simulations that the low-temperature current-voltage characteristics in diffusive bilayer graphene (BLG) exhibit a strong superlinearity at finite bias voltages. The superlinearity is weakly dependent on doping and on the length of the graphene sample. This effect can be understood as a result of Joule heating. It is stronger in BLG than in monolayer graphene (MLG), since the conductivity of BLG is more sensitive to temperature due to the higher density of electronic states at the Dirac point.
Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsh, B. D.
2004-05-01
Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these times comes from the observed durations and rates of volcanism. There can be little doubt that the temporal styles of volcanism are the same as those of magmatism in general. Volcano repose times, periodicity, eruptive fluxes, acoustic emission structures, lava volumes, longevity, etc. must also be characteristic of pluton-dominated systems. We must therefore give up some classical concepts (e.g., instantaneous injection of crystal-free magma as an initial condition) for any plutonic/chambered system and move towards an integrated concept of magmatism. Among the host of process-related time scales, probably the three most fundamental of any magmatic system are (1) the time scale associated with crystal nucleation (J) and growth (G) (tx}=C{1(G3 J)-{1}/4; Zieg & Marsh, J. Pet. 02') along with the associated scales for mean crystal size (L) and population (N), (2) the time scale associated with conductive cooling controlled by a local length scale (d) (tc}=C{2 d2/K; K is thermal diffusivity), and (3) the time scale associated with intra-crystal diffusion (td}=C{3 L2/D; D is chemical diffusivity). It is the subtle, clever, and insightful application of time scales, dovetailed with realistic system geometry and attention paid to the analogous time scales of volcanism, that promises to reveal the true dynamic integration of magmatic systems.
Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species from the Aegean Sea (Greece)
D. K. Moutopoulos; K. I. Stergiou
2002-01-01
Summary We present the relationships between total (TL), fork(FL) and standard (SL) length for 37 fish species and the relationships between TL and wet weight for 40 fish species from the Aegean Sea (Cyclades; Greece). The relationships between TL, FL and SL were all linear (for all cases: r2 > 0.928). The values of the exponent b of the length-weight
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)
1984-08-07
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.
1984-01-01
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Critical waves and the length problem of biology
Laughlin, Robert B.
2015-01-01
It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and fringe counting. It is shown that suitable linear chemical potential waves can, in fact, be manufactured by tuning to criticality conventional reaction–diffusion with a small number substance. Min oscillations in Escherichia coli are cited as precedent resonant length measurement using chemical potential waves analogous to laser detection. Mitotic structures in eukaryotes are identified as candidates for such an effect at higher frequency. The engineering principle is shown to be very general and functionally the same as that used by hearing organs. PMID:26240329
Critical waves and the length problem of biology.
Laughlin, Robert B
2015-08-18
It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and fringe counting. It is shown that suitable linear chemical potential waves can, in fact, be manufactured by tuning to criticality conventional reaction-diffusion with a small number substance. Min oscillations in Escherichia coli are cited as precedent resonant length measurement using chemical potential waves analogous to laser detection. Mitotic structures in eukaryotes are identified as candidates for such an effect at higher frequency. The engineering principle is shown to be very general and functionally the same as that used by hearing organs. PMID:26240329
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, Arvind; Dave, Bhasker; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, John A.; Martin, Charles R.
1992-01-01
The objectives of this study were to use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the oxygen-reduction reaction under lower humidification conditions than previously studied. The EIS technique permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction, mass transport of O2 in the membrane, and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Electrode-kinetic parameters for the oxygen-reduction reaction, corrosion current densities for Pt, and double-layer capacitances were calculated. The production of water due to electrochemical reduction of oxygen greatly influenced the EIS response and the electrode kinetics at the Pt/Nafion interface. From the finite-length Warburg behavior, a measure of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion and diffusion-layer thickness was obtained. An analysis of the EIS data in the high-frequency domain yielded membrane and interfacial characteristics such as ionic conductivity of the membrane, membrane grain-boundary capacitance and resistance, and uncompensated resistance.
Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2013-01-01
Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377
Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.
2005-01-01
To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to pumped-sampling methods in a long-term monitoring program, such as at the Massachusetts Military Reservation.
Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer
2011-03-01
Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.
Moving contact line dynamics: from diffuse to sharp interfaces
Halim Kusumaatmaja; Ewan J. Hemingway; Suzanne M. Fielding
2015-07-31
We reconcile two scaling laws that have been proposed in the literature for the slip length associated with a moving contact line in diffuse interface models, by demonstrating each to apply in a different regime of the ratio of the microscopic interfacial width $l$ and the macroscopic diffusive length $l_D= (M\\eta)^{1/2}$, where $\\eta$ is the fluid viscosity and $M$ the mobility governing intermolecular diffusion. For small $l_D/l$ we find a diffuse interface regime in which the slip length scales as $\\xi \\sim(l_Dl)^{1/2}$. For larger $l_D/l>1$ we find a sharp interface regime in which the slip length depends only on the diffusive length, $\\xi \\sim l_D \\sim (M\\eta)^{1/2}$, and therefore only on the macroscopic variables $\\eta$ and $M$, independent of the microscopic interfacial width $l$. We also give evidence that modifying the microscopic interfacial terms in the model's free energy functional appears to affect the value of the slip length only the diffuse interface regime, consistent with the slip length depending only on macroscopic variables in the sharp interface regime. Finally, we demonstrate the dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the capillary number to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction of \\cite{Cox1986}, provided we allow the slip length to be rescaled by a dimensionless prefactor. This prefactor appears to converge to unity in the sharp interface limit, but is smaller in the diffuse interface limit. The excellent agreement of results obtained using three independent numerical methods, across several decades of the relevant dimensionless variables, demonstrates our findings to be free of numerical artifacts.
Modeling Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Degradation due to Space Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, X.; Cao, C.
2014-12-01
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP uses a solar diffuser (SD) as on-board radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band (RSB) calibration. Solar diffuser is made of Spectralon (one type of fluoropolymer) and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region and its near-Lambertian reflectance profile. Spectralon is known to degrade in reflectance at the blue end of the spectrum due to exposure to space radiations such as solar UV radiation and energetic protons. These space radiations can modify the Spectralon surface through breaking C-C and C-F bonds and scissioning or cross linking the polymer, which causes the surface roughness and degrades its reflectance. VIIRS uses a SDSM (Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 um wavelength range and provide a correction to the calibration constants. The H factor derived from SDSM reveals that reflectance of 0.4 to 0.6um channels of VIIRS degrades faster than the reflectance of longer wavelength RSB channels. A model is developed to derive characteristic parameters such as mean SD surface roughness height and autocovariance length of SD surface roughness from the long term spectral degradation of SD reflectance as monitored by SDSM. These two parameters are trended to assess development of surface roughness of the SD over the operation period of VIIRS.
Calibration of the Mixing-length Theory for Convective White Dwarf Envelopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Fontaine, G.; Steffen, M.; Brassard, P.
2015-02-01
A calibration of the mixing-length parameter in the local mixing-length theory (MLT) is presented for the lower part of the convection zone in pure-hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. The parameterization is performed from a comparison of three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD simulations with a grid of one-dimensional (1D) envelopes with a varying mixing-length parameter. In many instances, the 3D simulations are restricted to the upper part of the convection zone. The hydrodynamical calculations suggest, in those cases, that the entropy of the upflows does not change significantly from the bottom of the convection zone to regions immediately below the photosphere. We rely on this asymptotic entropy value, characteristic of the deep and adiabatically stratified layers, to calibrate 1D envelopes. The calibration encompasses the convective hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the effective temperature range 6000 <= T eff (K) <=15, 000 and the surface gravity range 7.0 <= log g <= 9.0. It is established that the local MLT is unable to reproduce simultaneously the thermodynamical, flux, and dynamical properties of the 3D simulations. We therefore propose three different parameterizations for these quantities. The resulting calibration can be applied to structure and envelope calculations, in particular for pulsation, chemical diffusion, and convective mixing studies. On the other hand, convection has no effect on the white dwarf cooling rates until there is a convective coupling with the degenerate core below T eff ~ 5000 K. In this regime, the 1D structures are insensitive to the MLT parameterization and converge to the mean 3D results, hence they remain fully appropriate for age determinations.
Fractional Collective Diffusion in a Single File
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Binhua; Cui, Bianxiao; Diamant, Haim; Meron, Mati; Rice, Stuart A.
2003-03-01
We have studied collective diffusion of a colloidal suspension in a one-dimensional channel at several packing fractions. The channel constrains the colloids to move in single file. Digital video microscopy was used for the measurements. If the system undergoes normal diffusion, the dynamic structure factor (also known as intermediate scattering function), (F(q,t)), decays exponentially in (t); (F(q,t)=s(q)e^-q 2 D_eff t) ((s(q)): the static structure fator; (D_eff): the effective diffusion coefficient). When ((2? q)-1>> d) (d): diameter of the spheres), (D_eff4) is the effective (derlinecollective) diffusion coefficient. However, our results show that (F(q,t)) initially decays exponentially with a fractional power of (t); (F(q,t)=s(q)e^-q 2 D_eff t^?), and (?) increases from ( ˜ 0.4) to ( ˜ 1) as ((2? q)-1) is decreased from ( ˜ 70d) to ( ˜ d). At long time (F(q,t)) decays exponentially in (t). The short-time fractional diffusive behavior suggests that, using a long length-scale probe, the long-time anomalous diffusion in single file is observed at short times. The long-time normal diffusive behavior suggests that the diffusion of the center of mass of the colloids dominates.
