These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Multiple Sclerosis Affects Skeletal Muscle Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. Methods In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19) patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC). Hereafter a muscle biopsy (m.vastus lateralis) was taken. Results Compared to HC, mean muscle fiber CSA of all fibers, as well as CSA of type I, II and IIa fibers were smaller and muscle strength of the quadriceps was lower in MS patients. Whole body composition was comparable between groups. However, compared to HC, the biopsied leg tended to have a higher fat percentage (p?=?0.1) and a lower lean mass (p?=?0.06) in MS patients. Conclusion MS seems to negatively influence skeletal muscle fiber CSA, muscle strength and muscle mass of the lower limbs of mildly affected MS patients. This emphasises the need for rehabilitation programs focusing on muscle preservation of the lower limb. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:25264868

Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank; Krekels, Maartje; Grevendonk, Lotte; Eijnde, Bert O.

2014-01-01

2

Sensitivity: Bridging Affective Characteristics and Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional characteristics of gifted children are examined. Frameworks developed by G. Betts and M. Neihart and by A. Roeper, which classify children by features of their characteristic emotional response, are described. Gifted children's unusual levels of sensitivity and intensity are noted and illustrated with a case example. (JDD)

Mendaglio, Sal

1993-01-01

3

How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Ceské Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

Farek, Vladimir

2014-05-01

4

Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

2014-01-01

5

Personal Characteristics of Teachers that Affect Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that teacher personality characteristics affect student achievement is examined. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the relationship of teachers' selfdescriptions to their students' changes over a school year. Two types of teacher measurement were obtained: observations of behavior and self reports. All student…

Fox, Ronald B.; Peck, Robert F.

6

Person-School Environment Correlates of Children's Affective Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactionism framework was used to examine relations between children's affective characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality in different perceived school environments. Over 500 12-year-old Australian children were studied and possible linear, curvilinear, and interaction associations among the variables were investigated.…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

1980-01-01

7

Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.  

PubMed

Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163

Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

2008-05-01

8

Infinite experiences, affects and the characteristics of the unconscious.  

PubMed

The work of Matte-Blanco is little understood by psychoanalysts largely because he used mathematical logic as an essential method to elucidate psychoanalytic theory. His findings, however, seem to be important and warrant this simple introductory paper explaining key ideas. Two fundamentally distinct processes, defined as asymmetrical and symmetrical logics are introduced and illustrated. Asymmetrical logic is analogous to secondary process while symmetrical logic has affinity with primary process. Both logic seem to interweave in any thought processes but with asymmetry predominating in scientific thought while symmetrical logic is most evident in psychosis and dreams. It is furthermore argued that the various characteristics of the unconscious, as described by Freud, can be seen as different mental outcomes with symmetrical logic at the base of all of them. A parallel is discovered by Matte-Blanco between the characteristics of symmetrical logic and those of infinite sets as defined mathematically. This leads to an investigation of the concept of infinity and of psychological infinite experiences. These can be readily detected in omnipotence, omniscience, and idealization, but they also seem to occur in extreme emotional states such as being in love, dread and grief. If nuclei of extreme states are contained in any affect, then it is likely that all affects in their cognitive aspects contain experiences of infinity. Symmetrical logic may thus be a common background both to the characteristics of the unconscious and emotionality generally. PMID:7319692

Rayner, E

1981-01-01

9

[Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

1995-10-01

10

Factors Affecting Characteristics, Composition, and Quality of Skimmilk Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a comprehensive study of fac- tors affecting development of a skimmilk cheese are described. The study included variables relating to milk processing, ci~eese- making procedures, use of supplemental starters, milk treatment with animal and microbial enzymes, and the use of food additives, stabilizers, condiments, and fla- vor-enhancing substances. Flavor and tex- ture of experimental cheeses were markedly affected

R. E. Hargrove; F. E. McDonough; R. P. Tittsler

1967-01-01

11

Student characteristics and affective domain effects on lote retention rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the problem of high attrition rates after the introductory compulsory year for students studying LOTEs in Australian high schools. Two major sources for this problem were hypothesised: variables related to students’ socio?cultural background and those related to the affective domain. It was hypothesised that the affective domain, i.e. a barrier to learning created by attitudes, motivations, and

Richard B. Baldauf Jr; Heike Lawrence

1990-01-01

12

Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

2014-01-01

13

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence

Alan M Friedlander; James D Parrish

1998-01-01

14

Characteristics of Nursing Homes that Affect Resident Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been increased interest in using outcomes as measures of quality, few studies have shown a link between structure or process and outcomes. In this analysis, based on approximately 2,500 residents in 80 nursing homes in Rhode Island, multivariate models estimate which aspects of care are associated with resident outcomes after controlling for resident characteristics. Outcomes, measured over

