Sample records for characteristics affecting demethylation-induced

  1. Disagreeable physical characteristics affecting bystander CPR.

    PubMed

    McCormack, A P; Damon, S K; Eisenberg, M S

    1989-03-01

    We determined the frequency of certain disagreeable physical characteristics (presence of vomitus, dentures, blood and/or alcohol on the breath) of a cardiac arrest patient and the effect these characteristics have on a bystander's willingness to perform CPR. Data were collected prospectively on 121 nontraumatic cardiac arrest patients, of whom 35 received bystander-initiated CPR involving a total of 42 bystanders. Seventy-one (59%) patients had one or more disagreeable characteristics identified. Forty (33%) patients vomited; 39 (33%) wore dentures; five (4%) had alcohol on their breath; and nine (7%) had visible blood. Of the 42 bystanders involved, 14 were exposed to one or more of the disagreeable characteristics. No bystander interviewed indicated hesitancy in performing CPR when encountering disagreeable characteristics. Seven bystanders stated they felt inadequately prepared to handle patients who vomited. Because of the high incidence of disagreeable characteristics, notably vomitus, in patients suffering a cardiac arrest, specific training in handling such characteristics seems justified. PMID:2646999

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

  3. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  4. Characteristics of an Airfoil as Affected by Fabric Sag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made at a high value of the Reynolds Number in the N.A.C.A. variable-density wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil as affected by fabric sag. Tests were made of two Gottingen 387 airfoils, one having the usual smooth surface and the other having a surface modified to simulate two types of fabric sag. The results of these tests indicate that the usual sagging of the wind covering between ribs has a very small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.

  5. Wing characteristics as affected by protuberances of short span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

    1934-01-01

    The drag and interference caused by short-span protuberances from the surface of an airfoil have been investigated in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 3,100,000, based on the chord length of the airfoil. The effects of variations of protuberance span length, span position, and shape were measured by determining how the wing characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances.

  6. Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2008-05-01

    Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163

  7. Infinite experiences, affects and the characteristics of the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Rayner, E

    1981-01-01

    The work of Matte-Blanco is little understood by psychoanalysts largely because he used mathematical logic as an essential method to elucidate psychoanalytic theory. His findings, however, seem to be important and warrant this simple introductory paper explaining key ideas. Two fundamentally distinct processes, defined as asymmetrical and symmetrical logics are introduced and illustrated. Asymmetrical logic is analogous to secondary process while symmetrical logic has affinity with primary process. Both logic seem to interweave in any thought processes but with asymmetry predominating in scientific thought while symmetrical logic is most evident in psychosis and dreams. It is furthermore argued that the various characteristics of the unconscious, as described by Freud, can be seen as different mental outcomes with symmetrical logic at the base of all of them. A parallel is discovered by Matte-Blanco between the characteristics of symmetrical logic and those of infinite sets as defined mathematically. This leads to an investigation of the concept of infinity and of psychological infinite experiences. These can be readily detected in omnipotence, omniscience, and idealization, but they also seem to occur in extreme emotional states such as being in love, dread and grief. If nuclei of extreme states are contained in any affect, then it is likely that all affects in their cognitive aspects contain experiences of infinity. Symmetrical logic may thus be a common background both to the characteristics of the unconscious and emotionality generally. PMID:7319692

  8. Underbalanced perforation characteristics as affected by differential pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

    1988-02-01

    Underbalanced, tubing-conveyed completions are increasing because of the apparent advantages of cleaner perforations, reduced completion times, and stimulation treatments. Radial-flow Berea sandstone core specimens are used to determine the perforation characteristics resulting from time-dependent pressure differentials between core pressure and wellbore pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic studied (radial flow ratio (RFR)) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core. The perforation flow tests included pressure differentials from 500 psi (3450 kPa) overbalanced to 1,000 psi (6900 kPa) underbalanced, with immediate or delayed surging. The RFR was affected most by the 500-psi and 1,000-psi (3450- and 6900-kPa) underbalance. The surged RFR's were from 50 to 58% greater than the no-surge RFR's. Perforation hole volumes were increased as much as 55% by the surge, indicating some elimination of the compacted, damaged-zone material. Underbalanced surge conditions (1,000 psi (6900 kPa)) increased hole volume to four times that resulting from 500 psi (3450 kPa) overbalanced, no-surge conditions. Underbalanced surging, either at the instant of perforation or subsequently, appears to improve the flow characteristics of shaped-charge perforations by simultaneously reducing the thickness of the low-permeability crushed zone and increasing the perforation surface area.

  9. [Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

  10. Development of Affective Characteristics in Students in Vocational-Technical Nursing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintgen-Andrews, Jean

    A study was conducted to determine what progress is made by nursing students during their first two years of study in the development of affective characteristics closely associated with professional level practice. Two affective characteristics associated with professionalism were studied; autonomy and assertiveness. The Inner Directed Scale of…

  11. Factors which Affect the Gelling Characteristics of Aluminium Soaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Parry; J. E. Roberts; A. J. Taylor

    1950-01-01

    Three methods of making aluminium soaps are described, and one, the metathetic reaction between a sodium soap solution and an aluminium salt solution, is discussed in detail. The effect of variations in manufacturing technique upon the gelling characteristics of the product is considered. Recent work by various investigators on the structure of aluminium soaps is reviewed, particularly in relation to

  12. Characteristics of Nursing Homes that Affect Resident Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Spector; Hitomi Adrianna Takada

    1991-01-01

    Although there has been increased interest in using outcomes as measures of quality, few studies have shown a link between structure or process and outcomes. In this analysis, based on approximately 2,500 residents in 80 nursing homes in Rhode Island, multivariate models estimate which aspects of care are associated with resident outcomes after controlling for resident characteristics. Outcomes, measured over

  13. Characteristics affecting fibrinolytic activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T W Meade; R Chakrabarti; A P Haines; W R North; Y Stirling

    1979-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the extent to which the haemostatic system is implicated in the onset of clinically manifest ischaemic heart disease, characteristics influencing fibrinolytic activity (FA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were examined in 1601 men aged 18-64 and 707 women aged 18-59 in several occupational groups in North-west London. In men FA noticeably decreased till the

  14. Predation and landscape characteristics independently affect reef fish community organization.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Hanson, Katharine M; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta diversity across patchy landscapes. However, experimental tests of the predicted context dependency in top-down control remain limited. Using a factorial field experiment we quantify the effects of a focal predatory fish species (grouper) and habitat characteristics (patch size, fragmentation) on the partitioning of diversity and assembly of coral reef fish communities. We found independent effects of groupers and patch characteristics on prey communities. Groupers reduced prey abundance by 50% and gamma diversity by 45%, with a disproportionate removal of rare species relative to common species (64% and 36% reduction, respectively; an oddity effect). Further, there was a 77% reduction in beta diversity. Null model analysis demonstrated that groupers increased the importance of stochastic community assembly relative to patches without groupers. With regard to patch size, larger patches contained more fishes, but a doubling of patch size led to a modest (36%) increase in prey abundance. Patch size had no effect on prey diversity; however, fragmented patches had 50% higher species richness and modified species composition relative to unfragmented patches. Our findings suggest two different pathways (i.e., habitat or predator shifts) by which natural and/or anthropogenic processes can drive variation in fish biodiversity and community assembly. PMID:25000761

  15. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  16. Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style. PMID:19859795

  17. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  18. Spectral reflectance characteristics of salt-affected arid soils of Rajasthan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Kalra; D. C. Joshi

    1994-01-01

    The spectral reflectance characteristics of different types of natural and anthropogenic salt-affected soils have been studied\\u000a under field conditions. The spectral reflectance value for non-saline and all types of salt-affected soils was maximum in\\u000a near infra red region (800–1000 nm). The natural salt-affected soils having surface salt encrustation showed highest reflectance\\u000a value followed by the sodic soils (formed due to

  19. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice B. R. Parmentier; Greg Elford; Murray Mayberry

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both recall accuracy and response times. The results

  20. Metal contents in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) as affected by soil characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Tack; M. G. Verloo

    1996-01-01

    Uptake by plants is a potential pathway of metal transfer to the human food-chain. A correct quantification critically affects the outcome of environmental risk assessment. Using data of soils and plants ( Urtica dioica L.) from 382 locations north-east of Ghent, the relation between soil characteristics (clay content, organic carbon content, CEC, soil pH and total metal content) and plant

  1. Characteristics of White Pan Bread as Affected by Tempering of the Fat Ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. NOR

    Cereal Chem. 73(4):462-465 This study investigated the effect of tempering of four shortening for- ening. Texture of the shortenings was profoundly affected by increasing mulations on the baking characteristics of white pan bread. The fats used the level of POS. Tempering at 23°C of all formulations resulted in a were palm oil and blends of palm oil (PO) and palm

  2. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

  3. Synchrotron Microtomographic Quantification of Geometrical Soil Pore Characteristics Affected by Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Gantzer, Clark; Anderson, Stephen; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction degrades soil structure and affects water, heat, and gas exchange as well as root penetration and crop production. The objective of this study was to use X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) techniques to compare differences in geometrical soil pore parameters as influenced by compaction of two different aggregate size classes. Sieved (diam. < 2mm and < 0.5mm) and repacked (1.51 and 1.72 Mg m-3) Hamra soil cores of 5- by 5-mm (average porosities were 0.44 and 0.35) were imaged at 9.6-micrometer resolution at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (synchrotron facility) using X-ray computed microtomography. Images of 58.9 mm3 volume were analyzed using 3-Dimensional Medial Axis (3DMA) software. Geometrical characteristics of the spatial distributions of pore structures (pore radii, volume, connectivity, path length, and tortuosity) were numerically investigated. Results show that the coordination number (CN) distribution and path length (PL) measured from the medial axis were reasonably fit by exponential relationships P(CN)=10-CN/Co and P(PL)=10-PL/PLo, respectively, where Co and PLo are the corresponding characteristic constants. Compaction reduced porosity, average pore size, number of pores, and characteristic constants. The average pore radii (64 and 61 ?m; p<0.04), largest pore volume (1.6 and 0.6 mm3; p=0.06), number of pores (55 and 50; p=0.09), characteristic coordination number (6.3 and 6.0; p=0.09), and characteristic path length number (116 and 105; p=0.001) were significantly greater in the low density than the high density treatment. Aggregate size also influenced measured geometrical pore parameters. This analytical technique provides a tool for assessing changes in soil pores that affect hydraulic properties and thereby provides information to assist in assessment of soil management systems.

  4. Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Åkerman, Jeanette; Eerikäinen, Peter; Ambjörnsson, Annika; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Mihailovic, Marko; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Understanding Group and Leader (UGL), provided by the Swedish National Defense College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA) to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1) to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2) to investigate differences in personal characteristics. Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153) and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police) completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA), high affective (high PA, high NA), low affective (high PA, low NA), and self-destructive (low PA, high NA). Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70%) than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%). UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05) and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after certification. PMID:25374553

  5. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  6. Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

  7. Context matters: Community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics—social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth—in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Methods 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Results Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively co-varied with youths’ externalizing and internalizing scores—indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p<0.05). The relationship between collective efficacy and mental health outcomes was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the post-conflict social context plays in shaping mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a four-year period of follow up. These results underscore the importance of the post-conflict social environment and the need to develop post-conflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs of the individual. PMID:24102324

  8. Factors Affecting the Professional Characteristics of Teacher Educators in Israel and in the USA: A Comparison of Two Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagrir, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to identify the factors affecting the professional characteristics of teacher educators by comparing two models of teacher education. The research findings revealed four major focal points that have an impact on professional characteristics: the operational model adopted by the institution where teacher…

  9. How job characteristics affect international migration: the role of informality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Blanchard, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Despite the importance given to employment opportunities as a primary motive for migration, previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the kinds of jobs that are more likely to retain workers in their countries of origin. We use information from a panel survey of Mexican adults to examine how job characteristics affect the risk of international migration. The sampling strategy and overall size of the survey allow us to analyze the effect of employment characteristics on migration from urban areas, which have much greater labor market diversity, and to separate our analysis by gender. We also distinguish migrants according to whether they migrate for work or for other reasons. We find informality to be a significant predictor of international migration. Even after controlling for individual factors including workers' wages, as well as various household- and community-level predictors, we find that workers employed in the informal sector have significantly higher odds of migrating than their counterparts in the formal sector. The pervasive nature of informality in many developing countries from which a high proportion of international migrants originate may therefore create a constant supply of workers who are predisposed to migrate. Our findings thus have important implications for a proper understanding of the effects of economic development on migration. PMID:23073750

  10. Factors affecting gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish donkey breeds reared in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, J; Perez-Marin, C C

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigated gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in three different Spanish donkey breeds (Andalusian, Zamorano-Leones, and Catalonian) kept on farm conditions in southern Spain, using data for ten consecutive breeding seasons. Gestation length was measured in 58 pregnancies. Ovarian ultrasonography was used to detect the ovulation, in order to ascertain true gestation length (ovulation-parturition). Pregnancy was diagnosed approximately 14-18 d after ovulation and confirmed on approximately day 60. Average gestation length was 362 +/-15.3 (SD) d, and no significant differences were observed between the three different breeds. Breeding season had a significant effect (P < 0.01), with longer gestation lengths when jennies were covered during the early period. Breed, age of jenny, year of birth, foal gender, month of breeding, and type of gestation had no significant effect on gestation length. After parturition, foal-heat was detected in 53.8% of the postpartum cycles studied (n = 78), and ovulation occurred on day 13.2 +/- 2.7. The duration of foal-heat was 4.7 +/-1.7 d, with a pregnancy rate of 40.5%. When subsequent estrus cycles were analyzed, the interovulatory interval (n = 68) and estrus duration (n = 258) were extended to a mean 23.8 +/- 3.5 and 5.7 +/- 2.2 d, respectively. Both variables were influenced by the year of study (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001), whereas month and season of ovulation (P < 0.005 and P < 0.009, respectively) affected only interovulatory intervals. Estrus duration was significantly longer than that observed at the foal-heat (P < 0.006), and the pregnancy rate was 65.8%. This study provides reference values for true gestation length and estrus cycle characteristics in Spanish jennies. Breeding season affected gestation length in farm conditions. Also, seasonal influence was observed on the length of the estrus cycle (i.e., interovulatory interval), although foal-heat was not affected by environmental factors. PMID:20451997

  11. Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

  12. Do negative affect characteristics and subjective memory concerns increase risk for late life anxiety?

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Chelsey M; Wilson, Helen W; Woodard, John L; Calamari, John E

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the development and exacerbation of late-life anxiety, we tested a risk model positing that trait negative affect (NA) characteristics would interact with cognitive functioning, thereby increasing some older adults' risk for increased anxiety symptoms. The moderator-mediator model consisted of measures of NA, cognitive functioning, and their interaction, as predictors of later Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores (HARS) via a mediational process, subjective memory concerns (SMCs). Older adults (aged 65-years and over; M(age)=76.7 years, SD=6.90 years) completed evaluations four times over approximately 18 months. A latent growth curve model including Anxiety Sensitivity Index total score (ASI), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS) total raw score, the ASI×DRS interaction, a SMC measure as mediator, HARS intercept (scores at times 3 and 4), and HARS slope provided good fit. The ASI×DRS-2 interaction at Time 1 predicted HARS slope score (?=-.34, p<.05). When ASI score was high, stronger cognitive functioning was associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. The indirect effect of ASI score predicting HARS score 18-months later through the SMC mediator was statistically significant (?=.08, p<.05). Results suggest that the cognitive functioning changes associated with aging might contribute to the development of anxiety symptoms in older adults with specific NA traits. Implications for predicting and preventing late life anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:23623610

  13. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Janowsky; Shirley Morter; Liyi Hong

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were

  14. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  15. Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

  16. Foreign Language Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Academic Skills, Affective Characteristics, and Proficiency: Replication and Follow-up Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Ganschow, Leonore; Artzer, Marjorie E.; Siebenhar, David; Plageman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Two studies explore the relationship between foreign language teachers' perceptions of their students' academic skills and affective characteristics and their native language skills, foreign language aptitude, and oral and written foreign language proficiency. In Study I (replication), students who scored significantly lower on native language and…

  17. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses. PMID:11755459

  18. PUFFING AND JET-COOKING AFFECT SOLUBILITY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF BARLEY A-GLUCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods containing barley or oats are often marketed as healthy because of the dietary fiber, (1-3) (1-4)-Beta-D-glucan. Processing conditions can affect the molecular structure of these dietary fibers, which in turn, affect quality and properties of the products. In this study, the effect of puffing ...

  19. Fiber and hydrocolloid content affect the microstructural and sensory characteristics of fresh and frozen stored bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Polaki; P. Xasapis; C. Fasseas; S. Yanniotis; I. Mandala

    2010-01-01

    Breads containing fibers or hydrocolloids were frozen stored as dough (DBs) or semi-baked samples (SBs). Their microstructure (e.g. pore characteristics) was evaluated by image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory characteristics of “fresh” (one-day stored at ambient conditions) and of semi-baked breads (fully baked the day of observations) were determined by a descriptive analysis. Both composition and storage influenced

  20. Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk 

    E-print Network

    Bollinger, Dean Herman

    1972-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Effect of Mastitis on Milk. Composition. Properties . Dairy products Factors Affecting Milk Coagulation. Heat treatment . Homogenization Starter culture. Added solids...-not-fat Protein. Calcium chloride Mastitis Minerals I'age V V111 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 Factors Affecting Properties of Cultured Pasteurization . Milk solids. Homogenization Starter culture. Ripening temperature . Aci di ty. Treatment...

  1. Employee Affective Responses to Organizational Stress: Moderating Effects of Job Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Halim, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    This study, in a manufacturing firm, examined the relative importance of three variables: role conflict, ambiguity, and overload, as sources of stress and dissatisfaction among managerial personnel, and the moderating effects of job enrichment characteristics. Results and implications for work design and stress management are discussed.…

  2. Stepovers that migrate with respect to affected deposits: field characteristics and speculation on some

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi "Luke"

    of this type, little exhumation and erosion takes place at any given location. Another characteristic by propagation of the PDZ on one side of the stepover, and shut-off of the PDZ on the other side. Possible speculating on the evolution of such structures. The new material presented in this paper, compared

  3. Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders that Affect Inclusion in Regular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD…

  4. How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the…

  5. Characteristics of Plant Cell Walls Affecting Intake and Digestibility of Forages by Ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Jung; M. S. Allen

    1995-01-01

    Even under the intensive concentrate feeding systems of ruminant animal production in the United States, forages continue to represent the single most important feed resource. Cell-wall concentration and digestibility limit the intake potential and energy availability of forage crops in beef and dairy produc- tion. Identification of cell-wall characteristics that should be targets of genetic modification is required if plant

  6. Anatomical Characteristics Affecting the Musical Performance of Clarinet Reeds Made from Arundo donax L. (Gramineae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER KOLESIK; ALAN MILLS; MARGARET SEDGLEY

    1998-01-01

    The musical performance of clarinet reeds made fromArundo donaxstems was assessed by two experienced clarinettists, and the anatomy of the reeds was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the relationship between anatomical characteristics and musical performance. Statistically significant differences between musically good and poor reeds were found in the anatomy of the cortical vascular bundles. Good musical performance

  7. Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agung Budi Sutiono; Andri Qiantori; Hirohiko Suwa; Toshizumi Ohta

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. FINDINGS: We present 26 tetanus patients

  8. Affect and non-uniform characteristics of predictive processing in musical behaviour.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Overy, Katie; Nelson, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The important roles of prediction and prior experience are well established in music research and fit well with Clark's concept of unified perception, cognition, and action arising from hierarchical, bidirectional predictive processing. However, in order to fully account for human musical intelligence, Clark needs to further consider the powerful and variable role of affect in relation to prediction error. PMID:23663552

  9. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slotted Clark Y Wing as Affected by the Auxiliary Airfoil Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Shortal, Joseph A

    1932-01-01

    Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.

  10. Substrate characteristics affect colonization by the bloom-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Bergey; Joshua T. Cooper; Barret C. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The long-stalked Didymosphenia is capable of forming large blooms and is expanding its range. To better understand the colonization dynamics of this species,\\u000a we investigated the role of substrate characteristics—rock roughness and biofilm condition—on Didymosphenia colonization in a montane Colorado stream. Rocks differing in roughness (shale and sandstone) were treated to manipulate\\u000a the diatom-dominated biofilm by scrubbing or submersion in

  11. Essential characteristics of natural dissolved organic matter affecting the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarkko Akkanen; Rolf D. Vogt; Jussi V. K. Kukkonen

    2004-01-01

    Association of benzo[ a]pyrene (B aP), pyrene, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (TBDE) with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) was studied. The DOM samples were previously collected from natural waters at five Nordic sites during fall 1999 and spring 2000, isolated by the reverse osmosis method, and thoroughly characterized. The purpose was to determine the essential characteristics that predict

  12. Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

    2000-01-01

    We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

  13. Privatization, Competition, and Corruption: How Characteristics of Bribe Takers and Payers Affect Bribe Payments to Utilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. G. Clarke; Lixin Colin Xu

    2002-01-01

    Summary Many recent studies have looked at the macroeconomic, cultural and institutional determinants of corruption at the cross-national level. This study complements these existing cross-country studies by focusing on firm-level evidence of microeconomic factors affecting bribes paid in a single sector of the economy. Using enterprise-level data on bribes paid to utilities in 21 transition economies in Eastern Europe and

  14. Changes in Liver Cell DNA Methylation Status in Diabetic Mice Affect Its FT-IR Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Ghiraldini, Flávia Gerelli; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of cytosine methylation have been found in the liver cell DNA from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice under hyperglycemic conditions. Because the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) profiles of dry DNA samples are differently affected by DNA base composition, single-stranded form and histone binding, it is expected that the methylation status in the DNA could also affect its FT-IR profile. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA FT-IR signatures obtained from the liver cell nuclei of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice of the same age were compared. Dried DNA samples were examined in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an all-reflecting objective (ARO) and adequate software. Conclusions/Significance Changes in DNA cytosine methylation levels induced by hyperglycemia in mouse liver cells produced changes in the respective DNA FT-IR profiles, revealing modifications to the vibrational intensities and frequencies of several chemical markers, including ?as –CH3 stretching vibrations in the 5-methylcytosine methyl group. A smaller band area reflecting lower energy absorbed in the DNA was found in the hyperglycemic mice and assumed to be related to the lower levels of –CH3 groups. Other spectral differences were found at 1700–1500 cm?1 and in the fingerprint region, and a slight change in the DNA conformation at the lower DNA methylation levels was suggested for the hyperglycemic mice. The changes that affect cytosine methylation levels certainly affect the DNA-protein interactions and, consequently, gene expression in liver cells from the hyperglycemic NOD mice. PMID:25019512

  15. Experimental and analytical determination of characteristics affecting light aircraft landing-gear dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Pappas, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine which characteristics of a light aircraft landing gear influence gear dynamic behavior significantly. The investigation focused particularly on possible modification for load control. Pseudostatic tests were conducted to determine the gear fore-and-aft spring constant, axial friction as a function of drag load, brake pressure-torque characteristics, and tire force-deflection characteristics. To study dynamic tire response, vertical drops were conducted at impact velocities of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 m/s onto a level surface; to determine axial-friction effects, a second series of vertical drops were made at 1.5 m/s onto surfaces inclined 5 deg and 10 deg to the horizontal. An average dynamic axial-friction coefficient of 0.15 was obtained by comparing analytical data with inclined surface drop test data. Dynamic strut bending and associated axial friction were found to be severe for the drop tests on the 10 deg surface.