Growing-season length and climatic variation in Alaska
Sharratt
1992-01-01
The growing season has lengthened in the contiguous United States since 1900, coinciding with increasing northern hemispheric air temperatures. Information on growing season trends is needed in arctic regions where projected increases in air temperature are to be more pronounced. The lengths of the growing season at four locations in Alaska were evaluated for characteristic trends between 1917 and 1988.
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon,
Bigelow, Stephen
Scaling Behavior and Equilibrium Lengths of Knotted Polymers Eric Rawdon, Akos Dobay, John C. Kern fluctuating knotted polymer rings affect their various spatial characteristics such as the radius of the smallest sphere enclosing momentary configurations of simulated polymer chains. We describe how the average
Cooperative Length Scale and Fragility of Polystyrene under Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chuan; Guo, Yunlong; Priestley, Rodney
2012-02-01
While thin films are an attractive model system to investigate the impact of confinement on glassy behavior, extending studies beyond thin films to geometries of higher dimensionalities is vital from both scientific and technological viewpoints. In this talk, we present the impact of confinement on the characteristic length at the glass transition as well as the fragility for confined polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles under isochoric conditions. We measure the glass transition temperature (Tg), fictive temperature (Tf) and isochoric heat capacity of silica-capped PS nanoparticles as a function of diameter via differential scanning calorimetry. From the measurement of Tf, we obtain the isochoric fragility, and via the fluctuation formula, the characteristic length at the glass transition. We illustrate that confinement under isochoric conditions for PS nanoparticles leads to a significant increase in the isochoric fragility while the characteristic length is reduced with size. At the minimum the results demonstrate a relationship between fragility and the characteristics length of isochorically-confined polymer that is not intuitive from the Adam-Gibbs theory.
Continuously variable focal length lens
Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C
2013-12-17
A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.
Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thumm, Manfred
2014-12-01
Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.
Nanoparticle Diffusion in Polymer Nanocomposites
Kalathi, Jagannathan; Yamamoto, Umi; Schweizer, Kenneth; Grest, Gary S.; Kumar, Sanat
2014-01-01
Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations show that nanoparticle (NP) diffusivity in weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymer melts has two very different classes of behavior depending on their size. NP relaxation times and their diffusivities are completely described by the local, Rouse dynamics of the polymer chains for NPs smaller than the polymer entanglement mesh size. The motion of larger NPs, which are comparable to the entanglement mesh size, is significantly slowed by chain entanglements, and is not describable by the Stokes-Einstein relationship. Our results are in essentially quantitative agreement with a force-level generalized Langevin equation theory for all the NP sizes and chain lengths explored, and imply that for these lightly entangled systems, activated NP hopping is not important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paresce, F.; Jakobsen, P.
1980-01-01
The diffuse radiation field in the UV (900-3,000 A) affects the structure of galactic molecular clouds and conveys important information concerning the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of gas and dust in the universe. Continuum emission in this range is probably dominated by interstellar dust scattering in our galaxy. For view directions and angular resolutions allowing observations in the rifts between galactic dust clouds, the background due to the integrated light of spiral galaxies may be detected, providing important information on their structure and evolution. The redshifted emission from an intergalactic medium may be observable in the regions between nearby bright galaxies. Present observations provide weak constraints on the radiation field required to ionize the intergalactic medium at the level required by the Gunn-Peterson test.
Overview of bunch length measurements.
Lumpkin, A. H.
1999-02-19
An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.
Coherence length of neutron superfluids
De Blasio, F.V.; Hjorth-Jensen, M. [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O/ (Denmark)] [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O/ (Denmark); Elgaro/y, O.; Engvik, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lazzari, G. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, Trento (Italy)] [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, Trento (Italy); Baldo, M.; Schulze, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Catania, corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Catania, corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy)
1997-10-01
The coherence length of superfluid neutron matter is calculated from the microscopic BCS wave function of a Cooper pair in momentum space making use of recent nucleon-nucleon potential models and including polarization (RPA) effects. We find as our main result that the coherence length is proportional to the Fermi momentum to pairing gap ratio, in good agreement with simple estimates used in the literature, with a nearly interaction independent constant of proportionality. Our calculations can be applied to the problem of inhomogeneous superfluidity of hadronic matter in the crust of a neutron star. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors
Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); List, III, Frederick A. (Andersonville, TN)
2000-01-01
A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.
Length dependence of carbon nanotube thermal conductivity and the "problem of long waves"
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mingo, N.; Broido, D. A.
2005-01-01
We present the first calculations of finite length carbon nanotube thermal conductivity that extend from the ballistic to the diffusive regime, throughout a very wide range of lengths and temperatures. The long standing problem of vanishing scattering of the "long wavelength phonf dramatically here, making the thermal conductivity diverge as the nanotube length increases. We show that the divergence disappears if 3-phonon scattering processes are considered to second or higher order. Nevertheless, for defect free nanotubes, the thermal conductivity keeps increasing up to very large lengths (10 gm at 300 K). Defects in the nanotube are also able to remove the long wavelength divergence.
Wenwu Wang; Koji Akiyama; Wataru Mizubayashi; Toshihide Nabatame; Hiroyuki Ota; Akira Toriumi
2009-01-01
We systematically studied what effect Al diffusion from high-k dielectrics had on the flatband voltage (Vfb) of Al-incorporated high-k gate stacks. An anomalous positive shift fin Vfb with the decreasing equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of high-k gate stacks is reported. As the SiO2 interfacial layer is aggressively thinned in Al-incorporated HfxAl1-xOy gate stacks with a metal-gate electrode, the Vfb first
Exactly Solvable Dynamical Models with a Minimal Length Uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.
2015-05-01
We present exact analytical solutions to the classical equations of motion and analyze the dynamical consequences of the existence of a minimal length for the free particle, particle in a linear potential, anti-symmetric constant force oscillator, harmonic oscillator, vertical harmonic oscillator, linear diatomic chain, and linear triatomic chain. It turns out that the speed of a free particle and the magnitude of the acceleration of a particle in a linear potential have larger values compared to the non-minimal length counterparts - the increase in magnitudes come from multiplicative factors proportional to what is known as the generalized uncertainty principle parameter. Our analysis of oscillator systems suggests that the characteristic frequencies of systems also have larger values than the non-minimal length counterparts. In connection with this, we discuss a kind of experimental test with which the existence of a minimal length may be detected on a classical level.
Diffusing diffusivity: a model for anomalous, yet Brownian, diffusion.
Chubynsky, Mykyta V; Slater, Gary W
2014-08-29
Wang et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 15160 (2009)] have found that in several systems the linear time dependence of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of diffusing colloidal particles, typical of normal diffusion, is accompanied by a non-Gaussian displacement distribution G(x,t), with roughly exponential tails at short times, a situation they termed “anomalous yet Brownian” diffusion. The diversity of systems in which this is observed calls for a generic model. We present such a model where there is diffusivity memory but no direction memory in the particle trajectory, and we show that it leads to both a linear MSD and a non-Gaussian G(x,t) at short times. In our model, the diffusivity is undergoing a (perhaps biased) random walk, hence the expression “diffusing diffusivity”. G(x,t) is predicted to be exactly exponential at short times if the distribution of diffusivities is itself exponential, but an exponential remains a good fit for a variety of diffusivity distributions. Moreover, our generic model can be modified to produce subdiffusion. PMID:25216011
Incubation length of dabbling ducks
Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.
2005-01-01
We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.
Gene length matters in neurons.
Zylka, Mark J; Simon, Jeremy M; Philpot, Benjamin D
2015-04-22
A recent study by Gabel et al. (2015) found that Mecp2, the gene mutated in Rett syndrome, represses long (> 100 kb) genes associated with neuronal physiology and connectivity by binding to methylated CA sites in DNA. This study adds to a growing body of literature implicating gene length and transcriptional mechanisms in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25905808
Persistent Criminality and Career Length
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim
2007-01-01
This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…
Measuring charge carrier diffusion in coupled colloidal quantum dot solids.
Zhitomirsky, David; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H
2013-06-25
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. PMID:23701285
The gravel-sand transition: Sediment dynamics in a diffuse extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venditti, Jeremy G.; Domarad, Natalia; Church, Michael; Rennie, Colin D.
2015-06-01
As gravel-bedded rivers fine in the downstream direction, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bedded conditions. The prevailing theory for why abrupt gravel-sand transitions emerge is based on bed load sorting of a bimodal sediment. The abruptness is thought to be a consequence of sand overwhelming the gravel-sand mixture once it reaches a critical coverage on the bed. The role suspension plays in the development of gravel-sand transitions has not been fully appreciated. The Fraser River, British Columbia, is an archetypical abrupt gravel-sand transition with a "diffuse extension" composed of a sand bed with some patches of gravel. We examine flow, shear stress, and suspended sediment flux in the diffuse extension to better understand sediment dynamics where the sand bed emerges. Sand is carried in suspension upstream of the primary abrupt gravel-sand transition, but in the diffuse extension, sand is moved as both bed load and suspended load. We do not observe downstream gradients in shear stress or suspended sand flux through the diffuse extension that would suggest a gradual "rain out" of sand moving downstream, which raises the question, how is the sand bed formed? Sediment advection length scales indicate that with the exception of very fine sand that moves as wash load in the diffuse extension, fractions coarser than the median sand size cannot be carried in suspension for more than one channel width. This suggests that sand is deposited en masse at the beginning of the diffuse extension, forming a sediment slug at low flood flows that is smeared downstream at high flood flows to form the sand reach.