William D. Spector; Hitomi Adrianna Takada

1991-01-01

15

Characteristics affecting fibrinolytic activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study to determine the extent to which the haemostatic system is implicated in the onset of clinically manifest ischaemic heart disease, characteristics influencing fibrinolytic activity (FA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were examined in 1601 men aged 18-64 and 707 women aged 18-59 in several occupational groups in North-west London. In men FA noticeably decreased till the

T W Meade; R Chakrabarti; A P Haines; W R North; Y Stirling

1979-01-01

16

Factors affecting the characteristics and utilization of sorghum silage  

E-print Network

of additive introduced, and the variety and Erain content of the plant influence sor-hum sila-e quality (0;zen, " $67). Varietal Differences Very little research has been conducted to charac- t, er = the nutritional differences bet;~een the . o-ca' led... of Head to Stov r. The feet of head to stover ratio on sila? characteristics is sho-7n in table ~. P r- cent dry ratter . vas different (P ~. 0" ) bet&veen all ratios uith those containing 'treater quantiti s of need havin" hi-h r va ue-. Percent d...

Tolbert, Ronnie Edwin

2012-06-07

17

Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style. PMID:19859795

Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-04-01

18

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence analysis, and associated with six major habitat types. Statistical differences were shown between a number of these habitat types for various ensemble variables of the fish assemblages. Overall, both for complete assemblages and for component major trophic and mobility guilds, these variables tended to have higher values where reef substratum was more structurally or topographically complex, and closer to reef edges. When study sites were separately divided into five depth strata, the deeper strata tended to have statistically higher values of ensemble variables for the fish assemblages. Patterns with depth varied among the various trophic and mobility guilds. Multiple linear regression models indicated that for the complete assemblages and for most trophic and mobility guilds, a large part of the variability for most ensemble variables was explained by measures of holes in the substratum, with important contributions from measured substratum rugosity and depth. A strong linear relationship found by regression of mean fish length on mean volume of holes in the reef surface emphasized the importance of shelter for fish assemblages. Results of this study may have practical applications in designing reserve areas as well as theoretical value in helping to explain the organization of reef fish assemblages.

Friedlander, A. M.; Parrish, J. D.

1998-01-01

19

Affection and Leadership Characteristics of Students Entering a Counseling Program; A Movement Toward Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively new personality test entitled the FIRO-B was administered to 57 full-time Counseling Majors in an effort to determine whether these persons could be characterized in terms of affection and leadership variables. Results showed that these persons were characteristically high in their need and expression of affection and that they were…

Bailey, James S.

20

Setting and registry characteristics affect the prevalence and nature of multimorbidity in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate how settings and registry characteristics affect the prevalence and nature of multimorbidity in elderly individuals. Study Design and Setting: We used data from three population-based studies, two general practitioner registries, one hospital discharge register, and one nursing home registry to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity. Individuals aged 55 years and over

MIRANDA T. SCHRAM; DINNUS FRIJTERS; ANTON J. M. DE CRAEN; MARGOT W. M. DE WAAL; JAN HEERINGAF; ALBERT HOFMANF; DORLY J. H. DEEGA; FRANCOIS G. SCHELLEVISA

21

Physical characteristics of indigestible solids affect emptying from the fasting human stomach.  

PubMed Central

Gastric emptying of indigestible solids depends on their size. It is not clear whether physical characteristics other than particle size affect emptying of indigestible solids from the fasting human stomach. We studied gastric emptying of three differently shaped particles, (cubes, spheres, rods) of either hard or soft consistency during the fasting state in human volunteers. The shape of indigestible particles did not affect their emptying. The area under the gastric emptying curve (AUC: particles x hour) was for hard cubes 24.7 (2.2), for hard spheres 27.9 (1.6), for hard rods 26.9 (2.7). All soft particles emptied faster than their identically shaped hard counterparts, but there was no difference among the three shapes (AUC for soft cubes: 29.2 (3.0), for soft spheres 32.0 (1.8), for soft rods 34.1 (1.2). If gastric emptying of hard and soft particles was compared independently of their shape, soft particles emptied significantly faster than hard ones: AUC 31.8 (1.2) v 26.5 (1.3) (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, the consistency but not the shape significantly affects gastric emptying. Specific physical characteristics other than size and shape may affect gastric emptying of indigestible particles which may be of importance in the design of drugs. PMID:2599438

Meyer, B; Beglinger, C; Neumayer, M; Stalder, G A

1989-01-01

22

External Built Residential Environment Characteristics that Affect Mental Health of Adults.  