  16. How a Married Woman`s Characteristics Affect her Contraceptive Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Khan, Tasnim

    In Pakistan, population growth rate is 2.2% and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is as high as 5.4. It is the result of low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of only 28%. Due to low CPR, women have high rate of unwanted births in Pakistan. In this study using probit estimation on primary data, we have analyzed the woman=s characteristics responsible for low contraceptive prevalence among married women in urban areas of Punjab (Pakistan). For the purpose one thousand married women in the age group of 15-49 years, who were not currently pregnant were interviewed from urban areas of Bahawalpur and Lahore. The individual characteristics of married women were focused, although household characteristics, socio-economic conditions of the community where woman is living, religious and cultural factors are also important. It is found that age of woman, education of woman, woman`s status, her economic activity, income level and age at marriage were found major determinants of contraceptive prevalence in women. The policies towards the education of women, status of women, labor force participation of women and legal interventions towards the increase in marriage age are stressed to increase the CPR.

  17. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its ecosystem services. PMID:21930336

  19. Intrauterine growth retardation affects expression and epigenetic characteristics of the rat hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xingrao; Schober, Michelle E; McKnight, Robert A; O'Grady, Shannon; Caprau, Diana; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; Lane, Robert H

    2010-07-01

    Studies in humans and rats suggest that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) permanently resets the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis reprogramming may involve persistently altered expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (hpGR), an important regulator of HPA axis reactivity. Persistent alteration of gene expression, long after the inciting event, is thought to be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that affect mRNA and mRNA variant expression. GR mRNA variants in both humans and rats include eleven 5'-end variants and GRalpha, the predominant 3'-end variant. The 3'-end variants associated with glucocorticoid resistance in humans (GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP) have not been reported in rats. We hypothesized that in the rat hippocampus IUGR would decrease total GR mRNA, increase GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP, and affect epigenetics of the GR gene at birth (D0) and at 21 days of life (D21). IUGR increased hpGR and exon 1.7 hpGR mRNA in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased trimethyl H3/K4 at exon 1.7 at both time points. IUGR also increased hpGRgamma in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased acetyl H3/K9 at exon 3 at both time points. hpGRA increased in female IUGR rats at D0 and D21. In addition, our data support the existence of hpGRbeta and hpGRP in the rat. IUGR has sex-specific, persistent effects on GR expression and its histone code. We speculate that postnatal changes in hippocampal GR variant and total mRNA expression may underlie IUGR-associated HPA axis reprogramming. PMID:20388836

  20. Does Spatial Variation in Soil Characteristics Affect Tree Transpiration Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traver, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Loranty, M.; Mackay, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) both depends on and influences the local and regional atmospheric conditions. Because soil is the source of water for Ec, the soil's chemical and physical properties are also likely to be drivers of transpiration. The objective of this study is to spatially quantify the relationship between the soil's chemical and physical characteristics and Ec across environmental gradients. The two study sites are in northern Wisconsin, in mixed hardwood forest. In one site, the environmental gradient runs from a dry upland dominated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) to a wetland dominated by alders (Alnus rugosa). The second site has little elevational variation, is well-drained, and is dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bisected by a swath of red pine (Pinus resinosa). Ec data have been collected over three summers on the same set of trees using Granier sensors, while the soil samples were collected in 2006 from the same plots as the measured trees. Both of the approximately 120 m x 120 m plots have been sampled in 10 m x 10 m subplots based on a 3/7 cyclic sampling scheme to maximize spatially explicit information with a minimum number of sampled points. Roughly 150 trees were measured in each plot. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between the spatial autocorrelation of Ec and vapor pressure deficit (D). We thus hypothesize that a significant amount of this relationship can be explained by soil properties. Preliminary analysis of soil data from a representative transect in the aspen site show that soil texture, carbon (C) content, and nitrogen (N) content change along the gradient. From the upland through the wetland, Ec declined significantly, and, while all the soils were a sandy loam, the sand content showed a decreasing trend, while the silt content increased nearly two-fold. Across the same (upland to wetland) gradient, the C:N ratio showed a slightly increasing trend, but the total percentage values of the two elements increased nearly 25 fold: from C of 0.884 and N of 0.060 to C of 22.34 and N of 1.283. We hypothesize that the maple site will show less variability in Ec because of its more uniform soil characteristics. Ongoing work of soil moisture release curves, bulk density, and root biomass will provide additional explanations of the spatial relationships between Ec and D. Our analytical approach, then, provides a first step in explaining the processes behind spatial patterns in transpiration.

  1. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Soil-solution speciation of Cd as affected by soil characteristics in unpolluted and polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Meers, Erik; Unamuno, Virginia; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Geebelen, Wouter; Samson, Roeland; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Diels, Ludo; Ruttens, Ann; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip

    2005-03-01

    Total metal content by itself is insufficient as a measure to indicate actual environmental risk. Understanding the mobility of heavy metals in the soil and their speciation in the soil solution is of great importance for accurately assessing environmental risks posed by these metals. In a first explorative study, the effects of general soil characteristics on Cd mobility were evaluated and expressed in the form of empirical formulations. The most important factors influencing mobility of Cd proved to be pH and total soil content. This may indicate that current legislation expressing the requirement for soil sanitation in Flanders (Belgium) as a function of total soil content, organic matter, and clay does not successfully reflect actual risks. Current legal frameworks focusing on total content, therefore, should be amended with criteria that are indicative of metal mobility and availability and are based on physicochemical soil properties. In addition, soil-solution speciation was performed using two independent software packages (Visual Minteq 2.23 and Windermere Humic Aqueous model VI [WHAM VI]). Both programs largely were in agreement in concern to Cd speciation in all 29 soils under study. Depending on soil type, free ion and the organically complexed forms were the most abundant species. Additional inorganic soluble species were sulfates and chlorides. Minor species in solution were in the form of nitrates, hydroxides, and carbonates, the relative importance of which was deemed insignificant in comparison to the four major species. PMID:15779747

  3. Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Qiantori, Andri; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Background Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. Findings We present 26 tetanus patients who were admitted to eight hospitals following the earthquakes that occurred on May, 27, 2006, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The independent variables were age, gender, distance, admission, hospitalization, and type of hospital with the dependent variable surviving or perishing. Data were analyzed by logistic regression methods on SPSS 17.0. The distance from the patient's place of residence to the hospital were obtained and analyzed by using geospatial tools MapInfo 7.8 SCP and Global Mapper 7. Eight of the 26 patients were dead (30.8%) and statistical results showed that the distance (OR = 1.740, 95% CI = 1.068–2.835) and type of hospital (OR = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.001–3.520) were significant predictors of death. Conclusion Our findings show that in order to reduce the mortality rates, performing triage systems based on the distance and type of hospital priority for internally displaced persons could be proposed as well as making provisions for the generally old population in order to prevent an outbreak of tetanus following earthquakes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PMID:19284531

  4. Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of…

  5. Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

  6. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 ?L L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. PMID:24731335

  7. Performance, gut morphology and carcass characteristics of fattening rabbits as affected by particle size of pelleted diets.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Desantis, Salvatore; Zizza, Sara; Laudadio, Vito

    2010-10-01

    A review of past literature revealed inconsistencies in recommended feed particle size for optimal growth and productive performance of rabbits. Changing diet formulation and subsequent processing conditions may improve pellet texture and potentially affect rabbit performance. In the current study, two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous pelleted diets were formulated, which varied in the particle size of the concentrates (2 and 8 mm, respectively). The objective was to evaluate the effect of different particle sizes of compound diets on performance, nutrient utilisation, gut morphology, and carcass characteristics of fattening Italian White breed rabbits. The finely ground diet led to a significant improvement in feed efficiency and apparent digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and NDF, without any negative effect on gut morphology. Furthermore, a smaller particle size of concentrates in pelleted diets improved carcass traits. Meat colour parameters showed significant differences in longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris due to dietary treatments, but in both muscles pH values 1 h and 24 h after slaughter remained unchanged. It is concluded that a finely ground pelleted diet can be used to improve growth performance of rabbits without affecting carcass parameters. PMID:21114233

  8. Immigration rates and species niche characteristics affect the relationship between species richness and habitat heterogeneity in modeled meta-communities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationship between habitat heterogeneity and species richness is a cornerstone of ecology. Recently, it was suggested that this relationship should be unimodal rather than linear due to a tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and population sizes. Increased environmental heterogeneity will decrease effective habitat sizes, which in turn will increase the rate of local species extinctions. The occurrence of the unimodal richness–heterogeneity relationship at the habitat scale was confirmed in both empirical and theoretical studies. However, it is unclear whether it can occur at broader spatial scales, for meta-communities in diverse and patchy landscapes. Here, I used a spatially explicit meta-community model to quantify the roles of two species-level characteristics, niche width and immigration rates, on the type of the richness–heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale. I found that both positive and unimodal richness–heterogeneity relationships can occur in meta-communities in patchy landscapes. The type of the relationship was affected by the interactions between inter-patch immigration rates and species’ niche widths. Unimodal relationships were prominent in meta-communities comprising species with wide niches but low inter-patch immigration rates. In contrast, meta-communities consisting of species with narrow niches and high immigration rates exhibited positive relationships. Meta-communities comprising generalist species are therefore likely to exhibit unimodal richness-heterogeneity relationships as long as low immigration rates prevent rescue effects and patches are small. The richness-heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale is dictated by species’ niche widths and inter-patch immigration rates. These immigration rates, in turn, depend on the interaction between species dispersal capabilities and habitat connectivity, highlighting the roles of both species traits and landscape structure in generating the richness–heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale. PMID:25780779

  9. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp?+?P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr?+?P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp?+?P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr?+?P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  10. Investigation of the Relationship of Affective Characteristics and Cognitive Skills to the Maintenance of Grade Level in a Statewide Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Cheryl W.; Mullen, Gail S.

    This paper summarizes a longitudinal study which analyzes cognitive performance and affective characteristics of students in relation to their maintenance of grade level. The SRA Achievement and Thorndike-Lorge Intelligence instruments were used in the 1969-70 cognitive testing of seventh-grade students. Comparable testing of these students in…

  11. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  12. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  13. Characteristic of heat affected zone in thin gold wire and dynamic transient analysis of wire bonding for microstructure of Cu\\/Low-K wafer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Chieh Chin; Chin-Yuan Hu; Hsiang-Chen Hsu; Shen-Li Fu; Chang-Lin Yeh; Yi-Shao Lai

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the tensile mechanical properties of thin gold wire before\\/after electric flame-off process have been investigated by self-design pull test fixture. Microstructure characteristics of free air ball (FAB) and heat affected zone (HAZ) are also studied. The accurate experimental material data should be reflected as input for precise finite element analysis. Numerical model based on explicit time

  14. Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

    2010-01-01

    1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

  15. Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Wubbels, Theo; Bergen, Theo; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dyads). A mixed-method approach was adopted…

  16. Research on the Noise Barrier Height Change of the Monoline Viaduct Affecting the Aerodynamic Characteristic of High Speed Train

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbin Luo; Zhigang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Viaducts are widely used in the modern high speed railway construction. In order to ensure the high speed train running safely, passenger's comfort and environment protecting, it is essential that the aerodynamic characteristic of the high speed train moving on the viaduct will been researched. These researches will provide some engineering reference for the high speed railway construction. The studying

  17. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  18. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

  19. Seed characteristics and soil surface patch type interact to affect germination of semi-arid woodland species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber L. Briggs; John W. Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are common in many arid and semi-arid regions and they can alter microenvironments which are likely\\u000a to directly and indirectly influence vascular plant establishment. The effect of biological soil crusts on germination is\\u000a also influenced by the biological characteristics of the seeds themselves but rarely have the effects of both crust type and\\u000a seed morphology on germination

  20. How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when associations between WebChoice use and each user characteristic were analyzed separately. High use of all components was associated with low levels of social support among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. High use of e-messages, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of depression among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. For men with prostate cancer (but not women with breast cancer), high use of symptom assessments, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of symptom distress. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be attributed to differences related to diagnosis, gender, or both. Conclusions This study provides evidence that different user characteristics are associated with different use patterns. Such information is crucial to target Web-based support systems to different patient groups. LCA is a useful technique to identify subgroups of users. In our study, e-messages and self-management advice were highly used components for patients who had low levels of social support and high illness burden, suggesting that patients with these characteristics may find such tools particularly useful. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00710658; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00710658 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6EmEWZiwz) PMID:23454601

  1. Dysmenorrhea Characteristics of Female Students of Health School and Affecting Factors and Their Knowledge and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods.

    PubMed

    Midilli, Tulay Sagkal; Yasar, Eda; Baysal, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the menstruation and dysmenorrhea characteristics and the factors affecting dysmenorrhea of health school students, and the knowledge and use of the methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) on the part of those students with dysmenorrhea. This is a descriptive study. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the number, percentage, mean, Pearson ?, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 488 female students participated in the research and 87.7% (n = 428) of all students experienced dysmenorrhea. It was detected that a family history of dysmenorrhea and regular menstrual cycles of the students were dysmenorrhea-affecting factors (P < .05). Seven of 10 students with dysmenorrhea used CAM methods. Heat application of CAM methods for dysmenorrhea management was the most commonly used and also known by the students. The students who experienced severe pain used analgesics (P < .05) and CAM methods (P < .05). PMID:26086463

  2. The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type. PMID:23313671

  3. Does preoperative gabapentin affects the characteristics of post-dural puncture headache in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Walid Hamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gabapentin is effective for treating different types of headache including post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), also used for prophylaxis against migraine. We studied the effect of pre-operative administration of gabapentin on the characteristics of PDPH in parturients undergoing cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive preoperative gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 ?g fentanyl. Babies were followed up by Apgar scores, umbilical artery blood gases, breastfeeding difficulties, and need for NICU admission. The mothers were followed up for any side-effects of gabapentin for 24 h. Patients with PDPH were re-admitted and onset and duration of the headache were reported and severity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 days from diagnosis. Paracetamol with caffeine and diclofenac were given for treatment, and the doses were adjusted according to VAS; also number of doses given for each group was recorded. Results: Eighty eight patients were randomized, and 2 were excluded. The incidence of headache and co-existing symptoms were similar in both groups. The onset of headache was significantly delayed in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). Also, severity and duration of headache were significantly less in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). The incidence of sedation was more in gabapentin group 11 (26.19%) versus placebo group 3 (6.81%). Neonatal outcomes were statistically insignificant between both groups. Conclusion: Pre-operative administration of gabapentin has no effect on incidence of (PDPH) but delays its onset and reduces its severity and duration in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia without significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby. PMID:25191187

  4. Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M., Jr.; Buszka, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Dissolved-solids loads increased from 1986 to 1988 at nine streamflow water-quality stations on the upper Colorado River and its tributaries between Lake J.B. Thomas and O.H. Ivie Reservoir. About 51 percent of the dissolved-solids load to E.V. Spence Reservoir resulted from saline-water outflow from Natural Dam Salt Lake on Beals Creek. The concen- tration of dissolved solids in streamflow generally decreased in the downstream direction as flows increased in all reaches of the river and its tributaries. The estimated disolved-solids concen- tration exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter for water from about 233 of 386 wells and springs for which specific conductance was measured in 1986. The mean concentration for all wells was about 1,750 milligrams per liter. Mixing with brine associated with oil and gas producton is a major process affecting the salinity of streamflow and shallow-aquifer water. Dissolution of gypsum and pyrite contributed to salinity of water in shallow aquifers because of the presence of these minerals in most formations. Some salinity in streamflow and shallow-aquifer water was attributed to evapotranspiration in areas where water was close to land surface, in irrigated areas, and along streams. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in water samples from shallow aquifers as classified using salt-norm analysis. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinatoins.

  5. Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Coal constitutes a large proportion of total energy supply in the world. Coalbed Methane (CBM) composes the greenhouse gases, which has attracted more and more scientists' concern and attention. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM on high-rank deformed coals are in favor of enhancing gas recovery, reducing coal mining accidents and carbon emission. Although the influence factors of CBM adsorption/desorption on different coals have been intensively studied, the combined action of metamorphism and deformation on high-rank coals have been rarely researched. Nevertheless. Metamorphism and deformation are the most fundamental driving forces that cause the changes of inner structures and compositions in coal strata, and then alter the adsorption/desorption capacities of CBM on different coalbeds. South of Qinshui Basin in Shanxi province developed with abundant high-rank coals is the first demonstrate area of CBM development in China. Meanwhile Southwest of Fujian province represents high metamorphic-deformed coals region due to the intense volcanic activities. Therefore samples were taken in both areas to elaborate the adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM. Based on hand specimens description, coal macerals testing, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and vitrinite reflectance testing, the physical properties and composition characteristics of high-rank deformed coals have been studied. Combined with liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, the results show that nano-pores increase and become homogenization with metamorphic-deformation enhancement, stacking of the macromolecular basic structural units (BSU) enhances, aromatic compound increases while aliphatic chain compound and oxygen-containing function groups decrease. Comparing to coal adsorption/desorption isotherm experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

  6. Low-quality roughages in high-concentrate pelleted diets for sheep: digestion and metabolism characteristics as affected by corncob and(or) rice hull additions.

    PubMed

    Kinser, A R; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1988-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of feeding corncobs, rice hulls or a combination of both on nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-cannulated sheep (55-kg Rambouillet X Dorset rams; trial 1; 4 X 4 Latin square) as well as ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (24.1-kg crossbred rams; trial 2; randomized complete block design; 3 periods) fed pelleted 75% concentrate-25% roughage diets. In trial 1, apparent total tract dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities decreased and N digestibility increased as percentage of dietary corncobs decreased and percentage of rice hulls increased. Site of NDF digestion appeared to shift from the upper to the lower digestive tract as percentage of corncobs decreased and percentage of rice hulls increased. In trial 2, apparent DM digestibility decreased as corncobs were replaced with rice hulls in the diet. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was not affected by diet except in larger lambs at higher intakes, with NDF digestibility generally decreasing as percentage of dietary rice hulls increased. Nitrogen digestibility was not affected by replacing corncobs with rice hulls in the diet. Ruminal pH decreased as rice hulls replaced corncobs in the diet. These data are interpreted to indicate that rice hulls can be effectively substituted for corncobs in sheep diets when added at levels up to 25% of the total diet. PMID:2836352

  7. Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

  8. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

  9. How do care-provider and home exercise program characteristics affect patient adherence in chronic neck and back pain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of people with chronic neck or low back pain about how characteristics of home exercise programs and care-provider style during clinical encounters may affect adherence to exercises. Methods This is a qualitative study consisting of seven focus groups, with a total of 34 participants presenting chronic neck or low back pain. The subjects were included if they were receiving physiotherapy treatment and were prescribed home-based exercises. Results Two themes emerged: home-based exercise programme conditions and care provider's style. In the first theme, the participants described their positive and negative experiences regarding time consumption, complexity and effects of prescribed exercises. In the second theme, participants perceived more bonding to prescribed exercises when their care provider presented knowledge about the disease, promoted feedback and motivation during exercise instruction, gave them reminders to exercise, or monitored their results and adherence to exercises. Conclusions Our experiential findings indicate that patient's adherence to home-based exercise is more likely to happen when care providers' style and the content of exercise programme are positively experienced. These findings provide additional information to health care providers, by showing which issues should be considered when delivering health care to patients presenting chronic neck or back pain. PMID:20219095

  10. [Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Hui; Fan, Jun; Qi, Li-Bin; Hao, Ming-De

    2010-12-01

    By the soil respiration system, the characteristics of soil respiration were investigated to explore the correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil water and soil nutrient under different land use patterns in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the seasonal changing characteristics of soil respiration were distinguished significantly among different vegetations, and soil water content and temperature were the main influencing factors. Soil respiration seasonal changing ranges, such as bare land, crop land, Medicago sativa land, Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned wild grass land, Stipa bungeana land, wild grass land, degraded Medicago sativa land, sloping Medicago sativa land, sloping abandoned wild grass land, sloping crop land and terraced crop land, were 0.32-0.82, 0.41-2.83, 0.74-2.81, 0.76-3.07, 0.67-2.79, 0.51-2.12, 0.56-2.05, 0.59-1.66, 0.42-2.09, 0.31-1.86, 0.32-1.93 and 0.41-3.17 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Comparing seasonal changing magnitudes of soil respiration, crop land was the biggest (167% - 203%), abandoned wild grass land (117% -154%), Caragana korshinskii land (134%), Stipa bungeana land (129%), Medicago sativa land (119%-120%) and bare land (94%) followed crop land. The smallest was degraded Medicago sativa land (92%). Bare land and degraded Medicago sativa land had small seasonal variation during the study period. Monthly average values of soil carbon flux (soil respiration) of Medicago sativa land and Caragana korshinskii land were maximal, but the maximum values under crop land were observed in July and August. Besides Q10 of crop land was also maximal, which reached 1.86. There were significant correlations between soil respiration and soil organic matter and available K. Moreover, soil respiration was affected by soil organic matter and total nitrogen in July and August when the water and heat condition were plentiful, but soil ammonium nitrogen had negative impact on soil respiration in the seasons when water and heat were not optimal. PMID:21360891

  11. Reprogramming of the transcriptome in a novel chromosome 3 transfer tumor suppressor ovarian cancer cell line model affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael C J; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N

    2009-07-01

    Tumor suppression as a consequence of the transfer of chromosome 3p fragments was previously observed in a novel epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) OV-90 cell line model harboring loss of 3p. Microarray analysis revealed that tumor suppression was associated with a modified transcriptome. To investigate the relevance of the altered transcriptome, the differentially expressed genes identified by Affymetrix analysis in the 3p transfer studies, were integrated with a comparative microarray analysis of normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells and malignant ovarian (TOV) cancers. Data from 219 significantly differentially expressed genes exhibited patterns in the direction predicted by the analysis of 3p transfer study. The 30 genes with the highest statistically significant differences (P < 1 x 10(-8)) in expression were found consistently differentially expressed between NOSE and TOV samples. The investigation of these genes in benign serous ovarian tumors and EOC cell lines also exhibited predictable expression patterns. Within the group of differentially expressed genes were SPARC, DAB2, CP, EVI1, ELF3, and EHD2, known to play a role in ovarian cancer, genes implicated in other cancers, such as GREM1 and GLIPR1, as well as genes not previously reported in a cancer context such as AKAP2 and ATAD4. A number of the differentially expressed genes are implicated in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the reprogramming of the transcriptome that occurred as a consequence of the chromosome 3 transfer and tumor suppression affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian carcinogenesis thus validating our novel ovarian cancer cell line model. PMID:19123201

  12. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  13. Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-09-01

    The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naïve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524

  14. Ceramsite made with water and wastewater sludge and its characteristics affected by SiO2 and Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoren; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Guibai

    2008-10-01

    To solve the disposal problems of residual sludges, wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS) were tested as components for production of ceramsite. SiO2 and Al2O3 were the major acidic oxides in WWTS and DWTS, so their effect on characteristics of ceramsite was also investigated to optimize the process. Results show that WWTS and DWTS can be utilized as resources for producing ceramsite with optimal contents of SiO2 and Al203 ranging 14-26% and 22.5-45%, respectively. Ceramsite within the optimal SiO2 and Al2O3 contents ranges was characterized using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphological structures analyses, and compressive strength measurements. Significant weight loss below 600 degrees C is through the release of structural water and gases. Bloating and crystallization in ceramsite above 900 degrees C are caused by the oxidation and volatilization of inorganic substances. Higher strength ceramsite with less Na-Ca feldspars and amorphous silica and more densified surfaces can be obtained at 18% < or = Al203 < or = 26% and 30% < or = SiO2 < or = 45%, while porous ceramsite with complex crystalline phases and lower strength can be obtained at 14% < or = Al2O3 < 18% and 22.5% < or = SiO2 < 30%. This revolutionary technology of utilization of WWTS and DWTS can produce high performance ceramsite, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. PMID:18939580

  15. Morphology and enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 are affected by the physical and structural characteristics of cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Peciulyte, Ausra; Anasontzis, George E; Karlström, Katarina; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-11-01

    The industrial production of cellulolytic enzymes is dominated by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina). In order to develop optimal enzymatic cocktail, it is of importance to understand the natural regulation of the enzyme profile as response to the growth substrate. The influence of the complexity of cellulose on enzyme production by the microorganisms is not understood. In the present study we attempted to understand how different physical and structural properties of cellulose-rich substrates affected the levels and profiles of extracellular enzymes produced by T. reesei. Enzyme production by T. reesei Rut C-30 was studied in submerged cultures on five different cellulose-rich substrates, namely, commercial cellulose Avicel® and industrial-like cellulosic pulp substrates which consist mainly of cellulose, but also contain residual hemicellulose and lignin. In order to evaluate the hydrolysis of the substrates by the fungal enzymes, the spatial polymer distributions were characterised by cross-polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR) in combination with spectral fitting. Proteins in culture supernatants at early and late stages of enzyme production were labeled by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and protein profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001304. In total 124 proteins were identified and quantified in the culture supernatants, including cellulases, hemicellulases, other glycoside hydrolases, lignin-degrading enzymes, auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) family (formerly GH61), supporting activities of proteins and enzymes acting on cellulose, proteases, intracellular proteins and several hypothetical proteins. Surprisingly, substantial differences in the enzyme profiles were found even though there were minor differences in the chemical composition between the cellulose-rich substrates. PMID:25093270

  16. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  17. The framework of product affection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Q. Mao; Y. H. Zhou; H. B. Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for the process underlying emotional responses that result from the perception of products. The framework distinguishes different kinds of product affection on the basis of emotional psychology. Accordingly, the product affection is divided into three levels: the reflection emotional level, the basic emotional level, the emotional senior level. By revealing the characteristics of the

  18. Cognitive characteristics and homosexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Willmott; Harry Brierley

    1984-01-01

    There have been many studies of psychological characteristics of homosexuals, but cognitive characteristics have been relatively neglected. This study investigated the verbal intelligence of 20 homosexual males, 20 heterosexual males, and 20 females, taking into account variables likely to affect verbal ability such as social class and handedness. There were no differences in overall IQ, but group differences in verbal

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  20. Positive affect and psychobiological processes.