Diffusion in correlated random potentials, with applications to DNA Michael Slutsky,1,
Mirny, Leonid
Diffusion in correlated random potentials, with applications to DNA Michael Slutsky,1, * Mehran-dimensional diffusion over a correlated inhomogeneous energy land- scape with a correlation length c. Typical examples) formalism, and find diffusion times which exhibit strong sample to sample fluctuations. For a displacement N
The Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Contributed papers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (editor)
1994-01-01
Drawing a coherent picture of the observational characteristics of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB's) and the physical and chemical properties of its proposed carriers was the focus of this NASA sponsored conference. Information relating to absoption spectra, diffuse radiation carriers, carbon compounds, stellar composition, and interstellar extinction involving T-Tauri stars, Reflection Nebulae, Red Giants, and accretion discs are discussed from those papers presented at the conference, which are included in this analytic.
Diffusion, dimensionality and noise in transcriptional regulation
Gasper Tkacik; William Bialek
2007-12-12
The precision of biochemical signaling is limited by randomness in the diffusive arrival of molecules at their targets. For proteins binding to the specific sites on the DNA and regulating transcription, the ability of the proteins to diffuse in one dimension by sliding along the length of the DNA, in addition to their diffusion in bulk solution, would seem to generate a larger target for DNA binding, consequently reducing the noise in the occupancy of the regulatory site. Here we show that this effect is largely cancelled by the enhanced temporal correlations in one dimensional diffusion. With realistic parameters, sliding along DNA has surprisingly little effect on the physical limits to the precision of transcriptional regulation.
Pairing versus quarteting coherence length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, D. S.; Baran, V. V.
2015-02-01
We systematically analyze the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density-dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have, in all considered cases, a long-range character inside the nucleus and a decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in the continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are put in evidence, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar shape, but with larger values on the nuclear surface. We provide evidence of the important role of proton-neutron correlations by estimating the so-called alpha coherence length, which takes into account the overlap with the proton-neutron part of the ? -particle wave function. It turns out that it does not depend on the nuclear size and has a value comparable to the free ? -particle radius. We have shown that pairing correlations are mainly concentrated inside the nucleus, while quarteting correlations are connected to the nuclear surface.
Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect.
Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A; Jungfleisch, Matthias B; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias
2015-08-28
We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50???m at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found. PMID:26371671
FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS
St Andrews, University of
FIBONACCI LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN GROUP PRESENTATIONS Peter Philip Campbell Ph.D. Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Introduction to Fibonacci length and generalizations 19 1 Introduction and apology considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.1 Fibonacci length
Enhancing phosphorylation cascades by anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellmann, M.; Heermann, D. W.; Weiss, M.
2012-03-01
A key event in many cellular signaling cascades is the multiple phosphorylation of proteins by specialized kinases. A prototypical example is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that alters the cell's gene transcription after having been phosphorylated twice by the same kinase. Here, we show that anomalous diffusion, induced, for example, by cytoplasmic crowding, can significantly improve the activation of MAPK. Our results on anomalous diffusion with the characteristics of fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion compare favorably to very recent biochemical data on MAPK activation at varying degrees of cytoplasmic crowding. Our results predict any Michaelis-Menten scheme in which a substrate is modified by the same enzyme several times to show an increased performance due to anomalous diffusion when dissociation rates of the intermediate enzyme-substrate complexes are high while the irreversible catalytic step is slow. Thus, crowding-induced anomalous diffusion can strongly alter the behavior of many cellular signaling pathways.
Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation
Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; /SLAC; Kirby, Neil; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; /UCLA; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.
2005-06-24
The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.
The estimate of the Venus magnetotail length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasko, I. Yu.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Popov, V. Yu.
2014-03-01
We consider the process of flux tubes straightening in the Venus magnetotail on the basis of MHD model. We estimate the distance x t, where flux tubes are fully straightened due to the magnetic tension and the magnetotail with the characteristic geometry of field lines ("slingshot" geometry) ends. We investigate the influence of the transversal current sheet scale on the process of flux tubes straightening. The assumption of a thin current sheet allows to obtain a lower estimate of the magnetotail length, x t > 31 R V ( R V is the Venus radius), while the assumption of a broad current sheet allows to obtain an upper estimate, x t < 44 R V. We show that kinetic effects associated with the losses of particles with small pitch angles from the flux tube and the influx of magnetosheath plasma into the flux tube do not significantly affect the estimate of the magnetotail length. The model predicts the existence of energetic fluxes of protons H+ (2-5 keV) and oxygen ions O+ (35-80 keV) in the distant tail. We discuss the magnetotail structure at x > x t.
Diffusion Tensor MRI Phantom Exhibits Anomalous Diffusion
Ye, Allen Q.; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; Zhou, Feng-Lei; Yin, Ziying; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Magin, Richard L.
2015-01-01
This paper reports diffusion weighted MRI measurements of cyclohexane in a novel diffusion tensor MRI phantom composed of hollow coaxial electrospun fibers (average diameter 10.2 ?m). Recent studies of the phantom demonstrated its potential as a calibration standard at low b values (less than 1000 s/mm2) for mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. In this paper, we extend the characterization of cyclohexane diffusion in this heterogeneous, anisotropic material to high b values (up to 5000 s/mm2), where the apparent diffusive motion of the cyclohexane exhibits anomalous behavior (i.e., the molecular mean squared displacement increases with time raised to the fractional power 2?/?). Diffusion tensor MRI was performed at 9.4 T using an Agilent imaging scanner and the data fit to a fractional order Mittag-Leffler (generalized exponential) decay model. Diffusion along the fibers was found to be Gaussian (2?/?=1), while diffusion across the fibers was sub-diffusive (2?/?<1). Fiber tract reconstruction of the data was consistent with scanning electron micrograph images of the material. These studies suggest that this phantom material may be used to calibrate MR systems in both the normal (Gaussian) and anomalous diffusion regimes. PMID:25570066
Status Characteristics and Expectation States
Berger, Joseph; Cohen, Bernard P.; Zelditch, Morris Jr.
2015-07-19
in the group In other words, such characteristics, which we will call diffuse status- characteristics, behave as if they symbolize prior status orders that are activated in the situation. Thus, studies of jury deliberations have found that sex... and occupational status are associated with choices of jury foreman, with initiation of interaction, and with influence (Strodtbeck, James and Hawkins, 1957; Strodtbeck and Mann, 1956). Torrance (1954) demonstrates associations between Air Force rank...
Diffusion in a dendritic spine: The role of geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biess, A.; Korkotian, E.; Holcman, D.
2007-08-01
Dendritic spines, the sites where excitatory synapses are made in most neurons, can dynamically regulate diffusing molecules by changing their shape. We present here a combination of theory, simulations, and experiments to quantify the diffusion time course in dendritic spines. We derive analytical formulas and compared them to Brownian simulations for the mean sojourn time a diffusing molecule stays inside a dendritic spine when either the molecule can reenter the spine head or not, once it is located in the spine neck. We show that the spine length is the fundamental regulatory geometrical parameter for the diffusion decay rate in the neck only. By changing the spine length, dendritic spines can be dynamically coupled or uncoupled to their parent dendrites, which regulates diffusion, and this property makes them unique structures, different from static dendrites.
Andrew P. Witkin; Michael Kass
1991-01-01
We present a method for texture synthesis based on the simulation of a process of local nonlinear interaction, called reaction-diffusion, which has been proposed as a model of biological pattern formation. We extend traditional reaction-diffusion systems by allowing anisotropic and spatially non-uniform diffusion, as well as multiple competing directions of diffusion. We adapt reaction-diffusion system to the needs of computer
Seung-Hyun Kim; Chang-Eun Kim; Young-Jei Oh
1997-01-01
Sol-gel spun-casted Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [PZT]thin film with Al2O3 buffer layer and PbTiO3 seed layer was successfully prepared at a low temperature of 550°C. Al2O3 buffer layer, as a diffusion barrier between the silicon substrate and the Pt bottom electrode, suppressed interface reactions between the film and the substrate and prevented the interdiffusion of Pb and Si elements. PbTiO3 seed layer between
Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio
2012-01-01
In this thesis the instruments explore two main aspects of organic optoelectronic devices. One instrument characterizes exciton diffusion and the other patterns organic thin films. Exciton diffusion characteristics are ...
Restricted diffusion in annular geometrical pores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghadirian, Bahman; Torres, Allan M.; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Price, William S.
2013-03-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion (including diffusion MRI) experiments are only as powerful as the models used to analyse the NMR diffusion data. A major problem, especially with measurements on biological systems, is that the existing models are only very poor approximations of cellular shape. Here, diffusion propagators and pulsed gradient spin-echo attenuation equations are derived in the short gradient pulse limit for diffusion within the annular region of a concentric cylinder of finite length and, similarly, within the annular region of a concentric sphere. The models include the possibility of relaxation at the boundaries and, in the case of the concentric cylinder, having the cylinder arbitrarily oriented with respect to the direction of the applied field gradient. The two models are also of interest due to their direct analogy to optical double slit diffraction. Also expressions for the mean square displacements, which are very useful information for determining the diffusion coefficient within these complex geometries, are obtained as well as for the limiting cases of diffusion on cylindrical and spherical shells and in a ring.
Applicability of Mixing Length Theory to a Turbulent Vortex System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ragsdale, Robert G.