PubMed

External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

2014-10-01

23

Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles  

PubMed Central

Background: The Understanding Group and Leader (UGL), provided by the Swedish National Defense College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA) to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1) to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2) to investigate differences in personal characteristics. Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153) and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police) completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA), high affective (high PA, high NA), low affective (high PA, low NA), and self-destructive (low PA, high NA). Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70%) than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%). UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05) and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after certification. PMID:25374553

Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Åkerman, Jeanette; Eerikäinen, Peter; Ambjörnsson, Annika; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Mihailovic, Marko; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

2014-01-01

24

Airfoil Section Characteristics as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.

Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

1937-01-01

25

The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1  

PubMed Central

Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

26

Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.  

PubMed

Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

2010-07-01

27

Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-11-01

28

The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community  

PubMed Central

Gene exchange between species occurs in areas of secondary contact, where two species have the opportunity to hybridize. If heterospecific males are more common than conspecific males, females will experience more encounters with males of other species. These encounters might increase the likelihood of heterospecific matings, and lead to the production of hybrid progeny. I studied the mating behavior of two pairs of sibling species endemic to Africa: Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila santomea and Drosophila simulans/Drosophila sechellia. Drosophila yakuba and D. simulans are cosmopolitan species widely distributed in the African continent, while D. santomea and D. sechellia are island endemics. These pairs of species hybridize in nature and have the potential to exchange genes in natural conditions. I used these two pairs of Drosophila species, and constructed mating communities of different size and different heterospecific:conspecific composition. I found that both the total number of potential mates and the relative frequency of conspecific versus heterospecific males affect female mating decisions in the cosmopolitan species but not in the island endemics. These results suggest that the population characteristics, in which mating occurs, may affect the magnitude of premating isolation. Community composition might thus facilitate, or impair, gene flow between species. PMID:25165530

Matute, Daniel R

2014-01-01

29

Encoding a superantigen by Staphylococcus aureus does not affect clinical characteristics of infected atopic dermatitis lesions  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus is a known trigger for the worsening of atopic dermatitis (AD). Staphylococcal superantigens have been theorized to potentially contribute to this worsening of AD seen with infection. Objectives We sought to assess whether encoding a superantigen by Staphylococcus aureus affected the inflammatory characteristics of an impetiginized AD skin lesion Methods Fifty-two children with clinically impetiginized lesions of AD which were positive for Staphylococcus aureus were enrolled in this study. A lesion was graded clinically using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), and then wash fluid obtained from the lesion for quantitative bacterial culture, and measurement of bacterial products lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and staphylococcal protein A (SPA) and cytokines. The staphylococcal isolate was tested for antibiotic susceptibilities and the presence of a superantigen. Results Fifty-four percent (28 of 52) of the staphylococcal isolates encoded a superantigen. The presence of a superantigen had no significant effect on EASI score, amounts of bacterial products or inflammatory cytokines in the AD lesion. Conclusions These studies suggest that the expression of a superantigen by Staphylococcus aureus alone does not play an important role in the increased skin inflammation associated with staphylococcal infection in childhood AD. PMID:20698850

Kozman, A.; Yao, Y.; Bina, P.; Saha, C.; Yao, W.; Kaplan, M.H.; Travers, J.B.

2010-01-01

30

Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of ( ?- gg')-M x C y type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction ?-?' can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the M x C y carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)- ?' phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the ? and ?' particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved ?' precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

Lachowicz, M. B.; Dudzi?ski, W.

2012-09-01

31

Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation  

PubMed Central

Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0.001), suggested imprinted genes and miRNA interference as mechanisms for differential effects of maternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle. PMID:23341941

Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

2013-01-01

32

Analysis of the characteristics of slot design affecting resistance to sliding during active archwire configurations  

PubMed Central

Background During orthodontic treatment, a low resistance to slide (RS) is desirable when sliding mechanics are used. Many studies showed that several variables affect the RS at the bracket-wire interface; among these, the design of the bracket slot has not been deeply investigated yet. This study aimed to clarify the effect of different slot designs on the RS expressed by five types of low-friction brackets in vertical and horizontal active configurations of the wire. Methods Five low-friction brackets (Damon SL II, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA; In-Ovation, GAC International, Bohemia, NY, USA; Quick, Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany; Time 2, AO, Sheboygan, WI, USA; Synergy, RMO, Denver, CO, USA) coupled with an 0.014-in NiTi thermal wire (Therma-Lite, AO) were tested in two three-bracket experimental models simulating vertical and horizontal bracket displacements. A custom-made machine was used to measure frictional resistance with tests repeated on ten occasions for each bracket-wire combination. Design characteristics such as the mesio-distal slot width, slot depth, and presence of chamfered edges at the extremities of the slot were evaluated on SEM images (SUPRA, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) and analyzed in relation to the data of RS recorded. Results Time 2 was found to show the higher frictional forces (1.50 and 1.35 N) in both experimental models (p < 0.05), while Quick and Synergy brackets showed the lower frictional values in the vertical (0.66 N) and in the horizontal (0.68 N) bracket displacements, respectively. With vertically displaced brackets, the increased mesio-distal slot width and the presence of clear angle at mesial and distal slot edges increase the values of RS. With brackets horizontally displaced, the RS expressed by the wire is influenced simultaneously by the depth of the slot, the mesio-distal slot width, and the presence of clear angle at the extremities of the slot base, the clip, or the slide. Conclusion In order to select the proper low-friction bracket system, clinicians should consider specific characteristics of slot design apart from the wire engaging method. PMID:24325837