    PubMed

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes is independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes. PMID:20097225

  1. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  2. Leisure constraints which affect continued nonresident hunter participation 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Kathrine Helen

    1994-01-01

    This thesis provides information about Texas nonresident hunter characteristics and uses a leisure constraints model to determine whether intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints affect continued nonresident hunting participation...

  3. WATER CONDITIONS AFFECTING AQUATIC LIFE IN ELEPHANT BUTTE RESERVOIRl

    E-print Network

    WATER CONDITIONS AFFECTING AQUATIC LIFE IN ELEPHANT BUTTE RESERVOIRl .;1. By M. M. ELLlB, PH. D______________________________________________________________________ 257 Field operations ._______________ 258 Water characteristics, Elephant Butte Reservoi

  4. Teacher Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Ralph F., Jr.

    This paper focuses primarily on the more prominent teacher characteristics research published in the latter half of the 1980s. Literature on the characteristics of elementary, secondary, and college-level teachers is reviewed. Demographic data suggest that today's public school teachers are older and more experienced, and have more years of…

  5. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

  6. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  7. Affective Learning — A Manifesto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

    2004-01-01

    The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

  8. DIS2002 | 87 affective computation, affective interaction,

    E-print Network

    Höök, Kristina

    ] Affective computation, or the development of computational systems which can be aware of and respond-used integrative cognitive theory of emotion of Ortony, Clore and Collins, for example, defines emotions in terms of emotions [15]. Ark's Emotion Mouse extends a normal computer mouse to deduce users' emotional states from

  9. Factors affecting molecular characteristics of whey protein gelation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce I. Boye; Inteaz Alli; Ashraf A. Ismail; Bernard F. Gibbs; Yasuo Konishi

    1995-01-01

    The effects of pH, protein concentration, NaCl, heating temperature and time on the gelation of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and the associated changes in the molecular conformation of the individual whey proteins were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Heat denaturation was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained showed

  10. Factors affecting the characteristics and utilization of sorghum silage 

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Ronnie Edwin

    1977-01-01

    /75) found that 1. 25-1. 53-", ' (. z/w) propionic acid was reouired for the safe stora"-e of hish moi ture ear corn for up to one year. Another apparent result of or anic acid treatment, is a lardier dry matter recovery as compared to non-treated sila-es... with no preservative added. The other half were ensiled with propionic acid added at a rate of two percent w/w. This resulted in a total of 2&0 sila=e samples. uach sample was packed, capped and ensiled in F00 gm TAdLE 1. PROXIlLKTE ANALYSIS OF FR'SH PLANT l4AT...

  11. Spray characteristics affected by physical properties of adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four drift adjuvants, Array, In-Place, Vector and Control, were tested and physical properties and spray spectrum parameters measured. Array had the highest conductivity, indicating a good potential for the electrostatic charging, and the highest shear viscosity. All adjuvants had very similar neut...

  12. Factors Affecting the Starting Characteristics of Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    This report summarizes the effects of fuel volatility and engine design variables on the problem of starting gas-turbine engines at sea-level and altitude conditions. The starting operation for engines with tubular combustors is considered as three steps; namely, (1) ignition of a fuel-air mixture in the combustor, (2) propagation of flame through cross-fire tubes to all combustors, and (3) acceleration of the engine from windmilling or starting speed to the operating speed range. Pertinent data from laboratory researches, single-combustor studies, and full-scale engine investigations are presented on each phase of the starting problem.

  13. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marília C; Araújo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly-before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status. PMID:26135475

  14. Characteristics Affecting Expression and Solubilization of Yeast Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.; Dumont, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical and structural analysis of membrane proteins often critically depends on the ability to overexpress and solubilize them. To identify properties of eukaryotic membrane proteins that may be predictive of successful overexpression, we analyzed expression levels of the genomic complement of over 1,000 predicted membrane proteins in a recently completed Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein expression library. We detected statistically significant positive and negative correlations between high membrane protein expression and protein properties such as size, overall hydrophobicity, number of transmembrane helices, and amino acid composition of transmembrane segments. Although expression levels of membrane and soluble proteins exhibited similar negative correlations with overall hydrophobicity, high-level membrane protein expression was positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. To further characterize yeast membrane proteins as potential targets for structure determination, we tested the solubility of 122 of the highest expressed yeast membrane proteins in six commonly used detergents. Almost all the tested proteins could be solubilized using a small number of detergents. Solubility in some detergents depended on protein size, number of transmembrane segments, and hydrophobicity of predicted transmembrane segments. These results suggest that bioinformatic approaches may be capable of identifying membrane proteins that are most amenable to overexpression and detergent solubilization for structural and biochemical analyses. Bioinformatic approaches could also be used in the redesign of proteins that are not intrinsically well-adapted to such studies. PMID:17078969

  15. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

  16. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  17. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

    2006-11-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice. PMID:17111890

  18. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  19. Affective forecasting under uncertainty 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Mei

    2012-11-28

    Affective forecasting denotes the ability to predict one’s own future emotions. Past research indicates that the predictions are generally not precise and people either overestimate or underestimate their emotions. People ...

  20. Weather affects us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimmy

    2009-11-09

    2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

  1. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  2. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  3. Forces Affecting Educational Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Neil V.

    This speech begins with a discussion of broad social and political patterns and trends that are currently developing and continues to the specific unresolved social issues which will affect the nature and structure of educational systems. Those issues seen by the author is most likely to produce the greatest amount of activity are integration, the…

  4. Affect and altruism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert S. Moore; Bill Underwood; D. L. Rosenhan

    1973-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between affect and altruism in 7- and 8-yr-old middle-class white children (N = 48 males and 24 females). Ss were asked to think of things that made them happy or sad, or they were assigned to control conditions. Ss were then given an opportunity to donate money to other children in the E's absence. In accord with

  5. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  6. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  7. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  8. Cholesterol and affective morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess G. Fiedorowicz; Narasimha M. Palagummi; Ole Behrendtsen; William H. Coryell

    2010-01-01

    Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake.

  9. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  10. Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.

    E-print Network

    Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.

    1952-01-01

    LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation...-following Alabama and North Carolina. Second only to flavor in the importance of eating quality is the body of butter. Body is evaluated by the consumer by the manner in which the butter melts or spreads. It is often considered that cows eating cottonseed...

  11. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  12. Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-05-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

  13. Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aiesha; Simmons, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) may occur in association with a variety of neurological diseases, and so may be encountered in the setting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. The psychological consequences and the impact on social interactions may be substantial. Although it is most commonly misidentified as a mood disorder, particularly depression or a bipolar disorder, there are characteristic features that can be recognized clinically or assessed by validated scales, resulting in accurate identification of PBA, and thus permitting proper management and treatment. Mechanistically, PBA is a disinhibition syndrome in which pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted. This knowledge has permitted effective treatment for many years with antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A recent therapeutic breakthrough occurred with the approval by the Food and Drug Administration of a dextromethorphan/quinidine combination as being safe and effective for treatment of PBA. Side effect profiles and contraindications differ for the various treatment options, and the clinician must be familiar with these when choosing the best therapy for an individual, particularly elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications. PMID:24348042

  14. The Complexity of Boolean Functions in Different Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parikshit Gopalan; Amir Shpilka; Shachar Lovett

    2010-01-01

    .  Every Boolean function on n variables can be expressed as a unique multivariate polynomial modulo p for every prime p. In this work, we study how the degree of a function in one characteristic affects its complexity in other characteristics.\\u000a We establish the following general principle: functions with low degree modulo p must have high complexity in every other characteristic

  15. The biological affects: a typology.

    PubMed

    Buck, R

    1999-04-01

    This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects. PMID:10378015

  16. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  17. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  18. Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest. 

    E-print Network

    James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    calves and should not affect thp F. mates of price difference associated with the characteristics.1 Prices differed by about 5 percent between v : #1 and #2 and between Okie #2 and #3 gr:! Prices differed about 12 percent between Okie 5.... west. Under a given level of prices, variations in cr prices would be expected to result from two print- sources: (1) Variations in animal characteristics - grade, market class and breed type; (2) Variations in non-animal characte market location...

  19. Expanding the link between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Stumpp; Ute R. Hülsheger; Peter M. Muck; Günter W. Maier

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the differentiated relationship between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes. In previous research, job characteristics were proposed to mediate this relationship. However, the facets of the job characteristics model have not yet been assessed separately. In the present study we tested which job characteristics (i.e., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) mediate the

  20. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

  1. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: imaging characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Krajewski, Katherine; O’Regan, Kevin; Zukotynski, Katherine; Kulke, Matthew; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The accurate diagnosis of adult pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma necessitates a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical history, biochemical testing, and multimodality imaging such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine studies. This review illustrates the different imaging characteristics of primary adult pheochromocytomas as well as both sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas. The review also describes known genetic associations and shows common metastatic patterns. Knowledge of the diverse appearance of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas can result in early initial diagnosis or detection of disease recurrence thereby affecting patient management and prognosis. PMID:22571874

  2. Characteristics of Learning Disabilities: A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara G.

    Based on an empirical study of over 3,000 learning disabled children and on a review of research, the paper outlines intellectual, attention and verbal mediation, social-affective, and oral and written characteristics of learning disabled students. Among the findings reported are the following: the median educational retardation is one grade below…

  3. Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

    Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

  4. INCIPIENT MOTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Ansari; U. C. Kothyari; K. G. Ranga Raju

    2007-01-01

    Results of an experimental study on incipient motion characteristics of cohesive sediments are presented. Cohesive sediments used consisted of medium sand mixed with Illite clay in different proportions. Incipient motion condition of thus formed cohesive sediment bed was identified through visual observations. Antecedent moisture content, clay content, plasticity index and void ratio\\/dry density are found to be significant parameters affecting

  5. Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Centerbar; Simone Schnall; Gerald L. Clore; Erika D. Garvin

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between

  6. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  7. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  8. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxwell Kwenda

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students’ performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's overall grade point average (GPA) and the number of class days missed are

  9. Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

  10. The Affective Gatekeeper: A Synthesis of Perspectives on Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Dan S., III

    1979-01-01

    The article presents research reports on the nature of creativity, including such elements as its characteristics; the function of the affective gatekeeper (which filters the "reality" perceived by each individual); the constructs of perception; and the functions of role playing, altered states of consciousness, and fantasy. (PHR)

  11. Affective Dimension of Mother-Infant Picturebook Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores specific characteristics of insecure-avoidant, secure, and insecure-ambivalent mother-infant dyads (N=82) in the context of sharing a picturebook. Results support the view that early literacy skills are connected to a fundamentally social process. The learning/instruction process depends on the affective dimension of the infant-mother…

  12. Coping Behaviors and Managers' Affective Reactions to Role Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Cleek, Margaret A.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the role of adaptive versus maladaptive coping behaviors and personal characteristics in influencing the affective reactions of managers (N=204) to four role stressors. Results showed that maladaptive coping served to heighten the level of stress experienced in response to role ambiguity, quantitative overload, and qualitative overload.…

  13. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  14. Perfectionism affects change in psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Sauer, Eric M; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Roberts, Kristin E; Garrison, Angela M

    2015-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine how perfectionism affects psychological symptoms during the course of treatment. We examined session-by-session symptom changes in a sample of 105 adult clients who presented for counseling at a psychology training clinic housed at a large Midwestern university in the United States. Using a recently developed measure of perfectionism (Short Almost Perfect Scale [SAPS]) that possesses good psychometric features, we were able to investigate effects of both maladaptive (high self-criticism) and adaptive (high standards with low self-criticism) perfectionistic characteristics on indicators of personal and interpersonal psychological distress across time. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that both symptomatic distress and interpersonal problems improved over the course of therapy. Maladaptive perfectionism was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems and distress at the outset of therapy, and related differentially to change patterns in symptom distress and interpersonal problems over the course of treatment. Maladaptive perfectionism, however, was not related to level of symptoms at the end of therapy. Adaptive perfectionistic characteristics were associated with fewer interpersonal problems at the beginning and end of therapy. Results suggest the value of assessing perfectionistic characteristics at the onset of treatment, even for clients not presenting with obvious concerns linked to such individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:24866970

  15. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  16. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  17. [Emotions and affect in psychoanalysisis].

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Widlöcher, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to give some indications on the concept of affect in psychoanalysis. There is no single theory of affect, and Freud gave successive definitions, which continue to be deepened in contemporary psychoanalysis. We review some steps of Freud works on affect, then we look into some present major questions, such as its relationship to soma, the nature of unconscious affects and the repression of affect, which is particularly developed in the field of psychoanalytic psychosomatic. From Freud's definitions of affect as one of the drive representative and as a limit-concept between the somatic and the psychic, we develop some major theoretical perspectives, which give a central place to soma and drive impulses, and which agree on the major idea that affect is the result of a process. We then note some parallelism between psychoanalysis of affect and psychology and neurosciences of emotion, and underline the gaps and conditions of comparison between these different epistemological approaches. PMID:22713847

  18. Measurement of Family Affective Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…

  19. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement. PMID:24820517

  20. Castration Depression: Affect, Signal Affect, and/or Depressive Illness?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Les M

    2015-04-01

    The value of Charles Brenner's ideas regarding depression is assessed, focusing on the significance of castration depressive affect. His discussion of whether depression is an affect, a signal affect, or an illness is examined, with special emphasis on his failure to sufficiently address depression as an illness or disorder as defined by psychiatry. Clinical material from the analysis of a man who suffers from severe depression suggests that incorporating psychiatric concepts (biological and pharmacological) with modern conflict theory can be a useful way to understand and treat some patients with depression. Theoretical and clinical controversies associated with combining psychiatric/biological and psychoanalytic views of depression are examined. PMID:25922375

  1. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  2. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2005-12-08

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  3. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  4. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01

    : Jane Scil (Chair of Committee) Lisa Matthews (Memberi William Graziano (Memberi ogelio Saenz (Head of Department) MAY 2001 Major Subject: Sociology ABSTRACT How Intimacy Affects Resource Conceptualization. (May 2001) Allison L. Dunn, B. A...

  5. How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, KuoChung; Yuan, Jy-Chyi; Tsai, Chao-Hsu; Hsueh, Wen-Jean; Wang, Nai-Yueh

    2003-05-01

    The ghost-image issue induced by crosstalk in stereoscopic, especially autostereoscopic, display systems has been believed to be a major factor to jeopardize stereopsis. Nevertheless, it is found that in some cases the stereopsis remains effective even with serious crosstalk. In fact, many other factors, such as contrast ratio, disparity, and monocular cues of the images, play important roles in the fusion of stereo images. In this paper, we study the factors in an image that may affect stereo fusion, and provide a macroscopic point of view to get a reasonable criterion of system crosstalk. Both natural and computer-generated images are used for detailed evaluation. Image processing techniques are adopted to produce desired characteristics. The results of this research shall be of reference value to content makers of stereoscopic displays, in addition to their designers.

  6. Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating

    E-print Network

    Ambwani, Suman

    2009-05-15

    Characteristics???????????????????. 75 ix LISTOF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 VisualRepresentationof theExperimentalProcedure???????? 76 2 ResidualizedChangesinPANASNegativeAffect by BOR-statusand M&MsEaten???????????????????????? 77 3 ResidualizedChangesinPANASSadnessby BOR...

  7. Factors affecting static seat cushion comfort.

    PubMed

    Ebe, K; Griffin, M J

    2001-08-15

    To improve the understanding of factors affecting automobile seat cushion comfort in static conditions (i.e. without vibration), relationships between the static physical characteristics of a seat cushion and seat comfort have been investigated. The static seat comfort of four automobile cushions, with the same foam hardness but different foam compositions, was investigated using Scheffe's method of paired comparisons. The comfort judgements were correlated with sample stiffness, given by the gradient of a force-deflection curve at 490 N (= 50 kgf). Samples with lower stiffness were judged to be more comfortable than samples with greater stiffness. A similar comfort evaluation was conducted using five rectangular foam samples of the same composition but different foam hardness (and a wider range than in the first experiment). There was no linear relationship between the sample stiffness and seat comfort for these samples. Static seat cushion comfort seemed to be affected by two factors, a 'bottoming feeling' and a 'foam hardness feeling'. The bottoming feeling was reflected in the sample stiffness when loaded to 490 N, while the foam hardness feeling was reflected in foam characteristics at relatively low forces. The pressures underneath the buttocks of subjects were compared with the comfort judgements. The total pressure over a 4 cm x 4 cm area beneath the ischial bones was correlated with static seat comfort, even when the differences among samples were great; samples with less total pressure in this area were judged to be more comfortable than samples with greater total pressure. It is concluded that the pressure beneath the ischial bones may reflect both comfort factors: the bottoming feeling and the foam hardness feeling. PMID:11681792

  8. Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

    2011-08-01

    Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

  9. Family Intimacy and Affection: A Sociology of Positive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Floyd M.

    This paper deals with aspects of positive family affect in intimate family relationships such as: (1) the nuclear family of orientation, including the child-parent subgroup and the sibling subgroup; (2) the nuclear family of procreation, including the marital subgroup and parent-child subgroup; and (3) the dating relationship. Interpersonal…

  10. Affective Knowledge Representation (AKR) for Cooperative Affective Robots (CARS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Lisetti; Demetrios G. Glinos; Robin R. Murphy; Russ Tardif

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we describe an Affective Knowledge Representation (AKR) scheme to represent emotion schemata to be used in the design a variety of socially intelligent artificial agents. Our approach in this article and in the applications of our AKR scheme, focuses on the notion of ``social expertise'' of socially intelligent agents in terms of their 1) external behavior and

  11. Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

  12. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-12

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  13. Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

  14. Mothers' amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one's own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valen...

  15. Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs

    E-print Network

    Hoeinghaus, David J.

    Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

  16. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  17. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  18. Do Unions Affect Faculty Salaries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashraf, Javed

    1992-01-01

    Calculates the union relative wage effect for a large sample of college faculty in the United States. The data used are from "The 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate" and cover 4,250 faculty members at 158 institutions of higher education. Faculty characteristics are found to be more important in influencing salaries in nonunion schools than…

  19. Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting Livestock Lindsey Youngman, Kelly Moffett, Ryan Crawford, Taylor Arsenault #12;Hypothesis Pathogens that can be transmitted via multiple pathways are most likely to have a significant negative consequence on livestock. On the contrary, pathogens that are transmitted

  20. Does expectancy affect alcohol absorption?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Cole-Harding; Vicki J. Michels

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence alcohol absorption, yet few studies have addressed the issue of whether or not experimental manipulations themselves may affect alcohol absorption. The current balanced placebo design study comparing the expectancy effects of root beer and non-alcoholic beer vehicles resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels in the root beer condition than in the beer condition even though alcohol

  1. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  2. Factors affecting supplier quality performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Forker

    1997-01-01

    The interest among practitioners and researchers in quality management and other factors that may affect quality performance reflects the understanding that a firm's output (i.e., performance) can be only as good as the quality of its inputs. However, studies of the quality management-quality performance relationship have led to mixed results regarding the existence of a positive correlation between the two.

  3. Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

  4. Do Killer Electrons Affect You?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This full color tri-fold brochure answers questions about high energy particles in space and how they are produced, when and where they occur, and how they can affect us. It also includes lists of web and print resources for further study.