1961-01-01
The ability of mixing length theory to correlate vortex data is evaluated. Expressions are derived for eddy diffusivity by applying the techniques of von Karman and Prandtl which have been established for pipe flow. Total and static pressures were measured from the outer radius to the exhaust-nozzle radius of a vortex generator for a range of mass flows. These data are combined with Navier-Stokes solutions for this region of a compressible vortex to determine turbulent Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds number is related to Prandtl and Karman functions for various assumed boundary conditions, and the experimental data are used to determine the usefulness of these expressions. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Mixing length functions developed by applying von Karman's similarity hypothesis to vortex motion correlate the data better than do Prandtl functions obtained with the assumption that mixing length is proportional to radius. (2) Some of the expressions developed do not adequately represent the experimental data. (3) The data are correlated with acceptable scatter by evaluating the fluid radial inertia at the outer boundary and the shear stress at the inner boundary. The universal constant K was found to be 0.04 to 0.08, rather than the value of 0.4 which is accepted for rectilinear flow. (4) The data are best correlated by a modified Karman expression which includes an effect of radial inertia, as well as shear stress, on eddy diffusivity.
Variable focal length deformable mirror
Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-06-12
A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.
Diffusion of water in nanoporous NF polyamide membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, V. K.; Singh, P. S.; Gautam, S.; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.
2009-08-01
Diffusion of water sorbed in a nanofiltration (NF) polyamide membrane as studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is reported here. The trimesoyl chloride-piperazine based NF membrane was synthesized by interfacial polymerization technique and was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and SEM techniques. PALS data shows that the membrane has an average pore size ˜4.6 Å. QENS data from water sorbed NF membrane show that the diffusion in the sorbed water occurs through jump diffusion with the jump lengths distributed randomly. Translational diffusion coefficient obtained for water sorbed in the NF membrane is found to be smaller than that of bulk water.
Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection
Rau, Wolfgang
2011-04-27
We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.
Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael
2015-02-01
Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.
Critical length limiting superlow friction.
Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael
2015-02-01
Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452
Some characteristics of silicon photocells fabricated by planar technology
Tkhong, C.; Tyan, K.A.; Khoi, P.V.; Nam, L.K.
1980-01-01
It is reported that a method for determining the effective diffusion length on the basis of the spectral distribution curve for the collection coefficient permits a qualitative evaluation of the nonequilibrium distribution of recombination centers in the base layer.
Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion
Spiegelman, Marc W.
Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion Today's thrill packed exercise will be to deal with diffusion and advection-diffusion in one dimension. All exercises here will be in Matlab-nicolson diffusion of a gaussian initial condition with dirichlet boundary conditions (Diffusion/diffusion cn
Short coherence length superconductors: Intermediate regime between BCS and bosons
Engelbrecht, J.R.; Randeria, M.; Sa de Melo, C.A.R.
1994-02-01
In order to understand the high {Tc} materials, conventional superconductors and their metallic normal states are examined to see how generalizations of BCS pairing may lead to unconventional properties. The persistence of gap-like features in the normal state up to temperatures several times {Tc} is pointed out. The short coherence length and normal state pseudo-gaps are suggestive of preformed pairs which Bose condense at the superconducting transitions; the normal state is a degenerate Fermi system in which correlations lead to pseudo-gaps. It is argued that these deviations from Fermi liquid behavior are characteristic of the normal state of short coherence length superconductors.
An Efficient Variable-Length Data-Compression Scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, Kar-Ming; Kiely, Aaron B.
1996-01-01
Adaptive variable-length coding scheme for compression of stream of independent and identically distributed source data involves either Huffman code or alternating run-length Huffman (ARH) code, depending on characteristics of data. Enables efficient compression of output of lossless or lossy precompression process, with speed and simplicity greater than those of older coding schemes developed for same purpose. In addition, scheme suitable for parallel implementation on hardware with modular structure, provides for rapid adaptation to changing data source, compatible with block orientation to alleviate memory requirements, ensures efficiency over wide range of entropy, and easily combined with such other communication schemes as those for containment of errors and for packetization.
Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Vandana; Mukherji, Sutapa
2011-12-01
Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.
Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules
Yadav, Vandana
2012-01-01
Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.
Length-dependent dynamics of microtubules
Vandana Yadav; Sutapa Mukherji
2012-04-02
Certain regulatory proteins influence the polymerization dynamics of microtubules by inducing catastrophe with a rate that depends on the microtubule length. Using a discrete formulation, here we show that, for a catastrophe rate proportional to the microtubule length, the steady-state probability distributions of length decay much faster with length than an exponential decay as seen in the absence of these proteins.
Temperature dependence of the length scale for cooperative motion in glass-forming liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erwin, Brian M.
When considered in the framework of a dynamic scaling model, the length scale of cooperative motion of all glass-forming liquids appears to have a universal temperature dependence. This model also predicts relaxation times with a system specific temperature dependence, as the product of the universal cooperative length scale raised to the sixth power and a non-universal thermally activated process. This model was successfully applied to over 49 glass-forming liquids, including 14 novel indane-based glasses. Rotational dynamics and translational diffusion of small anisotropic molecular probes are used to estimate the length scale of cooperative motion in a model-independent manner for five glass-formers. This length scale agrees quantitatively with the length scale obtained in 4-D NMR experiments which is known to measure the size of the slow relaxing regions. Temperature dependence of self-diffusion, dielectric alpha-relaxation time and viscosity each provide model-dependent length scales that are proportional to the cooperative length scale utilized by the dynamic scaling model. Each of these methods are self consistent and collectively prove that the cooperative length grows as temperature is lowered below the "caging" temperature TA, below which dynamics are cooperative in nature. This length appears to diverge at a temperature 10-20 K below the glass transition temperature T g for fragile glass-formers. Employing the tested framework of dynamic scaling, the cooperative lengths at Tg and TA are estimated for three molecular glass-formers and three polymeric glass-formers. At TA, the cooperative length for molecular glass-formers is found to be approximately the van der Waals radius of the molecule. Assuming this result to be general, the cooperative length at Tg for fifteen other glass-forming liquids is estimated, resulting in the conclusion that 2 nm ? xi(Tg) ? 10 nm.
Microfabricated diffusion source
Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)
2008-07-15
A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.
Numerical study of a cylinder model of the diffusion MRI signal for neuronal dendrite trees.
Van Nguyen, Dang; Grebenkov, Denis; Le Bihan, Denis; Li, Jing-Rebecca
2015-03-01
We study numerically how the neuronal dendrite tree structure can affect the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) signal in brain tissue. For a large set of randomly generated dendrite trees, synthetic dMRI signals are computed and fitted to a cylinder model to estimate the effective longitudinal diffusivity D(L) in the direction of neurites. When the dendrite branches are short compared to the diffusion length, D(L) depends significantly on the ratio between the average branch length and the diffusion length. In turn, D(L) has very weak dependence on the distribution of branch lengths and orientations of a dendrite tree, and the number of branches per node. We conclude that the cylinder model which ignores the connectivity of the dendrite tree, can still be adapted to describe the apparent diffusion coefficient in brain tissue. PMID:25681802
Electrostatic contribution to the persistence length of a semiflexible dipolar chain Rudi Podgornik
Podgornik, Rudolf
as in bacterial fd viruses or the tobacco mosaic virus. In all these cases we are dealing with objects characteristics in these molecular systems is the persistence length stemming from the bending rigidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of ?. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of ? as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter ? and ?, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -?-?+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index ? in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.
Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.
2008-08-21
An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergencebetween trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time's arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.
Signed Chord Length Distribution. I
Alexander Yu. Vlasov
2007-12-17
In this paper is discussed an application of signed measures (charges) to description of segment and chord length distributions in nonconvex bodies. The signed distribution may naturally appears due to definition via derivatives of nonnegative autocorrelation function simply related with distances distribution between pairs of points in the body. In the work is suggested constructive geometrical interpretation of such derivatives and illustrated appearance of "positive" and "negative" elements similar with usual Hanh-Jordan decomposition in measure theory. The construction is also close related with applications of Dirac method of chords.
AMLT - Anisotropic mixing length theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.
1989-01-01
The standard mixing length theory (MLT) assumes that the largest eddies are the only ones that contribute to convection and that they are isotropic. These two requirements are internally inconsistent since it is experimentally known that only small eddies are isotropic while large ones exhibit large degrees of anisotropy. A new model called anisotropic MLT (AMLT) is presented here, together with a model that relates the anisotropy to other quantities of the problem. The new AMLT equations are solved for two cases of stellar structure calculations.
Rumor diffusion in an interests-based dynamic social network.
Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping
2013-01-01
To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911
Rumor Diffusion in an Interests-Based Dynamic Social Network
Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia; Zhou, Huiping
2013-01-01
To research rumor diffusion in social friend network, based on interests, a dynamic friend network is proposed, which has the characteristics of clustering and community, and a diffusion model is also proposed. With this friend network and rumor diffusion model, based on the zombie-city model, some simulation experiments to analyze the characteristics of rumor diffusion in social friend networks have been conducted. The results show some interesting observations: (1) positive information may evolve to become a rumor through the diffusion process that people may modify the information by word of mouth; (2) with the same average degree, a random social network has a smaller clustering coefficient and is more beneficial for rumor diffusion than the dynamic friend network; (3) a rumor is spread more widely in a social network with a smaller global clustering coefficient than in a social network with a larger global clustering coefficient; and (4) a network with a smaller clustering coefficient has a larger efficiency. PMID:24453911
Phase-Length Optical Phase-Locked-Loop Sensor (PLOPS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, Joseph S.; Rogawski, Robert S.