2013-01-01

33

Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients. Methods Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument) administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), and visual analog scale (EQ VAS) tools. Results A total of 371 outpatients suffering new or recurrent episodes were recruited. The mean age of the group was 45.7±15.9 (range 18–83) years, and 75% of the group was female. In terms of diagnosis, 88% had major depressive disorder, 12% had dysthymic disorder, and 50% had a combination of both major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. The mean (standard deviation) scores for the HAMD, Clinical Global Impression, and Thai Depression Inventory were 24.2±6.4, 4.47±1.1, and 51.51±0.2, respectively. Sixty-two percent had suicidal tendencies, while 11% had a family history of depression. Of the major depressive disorder cases, 61% had experienced a first episode. The SF-36v2 component scores ranged from 25 to 56, while the mean (standard deviation) of the EQ-5D was 0.50±0.22 and that of the EQ VAS was 53.79±21.3. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics of patients with new or recurrent episodes of unipolar depressive disorders. PMID:24520194

Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Srisutasanavong, Usaree; Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon; Nivataphand, Raviwan; Apisiridej, Nattaporn; Petchsuwan, Donruedee; Saisavoey, Nattha; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Ruktrakul, Ruk; Srichan, Thawanrat; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Temboonkiat, Anakevich; Tubtimtong, Namtip; Rakkhajeekul, Sukanya; Wongtanoi, Boonsanong; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong

2014-01-01

34

Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h),

Cheng-An Hwang; Shiowshuh Sheen

2011-01-01

35

Change in the characteristics of ferritin induces iron imbalance in prion disease affected brains  

PubMed Central

Prion disease associated neurotoxicity is mainly attributed to PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), the disease associated isoform of a normal protein, the prion protein (PrPC). Participation of other proteins and processes is suspected, but their identity and contribution to the pathogenic process is unclear. Emerging evidence implicates imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant cause of prion disease-associated neurotoxicity. The underlying cause of this change, however, remains unclear. We demonstrate that iron is sequestered in heat and SDS-stable protein complexes in sporadic-Creutzfeldt-Jakob- disease (sCJD) brains, creating a phenotype of iron deficiency. The underlying cause is change in the characteristics of ferritin, an iron storage protein that becomes aggregated, detergent-insoluble, and partitions with denatured ferritin using conventional methods of ferritin purification. A similar phenotype of iron deficiency is noted in the lumbar spinal cord (SC) tissue of scrapie infected hamsters, a site unlikely to be affected by massive neuronal death and non-specific iron deposition. As a result, the iron uptake protein transferrin (Tf) is upregulated in scrapie infected SC tissue, and increases with disease progression. A direct correlation between Tf and PrPSc suggests sequestration of iron in dysfunctional ferritin that either co-aggregates with PrPSc or is rendered dysfunctional by PrPSc through an indirect process. Surprisingly, amplification of PrPSc in vitro by the protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification (PMCA) reaction using normal brain homogenate as substrate does not increase the heat and SDS-stable pool of iron even though both PrPSc and ferritin aggregate by this procedure. These observations highlight important differences between PrPSc-protein complexes generated in vivo during disease progression and in vitro by the PMCA reaction, and the significance of these complexes in PrPSc-associated neurotoxicity. PMID:22182691

Singh, Ajay; Qing, Liuting; Kong, Qingzhong; Singh, Neena

2012-01-01

36

Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

2006-01-01

37

A Longitudinal Comparison of the Academic, Affective, and Personal Characteristics of Persisters and Nonpersisters in Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied whether differences exist among academic, affective, and personal characteristics of teacher education persisters and nonpersisters in a longitudinal sample of 550 education majors. Five years later, 65% had persisted through teacher training. Factors predicting persistence (i.e., higher college grade point average and positive attitude…

Pigge, Fred L.; Marso, Ronald N.