  5. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  6. Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER 24 Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity Jianguo Liu Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University, MI, USA INTRODUCTION Global biodiversity continues along a trajectory of the most biodiversity-rich countries in the world (Liu and Raven, 2010; Ministry of Environmental

  7. Coding changes could affect benchmarking.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    CMS intends to move to a severity-adjusted system for DRGs; number of codes may double. ICD-10 will allow for more specific codes, which could affect benchmark data. Understanding the new codes and data will be critical to uncovering opportunities for improvement. PMID:16925073

  8. Political Trends Affecting Nonmetropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Paul M.

    There are two stories about political trends affecting nonmetropolitan America. The old story, which is the story of declining rural population and declining rural influence on public policy formation, has its roots in early deliberations about governance in this country. Jefferson's republicanism focused on direct citizen involvement in decision…

  9. Neuroanatomical Evidence for Distinct Cognitive and Affective Components of Self

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Moran; C. N. Macrae; Todd F. Heatherton; C. L. Wyland; William M. Kelley

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether the cognitive and affective components of self-reflection can be dissociated using func- tional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a simple paradigm in which subjects judged the personal relevance of personality characteristics that were either favorable (e.g., ''honest'') or unfavorable (e.g., ''lazy''), we found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and

  10. Lead attenuation characteristics models.

    PubMed

    Lee, K L; Schick, D

    2009-12-01

    Lead attenuation characteristic curves are often consulted in premises radiation shielding assessments employing the non-destructive testing (NDT) method. This study developed lead attenuation characteristics mathematical models for the radionuclide Co-57. These models take into account the statistical variation of the attenuation characteristics. The results are a set of equations that a NDT assessor can use to predict the range of transmission factors for the NDT measurement or, using the inverse functions, to gauge the lead equivalence (with the associated uncertainty) of a radiation barrier. This study showed that the combined effect of types of statistical variations can form an uncertainty region on the transmission characteristics such that the relative uncertainty decreases for values of lead mass per unit area up to approximately 20 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2 for the Ludlum 18 and Ludlum 2241-2 survey meters respectively but thereafter increases. PMID:20169840

  11. AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

  12. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  13. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  14. Affective incoherence: When affective concepts and embodied reactions clash

    E-print Network

    Centerbar, David; Schnall, Simone; Clore, Gerald L.; Garvin, Erica

    2008-01-01

    action). Fo¨rster and Strack (1997) reasoned that the positive–negative associations to approach–avoidance behaviors and affective evaluation would lead to biased memory search. Indeed, arm flexion was associated with the generation of more positive names... (Neumann & Strack, 2000). The impor- tance of experiential factors in such phenomena is apparent from the fact that similar effects occur when people experience only the visual illusion that the valenced stimuli are approaching or reced- ing. It is often...

  15. Mixtures and Characteristic Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Klonecki, Witold

    1970-01-01

    Let g(u|c,y) = exp {y?ck(uk - 1)} with y > 0, ?k=0?ck = 1,|u| < 1, and c standing for {ck}, be a probability generating function of a nonnegative integer-valued random variable. Let S be a distribution function on (0, ?) non-degenerate at zero. The functions g and S determine another probability generating function, G(u|Sc) = ?0? gdS(y). One of the results obtained asserts that, if the sequence c is finite and the characteristic function of S is entire, then G determines uniquely both S and c. The assertion does not hold if these conditions are not satisfied. Another group of results refers to properties of characteristic functions. Let P(z) be a polynomial of degree m and f(z|y) = exp- {yP(z)}. The theorem of Marcinkiewicz asserts that with m > 2 the function f cannot be a characteristic function. It is shown that, if the characteristic function of S is entire, then F(z) = ?0? f(z|y)dS(y) can be characteristic function only if m ? 2. Again the assertion need not be true if the characteristic function of S is not entire. PMID:16591826

  16. Influence of Students' Characteristics and Feelings on Cognitive Achievement in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Theo; Hermans, Chris; Aarnoutse, Cor

    2008-01-01

    Whereas educational research has provided evidence that students' characteristics affect their performance, at this stage little is known about which characteristics influence their learning processes and achievement in religious education. This article looks into characteristics that influence students' cognitive achievement in religious…

  17. Food consumption as affect modulation in borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Morey, Leslie C

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessment and questionnaires assessing personality and eating attitudes/behaviors. Women reporting more borderline personality features exhibited greater negative affect across time and were more reactive to the sad film. Food presentation appeared to have a small ameliorative effect on sadness and general negative affect. However, quantity of food consumption was associated with improvements in mood only for women reporting higher levels of borderline personality features. These data suggest that women with borderline personality characteristics may be at elevated risk for developing problems with binge eating, because consuming larger quantities of food appeared to have a tempering effect on their negative mood and feelings of sadness. PMID:23445477

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction affecting visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Leruez, S; Amati-Bonneau, P; Verny, C; Reynier, P; Procaccio, V; Bonneau, D; Milea, D

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to cellular energetic impairment, which may affect the visual pathways, from the retina to retrochiasmal structures. The most common mitochondrial optic neuropathies include Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy, but the optic nerve can be affected in other syndromic conditions, such as Wolfram syndrome and Friedreich's ataxia. These disorders may result from mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA or in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Despite the inconstant genotype-phenotype correlations, a clinical classification of mitochondrial disorders may be made on the basis of distinct neuro-ophthalmic presentations such as optic neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy and retrochiasmal visual loss. Although no curative treatments are available at present, recent advances throw new light on the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders. Current research raises hopes for novel treatment of hereditary optic neuropathies, particularly through the use of new drugs and mitochondrial gene therapy. PMID:24798923

  19. What Variables Affect Crystal Growth?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students investigate variables that may influence the growth of crystals which they have learned to make. There are two options for implementing this activity. The first is open-ended, with the students deciding what variables affect crystal growth and then deciding on the manipulating variables they would like to study. The second is prescriptive and explains to students how to test three variables in making crystals: temperature, method of mixing (such as shaking or stirring), and concentration.

  20. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  1. Sound, affect, and visual autokinesis.

    PubMed

    Van Eyl, F P; Van Eyl, E M

    1977-12-01

    Sound and the absence of sound were used during the adaptation period of a conventional experiment on autokinetic effect conducted in anechoic and reverberation rooms of equal size. Only the room condition led to significantly different results: more visual autokinesis in the reverberation room. The data are discussed in light of the results of an earlier, similar experiment where the reverberation room yielded less visual autokinesis. It is suggested that affect rather than sound influenced the autokinetic phenomenon. PMID:604898

  2. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. PMID:25550242

  3. Cortical control of affective networks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T; DeMaio, Kristine D; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2013-01-16

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1-Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1-Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

  4. Cortical Control of Affective Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J.; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M.; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E.; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1–Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1–Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1–Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

  5. Study of radiation characteristic of airborne sensor based on tarps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiujuan; Qi, Weijun; Fang, Aiping

    2014-07-01

    The radiation characteristic of aerial sensor directly affects the quantitative application level of sensor data. In order to study the radiation characteristic, we carried out the radiation characteristic test based on ground tarps laid onto the calibration field of image quality in Anyang, Henan. The airborne sensor was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. 8 gray-scale tarps and 4 tarps of high reflectance were laid onto the calibration field and they were all with better Lambert radiation characteristic and spectral performance uniformity. Preliminary results show that the bias is larger and the effective dynamic range is smaller and the SNR is lower but the linearity and repeatability are better which can be used to test the response performance of the sensor. Overall, the radiation characteristic tarps laid on the calibration field are suitable for the study of in-flight radiation characteristic of the aerial digital sensor.

  6. The characteristic Rossby frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, David M.; Lindzen, Richard S.; Dasilva, Arlindo Moraes

    1987-01-01

    The characteristic Rossby frequency is defined for a fixed zonal wavenumber perturbation as the variational integral of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. It is a measure of the time scale of the disturbance. For a disturbance which locally has the shape of an eigenfunction but is not global in extent, the characteristic Rossby frequency is very close to the true eigenvalue, and additionally remains unchanged under linear inviscid dynamics. Results are presented for the shallow water equations, both with and without a mean zonal wind. The characteristic Rossby frequency of a wavenumber 1 perturbation having the shape of the second symmetric Rossby mode but confined to the Northern Hemisphere is close to the corresponding Rossby frequency. This finding is helpful in understanding the behavior of the observed wavenumber 1 pattern of January 1979, which propagated westward with nearly the pure Rossby frequency but was discernible only in the Northern Hemisphere (as discussed by Daley and Williamson).

  7. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  8. How Hazardous Substances Affect People

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity helps students gain an appreciation for how scientists determine the human health effects of hazardous substances. Students also demonstrate how hazardous substances can affect the health of test animals. They will discover that toxicology is the study of the effects of poisons on living organisms and that scientists conduct a variety of studies to discover toxicological information about hazardous substances. Students will also learn about two of the most common types of studies, which are epidemiological studies, matching disease and other adverse health effects in humans with possible causes, and animal toxicological studies.

  9. Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

  10. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  11. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n?=?51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  12. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n?=?51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  13. Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Maria Tereza; Nascimento, Antônio Galvão; Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified), Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204–1 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204–1. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation. PMID:24031246

  14. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  15. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,…

  16. Affect Intensity Analysis of Dark Web Forums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Abbasi; Hsinchun Chen

    2007-01-01

    Affects play an important role in influencing people's perceptions and decision making. Affect analysis is useful for measuring the presence of hate, violence, and the resulting propaganda dissemination across extremist groups. In this study we performed affect analysis of U.S. and Middle Eastern extremist group forum postings. We constructed an affect lexicon using a probabilistic disambiguation technique to measure the

  17. Affective and Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrell, Ileana Collado; Herrell, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A study showing that lexically equivalent words in two languages have different affective meanings, that affective intensity of dominant language words is greater than for second language equivalents, and that the difference is greatest for words with high affective meaning demonstrates that affective meaning is an important component of…

  18. Aircraft equilibrium spin characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Program provides analytic solutions to nonlinear equations of motion describing spin conditions. Stability characteristics also are determined. Program can be used to study effects of aerodynamic and inertial parameters on spin and could be modified to compute equilibrium conditions for steady maneuvers. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution on CYBER 173.

  19. Interrelationships of Watershed Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don M. Gray

    1961-01-01

    The application of the principles of dimensional analysis to obtain the relationships between characteristics of the unit hydrograph and topographic and morphometric properties of a watershed is not possible unless careful consideration is given to the selection of variables. Evidence is presented which shows that, in small watersheds, drainage-area size A, length of the main stream L, and length to

  20. Malting Barley Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving rapidly, and the barley malt supply chain should likewise evolve rapidly to meet the very different needs as a potential impediment to growing their brands. To produce all-malt beer brands, craft brewers seek barley

  1. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  2. Metering Characteristics of Carburetors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

    1919-01-01

    Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

  3. Characteristics of pressure waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Air blast characteristics generated by most types of explosions are discussed. Data cover both negative and positive blast load phases and net transverse pressure as a function of time. The effects of partial or total confinement, atmospheric propagation, absorption of energy by ground shock or cratering, and transmission over irregular terrain on blast wave properties were also considered.

  4. Characteristic Curves of PEMFC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This in-class exercise will allow students hands-on experience working with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, or PEMFC. The class will examine the characteristic curve of one of these fuel cells and measure the voltage and current output of the cell. Step by step instructions are provided for the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  5. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Improving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete, Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and Surface do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

  6. Characteristics of Instructional Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    A thoroughly planned program for instructional technologists--one including selection, education, and on-the-job training--must take into consideration the competencies and characteristics desirable in such technologists. Such requirements fall into three categories: attitudes or values, specialized knowledge, and intellectual skills or…

  7. Employment Characteristics of Families

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

  8. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzanis, M; Anagnostopoulos, D; Apostolou, A

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are described. Four patients presented with paraparesis and sphincter disturbances while the other two presented with low back pain and sciatica. Myelographic findings were positive in all six patients. The CT scans showed a paravertebral mass with destruction of bone in two cases. The nuclear magnetic resonance performed in one patient showed the exact extent of the disease all along the spine. Posterior laminectomy with decompression of the spinal cord and removal of the hydatid cysts was performed in all six patients. After the operation four patients received oral treatment with mebendazole. The patients with paraparesis showed little improvement of their neurological status. The two patients with low back pain and sciatica showed marked improvement. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae presents with neurological complications due to cord compression. The prognosis remains poor in spite of laminectomy, although removal of the hydatid cysts and long-term mebendazole medication may result in relief of symptoms. PMID:2741736

  9. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  10. Dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective and nonaffective illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho -0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. PMID:23997978

  11. Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

  12. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  13. Photodetector and Receiver Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic receivers. Investigate the components of an optical receiver; how a photodetector converts an optical signal to an electrical one; and the characteristics of PIN, avalanche, and metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes.The video runs 2:07 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  14. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)], E-mail: ludiaz@calrecovery.com; Eggerth, L.L. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States); Enkhtsetseg, Sh. [Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Savage, G.M. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries.

  15. Wave Types and Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology (the COMET Program)

    This site created by the COMET program (Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training) explains the attributes of waves found in large bodies of water. Using audio text, video clips and photographs, the site discusses the origins, types, and characteristics of waves, as well as mathematical expressions and statistical traits such as wave spectrum and height classifications. The site is also available in text form, and features a glossary, a bibliography and a quiz.

  16. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style. PMID:19950869

  17. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256-263. Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., Organic matter

  18. Topographical analysis of adolescent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Defrance, J F; Ginsberg, L D; Rosenberg, B A; Sharma, J C

    1996-07-01

    This study evaluated the EEG spectral content and the components of the cognitive ERPs evoked by a visual sustained-selective attention task from adolescents diagnosed as having an affective disorder and those who did not (nonreferred controls, CON) to determine if there were different electrophysiological profiles associated with major subtypes of affective disorders; i.e., Dysthymic Disorder (DysD) and Cyclothymic Disorder (CycD). Distinctive ERP and EEG profiles were found to be associated with the DysD and CycD groups. While both groups of depressives presented diminished P3b amplitudes, the DysD group showed a relatively greater suppression over the right temporal regions, whereas the CycD group exhibited relatively greater suppression over the left temporal region. In addition, there were differences with respect to the earlier components associated with information processing. For instance, the P1 was found deficient in the DysD group as compared to the other groups, whereas the N2 component was deficient in the CycD groups as compared to CON and DysD groups. In contrast to these amplitude differences, no significant latency differences were seen with respect to any component elicited by this paradigm. With respect to the EEG spectra, the CON group showed greater relative power in the Beta range than either the CycD or the DysD group, with the depressives featuring more midline frontal Theta activity. Characteristically, both depressant groups showed a greater anterior distribution of Alpha activity. In addition, the foci of the various spectral bands for the DysD subjects were shifted away from the right hemisphere as was the case for the P3b. Overall, the profiles suggested that those who fit the diagnostic classification of DysD have deficit function in right post-Rolandic zones, along with anomalous frontal function. It was also suggested that there may be a core disturbance of physiological arousal in unipolar depression. The CycD subjects, on the other hand, featured no hemispheric bias with respect to the P3b components or spectral foci, but did not show similar features of being cortically "hypoaroused" so that actively depressed adolescent CycD subjects did share certain physiological features with unipolar subjects. PMID:8828066

  19. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the Action «Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers» of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" (Action's Beneficiary: General Secretariat for Research and Technology) and is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Greek State. Some funding from the Australian Research Council is also acknowledged.

  20. Positive Affect and Processes of Recovery among Treatment-Seeking Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Woods, William J.; Siever, Michael D.; Discepola, Michael V.; Dilwort, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Miller, Nicole; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Revised Stress and Coping Theory proposes that positive affect serves adaptive functions, independent of negative affect. However, scant research has examined whether, how, and under what circumstances positive affect is associated with decreased substance use. Methods Eighty-eight methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) completed the baseline assessment for substance abuse treatment outcome study which included measures of positive and negative affect, cognitive-behavioral change processes (i.e., approach-oriented coping, self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, and abstinence-related action tendencies), abstinence-specific social support, and self-reported substance use. Participants also provided a urine sample for toxicology screening. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and negative affect, higher positive affect was independently associated with greater approach-oriented coping, abstinence-related action tendencies, and abstinence-specific social support. Positive affect was also independently associated with greater self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, but only at lower levels of negative affect. Through these cognitive-behavioral and social pathways, positive affect was indirectly associated with lower frequency of stimulant use in the past 30 days, lower odds of reporting stimulant use two or more days in a row, and lower odds of providing a urine sample that was reactive for stimulant metabolites. On the other hand, negative affect was not indirectly associated with any measure of stimulant use. Conclusions Clinical research is needed to examine the pathways whereby positive affect may predict better substance abuse treatment outcomes. PMID:23684632

  1. Filtering characteristics of thin, planar 3D printed element arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Contopanagos; C. Kyriazidou; W. Merrill; Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Periodic arrays of metallic elements have been popular in printed antenna designs for the past two decades. For these applications the elements are individually excited and the array factor is the primary design consideration, affecting directly the radiation pattern characteristics of the array. Therefore, in these applications, the element lattice and excitation distribution is of primary importance, while the interelement

  2. Stand characteristics of sericea lespedeza on the Louisiana Coastal Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Pitman

    2006-01-01

    Sericea lespedeza has been an important forage legume in portions of the USA for decades but has recently been recognized as invasive in some ecosystems. Stand characteristics potentially affecting usefulness and invasiveness were assessed on forested and open sites of a Louisiana Coastal Plain landscape. Typical heavy weed competition, which was not overcome by increased seeding rate or extent of

  3. Effects of Performers' External Characteristics on Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermingham, Gudrun A.

    2000-01-01

    States that fairness has been a major concern in the field of music adjudication. Reviews the research literature to reveal information about three external characteristics (race, gender, and physical attractiveness) that may affect judges' performance evaluations and influence fairness of music adjudication. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. Polyphenol Oxidase: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Browning Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Queiroz; Maria Lúcia Mendes Lopes; Eliane Fialho; Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita

    2008-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase, a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments in wounded tissues. This enzymatic mechanism causes post harvest losses and mainly affects tropical fruits. In this article, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from different plants are reviewed and information about conventional and alternative methods to inactivate this enzyme is presented. Characterization of

  5. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  6. Germination characteristics of Zannichellia palustris from New South Wales, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Greenwood; P. J. DuBowy

    2005-01-01

    We describe the germination characteristics of a population of Zannichellia palustris from the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Laboratory experiments indicate that germination of Z. palustris is affected by temperature, dormancy, stratification and salinity. Five trials, conducted at 30-day intervals, on stored seeds were undertaken. The pattern of germination differed between fresh seed and seed-bank seeds. Higher germination

  7. Feasibility Studies of Teacher Core Job Characteristics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, W. W., Jr.; And Others

    Work redesign for improving satisfaction or productivity depends partially on employee attributes because employees respond differently to work conditions. The Hackman-Oldham theory distinguishes "job" from employee responses to job. A job's motivating potential is thus linked to five core characteristics that affect three psychological states…

  8. Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Problem Behavior Among Disadvantaged Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Moren-Cross; Darlene R. Wright; Mark LaGory; Robin Gaines Lanzi

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data from former Head Start children in the third grade from 15 sites across the nation (n = 576), this study examines the relationship between maternal subjective neighborhood attributions and their children’s behavioral problems. Maternal perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were measured across five domains, including collective efficacy, barriers to services, negative neighbor affects, probability of child status attainment success, and

  9. Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses…

  10. Mechanical characteristics of filter structures for MEMS adaptive infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Liu, S.; Dell, J. M.; Faraone, L.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports the mechanical design and optimization of tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter structures for the development of MEMS adaptive infrared detectors using finite element modeling and experimental investigations. The results indicate that the mechanical characteristics of the FP filters are significantly influenced by the structural designs, which eventually affect the filter performance and device integrity.

  11. Dynamic characteristics of automobile gearbox of simulation and experimental research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duan Nengquan; Cai Xuanming; Wang Junyuan

    2011-01-01

    to the gearbox. This affecting the performance of a vehicle car seriously. Taking a heavy vehicle transmission as experimental object, which the finite element modal simulation analysis; According to the actual condition fault mechanism transmission and vibration characteristics, design the vibration and noise test system, for the collected vibration and noise signal PSD analysis. Modal simulation analysis points out the

  12. Moon surface thermal characteristics for moon orbiting spacecraft thermal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe D. Racca

    1995-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of the funar surface are of great importance for the calculation of the surface heat flux affecting a lunar orbiting spacecraft. This paper aims to collate the existing information from the literature and systematically arrange the data in a readily usable way. Two simple surface temperature mathematical models are deyeloped, to simulate steady state and transient behaviour.

  13. 28 CFR 80.5 - Affected parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Affected parties. 80.5 Section 80.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.5 Affected parties. An FCPA Opinion shall have no application to any party...

  14. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  15. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

  16. [How do social-economic differences in residential characteristics affect mortality? A literature review].

    PubMed

    Bakacs, Márta; Vitrai, József

    2008-07-13

    Authors review studies on associations between mortality and geographic distribution of social-economic health determinants published in the last 15 years. Hungarian publications after the 1990ies identified several indicators with effect on mortality related to the place of residence such as size of the settlement, population density, joblessness, average income, education, and racial or ethnic mixture. As a rule, these papers analyzed time and geographically aggregated data with simple descriptive statistical approach. Major international studies, however, aside the area indicators commonly included individual data and applied multilevel statistical analysis. Earlier, the incoherent results of some complex statistical analyses were explained by lack of overall health concept, which could utilize effects both at individual and population levels. The most recent multilevel statistical methodology, using information related to spatial correlation and fitted to health models, can help researchers to better understand the causes and effects of health inequities. PMID:18617459

  17. Biochemical and physical factors affecting color characteristics of selected bovine muscles

    E-print Network

    McKenna, David Richard

    2004-09-30

    . gluteus medius, and M. latissimus dorsi were grouped as ?intermediate? color stability muscles, M. triceps brachi - long head, M. biceps femoris, M. pectoralis profundus, M. adductor, M. triceps brachi - lateral head, and M. serratus ventralis were.... triceps brachi - long head, and M. triceps brachi - lateral head, showed large decreases in (K/S)572/(K/S)525 ratios over the retail display period. Of those muscles with substantial losses, M. psoas major, M. 20 Table 1 Means, standard deviations...