1988-01-01
PLOPS system designed to provide high-resolution measurement of change in optical length from optical-system source to any optical reflector, including diffuse reflector. Serves as adjustable optical ruler, providing high resolution in measurements of small and large changes in distance to target. Use is broad and includes most measurement situations requiring information on length, vibration, and their derivatives. Applications include building dynamics, remote sensing of vibrations in such systems as turbine-based machinery, monitoring of structural dynamics, noncontacting sensing of surface contours, measurement of large strains as in earthquake monitoring, measurement of atmospheric dynamics and turbulence, high-resolution sensing of humidity, detection of surface acoustic waves by optical microscopy, and related areas.
Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance
Kollár, Richard; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir
2014-01-01
Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulae f...
Song, In Young; Kim, Minjun; Park, Taiho
2015-06-01
We synthesized thiophene-based monomers (bis-EDOTs) with different ethylene glycol oligomer (EGO) lengths (TBO3, TBO4, and TBO5) and investigated their polymerization characteristics during photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) at the surfaces of dye (D205)-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline particles. During the PEP reaction, monomers were expected to diffuse toward neighboring dyes through the growing polymer layers to enable continuous chain growth. We found that the less bulky monomer (TBO3) formed a more compact polymer layer with a high molecular weight. Its diffusion to the active sites through the resulting growing polymer layer was, therefore, limited. We deployed layers of the polymers (PTBO3, PTBO4, and PTBO5) in iodine-free solid-state hybrid solar cells to investigate the lithium ion chelating properties of the polymers as a function of the number of oxygen atoms present in the EGOs. PTBO4 and PTBO5 were capable of chelating lithium ions, yielding a photovoltaic performance that was 142% of the performance obtained without the polymer layers (3.0?5.2%). PMID:25977990
Anomalous diffusion dynamics of associating artificial proteins in hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Shengchang; Wang, Muzhou; Olsen, Bradley
2015-03-01
Associative polymer gels have attracted a great deal of interest as responsive materials and biomaterials; while a great deal is known about their mechanical properties, knowledge about self-diffusion in these materials is still limited. Using coiled-coil proteins as a model associative polymer system where the number of stickers per polymer and molar mass of chains between stickers are exactly defined, we investigate self-diffusion in associative polymer hydrogels using forced Rayleigh scattering on the length scales ranging from 0.3 to 50 ?m. Although the presence of associative groups reduces the rate of diffusion, ``superdiffusive'' scaling is observed for the first time up to a length scale of 10 ?m. Fickian diffusion is recovered at larger length scales. The anomalous diffusion strongly depends on the temperature and the hydrogel concentration. We propose a simple two state model to capture the interplay between the diffusion of the proteins and the association of the coiled-coil segments. The model is able to capture both the anomalous regime and the Fickian regime, and provides estimation of the apparent diffusivities and the dissociation rates of the coiled-coil domains.
... dioxide to "diffuse" from the blood into the lungs. ... to monitor the status of people with established lung disease. Repeatedly measuring the diffusing capacity can help determine whether the disease is improving ...
G. Rajagopalan; N.S. Reddy; E. Ehsani; I.B. Bhat; P.S. Dutta; R.J. Gutmann; G. Nichols; G.W. Charache; O. Sulima
2003-08-29
A single step diffusion followed by precise etching of the diffused layer has been developed to obtain a diffusion profile appropriate for high efficiency GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells. The junction depth was controlled through monitoring of light current-voltage (I-V) curves (photovoltaic response) during the post diffusion emitter etching process. The measured photoresponses (prior to device fabrication) have been correlated with the quantum efficiencies and the open circuit voltages in the fabricated devices. An optimum junction depth for obtaining highest quantum efficiency and open circuit voltage is presented based on diffusion lengths (or monitoring carrier lifetimes), carrier mobility and typical diffused impurity profile in GaSb.
Diffusivity of Two-Component Isothermal Finite Difference Lattice Boltzmann Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofonea, Victor; Sekerka, Robert F.
Diffusion equations are derived for an isothermal lattice Boltzmann model with two components. The first-order upwind finite difference scheme is used to solve the evolution equations for the distribution functions. When using this scheme, the numerical diffusivity, which is a spurious diffusivity in addition to the physical diffusivity, is proportional to the lattice spacing and significantly exceeds the physical value of the diffusivity if the number of lattice nodes per unit length is too small. Flux limiter schemes are introduced to overcome this problem. Empirical analysis of the results of flux limiter schemes shows that the numerical diffusivity is very small and depends quadratically on the lattice spacing.
Signatures of Quantum-Tunneling Diffusion of Hydrogen Atoms on Water Ice at 10 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahata, K.; Hama, T.; Kouchi, A.; Watanabe, N.
2015-09-01
Reported here is the first observation of the tunneling surface diffusion of a hydrogen (H) atom on water ice. Photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization methods were used to determine the diffusion rates at 10 K on amorphous solid water and polycrystalline ice. H-atom diffusion on polycrystalline ice was 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of deuterium atoms, indicating the occurrence of tunneling diffusion. Whether diffusion is by tunneling or thermal hopping also depends on the diffusion length of the atoms and the morphology of the surface. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of elementary physicochemical processes of hydrogen on cosmic ice dust.
Control of exit velocity profile of an asymmetric annular diffuser using wall suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, A. J.
1973-01-01
An asymmetric annular diffuser equipped with wall bleed (suction) capability was tested for controllability of exit velocity profile. The diffuser area ratio was 3.2, and the length to inlet height ratio was 1.6. Results show that the diffuser radial exit velocity profile could be controlled from a hub peaked to a tip peaked form by selective use of bleed on the outer wall or on both diffuser walls. Based on these results, application of the diffuser bleed technique to gas turbine combustors may be possible. Diffuser bleed could be used to tailor the airflow distribution for optimizing combustor performance at a variety of operating conditions.
Characteristics of Yerevan High Transparency Scintillators
Zorn, Carl; Asryan, Gegham; Egiyan, Kim; Tarverdyan, M.; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Demirchyan, Raphael; Stepanyan, Stepan; Burkert, Volker; Sharabian, Youri
1992-08-01
Optical transmission, light output and time characteristics are given for long scintillator strips fabricated at the Yerevan Physics Institute using the extrusion method. It is shown that at 45% relative (to anthracene) light output, good transmission (2.5/2.9 m attenuation length with photomultiplier direct readout and 3/3.5 m attenuation length fiber readout) and time characteristics (average decay time 2.8 nsec) were obtained.
Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.
1990-01-01
Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.
Critical Waves and the Length Problem of Biology
R. B. Laughlin
2015-04-17
It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and fringe counting. It is shown that suitable linear chemical potential waves can, in fact, be manufactured by tuning to criticality conventional reaction-diffusion with a small number substances. Min oscillations in E. coli are cited as precedent resonant length measurement using chemical potential waves analogous to laser detection. Mitotic structures in eucaryotes are identified as candidates for such an effect at higher frequency. The engineering principle is shown to be very general and functionally the same as that used by hearing organs. PNAS Significance Statement: This paper invokes physical principles to address the question of how living things might use reaction-diffusion to measure out and regulate the many thousands of lengths required to make their body parts and internal organs. It argues that two ideas have been missing. One is that oscillation is necessary to achieve the necessary design stability and plasticity. The other is that the system must be tuned to criticality to stabilize the propagation velocity, thus enabling clocks to function as meter sticks. The broader significance is twofold: First, a fundamental piece of the machinery of life is probably invisible to present-day biochemical methods because they are too slow. Second, the simplicity of growth and form identified a century ago by D'Arcy Thompson is probably a symptom of biological engineering strategies, not primitive law.
Chattoraj, Joyjit; Knappe, Marisa; Heuer, Andreas
2015-06-01
It is known from experiments that in the polymer electrolyte system, which contains poly(ethylene oxide) chains (PEO), lithium-cations (Li(+)), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-anions (TFSI(-)), the cation and the anion diffusion and the ionic conductivity exhibit a similar chain-length dependence: with increasing chain length, they start dropping steadily, and later, they saturate to constant values. These results are surprising because Li-cations are strongly correlated with the polymer chains, whereas TFSI-anions do not have such bonding. To understand this phenomenon, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of this system for four different polymer chain lengths. The diffusion results obtained from our simulations display excellent agreement with the experimental data. The cation transport model based on the Rouse dynamics can successfully quantify the Li-diffusion results, which correlates Li diffusion with the polymer center-of-mass motion and the polymer segmental motion. The ionic conductivity as a function of the chain length is then estimated based on the chain-length-dependent ion diffusion, which shows a temperature-dependent deviation for short chain lengths. We argue that in the first regime, counterion correlations modify the conductivity, whereas for the long chains, the system behaves as a strong electrolyte. PMID:25965904
Length control of microtubules by depolymerizing motor proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindan, B. S.; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Chowdhury, D.
2008-08-01
In many intracellular processes, the length distribution of microtubules is controlled by depolymerizing motor proteins. Experiments have shown that, following non-specific binding to the surface of a microtubule, depolymerizers are transported to the microtubule tip(s) by diffusion or directed walk and, then, depolymerize the microtubule from the tip(s) after accumulating there. We develop a quantitative model to study the depolymerizing action of such a generic motor protein, and its possible effects on the length distribution of microtubules. We show that, when the motor protein concentration in solution exceeds a critical value, a steady state is reached where the length distribution is, in general, non-monotonic with a single peak. However, for highly processive motors and large motor densities, this distribution effectively becomes an exponential decay. Our findings suggest that such motor proteins may be selectively used by the cell to ensure precise control of MT lengths. The model is also used to analyze experimental observations of motor-induced depolymerization.