1992-01-01

38

Surface loading affects internal pressure source characteristics derived from volcano deformation signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation of the Earth's surface provides critical information about the migration of material beneath a volcano. The resulting displacements, recorded by geodetic techniques such as GPS or InSAR, are used to infer characteristics of the volcanic plumbing system which are critical for hazard mitigation in volcanic regions. Given some deformation data, we search for the source model that explains the data best. Discussions of the results usually focus on the validity of the chosen model and the underlying assumptions regarding crustal composition, e.g. the level of inhomogeneity, elastic versus plastic deformation, thermal effects, depth vs. volume trade offs of the applied analytical models, or the (in-)compressibility of materials. Surface loads such as lava flows, however, provide an additional source of deformation. The initial elastic response due to a load on the surface of the Earth is followed by a visco-elastic response of the ductile crust below the uppermost elastic layer. Thus, a deformation signal recorded in the vicinity of a volcano is often composed of at least two contributors: an internal pressure source (the magma chamber) and a surface load (e.g., a composition of previously erupted lava flows) - at the extreme the volcanic edifice and its glaciers. A test case for a circular lava flow on top of a deflating magma chamber shows that the crust will adjust to the load towards final relaxed response. During this relaxation process gradual subsidence occurs that may mistakenly be interpreted as due to pressure decrease in a magma chamber since the deformation pattern of both processes are very similar. This poses a problem when characteristics of a magma chamber are to be derived. Based on the ratio of horizontal and vertical displacement and a combination of model results (Green's functions and Mogi model), we can estimate the composition of observed deformation signals. This method is applied to the Icelandic volcano Mt. Hekla where we investigate InSAR observations prior to the Hekla 2000 eruption that show circular pattern of near field subsidence and far field inflation. We compare these data to the deformation pattern expected from pressure changes in a hypothetical, shallow magma reservoir. We estimate surface loading at the volcano to account for a displacement of 13.5mm-yr based on a comparison of expected Mogi source and observed InSAR line of sight velocity. From this we estimate an effective relaxation time of tr = 100yrs for this region. We infer an elastic plate thickness of H = 3.5km which controls the 15 - 20km radius of subsidence. We find that surface load signals in volcanic regions affect magmatic source model estimates significantly ; to the point of changing the preferred source model. This effect should be considered in virtually any volcanic region that shows lava flow emplacement, glacier dynamics, or sudden load removal (i.e., lateral blasts). Deformation data that remains uncorrected will most likely result in an overestimation of depth and volume of a magma reservoir. We find that the ratio of displacements aids the identification of composite signals and suggest that the ratio for GPS data be employed more rigorously in future studies since this allows volume independent source depth estimates.

Grapenthin, Ronni; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Sturkell, Erik

2010-05-01

39

The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n?=?223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least with systemic characteristics. A14-item inventory identifies critical incident characteristics associated with emotional sequelae. This may be helpful in tailoring recovery support to individual provider needs. PMID:22862821

2012-01-01

40

Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life  

PubMed Central

Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3?±?1.7?years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2?h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15?min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions considering the relation between affect and PA might not be suitable for this target group. PMID:23580167

von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

2013-01-01

41

Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk  

E-print Network

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Effect of Mastitis on Milk. Composition. Properties . Dairy products Factors Affecting Milk Coagulation. Heat treatment . Homogenization Starter culture. Added solids...-not-fat Protein. Calcium chloride Mastitis Minerals I'age V V111 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 Factors Affecting Properties of Cultured Pasteurization . Milk solids. Homogenization Starter culture. Ripening temperature . Aci di ty. Treatment...

Bollinger, Dean Herman

2012-06-07

42

Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity.  

PubMed

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of impulsivity were seen in SMS, AS, CdCS, FXS and adults with CdLS. Negative affect was prominent in adults with CdLS, while positive affect was prominent in adults with AS and FXS. Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes. PMID:21080217

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-08-01

43

Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders that Affect Inclusion in Regular Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD…

Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M.; Swaab, Hanna

2012-01-01

44

Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.  

PubMed

Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. PMID:22857852

Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

2012-12-01

45

Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. (California State Univ. Chico (United States)); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

46

Do Bubble Characteristics Affect Recanalization in Stroke Patients Treated with Microbubble-Enhanced Sonothrombolysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of microbubbles (MB) may augment the effect of ultrasound-enhanced systemic thrombolysis in acute stroke. Bubble structural characteristics may influence the effect of MB on sonothrombolysis. We aimed to compare the effects of galactose-based air-filled MB (Levovist) and sulphur hexafluoride-filled MB (Sonovue) on recanalization and clinical outcome. One hundred thirty-eight i.v. recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-(tPA-) treated patients with middle cerebral

Marta Rubiera; Marc Ribo; Raquel Delgado-Mederos; Estevo Santamarina; Olga Maisterra; Pilar Delgado; Joan Montaner; José Alvarez-Sabín; Carlos A. Molina

2008-01-01

47

Factors affecting drying and wetting soil-water characteristic curves of sandy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying and wetting soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) for five sandy soils are investigated using a Tempe pressure cell and capillary rise open tube. The test data are fitted to two SWCC equations using a least-squares algorithm. The obtained fitting parameters and some hysteretic behaviour are discussed and correlated with grain-size distribution parameters. A concept of total hysteresis is proposed to

Hong Yang; Harianto Rahardjo; Eng-Choon Leong; D. G. Fredlund

2004-01-01

48

Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama.\\u000a We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the\\u000a main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences\\u000a between fig

Carmi Korine; E. K. V. Kalko; E. A. Herre

2000-01-01

49

Light environment and leaf characteristics affect distribution of Corythuca arcuata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).  