  18. Characteristics of interfacial water affected by proteins adsorbed on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Alexeeva, T A; Lebovka, N I; Gun'ko, V M; Strashko, V V; Mikhalovsky, S V

    2004-10-15

    The influence of proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA, and mouse gamma-globulin, IgG) physically adsorbed or covalently attached via coupling with N-cyclohexyl-N'-(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide methyl-p-toluenesulfonate, CMC, to the surface of activated carbon SCN (spherical carbon with nitrogen) on the mobility of interfacial water molecules was studied by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy with freezing-out of bulk water at 180 < T < 273 K. Relaxation processes in the interfacial non-freezing water were investigated measuring transverse time t2 of proton relaxation dependence on the presence of proteins and CMC. The distribution function of activation free energy of relaxation (with a maximum at 20-22 kJ/mol) was calculated for the protein-water-carbon systems using a regularization procedure and the relationships between t2 and the amounts of the interfacial water unfrozen at T < 250 K assuming the Arrhenius-type dependence for t2(-1) on temperature. The state of unfrozen water in pores of SCN shows that the low temperature relaxation processes occur in narrow pores with half-width X < 1.5 nm. PMID:15450452

  19. Forest Stand Characteristics Altered by Restoration Affect Western Bluebird Habitat Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Wightman; Stephen S. Germaine

    2006-01-01

    Forest managers are setting Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- derosa) forests in the southwestern United States on a tra- jectory toward a restored ecosystem by reducing tree densities and managing with prescribed fire. The process of restoration dramatically alters forest stands, and the ef- fects of these changes on wildlife remain unclear. Our research evaluated which aspects of habitat alteration from

  20. Degree of Chinese ancestry affects behavioral characteristics of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Capitanio, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of Chinese-origin macaques in biomedical research is problematic for some scientists because of the reported behavioral and physiological differences from those of Indian origin. However, few studies have examined the effects of varying degrees of Chinese ancestry (DCA) on behavior, and they were typically based on small sample sizes and unusual rearing conditions. Methods Using data from a colony-wide program, we examined whether DCA was related to behavior and temperament ratings reflecting emotionality (fearfulness, aggression and anxiety) and activity. The 249 subjects, born and reared in outdoor social environment, were separated from their groups for a 25-hr indoor testing. Their DCA (range: 0.6 to 99.4%) was determined by analyzing the frequency of short tandem repeat alleles. Results and Conclusions The major effect of DCA was on fearfulness, with the more hybridized animals scoring lowest and the more pure Indian- and Chinese-origin macaques resembling each other. PMID:23189960

  1. Sugar concentration and timing of feeding affect feeding characteristics and survival of a parasitic wasp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of food sources is critical for parasitoid survival, especially for those that do not host-feed, or in agroecosystems where nectar and honeydew are sometimes spatially and temporally scarce. Therefore, the value of even a single meal can be crucial for survival. Psyttalia lounsbur...

  2. Ocean plankton. Environmental characteristics of Agulhas rings affect interocean plankton transport.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Farrant, Gregory K; Follows, Michael; Garczarek, Laurence; Speich, Sabrina; Audic, Stéphane; Bittner, Lucie; Blanke, Bruno; Brum, Jennifer R; Brunet, Christophe; Casotti, Raffaella; Chase, Alison; Dolan, John R; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Grima, Nicolas; Guidi, Lionel; Hill, Christopher N; Jahn, Oliver; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Le Goff, Hervé; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Malviya, Shruti; Pelletier, Eric; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste; Roux, Simon; Santini, Sébastien; Scalco, Eleonora; Schwenck, Sarah M; Tanaka, Atsuko; Testor, Pierre; Vannier, Thomas; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Sullivan, Matthew B; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele

    2015-05-22

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic. PMID:25999514

  3. Factors affecting the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of vowels in clear speech

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    speech. For the low back vowel //, the primary parameter changed was the tongue frontness and asymmetry of hearing vs. normal hearing) × 4 lexical properties (HighF-HighD, HighF-LowD, LowF-HighD, LowF-LowD) × 2 KSM137 microphone, and the video of tongue movements was collected using a Sonosite 180 Plus

  4. Microstructure and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-chitosan film as affected by composition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qianqian; Hu, Fei; Qiu, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch and chitosan were developed by casting method. The effects of the ratio of high-amylose corn starch to chitosan, concentration of glycerol and methyl cellulose on the oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, water vapor transmission, tensile strength and percent elongation at break values of edible composite films were investigated. Film microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase of the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol in the film forming suspensions both made the structure of films flexible, causing the decrease of tensile strength and increase of percent elongation of composite films, while showing poor water vapor barrier properties as the water vapor transmission values increased. The addition of methyl cellulose as to reinforce the structure of matrix improved the water vapor barrier properties of the edible films with the decrease of water vapor transmission from 1946 to 1668 g/(m(2)·24?h), as well as the mechanical properties were improved as expected, which could be attributed to the differentia of the interaction between methyl cellulose and other components in the film preparation as the concentration ranged from 2% (w/w) to 8% (w/w). Films with different compositions, resulting different microstructures, showed variance in barrier and mechanical properties. PMID:23493788

  5. Fertilization regimes affect the soil biological characteristics of a sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system.

    PubMed

    Li, WenXi; Lu, JianWei; Li, FangBai; Wang, Yan; Lu, JunMing; Li, XiaoKun

    2011-06-01

    The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is an intensive and new cropping system in Central China. Nutrient management practices in this rotation system may influence soil fertility, the important aspects of which are soil biological properties and quality. As sensitive soil biological properties and quality indicators, soil microbial community activity, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N resulting from different fertilization regimes in this rotation system were studied through a four-year field experiment from April 2005 to May 2009. Treatments included control (CK), fertilizer phosphorus and potassium (PK), fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK), fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) and a fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK). Soil microbial community activities in the NK, NP and NPK treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK and PK treatments after the sudangrass and ryegrass trial. The highest microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, SOM, total N, sucrase and urease activities were found in the NPK treatment, and these soil quality indicators were significantly higher in the NK, NP and NPK treatments than in the PK and CK treatments. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were positively associated with SOM in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system, indicating that fertilization regimes, especially N application, reduced microbial community activity in the soil. Proper fertilization regimes will increase microbial biomass, enzyme activity and SOM and improve soil fertility. PMID:21706419

  6. Investigation of emission characteristics affected by new cooling system in a diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Wook Choi; Ki-Bum Kim; Ki-Hyung Lee

    2009-01-01

    In a typical cooling system of automotive engine, a mechanical water pump is used to control the flow rate of coolant. However,\\u000a this traditional cooling system is not suitable for a high efficiency performance in terms of fuel economy and exhaust emission.\\u000a Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new technology for engine cooling systems. These days, the electronic water

  7. Biochemical and physical factors affecting color characteristics of selected bovine muscles 

    E-print Network

    McKenna, David Richard

    2004-09-30

    Nineteen bovine muscles were removed from beef carcasses (n = 9). Muscles were trimmed free of fat, cut into 2.54 cm thick steaks, and were packaged in Styrofoam trays with polyvinylchloride overwrap. Steaks were assigned randomly to a day...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  9. Personal Characteristics Affecting Selection of Psychologists of Counseling Centers and Mental Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchack, James A.; Volksdorf, Norman R.

    1976-01-01

    An analogue study was conducted to ascertain whether hiring preferences for psychologists are influenced by race, sex, marital status or physique. It was found that applicants who were either Black or female were preferred by the counseling center respondents, and that applicants who were without physical limitation were preferred. (Author)

  10. Characteristics of Samples and Linking Items Affecting a Partial Pre-Calibrations Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Linda L.; And Others

    This study tests several explanations for discrepant results in an earlier study (Cook et al., 1985) which presented a partial pre-calibration method for equating new editions of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) to the same scale as older editions. In contrast to full pre-calibration, which seeks to equate all items from two or more editions,…

  11. Structural characteristics of mixed oxides MOx/SiO2 affecting photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Blitz, J. P.; Bandaranayake, B.; Pakhlov, E. M.; Zarko, V. I.; Sulym, I. Ya.; Kulyk, K. S.; Galaburda, M. V.; Bogatyrev, V. M.; Oranska, O. I.; Borysenko, M. V.; Leboda, R.; Skubiszewska-Zi?ba, J.; Janush, W.

    2012-06-01

    A series of photocatalysts based on silica (nanoparticulate) supported titania, ceria, and ceria/zirconia were synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques including surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, surface charge density, and photocatalytic behavior toward methylene blue decomposition. Thermal treatment at 600 °C increases the anatase content of the titania based catalysts detected by XRD. Changes in the infrared spectra before and after thermal treatment indicate that at low temperature there are more tbnd Sisbnd Osbnd Titbnd bonds than at high temperature. As these bonds break upon heating the SiO2 and TiO2 separate, allowing the TiO2 anatase phase to form. This results in an increased catalytic activity for the thermally treated samples. Nearly all titania based samples exhibit a negative surface charge density at pH 7 (initial pH of photocatalytic studies) which aids adsorption of methylene blue. The crystallinity of ceria and ceria/zirconia based catalysts are in some cases limited, and in others non-existent. Even though the energy band gap (Eg) can be lower for these catalysts than for the titania based catalysts, their photocatalytic properties are inferior.

  12. Some experiments on liquid helium heat transfer: characteristics affecting stability of superconducting magnet operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wipf, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer from 25 ..mu..m thick, 6.36 mm wide Nb tape into boiling helium in vertical channels of 1.7 x 21 mm cross section was studied. Normal zones were initiated by heaters attached to the tape surface not in contact with the liquid. Two heat transfer effects of possible importance for superconductor stability were observed: 1. steady normal zones enabling the measurement of localized heat transfer, and 2. heat transport to neighboring tapes by means of the coolant.

  13. Canopy Characteristics Affecting Avian Reproductive Success: The Golden-cheeked Warbler 

    E-print Network

    Klassen, Jessica Anne

    2012-07-16

    differently to the surrounding environment at different spatial scales. Thus, multi-scale studies on bird abundance and reproductive success is necessary for evaluating the effects of habitat alterations. The golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia...

  14. Patient characteristics that affect the outcome of total hip arthroplasty: a review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nancy L.; Cheah, David; Waddell, James P.; Wright, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To review the literature regarding patient factors pertinent to the outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Data sources MEDLINE from 1966 onward (key words “hip prosthesis” and “treatment outcome”) and literature previously known to the authors and cited in papers from all sources. Study selection All identified studies were included provided the methodology permitted assessment of the effect of patient factors and a clear outcome was defined (either prosthesis survival or specific functional outcomes). Data extraction The patient factors, methods and outcomes described in each paper were summarized on a data extraction form. Data synthesis All data were reviewed by one author. This process was repeated by a second author, and the findings were reviewed by the remaining 2 authors to verify the findings. The best functional outcomes and prosthesis survival rates were reported among patients who were between 45 and 75 years of age, weighed less than 70 kg, had strong social support, had a higher educational level, had better preoperative functional status and had no comorbid disease. Conclusion Important research remains to be done to examine the magnitude and interaction of patient factors on the outcome of THA. PMID:9627543

  15. Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton as Affected by Varietal Characteristics and Other Factors.

    E-print Network

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1939-01-01

    for their adaptability to machine harvesting, extracting, and cleaning. The newly developed varieties and strains re- ported in this bulletin are Ducona, Mebane 95 and 96, Mebane 140, Cut Leaf x Acala, Cut Leaf x Clark, Macha,G and Lightning Express x Westex... harvesting, extracting, and cleaning equipment has not been fully realized until recent years. During the past ten years the Texas Station Cotton Harvester has been improved so that it will harvest 94 to 98 per cent of the cotton from varieties developed...

  16. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C Anderson; Donald E Gardner; Curtis C Daehler; Frederick C Meinzer

    2002-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback

  17. It's a predator-eat-parasite world: how characteristics of predator, parasite and environment affect consumption.

    PubMed

    Orlofske, Sarah A; Jadin, Robert C; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the effects of predation on disease dynamics is increasingly important in light of the role ecological communities can play in host-parasite interactions. Surprisingly, however, few studies have characterized direct predation of parasites. Here we used an experimental approach to show that consumption of free-living parasite stages is highly context dependent, with significant influences of parasite size, predator size and foraging mode, as well as environmental condition. Among the four species of larval trematodes and two types of predators (fish and larval damselflies) studied here, parasites with larger infective stages (size >1,000 ?m) were most vulnerable to predation by fish, while small-bodied fish and damselflies (size <10 mm) consumed the most infectious stages. Small parasite species (size approx. 500 ?m) were less frequently consumed by both fish and larval damselflies. However, these results depended strongly on light availability; trials conducted in the dark led to significantly fewer parasites consumed overall, especially those with a size of <1,000 ?m, emphasizing the importance of circadian shedding times of parasite free-living stages for predation risk. Intriguingly, active predation functioned to help limit fishes' infection by directly penetrating parasite species. Our results are consistent with established theory developed for predation on zooplankton that emphasizes the roles of body size, visibility and predation modes and further suggest that consumer-resource theory may provide a predictive framework for when predators should significantly influence parasite transmission. These results contribute to our understanding of transmission in natural systems, the role of predator-parasite links in food webs and the evolution of parasite morphology and behavior. PMID:25648648

  18. Document text characteristics affect the ranking of the most relevant documents by expanded structured queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eero Sormunen; Jaana Kekÿlÿinen; Jussi Koivisto; Kalervo Jÿrvelin

    2001-01-01

    The increasing flood of documentary information through the Internet and other information sources challenges the developers of information retrieval systems. It is not enough that an IR system is able to make a distinction between relevant and non-relevant documents. The reduction of information overload requires that IR systems provide the capability of screening the most valuable documents out of the

  19. Unsteady Flow Characteristics in a 90 Degree Elbow Affected by Developed, Undeveloped and Swirling Inflow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yukiharu; Kondo, Manabu; Minamiura, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Hidemasa

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements in a 90 degree elbow of which the curvature radius coincides with its inner diameter were examined for the cases of inflow from a long pipe, short pipe and swirl generator. Ensemble averaged flow distribution at the Reynolds number of 320000 based on the inner pipe diameter and bulk velocity shows that shortening the upstream pipe length to 4.9D from 10D induces the flow separation downstream of the elbow. Detailed observation suggests that shortening upstream pipe weakens the Prandtl's secondary flow of the first kind. Our swirl generator induced a swirling inflow with the non-dimensional angular momentum of 0.12 based on the inner pipe diameter and bulk velocity. The circumferential velocity distribution formed a shape like a Rankine combined vortex at the elbow inlet, and the accelerated axial velocity was observed at the vortex center. The axial velocity distribution however was found to be almost the same as that of the non-swirl inflow case in the latter half of the elbow. Frequency analyses showed that the Strouhal number by vortex shedding from the boundary layer occurring at the inner side of the elbow become 0.5, except for 0.6 in the case of the long pipe. The change of the Strouhal number is probably related with the boundary layer width and the local flow velocity.

  20. Do board characteristics affect corporate performance? Firm-level evidence for India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saibal Ghosh

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the association between financial performance and boards of non-financial firms. Using data on 127 listed manufacturing firms in India for 2003 the findings indicate that, after controlling for various firm-specific factors, larger boards tend to have a dampening influence on firm performance, judged in terms of either accounting or market-based measures of performance. In terms of policy

  1. Characteristics of brush treatments affecting habitat use patterns by cattle in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Rowland, Mary Ellen

    1988-01-01

    located in Uvalde County, Texas, 1986-87. . . . . 19 Means and standard errors of percent grass, forb and browse in extrusa composited across four esophageally fistulated animals allowed t g, hy t t t, ~Po ' -A woodland subjected to aerially applied... of nutrient concentration of extrusa derived from esophageally fistulated animals grazing a given treatment at various times of the year (Rirby and Stuth 1982, Lopes and Stuth 1984). This approach assumes complete disturbance of the landscape and ignores...

  2. Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as ?13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated ?13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

  3. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  4. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  5. Characteristics of plasmaspehrtic hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Harri; Santolik, Ondrej; Kolmasova, Ivana; Horne, Richard; Escoubet, Philippe; Masson, Arnaud; Taylor, Matt

    2015-04-01

    The plasmaspheric hiss is regularly observed in the inner magnetosphere, particularly in the plasmasphere and in the related high-density regions such as in the plumes. Even the phenomenon is well known for long time, the generation mechanism of hiss has remained open. Neither its characteristics are well known. The hiss is important because it is believed to cause loss of radiation belt particles. We have investigated the hiss emission during the Cluster perigee passes and found enhanced emission to occur both in the plasmaspheric plumes and in the plasmasphere. However, their wave characteristics differ significantly. Due to the polar orbits of the four Cluster spacecraft, each spacecraft provides two snapshots of hiss, separated by a few hours, on the two opposing hemispheres, so differences in wave characteristics between two hemispheres can be discerned. Furthermore the four spacecraft follow each other within an hour, so the temporal variation of hiss over the same hemisphere can be observed as well. Occasionally the spacecraft are simultaneously located in the same flux tube in the both hemispheres. Most of the time hiss does not vary much within an hour (except for some spatial variations) even if the geomagnetic conditions vary. However, hemispheric differences are significant: all observations in the plumes show that the wave vector is parallel with the local magnetic field vector and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region of the plumes. In the plasmasphere at lower L shells the hiss is observed as well but here over both hemispheres the waves propagate towards the equator and the wave vector has a larger angle with the magnetic field. We conclude that the equatorial plume region is a source region of plasmaspheric hiss and the waves propagate towards the polar regions where they are refracted and reflected towards lower L shells and into the plasmasphere.

  6. Factors affecting the pursuit of academic careers among dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-04-01

    There is a shortage of academic dermatologists in the United States. This study aimed to examine characteristics of US dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing academic dermatologists. Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected; these data were correlated with the ratio of graduating full-time faculty members to estimated total number of graduates for each respective program. Results emphasize that the ratio of faculty to residents and the number of full-time faculty publications may represent key factors by which residency programs can increase their graduation of academic dermatologists. PMID:25942025

  7. Factors affecting the binding of lectins to normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Bell, C M; Skerrow, C J

    1984-11-01

    Factors affecting the binding of a wide range of lectins to normal human skin were examined in order to evaluate current discrepancies in the literature. The profile of specific binding characteristic for each lectin was found to be variously influenced by the source of conjugate, tissue-processing method, the effectiveness of saccharide inhibitors, and by individual and minor body site variations. Most significantly, the use of routine histological processing not only greatly reduced binding intensity overall but also altered the binding pattern. PMID:6548640

  8. LED and Transmitter Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic transmitters. Explore the components of a fiber optic transmitter, including a source, a modulator, an electrical driving circuit, and fiber coupling mechanics. Animations illustrate how the process of spontaneous emission converts electrical information to an optical signal in a light-emitting diode, or LED. In addition, learn about characteristics that make a source suitable for fiber optic communications.The video runs 3:12 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  9. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  10. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  11. Affectivity: Regulation, Identity Formation, and Metaphorical Thought

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph Lucente

    2008-01-01

    Understanding affects, and their multiple roles in all aspects of the human condition and development, has more and more become a focus of study for contemporary psychoanalysis. Psychodynamic personality theories have always regarded affective life as pivotal to developmental experiences, the evolving structures of the personality, identity formation, and clinical processes. The centrality of emotion in development and affect regulation,

  12. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  13. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective

  14. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  15. Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARS-ANDERS HANSSON; SUSANNE GUSTAFSSON; KARIN RENGEFORS; LINA BOMARK

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Toxic algal blooms widely affect our use of water resources both with respect to drinking water and recreation. However, it is not only humans, but also organisms living in freshwater and marine ecosystems that may be affected by algal toxins. 2. In order to assess if cyanobacterial toxins affect the composition of natural zooplankton communities, we quantified the

  16. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  17. Habitat characteristics at bluegill spawning colonies in a South Dakota glacial lake

    E-print Network

    Numerous factors affect bluegill (Lepomis macrochi- rus) reproductive success, including predation (Belk 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard Abstract ­ Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) primarily reproduce in spawning colonies. We assessed habitat characteristics at 15 bluegill

  18. Individual and school factors affecting students’ participation and success in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boaz Shulruf; John Hattie; Sarah Tumen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students’ achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels\\u000a of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The\\u000a results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students’ pathways and achievements,\\u000a schools’ demographic composition did not affect student

  19. An evaluation of affect and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross

    2003-09-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect. PMID:12971129

  20. Are anthropogenic aerosols affecting rainfall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, Wolfgang; Hacker, Jorg

    2013-04-01

    Modification of cloud microphysics by anthropogenic aerosols is well known since several decades. Whether the underlying processes leads to changes in precipitation is by far less confirmed. Several different factors affect the production of rain in a way that a causality between increasing aerosol load in the atmosphere and a change of annual rainfall is very difficult to confirm. What would be expected as an effect of additional cloud condensation nuclei is a shift in the spatial and temporal rainfall distribution towards a lower number of days with low rain intensity and more frequent or more vigorous single events. In fact such a shift has been observed in several locations worldwide and has been suggested to be caused by increasing aerosol load, however, without further specification of the nature and number of the aerosols involved. Measurements of aerosols which might be important for cloud properties are extremely sparse and no long term monitoring data sets are available up to now. The problem of missing long term aerosol data that could be compared to available long term meteorological data sets can possibly be resolved in certain areas where well characterized large anthropogenic aerosol sources were installed in otherwise pristine areas without significant changes in land use over several decades. We investigated aerosol sources and current aerosol number, size and spatial distributions with airborne measurements in the planetary boundary layer over two regions in Australia that are reported to suffer from extensive drought despite the fact that local to regional scale water vapor in the atmosphere is slowly and constantly increasing. Such an increase of the total water in the planetary boundary layer would imply also an increase in annual precipitation as observed in many other locations elsewhere. The observed decline of rainfall in these areas thus requires a local to regional scale physical process modifying cloud properties in a way that rain production is delayed. We observed enhanced numbers of anthropogenic ultrafine particles and cloud condensation nuclei and are able to reconstruct also their historical development. The derived aerosol trends are well in agreement with the observed negative trends in precipitation based on the assumption that additional CCN in a first step delay the production of raindrops allowing more efficient horizontal transport to redistribute rainfall, in these cases leading to a regional loss of total rainfall.

  1. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

  2. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  3. Personality patterns in subjects at risk for affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Maier, W; Minges, J; Lichtermann, D; Franke, P; Gansicke, M

    1995-01-01

    The main conclusions of this study on the familial links between personality patterns and affective disorders are: (1) The personality features with the greatest degree of symptomatic overlap with unipolar depression were more common among the first-degree relatives of probands with this diagnosis: thus dysthymic temperament and neuroticism are enhanced in this group of relatives compared to controls. Likewise personality features with a high degree of symptomatic overlap with bipolar affective disorder were more common among the first-degree relatives of probands with this diagnosis. Thus levels of dysthymic and cyclothymic temperament were elevated in this group of relatives compared to controls, whereas a familial link between neuroticism and bipolar disorder was not observed. (2) In addition, personality traits with only limited similarity with the syndromes of depression and mania were also found to be linked with affective disorders (obsessive-compulsive PD to bipolar disorders, rigidity to both subtypes of affective disorders). These associations have different implications regarding the association between personality/temperament conditions and disorders depending on the degree of overlap between symptoms and the personality trait. Those with substantial overlap may indicate the presence of a unitary disease process in which the enhancement of subthreshold affective traits may result in aggravation of behavior characteristics fulfilling the criteria of fullblown episodes of the disease. This relationship was particularly stressed by Kraepelin, Kretschmer, Clayton et al. and Akiskal. In this view personality and temperament patterns represent minor variants of the associate acute disorders. On the other hand, the relationship between dissimilar conditions may indicate the presence of a risk of underlying vulnerability factors which led to affective disorder only in the presence of additional risk factors. An example of the latter relationship in the present study is the aggregation of obsessive-compulsive and anancastic traits in families with affective disorders. Tellenbach focussed on this particular constellation. Epidemiological and family studies including these personality traits are too rare to fully appreciate the relevance of this particular relationship. Future prospective studies and family genetic studies which investigate the relationship between temperament, personality traits and disorders and affective syndromes are clearly indicated by the results presented herein. PMID:8903892

  4. Environmental Factors Related to the Distribution, Abundance, and Life History Characteristics of Mountain Whitefish in Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Meyer; F. Steven Elle; James A. Lamansky Jr

    2009-01-01

    Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni are a broadly distributed native salmonid in western North America, but comparatively little investigation has been made regarding their population characteristics. We surveyed 2,043 study sites to assess whether physiochemical stream conditions affected mountain whitefish distribution and abundance in southern Idaho, and at 20 of these sites life history characteristics were also estimated. A total of

  5. Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Goles; G. J. Sevigny

    1982-01-01

    The off gas characteristics of liquid fed joule heated ceramic meters were investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance were established.