Atomistic Simulation of Polymer Crystallization at Realistic Length Scales
Gee, R H; Fried, L E
2005-01-28
Understanding the dynamics of polymer crystallization during the induction period prior to crystal growth is a key goal in polymer physics. Here we present the first study of primary crystallization of polymer melts via molecular dynamics simulations at physically realistic (about 46 nm) length scales. Our results show that the crystallization mechanism involves a spinodal decomposition microphase separation caused by an increase in the average length of rigid trans segments along the polymer backbone during the induction period. Further, the characteristic length of the growing dense domains during the induction period is longer than predicted by classical nucleation theory. These results indicate a new 'coexistence period' in the crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase separation mechanism. Our results provide an atomistic verification of the fringed micelle model.
Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch
Rooney, Stephen J.
2000-02-04
A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.
Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch
Rooney, Stephen J. (East Berne, NY)
2001-01-01
A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.
Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: simplicity behind complexity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping
2015-08-01
One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Herein, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures.
Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: simplicity behind complexity.
Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping
2015-01-01
One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Herein, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures. PMID:26245801
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.
A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…
Handbook on atmospheric diffusion
Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.
1982-01-01
Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)
Diffusion of molybdenum hexafluoride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelmann, J.
This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of molybdenum hexafluoride
Global Diffusion via Cascading Invitations: Structure, Growth, and Homophily
Thrun, Sebastian
@cs.stanford.edu Mitul Tiwari LinkedIn Corporation mtiwari@linkedin.com ABSTRACT Many of the world's most popular distribution of member characteristics present on the site. In this paper, we study the diffusion of LinkedIn also examine how signup cas- cades grow over time, and observe that diffusion via invitations on LinkedIn
Discrete Wavelet Diffusion for Image Denoising Kashif Rajpoot1
Rajpoot, Nasir
, University of Warwick, UK. {kashif, noble}@robots.ox.ac.uk, nasir@dcs.warwick.ac.uk Abstract: Nonlinear preserving characteristics. Recently, nonlinear diffusion has been shown to be equivalent transform. In this paper, we generalize the equivalence of nonlinear diffusion to nonlinear
Influence of Vorticity on Counterflow Diffusion Flames
T. H. LIN; S. H. SOHRAB
1987-01-01
The extinction characteristics of diffusion flames of methane and butane in counterflow jets under opposing rigid-body rotation are investigated. It is found that the critical volumetric concentration of fuels in nitrogen corresponding to flame extinction decrease to a minimum value and increase thereafter as the jet angular velocity increases. This tendency could be described on the basis of variation of
Diffusion Enhancement in Core-softened fluid confined in nanotubes
José R. Bordin; Alan B. de Oliveira; Alexandre Diehl; Marcia C. Barbosa
2012-08-05
We study the effect of confinement in the dynamical behavior of a core-softened fluid. The fluid is modeled as a two length scales potential. This potential in the bulk reproduces the anomalous behavior observed in the density and in the diffusion of liquid water. A series of $NpT$ Molecular Dynamics simulations for this two length scales fluid confined in a nanotube were performed. We obtain that the diffusion coefficient increases with the increase of the nanotube radius for wide channels as expected for normal fluids. However, for narrow channels, the confinement shows an enhancement in the diffusion coefficient when the nanotube radius decreases. This behavior, observed for water, is explained in the framework of the two length scales potential.
Curved and diffuse interface effects on the nuclear surface tension
V. M. Kolomietz; S. V. Lukyanov; A. I. Sanzhur
2012-01-30
We redefine the surface tension coefficient for a nuclear Fermi-liquid drop with a finite diffuse layer. Following Gibbs-Tolman concept, we introduce the equimolar radius R_e of sharp surface droplet at which the surface tension is applied and the radius of tension surface R_s which provides the minimum of the surface tension coefficient \\sigma. This procedure allows us to derive both the surface tension and the corresponding curvature correction (Tolman length) correctly for the curved and diffuse interface. We point out that the curvature correction depends significantly on the finite diffuse interface. This fact is missed in traditional nuclear considerations of curvature correction to the surface tension. We show that Tolman's length \\xi is negative for nuclear Fermi-liquid drop. The value of the Tolman length is only slightly sensitive to the Skyrme force parametrization and equals \\xi=-0.36 fm.
Samorn Muttamara
1996-01-01
Characterization of plant influent, effluent, and internal process streams provides plant operations personnel with the information they need to properly control treatment processes. To obtain that information, the operator should determine the characteristics of the raw wastewater and stream by collecting and analyzing representative samples throughout the plant. This paper gives a basic understanding of wastewater characteristics and sampling necessary
The doping of GaN with Mg diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, C. J.; Chi, G. C.
1999-03-01
The characteristics of GaN films diffused with Mg were studied. The undoped GaN films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Mg diffused GaN showed a broad violet emission. The Mg-diffused GaN was p-type conductivity with a mobility of 13 cm 2/V-s and a hole concentration of 3×10 15/cm 3 at a diffusion temperature of 1100°C. However, the samples, which were diffused at 1100°C, showed a red emission peak after the annealing process. From the diffusion depth profile observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), we obtained the activation energy of 1.3 eV for Mg diffusion in GaN.
Free path lengths in quasicrystals
Jens Marklof; Andreas Strömbergsson
2013-04-07
Previous studies of kinetic transport in the Lorentz gas have been limited to cases where the scatterers are distributed at random (e.g. at the points of a spatial Poisson process) or at the vertices of a Euclidean lattice. In the present paper we investigate quasicrystalline scatterer configurations, which are non-periodic, yet strongly correlated. A famous example is the vertex set of the Penrose tiling. Our main result proves the existence of a limit distribution of the free path length, which answers a question of Wennberg. The limit distribution is characterised by a certain random variable on the space of higher dimensional lattices, and is distinctly different from the exponential distribution observed for random scatterer configurations. The key ingredients in the proofs are equidistribution theorems on homogeneous spaces, which follow from Ratner's measure classification.
High-power diffusing-tip fibers for interstitial photocoagulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinofsky, Edward L.; Farr, Norman; Baxter, Lincoln; Weiler, William
1997-05-01
A line of optical fiber based diffusing tips has been designed, developed, and tested that are capable of distributing tens of watts of cw laser power over lengths ranging from two millimeters to over 10 cm. The result is a flexible non-stick diffuser capable of coagulating large volumes of tissue in reasonably short exposures of 3 - 5 minutes. Sub-millimeter diameter devices have a distinct effect on reducing the force needed to insert the applicator interstitially into tissue. Utilizing our design approach, we have produced diffusers based on 200 micrometer core fiber that has delivered over 35 watts of Nd:YAG energy over diffusion lengths as short as 4 mm. These applicators are being tested for applications in oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, urology and gynecology.
Lexical Phonology and Sound Change: The Case of the Scottish Vowel Length Rule.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McMahon, April M. S.
1991-01-01
Shows that the Scottish Vowel Length Rule supports Kiparsky's (1988) association of diffusing sound changes with lexical, and neogrammarian changes with postlexical rules, and to some extent, is a clearer illustration of Harris' (1989a: 55) notion of a phonological "life cycle" of changes and rules. (50 references) (GLR)
Reaction-diffusion processes with nonlinear diffusion.
Krapivsky, P L
2012-10-01
We study reaction-diffusion processes with concentration-dependent diffusivity. First, the decay of the concentration in the single-species and two-species diffusion-controlled annihilation processes is determined. We then consider two natural inhomogeneous realizations. The two-species annihilation process is investigated in the situation when the reactants are initially separated, namely each species occupies a half space. In particular, we establish the growth law of the width of the reaction zone. The single-species annihilation process is studied in the situation when the spatially localized source drives the system toward the nonequilibrium steady state. Finally, we investigate a dissolution process with a localized source of diffusing atoms which react with the initially present immobile atoms forming immobile molecules. PMID:23214535
Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.
Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W
2015-01-01
Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers. PMID:25478850
Macromolecular Diffusion in Dynamic Polymer Nanocomposite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chia-Chun; Cargnello, Matteo; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen; Composto, Russell
2015-03-01
We consider diffusion of tracer polymers in the presence of mobile nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). These nanoparticles are mobile on the time scale of polymer diffusion and have dimensions less than the entanglement mesh size (i.e., tube diameter). The PNC consists of titanium dioxide nanorods (NR, diameter=4.5nm; length=30.1nm) grafted with phenyl groups uniformly dispersed in a polystyrene (P=650kg/mol; tube diameter=8nm) matrix up to 10 volume percent. Three deuterated polystyrenes (dPS; M=800, 1800 and 3200 kg/mol) are chosen because their diffusion relative to NR allows for investigating fixed and mobile NR by simply changing M. For all M, the reduced tracer diffusivities are observed to decrease monotonically as NR loading increases. However, the reduced diffusivity of dPS (3200 kg/mol) is faster than expected compared to the fixed NR case. These findings suggest that mobile NR do not effectively slow down tracer diffusion relative to fixed particles. To test this hypothesis, dPS diffusion is investigated in a high molecular weight matrix PS (2000 kg/mol) in order to slow down NR diffusion relative to dPS (3200 kg/mol). New models are needed to incorporate these mobility dependent entanglements into a comprehensive understanding of dynamics in PNCs. Primary fundings: NSF/EPSRC Materials World Network DMR-1210379 (KIW, RJC) and EP/5065373/1 (NC). Support also by the NSF/MRSEC-DMR 11-20901, and Polymer Programs DMR 09-07493.
Fission track length distributions in multi-system thermochronology (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleadow, A. J.; Seiler, C.