PubMed

Insect herbivore abundances on host plants are influenced by both plant traits and the physical environment in which that plant grows. This study examined the role of the physical light environment and foliage characteristics in determining abundance of the lacebug Corythuca arcuata Say (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on Quercus alba L. I censused adult C. arcuata across a growing season, quantified leaf characteristics, and measured canopy cover over understory branches of mature Q. alba. Using an information-theoretic approach, a priori hypotheses of the relationship between light, plant traits, and C. arcuata abundance was evaluated. Abundance was best predicted by light environment and carbon content. Adult C. arcuata prefer trees growing under an open canopy and trees with low carbon content; abundance also positively correlated with leaf water content. Although carbon and water did not vary with light in this study, low carbon and high water content are often associated with shadier conditions, suggesting that C. arcuata faces a trade-off between preferences for physical habitat conditions and host plant characteristics. PMID:20388279

Barber, Nicholas A

2010-04-01

50

Changes in Liver Cell DNA Methylation Status in Diabetic Mice Affect Its FT-IR Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Lower levels of cytosine methylation have been found in the liver cell DNA from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice under hyperglycemic conditions. Because the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) profiles of dry DNA samples are differently affected by DNA base composition, single-stranded form and histone binding, it is expected that the methylation status in the DNA could also affect its FT-IR profile. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA FT-IR signatures obtained from the liver cell nuclei of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice of the same age were compared. Dried DNA samples were examined in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an all-reflecting objective (ARO) and adequate software. Conclusions/Significance Changes in DNA cytosine methylation levels induced by hyperglycemia in mouse liver cells produced changes in the respective DNA FT-IR profiles, revealing modifications to the vibrational intensities and frequencies of several chemical markers, including ?as –CH3 stretching vibrations in the 5-methylcytosine methyl group. A smaller band area reflecting lower energy absorbed in the DNA was found in the hyperglycemic mice and assumed to be related to the lower levels of –CH3 groups. Other spectral differences were found at 1700–1500 cm?1 and in the fingerprint region, and a slight change in the DNA conformation at the lower DNA methylation levels was suggested for the hyperglycemic mice. The changes that affect cytosine methylation levels certainly affect the DNA-protein interactions and, consequently, gene expression in liver cells from the hyperglycemic NOD mice. PMID:25019512

Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Ghiraldini, Flavia Gerelli; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

2014-01-01

51

Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

2002-01-01

52

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman\\u000a (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis\\u000a (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4–51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of\\u000a impulsivity were seen in

Chris Oliver; Katy Berg; Jo Moss; Kate Arron; Cheryl Burbidge

53

Program characteristics and organizational factors affecting the implementation of a school-based indicated prevention program.  

PubMed

Reconnecting Youth (RY) is a school-based drug prevention program designed to address academic, substance use and mood management goals among youth at risk of dropping out of high school. This paper presents the organizational factors and RY program characteristics that either promoted or hindered the implementation of the program during a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in 10 schools in two school districts in the United States. Data were collected using surveys and interviews from teachers and school and district staff who participated in the implementation of the RY program in these schools. Results suggest that certain RY program characteristics made it difficult to implement. Small class size, resource-intensive procedures for student selection and recruitment and special training, qualities and skills needed to be an effective RY teacher meant that schools had to significantly change their usual practices to implement the program. Organizational barriers included a lack of financial resources and leadership support for program implementation, and low priority for non-academic courses for high-risk students. Transient student populations, staff turnover and district-wide scheduling and curriculum changes all resulted in high levels of organizational turbulence at most schools, further hindering program implementation. PMID:17639122

Thaker, Samruddhi; Steckler, Allan; Sánchez, Victoria; Khatapoush, Shereen; Rose, John; Hallfors, Denise Dion

2008-04-01

54

Does Food Insecurity Affect Parental Characteristics and Child Behavior? Testing Mediation Effects  

PubMed Central

Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent’s self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity’s relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity’s relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi

2014-01-01

55

Paternal heredity and housing characteristics affect childhood asthma and allergy morbidity.  