  6. Off-gas characteristics of liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goles, R. W.; Sevigny, G. J.

    1982-06-01

    The off gas characteristics of liquid fed joule heated ceramic meters were investigated as a function of melter operational condition and simulated waste feed composition. The identity and behavior patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter generated aerosols, the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses and the factors affecting melter operational performance were established.

  7. Mixing characteristics and startup of anaerobic downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rejean Samson; Kevin J. Kennedy

    1985-01-01

    Tests to determine the mixing characteristics of the anaerobic downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactor during startup showed that mixing characteristics affected performance. Different mixing profiles were obtained by keeping the same flow distribution system and by varying the number of clay channels (1, 4, and 25) in the DSFF reactors (2-32 l). Results with a clean bed reactor indicated

  8. Carcass characteristics, muscle composition and meat quality of halothane positive and halothane negative Pietrain boars

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carcass characteristics, muscle composition and meat quality of halothane positive and halothaneH, water holding capacity) of four muscles (M. Adductor, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Longisslmus dorsi the chemical characteristics. The Longissimus dorsi was the most affected muscle by the HP condition

  9. Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams: II. Spectrum analysis and propagation characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sundar; R. Simon; N. Mukunda

    1993-01-01

    Extending the work of part I of this series, the authors analyze the structure of the eigenvalue spectrum as well as the propagation characteristics of the twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams. The manner in which the twist phase affects the spectrum, and hence the positivity property of the cross-spectral density, is brought out. Propagation characteristics of these beams are simply deduced

  10. Influence of trailing edge tab on moment characteristics of NACA 23012 airfoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lasauskas; Th. Lutz; M. Dietz

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of predicted and measured aerodynamic characteristics of the original NACA 23012 airfoil and an airfoil with a trailing edge tab is presented. XFOIL code is used for prediction. It is shown that the modification of the airfoils only on the upper side at the trailing edge affects practically only moment characteristics. An example of the airfoil modification with

  11. Psychological characteristics and process: the role of entrepreneurship in Spanish SMEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Entrialgo; Esteban Fernández; Camilo J. Vázquez

    2000-01-01

    This research work uses data from 233 Spanish SMEs in order to test three alternative models regarding how psychological characteristics and strategic process affect organisational success: first, the individual model according to which the manager’s psychological characteristics entirely account for company performance; second, the process model, whereby strategic process directly contributes towards explaining organisational success; and third, the mediating model

  12. Statistical characteristics of pedestrians' motion and effects on teletraffic of mobile communication networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuka Nagai; Takehiko Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    Motion of mobile terminals greatly affects traffic characteristics (cell dwell time, handoff rates, channel occupancy lime of each base station, etc.) in mobile communication networks. Motion of vehicles was previously measured and characterized using the Global Positioning System, and its effects on traffic characteristics were examined. In this study, the authors measured pedestrian motion using an autonomous navigation system, analyzed

  13. Students' Preferences Regarding Four Characteristics of Information Literacy Screencasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy screencasts were created by librarians and integrated into all of the nursing department's distance learning courses. Before creating more videos, the researcher decided to evaluate the screencasts' effectiveness based on certain video characteristics. The researcher identified four characteristics that might affect

  14. Geosynchronous platform definition study. Volume 3: Geosynchronous mission characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine the nature of currently planned and new evolutionary geosynchronous programs, to analyze alternative ways of conducting missions, to establish concepts for new systems to support geosynchronous programs in an effective and economical manner, and to define the logistic support to carry out these programs. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to define and examine general geosynchronous mission characteristics and the potentially applicable electromagnetic spectrum characteristics. An organized compilation of these data is given with emphasis on the development and use of the data. Fundamental geosynchronous orbit time histories, mission profile characteristics, and delivery system characteristics are presented. In addition, electromagnetic spectrum utilization is discussed in terms of the usable frequency spectrum, the spectrum potentially available considering established frequency allocations, and the technology status as it affects the ability to operate within specific frequency bands.

  15. Empathic Embodied Interfaces: Addressing Users’ Affective State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Prendinger; H. Dohi; H. Wang; S. Mayer; M. Ishizuka

    \\u000a In this paper, we report on our efforts in developing affective character-based interfaces, i.e. interfaces that recognize\\u000a and measure affective information of the user and address user affect by employing embodied characters. In particular, we\\u000a describe the Empathic Companion, an animated interface agent that accompanies the user in the setting of a virtual job interview.\\u000a This interface application takes physiological data

  16. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  17. Characteristic Scales During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Furlanetto; Matthew McQuinn; Lars Hernquist

    2005-11-23

    One of the key observables of the reionization era is the distribution of neutral and ionized gas. Recently, Furlanetto, Zaldarriaga, & Hernquist developed a simple analytic model to describe the growth of HII regions during this era. Here, we examine some of the fundamental simplifying assumptions behind this model and generalise it in several important ways. The model predicts that the ionized regions attain a well-defined characteristic size R_c that ranges from R_c~1 Mpc in the early phases to R_c>10 Mpc in the late phases. We show that R_c is determined primarily by the bias of the galaxies driving reionization; hence measurements of this scale constrain a fundamental property of the first galaxies. The variance around R_c, on the other hand, is determined primarily by the underlying matter power spectrum. We then show that increasing the ionizing efficiency of massive galaxies shifts R_c to significantly larger scales and decreases the importance of recombinations. These differences can be observed with forthcoming redshifted 21 cm surveys (increasing the brightness temperature fluctuations by up to a factor of two on large scales) and with measurements of small-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. Finally, we show that stochastic fluctuations in the galaxy population only broaden the bubble size distribution significantly if massive galaxies are responsible for most of the ionizing photons. We argue that the key results of this model are robust to many of our uncertainties about the reionization process.

  18. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  19. Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The rediscovery of affect in achievement goal theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Bjørnebekk

    2008-01-01

    A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that determine and maintain performance?related behaviour. In recent years affect has

  20. Factors Affecting Pathogenicity of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) for Salmonid Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Lapatra

    1998-01-01

    Pathogen is defined as any organism capable of causing disease whereas pathogenicity is the ability of an organism to produce disease. In this context, disease is a definitive morbid process having a characteristic set of symptoms. Furthermore, disease may affect the whole organism or any of its component cells or tissues. Regardless of the etiology, disease may either be clinically

  1. Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted…

  2. Pupils' Opinions About the Factors That Affect Teaching and Learning of Junior Science in Lesotho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, A. H. U.

    1995-01-01

    Administered opinion questionnaires to 440 male and 465 female pupils in 20 secondary and high schools in Lesotho to collect views of pupils on various aspects affecting the quality of science instruction at the junior secondary level. Discusses facilities for instruction, circumstances of pupils, and characteristics of teachers. (Author/JRH)

  3. Dietary silicon affects bone turnover differently in ovariectomized and sham-operated growing rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forrest H. Nielsen; Rhonda Poellot

    2004-01-01

    1 Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota An experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that low dietary silicon affects blood, bone, and urine indices associated with bone formation and breakdown, bone strength and physical characteristics, and the circulating amount of an extracellular matrix protein (osteopontin) involved in bone cell adhesion and activation. A second objective was to ascertain

  4. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ovalle; N. K. II

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures,

  5. Ephemeral skin-flows on talus affected by permafrost degradation (Corral del Veleta, Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Tanarro; D. Palacios; J. J. Zamorano; A. Gómez

    2009-01-01

    In mountain environments, talus formed at the foot of valley sides are frequently affected by hillslope processes, such as skin-flows. The main characteristic of this type of flow is that it only causes the movement of a thin layer of soil, regolith or debris over an inclined plane parallel to the topographical surface of the talus. Some examples of this

  6. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. George; V. Ramakrishnan; J. V. Siebers; T. D. Chung; P. J. Keall

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were

  7. DIETARY BORON, FISH OIL, AND THEIR INTERACTION AFFECT RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both boron (B) and fish oil (FO) are thought to affect central nervous function though influencing the physicochemical characteristics of cell membranes. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether FO instead of safflower oil (SO) in the diet would modify changes in rat behavior and brai...

  8. Does Alport syndrome affect the basement membrane of peritoneal vessels?

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Denise E; Vlijm, Anniek; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T

    2010-01-01

    Alport syndrome and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) are both rare diseases. Their joint occurrence is highly unlikely. Two patients at our center with Alport syndrome developed EPS. We therefore hypothesized that Alport syndrome might predispose to the development of EPS and that this predisposition might be reflected in a fast peritoneal transport rate at baseline. We compared the mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) of creatinine and the clearances of albumin, immunoglobulin G, and alpha2-macroglobulin at baseline and for all subsequent available measurements in four patient groups: EPS patients with Alport syndrome, EPS patients without Alport syndrome, Alport patients without EPS, and long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients without EPS. The transport characteristics were obtained during a standard peritoneal permeability analysis. Between July 1995 and December 2008, 5 of 417 PD patients treated at our center had Alport syndrome as their primary kidney disease, and 13 of the 417 developed EPS. Of those 13 EPS patients, 2 had Alport syndrome. We observed no differences in the baseline transport characteristics of the four groups under consideration. Taking all measures of transport characteristics into account, only the MTAC of creatinine was higher in the two EPS groups than in the other two groups (p = 0.01). We could not confirm our hypothesis that Alport syndrome affects peritoneal solute clearances. PMID:21348370

  9. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  10. Factors that affect acceptance of HIV microbicides among women.

    PubMed

    Domanska, Catherine A; Teitelman, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Globally, women make up more than half of those infected with HIV. For women in nearly every region around the world, the primary mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual sex. However, over thirty years into the HIV/AIDS epidemic women still lack sufficient means of protecting themselves against HIV. Vaginal HIV microbicides (VHMs) are a promising new method to prevent HIV infection. VHMs are chemical substances that can destroy HIV, block its entry into or fusion with the target cell or inhibit HIV replication once the virus has entered a target cell. They can be applied through various delivery methods intravaginally. VHMs are designed to be used by women and to that end it is crucial to understand women's preferences for formulation, use and other characteristics in order to determine how to increase adherence and acceptability. Of particular consideration is how relationship dynamics will affect microbicide usage. The purpose of this review is to examine the most recent body of literature regarding male and female perceptions of VHMs to prevent male to female transmission of HIV in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptability of VHM usage among women. A greater understanding of the factors that affect adherence and acceptance of VHMs will have an impact on the uptake of VHMs, allow nurses and other health care providers to counsel clients more effectively about their use and point to new directions needed on the research and development of future microbicides. PMID:22482279

  11. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

  12. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  13. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

  14. Active Affective State Detection and User Assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyang Li; Qiang Ji

    Intelligent user assistance systems face challenges of incomplete, uncertain and multiple modality sensory observations, user's changing internal state, and constraints in making decisions. We introduce a probabilistic framework to dynamically model user's affective state in such systems. A systematic mechanism performs purposive and sufficing information integration to infer user's affective state and provide correct assistance. We aim to actively infer

  15. Affective pictures processing, attention, and pain tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minet de Wied; Marinus N Verbaten

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether attention mediates the effects of affective distractors on cold pressor pain, or whether the cognitive processes of priming and appraisal best account for the effects. In Experiment I, 65 male respondents were exposed to either pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The cold-pressor test was administered

  16. 28 CFR 549.71 - Inmates affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    28 ? Judicial Administration ? 2 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Inmates affected. ? 549.71 ? Section 549.71 ? Judicial Administration ? BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ? INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT ? MEDICAL SERVICES ? Fees for Health Care Services ? § 549.71 ? Inmates affected. ?...

  17. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliane Degner

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was varied in the same procedure. Significant priming effects occurred only when

  18. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  19. Interaction Strategies for an Affective Conversational Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Smith; Nigel Crook; Daniel Charlton; Johan Boye; Raul Santos de la Camara; Markku Turunen; David Benyon; Björn Gambäck; Oli Mival; Nick Webb; Marc Cavazza

    2011-01-01

    The development of embodied conversational agents (ECA) as companions brings several challenges for both affective and conversational dialogue. These include challenges in generating appropriate affective responses, selecting the overall shape of the dialogue, providing prompt system response times, and handling interruptions. We present an implementation of such a companion showing the development of individual modules that attempt to address these

  20. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  1. Toward a Definition of Affect in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Albert R.

    A model for expansion of educational objectives beyond the usual narrow focus on low-level cognitive abilities and the transmission of facts is suggested. A brief definition of the three domains--psychomotor (doing), cognitive (thinking), and affective (feeling)--is given, and it is pointed out that affect (Feelings) is present with either…

  2. Factors affecting consumer perceptions on product safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Ching Biu Tse

    1999-01-01

    Examines how perceived product safety may be affected by such product-related factors as price, brand name, store name, promotion channels, source credibility, country of origin, nature of product testing authority and warranty. Shows that perceived product safety was significantly affected by all of the variables mentioned above. Implies that, by carefully manipulating these variables in formulating marketing strategies, managers can

  3. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…

  4. Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: Toward a synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Davidson

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the author's program of research on the neural substrates of emotion and affective style and their behavioral and peripheral biological correlates. Two core dimensions along which affect is organized are approach and withdrawal. Some of the key circuitry underlying approach and withdrawal components of emotion is reviewed with an emphasis on the role played by different sectors

  5. Factors Affecting Course Outcomes in Introductory Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah LaBelle; Vennila N. R. Kain

    Learning to program is difficult for many students. Although several factors that affect learning to program have been identified over the years, we are still far from a full understanding of why some students learn to program easily and quickly while others flounder. Two constructs that may affect learning to program are self-efficacy and mental models. Self-efficacy is the individual's

  6. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  7. Mutations affecting craniofacial development in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan C. F. Neuhauss; Lilianna Solnica-Krezel; Alexander F. Schier; Fried Zwartkruis; Derek L. Stemple; Jarema Malicki; Salim Abdelilah; Didier Y. R. Stainier; Wolfgang Driever

    In a large-scale screen for mutations affecting embryogen- esis in zebrafish, we identified 48 mutations in 34 genetic loci specifically affecting craniofacial development. Mutants were analyzed for abnormalities in the cartilagi- nous head skeleton. Further, the expression of marker genes was studied to investigate potential abnormalities in mutant rhombencephalon, neural crest, and pharyngeal endoderm. The results suggest that the identified

  8. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  9. Vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuo

    2015-02-01

    High power CO2 laser is widely used in various scientific, industrial and military applications. Vibration is a common phenomenon during laser working process, it will affect the working performance of high power CO2 laser, vibration must be strictly controlled in the condition where the laser pointing is required. This paper proposed a method to investigate the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser. An experiment device with vibration acceleration sensor was established to measure vibration signal of CO2 laser, the measured vibration signal was mathematically treated using space-frequency conversion, and then the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser can be obtained.

  10. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

  11. Gases: Characteristics and Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

  12. Molecular Characteristics of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ottenhof, Niki A.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally lethal disease and despite extensive research over the last decades, this has not changed significantly. Nevertheless, much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suggesting that different therapeutic strategies based on these new insights are forthcoming. Increasing focus exists on designing the so-called targeted treatment strategies in which the genetic characteristics of a tumor guide therapy. In the past, the focus of research was on identifying the most frequently affected genes in PDAC, but with the complete sequencing of the pancreatic cancer genome the focus has shifted to defining the biological function that the altered genes play. In this paper we aimed to put the genetic alterations present in pancreatic cancer in the context of their role in signaling pathways. In addition, this paper provides an update of the recent advances made in the development of the targeted treatment approach in PDAC. PMID:21512581

  13. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  14. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  15. Neck characteristic parameters mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Jiang; Wenbin Zhang; Ming Xia; Xuanyi Hou

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to develop some neck characteristic parameters and to build virtual neck model of individual that can be used in the collar design of virtual fashion design. Through principal component factor analysis for the 3D neck anthropometric measurements of 200 female graduate students aged between 22 and 27, the paper presents some neck characteristic parameters, such as neck

  16. A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Gabbard, Joseph L.

    A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics in Virtual Environments Deliverable to Office of Naval This document can be found at http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/jgabbard/ve/taxonomy/ #12;#12;A Taxonomy of Usability accomplished, yielding a comprehensive multi-dimensional taxonomy of usability characteristics specifically

  17. Voltage/temperature charge characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F. E.

    1978-01-01

    A series of nickel cadmium batteries were tested to determine the effects of boltages and various temperatures on the charge discharge ratios and the recharge percentage. It was concluded that the selection of a proper temperature should consider the satellite orbit characteristics, the cell operating characteristics, the battery operating temperature range, and the final taper charge current.

  18. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1affect the test model force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

  19. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  20. Flow of affective information between communicating brains

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Silke; Heinzle, Jakob; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ethofer, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2011-01-01

    When people interact, affective information is transmitted between their brains. Modern imaging techniques permit to investigate the dynamics of this brain-to-brain transfer of information. Here, we used information-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the flow of affective information between the brains of senders and perceivers engaged in ongoing facial communication of affect. We found that the level of neural activity within a distributed network of the perceiver's brain can be successfully predicted from the neural activity in the same network in the sender's brain, depending on the affect that is currently being communicated. Furthermore, there was a temporal succession in the flow of affective information from the sender's brain to the perceiver's brain, with information in the perceiver's brain being significantly delayed relative to information in the sender's brain. This delay decreased over time, possibly reflecting some ‘tuning in’ of the perceiver with the sender. Our data support current theories of intersubjectivity by providing direct evidence that during ongoing facial communication a ‘shared space’ of affect is successively built up between senders and perceivers of affective facial signals. PMID:20624471

  1. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  2. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  3. Chemical profile of adhesive/caries-affected dentin interfaces using Raman microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette; Walker, Mary P.

    2007-01-01

    In clinical practice, dentists must frequently bond adhesives to caries-affected dentin substrates, but the bond that characteristically forms with these substrates does not provide the durability necessary for long-term clinical function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the interfacial chemistry of adhesive with caries-affected and noncarious dentin using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the differences in the Raman spectra between noncarious and caries-affected dentin could not be accounted for by simple decreased mineralization. Both the structure of collagen and mineral in the caries-affected dentin has been altered by the caries process. The differences in structure and composition not only interfered with acid-etching process but also subsequent resin monomer penetration. It was shown that the interface between the adhesive and caries-affected dentin was wider and more complicated than that of the adhesive and noncarious dentin. As a result of adhesive phase separation, a structurally integrated hybrid layer did not form at the interface with either caries-affected or non-carious dentin. Using chemical imaging techniques, this study provides the direct evidence of adhesive phase separation at the interface with caries-affected dentin. Although our group previously reported adhesive phase separation at the interface with noncarious dentin, the chemistry of caries-affected dentin leads to greater variability and a more highly irregular composition along the length and breadth of the interface. PMID:17120213

  4. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  5. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  6. Implementation of Affect Sensitive News Agent (ASNA) for Affectively Classifying of News Summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaikh Mostafa Al Masum; Tawhidul Islam; Mitsuru Ishizuka; Helmut Prendinger

    In this paper, we explain a system entitled Affect Sensi- tive News Agent (ASNA) developed as a news aggrega- tor that fetches news employing several RSS news-feeds and auto-categorizes the news according to affect sensi- tivity. There are three main factors that distinguish our work from other similar ones. First, we have integrated the approach to sense affective information from

  7. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Anderson; Kathryn B. Anderson; William E. Deuser

    1996-01-01

    A generalframework for studying affective aggression, integrat- ing many insights from previous models (e.g., those of Baron, Berkowitz, Geen, and Zillmann), is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperatures and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is reported. Hostile cognition was assessedusing an automatic priming task (i.e., Stroop interfer- ence). Hostile affect was assessed with the State

  8. Context of Success, Affective Arousal, and Generosity: The Neglected Role of Negative Affect in Success Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda K.

    1983-01-01

    Elementary Boys' generosity toward peers following a success experience varied according to resulting positive and negative affects. Role of context of success relative to affective arousal and generosity were explored. Results indicated importance of considering the context of success and relevance of negative affects induced by a success…

  9. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Anderson; William E. Deuser; K. M. DeNeve

    1995-01-01

    A general model of affective aggression was used to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures.Experiment 1 examined hot temperatureeffectson hostileaffect, hostilecognition,perceived arousal, and physiological arousal in the context of a study of video games. Experiment 2 examined hot temperature effects on hostile affect, perceived and physiological arousal, and general positive and negative affect in the context of briefaerobicexercise. Consistent results were

  10. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was…

  11. Sensing characteristics of ZnO-based NO x sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Koshizaki; Toshie Oyama

    2000-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of ZnO-based sputtered films are studied. The film about 140 nm thick showed high sensitivity to NOx and selectivity against H2 and CO. The sputtering pressure greatly affected the sensitivity, and the sensitivity maximum was observed at 0.67 Pa. The effect of element doping into ZnO on sensitivity and selectivity to NOx was also studied using co-sputtering technique.

  12. The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponciano S. Madamba; Robert H. Driscoll; Ken A. Buckle

    1996-01-01

    The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices (2–4 mm) were investigated for a temperature range 50–90 °C, a relative humidity range 8–24%, and an airflow range 0.5–1 m\\/s. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that temperature and slice thickness significantly affected the drying rate while relative humidity and airflow rate were insignificant factors during drying. Effective diffusivity of water varied

  13. Habitat availability and animal community characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  15. Factors Affecting Employment of Welfare Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrissinger, Marlene Sonju

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the length of time worked by mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children and three categories of variables. Only economic factors appeared to significantly affect the mothers' decision whether to work. (Author)

  16. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

  17. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

  18. Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

    1997-06-30

    In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

  19. Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brief, Arthur P; Weiss, Howard M

    2002-01-01

    The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its definition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers' feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and challenges remain. PMID:11752487

  20. Environmental Laws Affecting Farmers and Ranchers 

    E-print Network

    McEowen, Roger A.

    1999-06-23

    The United States tries to handle environmental problems primarily by regulating the use of natural resources. This affects farmers and ranchers in many ways. This publication discusses the various federal regulatory approaches that have been...

  1. How Cosmic Rays Affect Learning Objectives

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    1 CRaTER: How Cosmic Rays Affect Humans Learning Objectives: · Students will be able to describe.Ontheground,scientistsfoundthatwhenanastronautsawaflash,acosmicrayhadpassedthroughhiseyeball! Background: more recently, the Italian Space Agency created a similar cosmic ray detector

  2. Cognitive and Affective Control in Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ralph E.; Harvey, Allison G.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a) to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b) to review a new budding field of scientific investigation – the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c) to review evidence that sleep disturbance can impair next-day affect control; and (d) to outline, on the basis of the reviewed evidence, how the repetitive-thought literature and the affective science literature can be combined to further understanding of, and intervention for, insomnia. PMID:22162971

  3. An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Soltes

    2012-06-28

    This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

  4. Legal Issues Affecting Libraries and Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Joseph J.; Shuman, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of employment laws affecting libraries includes definitions of qualified personnel, laws pertaining to medical and honesty testing, affirmative action, and sexual harassment. Laws covering crime within libraries are also discussed, as well as problems with existing legislation. (CLB)

  5. Beyond usability -- affect in web browsing 

    E-print Network

    Deng, Liqiong

    2009-06-02

    This research concentrates on the visual aesthetics of a website, investigating the web user's affective/emotional reactions to different designs of web homepage aesthetics and their influence on subsequent behaviors of web users. Drawing...