2013-12-01
Fission track length distributions contain a unique record of past temperature variations and therefore play a key role in low-temperature thermochronology, for which there is no exact equivalent in any other method. Confined track lengths closely approximate the true etchable ranges of latent fission tracks [1] and are therefore favoured for fission track studies, but they still have a number of practical limitations. These include small numbers of suitable tracks, especially when only horizontal confined tracks are measured. Using only track-in-track events for measurement further limits the sample size. These restrictions become acute for low track-density samples, where length measurements may be impossible. Irradiating the surface with 252Cf tracks [2] can substantially increase the number of confined tracks, but many researchers do not have access to a Cf source. An even more significant issue has emerged from inter-laboratory comparison experiments that demonstrate a disturbingly poor reproducibility of length measurements between observers [3], a problem compounded by a lack of standardisation in measurement techniques. As a result, individual observers may measure different positions for the end of a track, contributing significantly to variability, and consequently blurring the thermal histories obtained. New digital microscopes open up important opportunities for improved track length measurements by reducing restrictions on sample size, and eliminating some sources of inter-observer bias. We have developed a track length measurement system that enables precise determination of vertical as well as horizontal track dimensions, allowing 3D lengths to be obtained. Lengths are measured on captured image stacks that can be analysed easily and may also be shared, for greater standardisation between laboratories. Length measurements are highly reproducible between different observers using this system, suggesting that at least one source of variability can be eliminated. The selection of lengths for imaging, however, still remains a source of potential bias between observers. The new measurement system also enables measurement of 3D lengths of surface-intersecting ';semi-tracks', the distributions of which have been well understood theoretically [1,4], but have not been used in practice because of difficulties of measuring vertical dimensions on older microscopes. Semi-track lengths are, of course, a degraded measure compared to confined tracks because they are randomly truncated. However, this is more than compensated by their very much greater abundance, by a factor of >60, compared to confined tracks. They are also more amenable to semi- or fully-automated measurement techniques than confined tracks. Moreover the distribution characteristics of semi-track lengths relative to confined track lengths are well understood so that in principle the two types could be used together in modelling thermal histories. The implementation of these new approaches for track length measurement should significantly improve the precision and standardisation of track length measurements at every stage of their utilisation, from annealing studies to thermal history modelling of unknowns. [1] Galbraith (2003) Statistics for FT Analysis, Chapman & Hall [2] Donelick et al. (2005) Rev Min Geochem 58, 49-94 [3] Ketcham et al. (2009) Ear Planet Sci Lett 284, 504-515 [4] Jonckheere & Van den haute (1999) Rad Meas 30, 155-179
Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution
Braden, Chris Alan
2006-10-30
, suggesting environmentally specific mechanisms. Developing genotypes with enhanced fiber length and an optimal fiber length distribution should be a priority to improve spinning performance and product quality of U.S. upland cotton....
Walker, S A; Fabian, A C
2015-01-01
We compare two different methods of constraining the characteristic velocity and spatial scales of gas motions in the X-ray bright, nearby Centaurus cluster, using new deep (760ks) Chandra observations. The power spectrum of excess surface brightness fluctuations in the 0.5-6.0 keV band in a sector to the west is measured and compared to theoretical expectations for Kolmogorov index fluctuations. The observed power spectrum is flatter than these expectations, and the surface brightness fluctuations are around the 8 percent level on length scales of 2 kpc. We convert the 2D power spectrum of fluctuations into a 3D power spectrum using the method of Churazov et al., and then convert this into constraints on the one-component velocity of the gas motions as a function of their length scale. We find one-component velocities in the range 100-150 km/s on spatial scales of 4-10 kpc. An independent constraint on the characteristic velocity and length scales of the gas motions is then found by considering the diffusion...
Island Diffusion and Coarsening on Metal (100) Surfaces
Woei Wu Pai; Anna K. Swan; Zhenyu Zhang; J. F. Wendelken
1997-01-01
The diffusion and coarsening of two-dimensional homoepitaxial islands on Cu(100) and Ag(100) surfaces have been studied at room temperature with time-sequenced scanning tunneling microscopy. Quantitative analyses of the dependence of island diffusion coefficient D vs the island side length L, D~L-alpha, yield noninteger scaling exponents which are consistent with island coalescence. Moreover, the near absence of island decay shows that
Exact curvilinear diffusion coefficients in the repton model
Arnaud Buhot
2005-09-01
The Rubinstein-Duke or repton model is one of the simplest lattice model of reptation for the diffusion of a polymer in a gel or a melt. Recently, a slightly modified model with hardcore interactions between the reptons has been introduced. The curvilinear diffusion coefficients of both models are exactly determined for all chain lengths. The case of periodic boundary conditions is also considered.
Lin, Jason D A; Mikhnenko, Oleksandr V; van der Poll, Thomas S; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen
2015-04-17
The temperature dependence of exciton diffusion in a small-molecule organic semiconductor processed with and without additive is investigated. As-cast and 1,8-diiodooctane-processed films yield exciton diffusion lengths of 6.8 and 4.9 nm, respectively. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that processing with 1,8-diiodooctane increases the excitonic trap density, which directly reduces the exciton diffusion length. PMID:25775936
Cathodoluminescence study of carrier diffusion in AlGaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barjon, J.; Brault, J.; Daudin, B.; Jalabert, D.; Sieber, B.
2003-08-01
This article presents a method to estimate the carrier diffusion length in the optical waveguide region of a separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) semiconductor laser. The electron incident energy dependence of waveguide and active region cathodoluminescence yields are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of ionization processes. This procedure is applied to a SCH consisting of GaN quantum dots inserted in an Al0.27Ga0.73N/AlN optical waveguide grown by plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on 6H-SiC. A diffusion length of 7.5 nm is estimated in AlGaN material at room temperature.
be described by a diffusive pressure spreading mechanism analogous to the electric telegrapher's equationDiffusive spreading of time-dependent pressures in elastic microfluidic devices Bernhard K. The pressure diffusion constant Dp ¼ 1/RxCx of a channel with length l is determined by the hydrodynamic
Indicators for Cervical Length in Twin Pregnancies.
Hermans, Frederik J R; Schuit, Ewoud; Liem, Sophie M S; Lim, Arianne C; Duvekot, Johannes; Scheepers, Liesbeth C J; Woiski, Mallory M; Franssen, Maureen M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bijvanck, Bas Nij; Bekedam, Dick J; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J
2015-10-01
Objective?Cervical length (CL) is associated with the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in multiple pregnancies. However, the position of CL within the pathophysiological pathway of PTB is unclear, and it is unknown which factors are predictive for CL. This study aims to investigate whether in twin pregnancies baseline maternal and obstetrical characteristics are potential indicators for CL, to improve insight in the pathophysiological pathway of PTB. Study Design?Secondary analysis of data on twin pregnancies and CL measurement between 16 and 22 weeks. A set of 10 potential indicators, known to be associated with an increased risk of PTB and/or which have a plausible mechanism resulting in a change of CL were selected. We used multivariable linear regression with backward selection to identify independent indicators for CL. Results?A total of 1,447 women with twin pregnancies were included. Mean CL was 43.7 (±?8.9) mm. In multivariable analysis, age (0.27 mm/y; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16 to 0.39), use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) (-1.42?mm, 95% CI -2.6 to -0.25), and having delivered at term in a previous pregnancy (1.32?mm, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.39) were significantly associated with CL. Conclusion?This study shows that in twin pregnancies, age, use of ART and having delivered term in a previous pregnancy has an association with CL. PMID:25915138
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...
Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centropolyhedral groups
St Andrews, University of
Search techniques, Fibonacci lengths and centroÂpolyhedral groups C. M. Campbell and P. P. Campbell the Fibonacci orbit of G with respect to the generating set A, denoted FA (G). If FA (G) is periodic, we call the length of the period of the sequence the Fibonacci length of G with respect to A, written LENA (G). We
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...
Largemouth Bass Fishery Responses to Length Limits
Wilde, Gene
-length limits increased largemouth bass population size when all minimum-length limits were included (P = 0 in restructuring largemouth bass populations by increasing population size (P = 0.018) and the proportion of largerMANAGEMENT Largemouth Bass Fishery Responses to Length Limits By Gene R. Wilde ABSTRACT I compiled
Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Dong; Adinolfi, Valerio; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Alarousu, Erkki; Buin, Andrei; Chen, Yin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Rothenberger, Alexander; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Zhang, Xin; Dowben, Peter A.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Sargent, Edward H.; Bakr, Osman M.
2015-01-01
The fundamental properties and ultimate performance limits of organolead trihalide MAPbX3 (MA = CH3NH3+; X = Br– or I–) perovskites remain obscured by extensive disorder in polycrystalline MAPbX3 films. We report an antisolvent vapor-assisted crystallization approach that enables us to create sizable crack-free MAPbX3 single crystals with volumes exceeding 100 cubic millimeters. These large single crystals enabled a detailed characterization of their optical and charge transport characteristics. We observed exceptionally low trap-state densities on the order of 109 to 1010 per cubic centimeter in MAPbX3 single crystals (comparable to the best photovoltaic-quality silicon) and charge carrier diffusion lengths exceeding 10 micrometers. These results were validated with density functional theory calculations.
Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen
2014-05-06
A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.
Diffusion in confined geometries.