PubMed

A birth cohort was initiated when each pregnant woman was asked for her own and her husband's history of asthma and allergic diseases at the time of recruitment. They were further inquired to verify their housing conditions, and current health status of children 3 to 5 years old at the time of interview. Paternal history was the most significant risk factor associated with reporting childhood morbidities at age of 3 to 5 years. Housing characteristics became meaningful variables only if the fathers were asthmatic or atopic. A 9-fold increase of risk was found if children with paternal history and also exposed to incense burning and water damage at home. This is the first epidemiological evidence of East Asia suggesting paternal heredity, with concurrent indoor hazardous exposures, as a predominant risk on developing childhood asthma and allergy. PMID:22845728

Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Wu, Pei-Chih; Su, Huey-Jen

2012-01-01

56

Vertical distribution and characteristics of soil humic substances affecting radionuclide distribution.  

PubMed

The humic substances extracted from different soil depths are separated into humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids, and characterized for their chemical composition, proton exchange capacity, spectroscopic characteristics and binding properties to the europium ion. The chemical and spectroscopic results show that FA compared to HA has a relatively high O/C ratio, high acidic functional group contents and low aromatic contents. The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic results show that the stability constant (K) of the soil humic substances with Eu(III) ion tends to increase as the soil depth becomes deeper, and HA has a slightly stronger binding ability than FA. The measured total site concentrations (C(L)) reveal that Eu(III) ion is loaded onto HA by 62-77% of the total acid sites, but FA is only approximately 50% covered by Eu(III) ion. Information could be useful in understanding the migration of radionuclides in soil layer. PMID:15607522

Chung, Kun Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Shin, Hyun Sang; Lee, Chang Woo

2005-01-01

57

Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N), (2) key travel (2.5mm vs. 3.5mm), and (3) shape of the force-displacement curve as realized through buckling-spring vs. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces, and intramuscular fine wire EMG electrodes measured muscle activity patterns of two intrinsic (first lumbricalis, first dorsal interossei) and three extrinsic (flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and extensor digitorum communis) index finger muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first dorsal interossei increased 25.9% with larger activation forces, but not for the extrinsic muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first lumbricalis and the duration of muscle activities for the first dorsal interossei and both extrinsic flexor muscles decreased up to 40.4% with longer key travel. The amplitude of muscle activity in the first dorsal interossei increased 36.6% and the duration of muscle activity for all muscles, except flexor digitorum profundus, decreased up to 49.1% with the buckling-spring design relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force-displacement characteristics of a keyswitch changes the dynamic loading of the muscles, especially in the intrinsic muscles, during keyboard work. PMID:18515146

Lee, David L; Kuo, Po-Ling; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

2009-10-01

58

Wearing knee wraps affects mechanical output and performance characteristics of back squat exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing knee wraps on mechanical output and performance characteristics of back squat exercise. Ten resistance trained men (back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 160.5 ± 18.4 kg) performed 6 single back squats with 80% 1RM, 3 wearing knee wraps, 3 without. Mechanical output was obtained from ground reaction force, performance characteristics from digitized motion footage obtained from a single high-speed digital camera. Wearing knee wraps led to a 39% reduction (0.09 compared with 0.11 m, p = 0.037) in horizontal barbell displacement that continued during the lifting phase. Lowering phase vertical impulse remained within 1% across conditions; however, the lowering phase was performed 45% faster (1.13 compared with 1.57 seconds). This demonstrated that vertical force applied to the center of mass during the lowering phase was considerably larger and was likely a consequence of the generation and storage of elastic energy within the knee wrap. Subsequent vertical impulse applied to the center of mass was 10% greater (192 compared with 169 N·s, p = 0.018). Mechanical work involved in vertically displacing the center of mass was performed 20% faster and was reflected by a 10% increase in peak power (2,121 compared with 1,841 W, p = 0.019). The elastic properties of knee wraps increased mechanical output but altered back squat technique in a way that is likely to alter the musculature targeted by the exercise and possibly compromise the integrity of the knee joint. Knee wraps should not be worn during the strength and condition process, and perceived weakness in the knee joint should be assessed and treated. PMID:22995993

Lake, Jason P; Carden, Patrick J C; Shorter, Kath A

2012-10-01

59

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

2006-01-01

60

Intrauterine growth retardation affects expression and epigenetic characteristics of the rat hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene.  