  6. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibiotics are not effective. Bacterial infections of the larynx are much rarer and often are associated with ... nerves and muscles within the voice box or larynx. The most common neurological condition that affects the ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. School Context Dimensions That Affect Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Renee T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses staff development, examining data from a project involving the University of Houston and seven schools. Teacher interviews revealed five dimensions of school context affecting opportunities for their professional development (interpersonal, structural, individual, leadership, and synergistic). (SM)

  9. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  10. Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more serious type of stress that can negatively affect your baby. PTSD occurs when you have problems after seeing or ...

  11. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  12. Magic electron affection in preparation process of silicon nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Huang, Zhong-Mei; Dong, Ti-Ger; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    It is very interesting that magic electron affection promotes growth of nanocrystals due to nanoscale characteristics of electronic de Broglie wave which produces resonance to transfer energy to atoms. In our experiment, it was observed that silicon nanocrystals rapidly grow with irradiation of electron beam on amorphous silicon film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and silicon nanocrystals almost occur in sphere shape on smaller nanocrystals with less irradiation time of electron beam. In the process, it was investigated that condensed structures of silicon nanocrystals are changed with different impurity atoms in silicon film, in which localized states emission was observed. Through electron beam irradiation for 15min on amorphous Si film doped with oxygen impurity atoms by PLD process, enhanced photoluminescence emission peaks are observed in visible light. And electroluminescence emission is manipulated into the optical communication window on the bigger Si-Yb-Er nanocrystals after irradiation of electron beam for 30min. PMID:25909481

  13. Factors affecting mother-child play 

    E-print Network

    Welch, Jennifer Colleen

    1993-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...: Psychology FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content bg: T' othy A. Cavell...

  14. Handler beliefs affect scent detection dog outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa LitJulie; Julie B. Schweitzer; Anita M. Oberbauer

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate how human beliefs affect working dog outcomes in an applied environment. We asked whether beliefs\\u000a of scent detection dog handlers affect team performance and evaluated relative importance of human versus dog influences on\\u000a handlers’ beliefs. Eighteen drug and\\/or explosive detection dog\\/handler teams each completed two sets of four brief search\\u000a scenarios (conditions). Handlers were falsely

  15. Institutions Affecting the Urban Water Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Adler

    \\u000a The complexity of the legal framework discussed in Chapter 9 is mirrored by an equally intricate mosaic of legal and political\\u000a institutions that govern, manage, and otherwise affect the urban water environment. Those include legislative bodies that\\u000a pass the statutes, ordinances, and other enactments that affect urban water use and management; courts that interpret and\\u000a enforce those legal rules and

  16. Affective Intelligence: The Human Face of AI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Malatesta; Kostas Karpouzis; Amaryllis Raouzaiou

    2009-01-01

    Affective computing has been an extremely active research and development area for some years now, with some of the early\\u000a results already starting to be integrated in human-computer interaction systems. Driven mainly by research initiatives in\\u000a Europe, USA and Japan and accelerated by the abundance of processing power and low-cost, unintrusive sensors like cameras\\u000a and microphones, affective computing functions in

  17. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  18. Affective Adaptation of Synthetic Social Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Lucas Dos Anjos; Ruth Aylett; Alison Cawsey

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on designing affective roles in agent-based social simulation (ABSS) focused on ethology. Synthetic\\u000a agents are addressed as autonomous, intentional software entities capable of managing primate-like (hierarchical) social relationships\\u000a in small-scale societies. The critique involves discussion of potential affective roles in socio-cognitive agent architectures,\\u000a both in terms of individual action-selection and group organisation. With the diversity of social

  19. Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briana Mezuk

    2008-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved,\\u000a although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or\\u000a alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current\\u000a evidence regarding the association of unipolar

  20. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

  1. Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

  2. Experimental research on viscoelastic characteristics of shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. F.; Wang, Z. D.

    2010-03-01

    As a class of semi-crystallized polymers, shape memory polymers (SMPs) exhibit significant viscoelastic characteristics in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature Tg, which should affect their shape storage and recovery functionality. However, until now isothermal and elastic assumptions are commonly considered when studying the thermomechanical properties of this class of functionalized materials. This papers aims to present some experimental results about the viscoelastic characteristics of SMPs. Systematic thermomechanical experiments were performed on shape-memory polyurethane under uniaxial tensile loading, which includes the frozen/recovery tests under different constraint conditions, stress-strain cycles and stress relaxation at different temperatures. Based on the testing results, the viscoelastic characteristics effect on the shape frozen and recovery responses of SMPs are discussed, which is of importance in proposing suitable thermo-viscoelastic constitutions about this type of functional materials.

  3. Experimental research on viscoelastic characteristics of shape memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. F.; Wang, Z. D.

    2009-12-01

    As a class of semi-crystallized polymers, shape memory polymers (SMPs) exhibit significant viscoelastic characteristics in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature Tg, which should affect their shape storage and recovery functionality. However, until now isothermal and elastic assumptions are commonly considered when studying the thermomechanical properties of this class of functionalized materials. This papers aims to present some experimental results about the viscoelastic characteristics of SMPs. Systematic thermomechanical experiments were performed on shape-memory polyurethane under uniaxial tensile loading, which includes the frozen/recovery tests under different constraint conditions, stress-strain cycles and stress relaxation at different temperatures. Based on the testing results, the viscoelastic characteristics effect on the shape frozen and recovery responses of SMPs are discussed, which is of importance in proposing suitable thermo-viscoelastic constitutions about this type of functional materials.

  4. Decoupling cellular memory from other gene expression characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazsi, Gabor; Adams, Rhys; Nevozhay, Dmitry

    2010-03-01

    Non-conventional population level gene expression characteristics (such as the noise, cellular memory, skewness, modality, etc.) can have phenotypic impact and can affect cell population fitness independently of the gene expression mean. To study the phenotypic impact of gene expression characteristics other than the mean, they must be decoupled from the mean, and possibly from each other, i.e., two cell populations have to be established with similar means, but different non canonical gene expression characteristics. We study by experiment and mathematical modeling how positive feedback regulation can be used to decouple and adjust the cellular memory independently of the noise and the mean. We describe a state of ``population dynamic bistability'' where the cell population has bistable expression while individual cell lineages do not. Our results have implications for modeling gene expression bimodality and controlling cellular memory in cell populations.

  5. Effective leadership characteristics for student performance as perceived by high-performing Texas high school principals: a Delphi study

    E-print Network

    Young, David Earle

    2007-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to identify leadership characteristics of highperforming Texas high school principals that positively affect student performance. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine the degree of agreement between...

  6. Attentional Consequences of Pregoal and Postgoal Positive Affects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Gable; Eddie Harmon-Jones

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research have suggested that all positive affective states broaden attention. Recent studies have found that positive affects high in approach motivation narrow attention, whereas positive affects low in approach motivation broaden attention. However, these studies were limited because they used only affective pictures to manipulate positive affect. The pictures, rather than the affective states created by them, may

  7. Dynamic analysis of evaporator characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Dol Kim; Jung-In Yoon; Hag-Geun Ku

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamic characteristics in an evaporator was numerically performed for control and design of the refrigeration\\u000a and air conditioning systems. The important factors, such as refrigerant flow rate, inlet enthalpy, inlet air velocity and\\u000a air temperature, are incorporated with this analysis. An evaporator is modeled for the dynamic characteristics analysis separated\\u000a into three regions which are the

  8. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes. PMID:22829818

  9. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  10. Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates

    PubMed Central

    Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M.; Saperstein, Aliya

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

  11. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B.?terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging. PMID:25994560

  12. Stabilization of metastatic lesions affecting the second cervical vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph F.; Shafqat, Asseer; Devitt, Aiden; McCabe, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Metastatic spine disease is an ever-increasing burden on health care systems. Certain levels in the spine confer unique biomechanical characteristics and hence are of interest. Isolated C2 lesions are rare. We aimed to review our results in surgical management of C2 lesions. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all surgical stabilizations of metastatic spine lesions over the preceding 4 years. Six patients with C2 lesions were identified. Of these five underwent surgical stabilization primarily for disease affecting the second cervical vertebra. Case notes and radiology were reviewed to determine presentation, outcomes and complications. Results: Cases were treated primarily by posterior instrumentation from either occiput or C1 to the subaxial cervical spine. The median survivorship after surgery was 283 days. There were no cases of infection, VTE or implant failure. There were no cases of neurologic deterioration with all maintaining Frankel E grading. Conclusion: Metastatic lesions affecting the second cervical vertebra are rare. A variety of stabilization options tailored to the individual lesions, including occipitocervical fixation, in this small series was successful in maintaining stability and resolution of symptoms. PMID:25972709

  13. The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kitsos, Gemma H.; Hubbard, Isobel J.; Kitsos, Alex R.; Parsons, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Neurological dysfunction commonly occurs in the upper limb contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain in which stroke occurs; however, the impact of stroke on function of the ipsilesional upper limb is not well understood. This study aims to systematically review the literature relating to the function of the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke and answer the following research question: Is the ipsilesional upper limb affected by stroke? Data Source. A systematic review was carried out in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. Review Methods. All studies investigating the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke were included and analysed for important characteristics. Outcomes were extracted and summarised. Results. This review captured 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies provided evidence that the ipsilesional upper limb can be affected following stroke. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that clinicians should consider ipsilesional upper limb deficits in rehabilitation and address this reduced functional capacity. Furthermore, the ipsilesional upper limb should not be used as a “control” measure of recovery for the contralateral upper limb. PMID:24379748

  14. Social Anxiety Modulates Subliminal Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Elizabeth S.; Pope, Stuart A. J.; Fennell, John G.; Mendl, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that there is anxiety-related variation between observers in the very earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual processing of images such as emotionally expressive faces, often leading to enhanced attention to threat in a variety of disorders and traits. Whether there is also variation in early-stage affective (i.e. valenced) responses resulting from such images, however, is not yet known. The present study used the subliminal affective priming paradigm to investigate whether people varying in trait social anxiety also differ in their affective responses to very briefly presented, emotionally expressive face images. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants (n?=?67) completed a subliminal affective priming task, in which briefly presented and smiling, neutral and angry faces were shown for 10 ms durations (below objective and subjective thresholds for visual discrimination), and immediately followed by a randomly selected Chinese character mask (2000 ms). Ratings of participants' liking for each Chinese character indicated the degree of valenced affective response made to the unseen emotive images. Participants' ratings of their liking for the Chinese characters were significantly influenced by the type of face image preceding them, with smiling faces generating more positive ratings than neutral and angry ones (F(2,128)?=?3.107, p<0.05). Self-reported social anxiety was positively correlated with ratings of smiling relative to neutral-face primed characters (Pearson's r?=?.323, p<0.01). Individual variation in self-reported mood awareness was not associated with ratings. Conclusions Trait social anxiety is associated with individual variation in affective responding, even in response to the earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual image processing. However, the fact that these priming effects are limited to smiling and not angry (i.e. threatening) images leads us to propose that the pre-attentive processes involved in generating the subliminal affective priming effect may be different from those that generate attentional biases in anxious individuals. PMID:22615873

  15. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. PMID:20708268

  16. Contribution of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus to Generation of the Affective Dimension of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Borszcz, George S.

    2006-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a core structure underlying the generation of affective behaviors to threats. The prototypical threat to an individual is exposure to a noxious stimulus and the dorsomedial division of the VMH (dmVMH) receives nociceptive input. The present study evaluated the contribution of the dmVMH to generation of the affective reaction to pain in rats. Noxious tailshock elicits from rats vocalization afterdischarges (VADs) that have distinct spectrographic characteristics and are a validated model of the affective reaction to pain. VAD-like vocalizations (vocalizations with the same spectral characteristics of VADs) were elicited by stimulation (electrical or chemical) of the dmVMH. Stimulation in the vicinity of the dmVMH was ineffective in eliciting VADs. Manipulation of GABAA neurochemistry within the dmVMH altered the threshold for elicitation of VADs by dmVMH stimulation or tailshock. Administration of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline or the GABAA agonist muscimol into the dmVMH lowered and elevated VAD thresholds, respectively. These treatments did not alter thresholds of other tailshock elicited responses (vocalizations during tailshock or spinal motor reflexes). Bicuculline and muscimol administered into the dmVMH also elevated and lowered the asymptotic level of fear conditioning supported by dmVMH stimulation or tailshock. These findings demonstrate that the dmVMH contributes to the processing of pain affect and that the affective dimension of pain belongs to a broader class of sensory experience that represents threat to the individual. PMID:16564622

  17. Triptan use among hospital workers affected by migraine.

    PubMed

    Viticchi, G; Falsetti, L; Buratti, L; Plutino, A; Provinciali, L; Silvestrini, M; Bartolini, M

    2015-05-01

    Triptans represent the most specific and effective treatment for migraine attacks. Nevertheless, in clinical practice, they are often underused. Hospital workers, in particular physicians, are expected to be more aware of the correct use of specific drugs, especially for a very common disease such as migraine. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether different hospital workers affected by migraine are able to correctly manage the most suitable therapy for their migraine attacks. During a 1-year period, we submitted hospital employees to a structured interview with a questionnaire to investigate the presence of headache and its characteristics. In particular, in the subpopulation of subjects affected by migraine, we took information regarding their usual treatment for the control of attacks. The type of drug and the category of the working activity were synthesized as two different ordinal variables. Difference in the distribution of the different drug categories was evaluated with Chi squared test. Statistics was performed with SPSS 13.0 for Windows systems. We enrolled 1250 consecutive subjects: 20.3 % of the population (254 patients) was affected by migraine. Triptans use was significantly lower than that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The distribution of the use of the drugs was significantly different (p < 0.0001) at Chi squared test. Among migraineur physicians, only 10.7 % used triptans. Even in this subgroup, we observed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) in the distribution of the use of the drugs at Chi squared test. Our findings show a reduced use of triptans among hospital workers. These data reflect the unsatisfactory dissemination of knowledge regarding the correct management of migraine attacks and the advantages of treatment with triptans. An incorrect therapeutic approach to migraine contributes to the risk of the most important complications, such as drugs abuse or illness chronicization. These findings suggest that an insufficient awareness of migraine-related therapeutic options also involves hospital workers, including physicians. PMID:26017534

  18. Dynamic musical communication of core affect.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Nicole K; Large, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified "scene" that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

  19. Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

  20. Numerical evaluation of blood viscosity affecting pulse wave propagation in a fluid-structure interaction model.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Hua, Lu; Gao, Li-Jian

    2015-02-01

    Abstract High blood viscosity often causes cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. It is proven that blood viscosity plays an important role in cardiovascular functions. In this paper, pulse wave characteristics with normal and high blood viscosities are presented in detail to evaluate how blood viscosity affects pulse wave propagation. A fluid-structure interaction is employed to solve for pulse wave characteristics. The results show that increased blood viscosity does not change the time delay of wave propagation. However, high viscosity reduces the velocity amplitude, while it enhances the pressure level. This study provides physical insight for evaluating blood viscosity leading potentially to pulse wave changes. PMID:25720033

  1. Familial disseminated comedones without dyskeratosis: report of an affected family and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mao-Jie; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Happle, Rudolf; Song, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Familial dyskeratotic comedones is a well-known genodermatosis with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by numerous comedones with dyskeratosis in histology and scar formation in consequence. In contrast, cases of familial disseminated comedones without dyskeratosis appear to be extremely rare. So far, only three reports could be found in the literature. Here we describe a large family affected with disseminated comedones superimposed by moderate to severe acne. Remarkably, no signs of dyskeratosis were found in the histology taken from 2 of the 15 affected family members. We propose the diagnostic term 'familial disseminated comedones without dyskeratosis' to underline its familial and disseminated characteristics and discuss the differentiation with other similar entities. PMID:24819025

  2. Effects of urban development on stormwater runoff characteristics for the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A study was done to estimate the effects of urban development in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area on nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Three of the nine characteristics define the magnitude of stormwater runoff, and the remaining six characteristics describe the shape and duration of a storm hydrograph. Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to estimate the nine stormwater runoff characteristics from basin and rainfall characteristics. Five basin characteristics and five rainfall characteristics were tested in the regressions to determine which basin and rainfall characteristics significantly affect stormwater runoff characteristics. Basin development factor was found to be significant in equations for eight of the nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Two sets of equations were developed, one for each of two regions based on soil type, from a database containing 1,089 storm discharge hydrographs for 42 sites compiled during 1964?89. The effects of urban development on the eight stormwater runoff characteristics were quantified by varying basin development factor in the equations and recomputing the stormwater runoff characteristics. The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 1 (north of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 40 percent (for direct runoff) to 235 percent (for peak yield); and corresponding decreases in the characteristics that describe hydrograph shape and duration ranging from about 22 percent (for direct runoff duration) to about 58 percent (for basin lag). The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 2 (south of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 33 percent (for direct runoff) to about 210 percent (for both peak flow and peak yield); and corresponding decreases in the characteristics that describe hydrograph shape and duration ranging from about 38 percent (for direct runoff duration) to about 64 percent (for basin lag).

  3. Anticipated affective reactions and prevention of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Richard, R; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N

    1995-03-01

    Controlling the AIDs epidemic may depend largely upon health education aimed at adolescents. A number of approaches have been applied to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive behaviour in adolescents, including the health belief model (Becker, 1974), protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), and the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). Since sexual behaviour is heavily influenced by emotions, a possible shortcoming of these models is that little attention is given to affective processes. In this study we investigated the role of anticipated, post-behavioural, affective reactions to (un)safe sexual behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The results showed that anticipated affective reactions such as worry and regret predicted behavioural expectations over and above the components of the TPB. The implications for our understanding of adolescent sexual behaviour and for campaigns aimed at the reduction of risky sexual practices will be discussed. PMID:7735735

  4. Thematic relations affect similarity via commonalities.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing a noninversion of similarity and difference. Experiment 2 revealed substantial individual variability in the preference for thematic relations and, consequently, in the noninversion of ratings. In sum, the experiments demonstrated a noninversion of similarity and difference that was caused by thematic relations and exhibited primarily by a subgroup of participants. These results indicate that thematic relations affect perceived similarity by increasing the contribution of commonalities rather than by decreasing the contribution of differences. PMID:19857016

  5. Affecting speed and accuracy in perception.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2014-12-01

    An account of affective modulations in perceptual speed and accuracy (ASAP: Affecting Speed and Accuracy in Perception) is proposed and tested. This account assumes an emotion-induced inhibitory interaction between parallel channels in the visual system that modulates the onset latencies and response durations of visual signals. By trading off speed and accuracy between channels, this mechanism achieves (a) fast visuo-motor responding to course-grained information, and (b) accurate visuo-attentional selection of fine-grained information. ASAP gives a functional account of previously counterintuitive findings, and may be useful for explaining affective influences in both featural-level single-stimulus tasks and object-level multistimulus tasks. PMID:24853268

  6. Affected zone generated around the erosion pit on carbon steel surface at the incipient stage of vibration cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HaoSheng Chen; Jiang Li; ShiHan Liu; DaRong Chen; JiaDao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of erosion pits on a carbon steel surface were investigated at the incipient stage of cavitation erosion.\\u000a After a 5-minute experiment performed in an ultrasonic vibration system, needle-like erosion pits appeared on the polished\\u000a steel surface, and a specially affected zone was formed around the pit. The shape of the pit and the plastic deformation of\\u000a the affected

  7. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

  8. On the affective force of "nasty love".

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    Tackling the mimetic logic of sex-gender that limits the transsexual subject's sexuality into seeming a poor representation, the author argues that trans pornography and autoethnographic accounts from trans scholars emphasize the affective dimension of trans sex, a material remainder absent from mimetic theories of sexuality. Developing concepts from Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, in tandem with Morty Diamond's film Trans Entities: The Nasty Love of Papí and Wil (2007) and a selection of trans theorists, this article elaborates on the horizon of affective potential opened by transgender, brown, kinky, and pornographic "nastiness." The event of "nasty love" solicits a differential becoming, growing the edge of self. PMID:24294885

  9. Use of affective priming to measure the implicit self-reference effect.

    PubMed

    Blaszczak, Wojciech; Imbir, Kamil

    2012-08-01

    A modified suboptimal affective priming paradigm was used to provide an implicit measure of the self-reference effect (Implicit Self-Reference effect, ISR). Hexagrams described to participants as "symbols of different human characteristics" served as judgment target stimuli. Participants (14 women, 12 men; age range = 21 to 25 years) were asked to judge the extent to which the characteristic symbolized by each hexagram was self-relevant to them. Twelve photographs of faces displaying either a neutral expression, disgust, or joy were used as suboptimal primes for each presentation and exposed for 17 msec. Results indicated that participants judged hexagrams affectively primed with faces showing disgust as having significantly lower reference to the self than hexagrams primed with joyful faces. PMID:23045852

  10. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work. PMID:12199065

  11. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  12. Schools Without Failure Affect Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Franklin W.; Ahlstrom, Winton M.

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program. In a study of the SWF program in several schools in a midwestern, metropolitan school district, three sets of variables were measured: student outcomes, classroom characteristics reflecting SWF program…

  13. AFFECTIVE COMPUTING: CHALLENGES Rosalind W. Picard

    E-print Network

    1 AFFECTIVE COMPUTING: CHALLENGES Rosalind W. Picard MIT Media Laboratory Cambridge, MA USA E-mail at suppressing its expression. But most people think of Spock as not having emotion. When someone never expresses, a number of new criticisms and challenges have arisen. The rest of this paper addresses such matters. 2

  14. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    E-print Network

    Baldassarri, Sandra

    the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the affective aspect of communication, which conversational agents, ECAs (Casell et al., 2000), are graphical interfaces capable of using verbal and non-verbal modes of communication to interact with users in computer- based environments. These agents

  15. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  16. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  17. Evaluating multimodal affective fusion using physiological signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Gilroy; Marc O. Cavazza; Valentin Vervondel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of an affective multimodal fusion approach utilizing dimensional representations of emotion. The evaluation uses physiological signals as a reference measure of users' emotional states. Surface electromyography (EMG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) signals are known to be correlated with specific dimensions of emotion (Pleasure and Arousal) and are compared here to real time

  18. Evolutionary diversification in stickleback affects ecosystem functioning

    E-print Network

    Harmon, Luke

    , and have colonized and adapted to freshwater habitats in coastal areas16 . In seven lakes of BritishLETTERS Evolutionary diversification in stickleback affects ecosystem functioning Luke J. Harmon1, but surprisingly little has been said about the effects of evolutionary diversification on ecosystems1

  19. SOIL ORGANIC AMENDMENT AS AFFECTING HERBICIDE FATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of organic amendments or organic wastes to soils have been shown to affect the fate of soil applied herbicides, although it is an issue very seldom considered when making the decision of fertilizing soil or disposing organic wastes. The addition of organic wastes to soils is viewed as v...