Burada, P Sekhar; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Schmid, Gerhard; Talkner, Peter
2009-01-12
Diffusive transport of particles or, more generally, small objects, is a ubiquitous feature of physical and chemical reaction systems. In configurations containing confining walls or constrictions, transport is controlled both by the fluctuation statistics of the jittering objects and the phase space available to their dynamics. Consequently, the study of transport at the macro- and nanoscales must address both Brownian motion and entropic effects. Herein we report on recent advances in the theoretical and numerical investigation of stochastic transport occurring either in microsized geometries of varying cross sections or in narrow channels wherein the diffusing particles are hindered from passing each other (single-file diffusion). For particles undergoing biased diffusion in static suspension media enclosed by confining geometries, transport exhibits intriguing features such as 1) a decrease in nonlinear mobility with increasing temperature or also 2) a broad excess peak of the effective diffusion above the free diffusion limit. These paradoxical aspects can be understood in terms of entropic contributions resulting from the restricted dynamics in phase space. If, in addition, the suspension medium is subjected to external, time-dependent forcing, rectification or segregation of the diffusing Brownian particles becomes possible. Likewise, the diffusion in very narrow, spatially modulated channels is modified via contact particle-particle interactions, which induce anomalous sub-diffusion. The effective sub-diffusion constant for a driven single file also develops a resonance-like structure as a function of the confining coupling constant. PMID:19025741
Diffusion of single-walled carbon nanotube under physiological conditions.
Judkins, John; Lee, Hyun Ho; Tung, Steve; Kim, Jin-Woo
2013-06-01
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) can be functionalized to target cells for drug delivery or cancer cells for their detection and therapy. Understanding their transport phenomena in vivo is a necessary step to unlock their medical potential. This work estimates the diffusion characteristics of SWNTs and their DNA-conjugated bio-hybrids under simulated or postulated physiological conditions using EPI-fluorescence microscopy (EFM). SWNT was shortened and dispersed in aqueous solution with the average length and diameter of 253 nm (+/-30.6 nm) and 1.6 nm (+/-0.34 nm), respectively, and tagged with a fluorophore, 1-pyrenebutanoic succinimidyl ester (PSE), through non-covalent pi stacking. DNA was attached to the PSE-SWNTs through carboxiimide based coupling procedure. Using the EFM, real-time videos were recorded under four different viscosities corresponding to four kinds of human body fluids: lymph (1.4 cP), bile (2.4 cP), blood (3-6 cP), and cytoplasm (10-30 cP), and processed to calculate diffusion coefficients based on random walk and speed. At 37 degreeC, diffusion coefficients of the SWNTs were estimated to be: 1.45 (+/-0.652) x 10(4) nm2/s (lymph), 0.91 (+/-0.205) x 10(4) nm2/s (bile), 0.59 (+/-0.179)x 10(4) nm2/s (blood), and 0.26 (+/-0.114)x 10(4) nm2/s (cytoplasm). Estimated diffusion coefficients of SWNT-DNA bio-hybrids were: 1.45 (+/-0.402) x 10(4) nm2/s (plasma), 0.62 (+/-0.212) x 10(4) nm2/s (bile), 0.41 (+/-0.142) x 10(4) nm2/s (blood), 0.38 (+/-0.257) x 10(4) nm2/s (cytoplasm). These outcomes should serve as key data for developing mathematical models of SWNT-based drug delivery, cell targeting, and its biodistribution. PMID:23858971
Time and length scales within a fire and implications for numerical simulation
TIESZEN,SHELDON R.
2000-02-02
A partial non-dimensionalization of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the rate-controlling transport processes in the reacting portion of a fire plume as a function of length scale. Over continuum length scales, buoyant times scales vary as the square root of the length scale; advection time scales vary as the length scale, and diffusion time scales vary as the square of the length scale. Due to the variation with length scale, each process is dominant over a given range. The relationship of buoyancy and baroclinc vorticity generation is highlighted. For numerical simulation, first principles solution for fire problems is not possible with foreseeable computational hardware in the near future. Filtered transport equations with subgrid modeling will be required as two to three decades of length scale are captured by solution of discretized conservation equations. By whatever filtering process one employs, one must have humble expectations for the accuracy obtainable by numerical simulation for practical fire problems that contain important multi-physics/multi-length-scale coupling with up to 10 orders of magnitude in length scale.
Marchadour, Charlotte; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Hantraye, Philippe; Lebon, Vincent; Valette, Julien
2012-01-01
Translational displacement of molecules within cells is a key process in cellular biology. Molecular motion potentially depends on many factors, including active transport, cytosol viscosity and molecular crowding, tortuosity resulting from cytoskeleton and organelles, and restriction barriers. However, the relative contribution of these factors to molecular motion in the cytoplasm remains poorly understood. In this work, we designed an original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy strategy to probe molecular motion at subcellular scales in vivo. This led to the first observation of anomalous diffusion, that is, dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on the diffusion time, for endogenous intracellular metabolites in the brain. The observed increase of the ADC at short diffusion time yields evidence that metabolite motion is characteristic of hindered random diffusion rather than active transport, for time scales up to the dozen milliseconds. Armed with this knowledge, data modeling based on geometrically constrained diffusion was performed. Results suggest that metabolite diffusion occurs in a low-viscosity cytosol hindered by ?2-?m structures, which is consistent with known intracellular organization. PMID:22929443
Diffusion of iron, cobalt, and nickel in liquid germanium
Denisov, V.M.; Beletskii, V.V.
1988-03-01
To improve the processes employed for preparing single crystals with fixed electrophysical properties it is necessary to have information about the coefficients of diffusion of the impurities present in the melts. In this paper data on the diffusion of Fe, Co, and Ni in liquid germanium, starting from its melting point up to 1380/degree/K, are presented. The coefficients of diffusion of Fe, Co, and Ni in liquid Ge were determined by the capillary method. It was established that the change in the structure of liquid helium as a function of the temperature is responsible for the characteristic features of diffusion in the systems studied.
Thompson, Andrew R; Hoeprich, Gregory J; Berger, Christopher L
2013-06-18
In vitro, single-molecule motility assays allow for the direct characterization of molecular motor properties including stepping velocity and characteristic run length. Although application of these techniques in vivo is feasible, the challenges involved in sample preparation, as well as the added complexity of the cell and its systems, result in a reduced ability to collect large datasets, as well as difficulty in simultaneous observation of the components of the motility system, namely motor and track. To address these challenges, we have developed simulations to characterize motility datasets as a function of sample size, processive run length of the motor, and distribution of track lengths. We introduce the use of a simple bootstrapping technique that allows for the quantification of measurement uncertainty and a Monte Carlo permutation resampling scheme for the measurement of statistical significance and the estimation of required sample size. In addition, we have found that, despite conventional wisdom, the measured characteristic run length is directly coupled to the characteristic track length that describes the microtubule length distribution. To be able to make comparisons between motility experiments performed on different track populations as well as make measurements of motility when motors and tracks cannot be simultaneously resolved, we have developed a theoretical framework for the determination of the effect that track length has on observed characteristic run lengths. This shows good agreement with in vitro motility experiments on two kinesin constructs walking on microtubule populations of different characteristic track lengths. PMID:23790373
An image-based finite difference model for simulating restricted diffusion
Scott N. Hwang; Chih-Liang Chin; Felix W. Wehrli; David B. Hackney
2003-01-01
Water diffusion in tissues is generally restricted and often anisotropic. Neural tissue is of particular interest, since it is well known that injury alters diffusion in a characteristic manner. Both Monte Carlo simulations and approximate analytical mod-els have previously been reported in attempts to predict water diffusion behavior in the central nervous system. These meth-ods have relied on axonal models,
Clayden, Jonathan D
2008-01-01
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dmri) is a technique that can be used to examine the diffusion characteristics of water in the living brain. A recently developed application of this technique is tractography, in ...
Experimental Evidence of Non-Diffusive Thermal Transport in Si and GaAs
Johnson, Jeremy A.
The length-scales at which thermal transport crosses from the diffusive to ballistic regime are of much interest particularly in the design and improvement of nano-structured materials. In this work, we demonstrate that ...
Diffusers for holographic stereography
Helseth, L E
2001-01-01
Holographic diffusers have long been recognized as versatile components with a broad number of applications. In this work we discuss holographic diffusers for projection of laser light from a Liquid Crystal Display(LCD) onto a holographic recording medium. In holographic stereography, projection of the information from a LCD onto a holographic recording medium has traditionally been done by a lens or a ground glass. It is suggested that the holographic diffusers can replace these elements and improve image quality and light economy.
Jeremy Quastel; Benedek Valkó
2012-11-15
We consider one component lattice gases with a local dynamics and a stationary product Bernoulli measure. We give upper and lower bounds on the diffusivity at an equilibrium point depending on the dimension and the local behavior of the macroscopic flux function. We show that if the model is expected to be diffusive, it is indeed diffusive, and, if it is expected to be superdiffusive, it is indeed superdiffusive.
Global diffusion of cosmic rays
Snodin, A P; Sarson, G R; Bushby, P J; Rodrigues, L F S
2015-01-01
The propagation of charged particles, including cosmic rays, in a partially ordered magnetic field is characterized by a diffusion tensor whose components depend on the particle's Larmor radius $R_L$ and the degree of order in the magnetic field. This prescription relies explicitly on the assumption of a scale separation between random and mean magnetic fields, which usually applies in laboratory plasmas, but not in most astrophysical environments such as the interstellar medium (ISM). Direct estimates of the cosmic-ray diffusion tensor from test particle simulations have explored the range of particle energies corresponding to $10^{-2} \\lesssim R_L/l_c \\lesssim 10^{3}$, where $l_c$ is the magnetic correlation length. Modern simulations of the ISM have numerical resolution of order 1 pc, so the Larmor radius of the cosmic ray particles that dominate in their energy density is at least $10^{6}$ times smaller than the numerically resolved scales of the random magnetic field. Large-scale simulations of cosmic ra...