  20. Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

  1. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?

    E-print Network

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20

    This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

  2. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  3. Rockford, Ill.: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operational tests of the two-way interactive cable television system using a firefighter training series administered to the Rockford (Illinois) fire department. Cognitive and affective measurement instruments described indicate a significant difference favoring two-way systems of in-service training programs. (JMF)

  4. Affective Pointers in Mathematics Online Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana

    2007-01-01

    This report is focused on the use of affective pointers (acknowledgements and hedges) detected in exchanges between learners and tutors on asynchronous mathematics online help sites. In this environment, both students and tutors use feedback in form of acknowledgements to control communication and assess its success. Hedges, or insecurities, point…

  5. Nurturing Affective Growth through Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Over the past eight years, the author has had the pleasure of facilitating discussion groups with gifted middle and high school students. These groups focus on affective concerns, giving students the opportunity to talk about issues they have in common and how life looks and feels through the lens of giftedness. The best school situation for…

  6. Children and objects: affection and infection

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Children and objects: affection and infection Bio Statement: Liz Jones is Professor of Early Studies and Children and Childhood. Liz has over twenty years experience of teaching in both mainstream is the desire for children to have a to have a better, more just and equitable society whilst simultaneously

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    E-print Network

    Knight, Robert T.

    Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children Mark M. Kishiyama1 , W. Thomas profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socio- economic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence

  8. Toward a Minimal Representation of Affective Gestures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Glowinski; Nele Dael; Antonio Camurri; Gualtiero Volpe; Marcello Mortillaro; Klaus Scherer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for analysis of affective behavior starting with a reduced amount of visual information related to human upper-body movements. The main goal is to individuate a minimal representation of emotional displays based on nonverbal gesture features. The GEMEP (Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals) corpus was used to validate this framework. Twelve emotions expressed by 10 actors form

  9. Does noise signal affect flipping activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Fen Nee; Ruhani Ali; Zamri Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the explanatory power of noise signal and fundamentals on flipping activities of share trading. Flipping is defined as the percentage of opening day trading volume divided by the number of shares offered on the first trading day (Miller and Reily, 1987, and Aggarwal, 2003) in an offer for sale. It is affected by investors’ opinion

  10. Affective Relationship Patterns and Psychotherapeutic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Bänninger-Huber; Christine Widmer

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the significance of psychotherapeutic interaction for psychotherapeutic change is explored. Videotaped therapy sessions are analyzed with microanalytic methods (Frames, FACS), integrating verbal and nonverbal aspects (mainly facial expression) of the interaction. In a single case investigated, specific interactive patterns in the context of guilt feelings are identified (so called traps and prototypical affective microsequences [PAMs]). These interactive

  11. Factors affecting the bacteria heterotrophic nanoflagellate

    E-print Network

    Jacquet, Stéphan

    Factors affecting the bacteria­ heterotrophic nanoflagellate relationship in oligo´ DU QUE´BEC A` MONTRE´AL, CP 8888, SUCC. CENTRE VILLE, MONTRE´AL, QC, H3C 3P8, 1 GRIL ­ DE´ PARTEMENT DE SCIENCES BIOLOGIQUES, UNIVERSITE´ DE MONTRE´ AL, CP 6128, SUCC. CENTRE VILLE, MONTRE´ AL, QC, H3C

  12. Handler beliefs affect scent detection dog outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2011-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate how human beliefs affect working dog outcomes in an applied environment. We asked whether beliefs of scent detection dog handlers affect team performance and evaluated relative importance of human versus dog influences on handlers' beliefs. Eighteen drug and/or explosive detection dog/handler teams each completed two sets of four brief search scenarios (conditions). Handlers were falsely told that two conditions contained a paper marking scent location (human influence). Two conditions contained decoy scents (food/toy) to encourage dog interest in a false location (dog influence). Conditions were (1) control; (2) paper marker; (3) decoy scent; and (4) paper marker at decoy scent. No conditions contained drug or explosive scent; any alerting response was incorrect. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used with search condition as the independent variable and number of alerts as the dependent variable. Additional nonparametric tests compared human and dog influence. There were 225 incorrect responses, with no differences in mean responses across conditions. Response patterns differed by condition. There were more correct (no alert responses) searches in conditions without markers. Within marked conditions, handlers reported that dogs alerted more at marked locations than other locations. Handlers' beliefs that scent was present potentiated handler identification of detection dog alerts. Human more than dog influences affected alert locations. This confirms that handler beliefs affect outcomes of scent detection dog deployments. PMID:21225441

  13. Identification of Factors That Affect Software Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Javaid

    A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Coagulation temperature affects the microstructure

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Coagulation temperature affects the microstructure and composition of full fat # INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract An understanding of coagulation and factors of coagulation temperature on the microstructure of gel, curd and cheese samples during the manufacture of full

  15. Lighting affects appearance Photometric Stereo: using this

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, David

    for environment map. Can be measured with calibration object. #12;6 Photometric stereo Given reflectance map: i1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 Photometric Stereo: using this variability to reconstruct Shape useful in shape-from-shading and other photometric stereo. Bas-relief Ambiguity #12;9 Shadows Attached

  16. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  17. Climate Change Affects Glacial Water Source

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-11-12

    Mountain glaciers are an important source of fresh water for the people of Peru. In this video segment produced by ThinkTV, learn how climate change is affecting the quantity and quality of available fresh water produced by glaciers in the Andes.

  18. Acknowledging the Affective in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Colin; Clegg, Sue; Smith, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that we need richer conceptions of students as affective and embodied selves and a clearer theorisation of the role of emotion in educational encounters. These areas are currently under-researched and under-theorised in higher education. The first part of the article explores the literature on emotion. The second reports on a…

  19. Acknowledging the affective in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Beard; Sue Clegg; Karen Smith

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that we need richer conceptions of students as affective and embodied selves and a clearer theorisation of the role of emotion in educational encounters. These areas are currently under?researched and under?theorised in higher education. The first part of the article explores the literature on emotion. The second reports on a case study which aimed to map students'

  20. Affective Behavior in Preschool Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, Glendon; And Others

    Presented is the final report of a project to review the state of the art in basic areas of affective development (emotional state and personal attitudes) in the normal and handicapped preschool child. The document is divided into six major sections. In the first chapter, three general areas are covered--a historical discussion of theories of…

  1. Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohew, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

  2. Affectively Oriented Clinical Training: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelfa, Steven T.

    1984-01-01

    The Personal Orientation Inventory was administered to an experimental group and a control group, each composed of five female occupational therapy students, before and after their six-week psychosocial fieldwork experience. The experimental group also received formal affective training sessions, which, results showed, produced greater positive…

  3. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  4. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  5. Females' affective responses to reading erotic literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Mosher; Irene Greenberg

    1969-01-01

    The affective states of sexual arousal, guilt, anxiety, and 11 Nowlis mood factors were studied in 72 college females before and after reading either an erotic or an academically oriented literary passage, with a female E either present or absent, and as a function of the personality disposition of sex guilt. Ss who read the erotic passage showed a significant

  6. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

  7. Expressive Animated Agents for Affective Dialogue Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Beskow; Loredana Cerrato; Björn Granström; David House; Mikael Nordenberg; Magnus Nordstrand; Gunilla Svanfeldt

    2004-01-01

    We present our current state of development regarding animated agents applicable to affective dialogue systems. A new set of tools are under development to support the creation of animated characters compatible with the MPEG-4 facial animation standard. Furthermore, we have collected a multimodal expressive speech database including video, audio and 3D point motion registration. One of the objectives of collecting

  8. How Did September 11th Affect Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    There has been much speculation about how terrorist attacks on September 11th affected everyone, including students on college campuses. At Michigan State University, the assistant director of residence life assessment, research and technology decided to investigate. This article presents results of her department's survey. (Author)

  9. Affective disorders in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Kelly S.G.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review explores recent literature pertaining to affective disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease. Recent findings Nonmotor symptoms including affective disorders are becoming more widely recognized as complications of Parkinson’s disease. As awareness of these symptoms increases, and new neuroimaging tools are developed and become more accessible, more studies are being conducted pertaining to behavioral complications in Parkinson’s disease. The functional connectivity of the basal ganglia can predispose people with Parkinson’s to develop affective disorders. Furthermore, dopaminergic treatments may exacerbate or trigger behavioral symptoms. It is now understood that changes associated with Parkinson’s disease are widespread, affecting striatal and extrastriatal regions and resulting in alterations in gray matter, white matter, blood flow, metabolism, and dopaminergic and serotonergic function. Summary Neuroimaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in Parkinson’s disease, and their role in the development of behavioral disorders. An increased understanding of these disorders may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets, or the identification of risk factors for the development of these disorders. If preventive therapies become available, identification of risk factors will be important for the identification and treatment of susceptible individuals. PMID:23757262

  10. Decoding the neural representation of affective states.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H; Wang, Jing; Blitzer, David N; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2012-01-01

    Brain activity was monitored while participants viewed picture sets that reflected high or low levels of arousal and positive, neutral, or negative valence. Pictures within a set were presented rapidly in an incidental viewing task while fMRI data were collected. The primary purpose of the study was to determine if multi-voxel pattern analysis could be used within and between participants to predict valence, arousal and combined affective states elicited by pictures based on distributed patterns of whole brain activity. A secondary purpose was to determine if distributed patterns of whole brain activity can be used to derive a lower dimensional representation of affective states consistent with behavioral data. Results demonstrated above chance prediction of valence, arousal and affective states that was robust across a wide range of number of voxels used in prediction. Additionally, individual differences multidimensional scaling based on fMRI data clearly separated valence and arousal levels and was consistent with a circumplex model of affective states. PMID:21801839

  11. Affective priming of perceived environmental restorativeness.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Research into the perceived restorativeness of environments tends to focus on the Kaplans' Attention Restoration Theory at the expense of the affective considerations of Ulrich's psychoevolutionary model. To better understand the role of emotion, this study used contextual text-based primers (newspaper articles) to manipulate participants' affective state (positive or negative) prior to them rating different environments using the Restorative Components Scale. Sixty-nine participants completed the web-based study, being pseudo-randomly allocated to the positive- or negative-prime condition before rating three natural and three urban environments. Natural environments were rated as more restorative than urban, with negative-priming giving higher mean ratings for all environments. This effect was overall statistically significant for two components (Being Away and Fascination), but only Fascination showed a significant interaction of affective-prime and environment, a larger effect being seen for natural environments. Results are discussed in terms of current understanding of the interrelationship between attentional and affective processes. PMID:24811723

  12. Stability and Change in Affect among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; da Rosa, Grace; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Garasky, Steven; Franke, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Much information is available about physical and functional health among very old adults, but little knowledge exists about the mental health and mental health changes in very late life. This study reports findings concerning positive and negative affect changes among centenarians. Nineteen centenarians from a Midwestern state participated in four…

  13. Negative affective environments improve complex solving performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carola M. Barth; Joachim Funke

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent affect–cognition theories (Bless et al., 1996; Fiedler, 2001; Sinclair, 1988), the present study predicted and showed a differentiated influence of nice and nasty environments on complex problem solving (CPS). Environments were constructed by manipulating the target value “capital” of a complex scenario: Participants in the nice environment (N=42) easily raised the capital and received positive feedback, whereas

  14. Affective loop experiences: designing for interactional embodiment.

    PubMed

    Höök, Kristina

    2009-12-12

    Involving our corporeal bodies in interaction can create strong affective experiences. Systems that both can be influenced by and influence users corporeally exhibit a use quality we name an affective loop experience. In an affective loop experience, (i) emotions are seen as processes, constructed in the interaction, starting from everyday bodily, cognitive or social experiences; (ii) the system responds in ways that pull the user into the interaction, touching upon end users' physical experiences; and (iii) throughout the interaction the user is an active, meaning-making individual choosing how to express themselves-the interpretation responsibility does not lie with the system. We have built several systems that attempt to create affective loop experiences with more or less successful results. For example, eMoto lets users send text messages between mobile phones, but in addition to text, the messages also have colourful and animated shapes in the background chosen through emotion-gestures with a sensor-enabled stylus pen. Affective Diary is a digital diary with which users can scribble their notes, but it also allows for bodily memorabilia to be recorded from body sensors mapping to users' movement and arousal and placed along a timeline. Users can see patterns in their bodily reactions and relate them to various events going on in their lives. The experiences of building and deploying these systems gave us insights into design requirements for addressing affective loop experiences, such as how to design for turn-taking between user and system, how to create for 'open' surfaces in the design that can carry users' own meaning-making processes, how to combine modalities to create for a 'unity' of expression, and the importance of mirroring user experience in familiar ways that touch upon their everyday social and corporeal experiences. But a more important lesson gained from deploying the systems is how emotion processes are co-constructed and experienced inseparable from all other aspects of everyday life. Emotion processes are part of our social ways of being in the world; they dye our dreams, hopes and bodily experiences of the world. If we aim to design for affective interaction experiences, we need to place them into this larger picture. PMID:19884153

  15. The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: Form follows function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Cacioppo; Wendi L. Gardner; Gary G. Berntson

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The affect system has been shaped by the hammer,and chisel of adaptation and natural selection such that form follows function. The characteristics of the system thus differ across the nervous system as a function of the unique constraints existent at each level. For instance, although physical limitations constrain behavioral expressions and incline behavioral predispositions toward a bipolar (good—bad, approach—withdraw)

  16. Micronucleus frequency in Gomel (Belarus) children affected and not affected by thyroid cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Zotti-Martelli; Lucia Migliore; Galina Panasiuk; Roberto Barale

    1999-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring was carried out on a group of children from Gomel (Belarus), one of the areas most severely affected by radioactive contamination following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, in 1986. We performed the micronucleus test (MN) in binucleated lymphocytes of 42 children (mean age: 11±2.34 years), 16 of whom were affected by thyroid gland tumor. Thirty

  17. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  18. J Cell Mol Med . Author manuscript Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles exhibit

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Cell Mol Med . Author manuscript Page /1 15 Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles pathophysiological pathways in FSHD myoblasts and mature muscle cells but some of these reports were apparently , Jacques Mercier 1 2 , Yegor Vassetzky 3 , Dalila Laoudj-Chenivesse 1 * Muscle et pathologies1 INSERM : ERI

  19. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  20. Affective Artificial Intelligence in Education: From Detection to Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel G. Blanchard; Boris Volfson; Yuan-jin Hong; Susanne P. Lajoie

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and integrates research that would be necessary to develop an AIED system able to detect and then appropriately react to an affective state of a learner. It addresses the nature of affect, methods to automatically detect affect, as well as the interplay between affect and learning-related cognition, and affective strategies that promote quality learning.

  1. Downbeat nystagmus: characteristics and localization of lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, R D

    1989-01-01

    Clinical examinations and eye movement recordings of 91 consecutive patients with DBN were analyzed to describe the characteristics of DBN and to localize the lesions producing this abnormality. Horizontal and vertical eye movement recordings were made with EOG and/or magnetic search coil. The most frequent causes were infarction, cerebellar and spinocerebellar degeneration syndromes, MS and developmental anomalies affecting the pons and cerebellum. Toxicity from anticonvulsant drugs probably caused nystagmus in a few patients. Clinical examinations, excluding electronic eye movement recordings, were used to localize lesions. Localizations included the cerebellum in 88% of the patients. However, localizations to structures outside of the cerebellum were made in several patients. The effects of DBN of gaze position, convergence, blockage of fixation, and positioning of the head and body were observed. Almost all patients had DBN in some position of gaze while sitting and fixating a distant target. A few patients demonstrated DBN only with convergence, in the dark, or with positioning of the head and body. Horizontal gaze increased DBN in most patients. The nystagmus slow components usually had constant-velocity or increasing-velocity waveforms. The effects of vertical gaze on DBN were variable. In general, statistically significant differences in the frequencies of these effects among the various causes and localizations of lesions were not found. Horizontal eye movements were electronically recorded in DBN patients, in a group of normal subjects, and in a group of patients with isolated cerebellar atrophy who did not have DBN. The pattern of abnormal horizontal eye movements characteristic of damage to the midline structures of the cerebellum (impaired pursuit, impaired OKN, and inability to suppress VOR) was found in almost all DBN patients (99%), including patients with lesions localized to structures outside the cerebellum by clinical examination. DBN is usually produced by lesions in the cerebellum that also damage pathways that control horizontal tracking and visual-vestibulo-ocular interactions. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 PMID:2562537

  2. Blood characteristics effect on pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Youn; Yoon, Jihyun; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Karimi, Ali; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-01-01

    PWV, a surrogate marker for vascular stiffness, can be also expressed by the Bramwell-Hill equation. The effect of blood density to PWV has been ignored, because variation of blood density is assumed to be negligible. In some clinical situation, blood density could be changed, and blood density as a mechanical property of blood flow might affect to PWV. While the elastic property plays an important role in determining the wave propagation in an elastic tube, our assumption is that there might be some relation between blood flow and vascular wall, and that the characteristics of blood flow might influence PWV. This study was objected to investigate the role of mechanical and hemorheologic parameters on PWV in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We have measured and analyzed the PWV, hemorheologic parameters, and other clinical parameters in 814 patients with coronary arterial disease scheduled for coronary angiography. There is no commercial method for measuring whole blood density. So, we defined the density score, which is sum of hemoglobin and total protein. And the hemorheologic parameters were measured within 4 hours after sampling by automated microfluidic hemorheometer. And the effect of all the clinical and hemorheologic parameter on PWV was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Many clinical parameters including age and blood pressure, high shear WBV and ESR as hemorheologic parameters, and density score were correlated well with ba-PWV. However, many clinical variables, high shear WBV and ESR lost the independent significance on multivariable regression analysis. Only age, SBP, and density score were independent variables (p < 0.001). In conclusion, density score as a mechanical property of blood might be suggested as an independent variable influencing PWV in addition to age and blood pressure, but hemorheologic parameters, such as RBC deformability, aggregation, and whole blood viscosity do not affect PWV independently. PMID:23445636

  3. Links between parent characteristics and attachment variables for college students of parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men. PMID:19764266

  4. Characteristics of the Federal Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC.

    The personal characteristics, educational background, occupations, and attitudes of 54 Federal Executives who attended Session IX of the Federal Executive Institute, U. S. Civil Service Commission, are given. The average age of the group was 47.6 years (range 36 to 61). The federal grades were 18% in GS-5, 66% in GS-16 and equivalent, and 16% in…

  5. Tourette's Syndrome: Characteristics and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestia, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    This article overviews the characteristics of children and youth with Tourette syndrome and provides suggestions that can be used in the school setting for addressing academic concerns, social-emotional concerns, and physical concerns. Teachers are urged to break down assignments, allow computer use to complete work, and give preferential seating.…

  6. Dynamic characteristics of vortex levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Kenji Kawashima; Toshiharu Kagawa

    2008-01-01

    Vortex levitation can achieve non-contact handling by blowing air into a vortex cup through a tangential nozzle to generate a swirling air flow. In this paper, its dynamic characteristics are analyzed and discussions are laid upon the behavior of a work piece at the moment when it is picked up by the vortex cup. From the dynamic handling experiment, it

  7. Partner Attachment and Interpersonal Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Kilmann; Holmes Finch; Michele M. Parnell; Jason T. Downer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 non-clinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater “anxiety over abandonment” or “discomfort with closeness” endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the “anxiety over abandonment” dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, while wives with higher scores

  8. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  9. Supervisor Accessibility and Job Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallinger, Judith M.; Hample, Dale

    A study examined the relationship between dyadic and normative accessibility of work supervisors and task characteristics of autonomy, variety, and identity (whether the task is part of a process or results in a finished product). Dyadic accessibility refers to workers' estimates of their supervisors' accessibility. Normative accessibility is the…

  10. Submarine Coaxial Cable Pressure Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Aida; M. Aiki

    1978-01-01

    In equalization design of submarine coaxial cable system, the cable attenuation deviation due to pressure in deep sea bottom has significant weight. This paper treats the submarine coaxial cable characteristics pressure dependency. By using an artificial ocean test facility, 1.7 inch submarine coaxial cable attenuation, phase, capacitance and insulator core diameter were studied and their pressure coefficients under a pressure

  11. Characteristics of shared service centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veit Schulz; Walter Brenner

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Even though a lot of publications focusing on shared service center (SSC) exist, there is no unique understanding of the term “SSC”. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of definitions of the term “SSC” and an overview of relevant literature. It also aims to derive a common understanding with the help of SSC characteristics

  12. Characteristics of Echinacea seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dave Oomah; Delphine Dumon; Anaberta Cardador-Martínez; David V. Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    Seed oils from three commonly cultivated Echinacea species, Echinacea Angustifolia, Echinacea Pallida and Echinacea Purpurea, harvested in 1998 and 1999, were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Oil yield ranged from 13% to 23%, depending on Echinacea species and seed weight. UV\\/VIS and fluorescence spectra distinguished Echinacea seed oil by species. Vitamin E content of the oils ranged from 29 to 85

  13. CHARACTERISTICS Picric acid is a

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    CHARACTERISTICS · Picric acid is a trinitroaromatic compound that is a flammable solid when purchased wet with 30% water, by mass. · Picric acid is a high-powered explosive when allowed to dehydrate. As an explosive, picric acid is not shock sensitive, but when in contact with metals can form shock sensitive

  14. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these resources…

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Ickinger; Sandra Morris

    2001-01-01

    Locus of control and Mach IV scores are found to be correlated with standing interpersonal distancing behavior in a behavioral game. Correlations between interpersonal distance and factors of these scales suggest that interpersonal distance is not generally manipulated actively to influence others but that greater distance is used as a defense against perceived negative characteristics of others. Scores on Vando's

  16. Attitudes and Characteristics of Nonusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ann; Kahn, Malcolm

    The attitudes and life-style characteristics of 58 undergraduate nonusers of illegal drugs were evaluated through comparisons with 47 regular marijuana users. The nonusers were found to be more settled in their values, more goal-directed, and more involved academically. They also had higher Grade Point Averages. The nonusers appeared to be both…

  17. Persistence Characteristics of Stormwater BMPs

    E-print Network

    Characteristics Temperature Conductivity pH Dissolved Oxygen Turbidity Nutrients Organic Carbon #12;6 What Gross Solids 7 Impervious #12;The Initial Effects of Urbanization on Stream Channels Channel becomes 16 #12;Dry vs Wet Weather Water Quality (TON, Fecal Coli) Scatterplot of paired Fecal Coliform

  18. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Program

    E-print Network

    Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Program Site Evaluation Report Site 211-1 (Pre- and Post- Grinding/Grooving, Pre-Traffic) Site 211-2 (Post-Traffic, 1 week) Two-Lift Concrete Paving Demonstration, near Solomon, Kansas Two-Lift Concrete Paving Demonstration Project Surface A, Longitudinal Tining

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics substance abuse and dependence alcohol abuse at once" ! Substance abuse of all kinds are predicted by some of the same factors ! Interventions need to be matched to stage of vulnerability #12;Substance abuse: Links ! Conflict with parents and family problems