PubMed

Studies in humans and rats suggest that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) permanently resets the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis reprogramming may involve persistently altered expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (hpGR), an important regulator of HPA axis reactivity. Persistent alteration of gene expression, long after the inciting event, is thought to be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that affect mRNA and mRNA variant expression. GR mRNA variants in both humans and rats include eleven 5'-end variants and GRalpha, the predominant 3'-end variant. The 3'-end variants associated with glucocorticoid resistance in humans (GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP) have not been reported in rats. We hypothesized that in the rat hippocampus IUGR would decrease total GR mRNA, increase GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP, and affect epigenetics of the GR gene at birth (D0) and at 21 days of life (D21). IUGR increased hpGR and exon 1.7 hpGR mRNA in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased trimethyl H3/K4 at exon 1.7 at both time points. IUGR also increased hpGRgamma in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased acetyl H3/K9 at exon 3 at both time points. hpGRA increased in female IUGR rats at D0 and D21. In addition, our data support the existence of hpGRbeta and hpGRP in the rat. IUGR has sex-specific, persistent effects on GR expression and its histone code. We speculate that postnatal changes in hippocampal GR variant and total mRNA expression may underlie IUGR-associated HPA axis reprogramming. PMID:20388836

Ke, Xingrao; Schober, Michelle E; McKnight, Robert A; O'Grady, Shannon; Caprau, Diana; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; Lane, Robert H

2010-07-01

61

Building a Successful Communications Program Based on the Needs and Characteristics of the Affected Communities - 13152  

SciTech Connect

Over 200 local residents streamed through the doors of the Port Hope Lions Centre to see the detailed plans for the historic low-level radioactive waste clean-up project about to take place in their community. The event had a congenial atmosphere as people walked through the hall taking in rows of display panels that explained each element of the project, asked questions of project staff stationed around the room and chatted with friends and neighbours over light refreshments. Later that year, the results of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) 10. annual public attitude survey revealed an all-time high in community awareness of the project (94%) and the highest levels of confidence (84%) recorded since surveying began. Today, as the PHAI transitions from a decade of scientific and technical studies to implementation, the success of its communications program - as evidenced by the above examples - offers room for cautious encouragement. The PHAI has spent the past 10 years developing relationships with the southern Ontario communities of Port Hope and Port Granby in preparation for Canada's largest low-level radioactive waste environmental restoration project. These relationships have been built around a strong understanding of the communities' individual needs and characteristics and on the PHAI's efforts to consider and respond to these needs. The successes of the past, as well as the lessons learned, will inform the next stage of communications as the projects move into waste excavation and transportation and building of the long-term waste management facilities. (authors)

Herod, Judy; Mahabir, Alexandra; Holmes, Sandy [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)

2013-07-01

62

Characteristics of low-slope streams that affect O2 transfer rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple-regression techniques were used to derive the reaeration coefficients estimating equation for low sloped streams: K2 = 3.83 MBAS-0.41 SL0.20 H-0.76, where K2 is the reaeration coefficient in base e units per day; MBAS is the methylene blue active substances concentration in milligrams per liter; SL is the water-surface slope in foot per foot; and H is the mean-flow depth in feet. Fourteen hydraulic, physical, and water-quality characteristics were regressed against 29 measured-reaeration coefficients for low-sloped (water surface slopes less than 0.002 foot per foot) streams in Massachusetts and New York. Reaeration coefficients measured from May 1985 to October 1988 ranged from 0.2 to 11.0 base e units per day for 29 low-sloped tracer studies. Concentration of methylene blue active substances is significant because it is thought to be an indicator of concentration of surfactants which could change the surface tension at the air-water interface.

Parker, Gene W.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

1991-01-01

63

Factors affecting adsorption characteristics of Zn2+ on two natural zeolites.  

PubMed

Mining-related and industrial wastes are primary sources of heavy metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The limitation of such waste in drinking water needs to meet government requirements in order to safeguard human health and environment. Zinc, one of the most preponderant pollutants, is difficult to remove from wastewater rather than other heavy metals (i.e. lead, copper and cadmium). This paper investigates Zn2+ adsorption characteristics of two natural zeolites found in the regions of Gordes and Bigadic, in western Turkey. The results show that the Zn2+ adsorption behavior of both zeolites is highly dependent on the pH. Adsorption dependence on lower pH values (pH<4) is explained by the dissolution of crystal structure and the competition of the zinc ions with the H+. Between pH 4 and 6, the basic mechanism is the ion exchange process. The results also showed that decrease in grain size does not increase the adsorption capacity of zeolite from Gordes, yet it increases that of zeolite from Bigadic about 23%. The results also reveal that an increase in the initial concentration of Zn2+ in the system causes an increase in the adsorption capacity to a degree, then it becomes more constant at higher concentrations. With this, the removal efficiency of Gordes zeolite is two times higher than that of Bigadic zeolite. Results show that an increase in slurry concentration results in a lower uptake of Zn2+. In the final part of the paper, we compared the experimental data with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that there is a good fit between the experimental data and empirical isotherms. PMID:16266781

Oren, Ali Hakan; Kaya, Abidin

2006-04-17

64

Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.  

PubMed

Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

2010-01-01

65

Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.  

PubMed

Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

2014-01-01

66

Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

Anderson, S. B.

1975-01-01

67

Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.  

PubMed

The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints. PMID:17942009

Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

2007-11-01

68

Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of…

Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim

2007-01-01

69

Thermal treatments prior to and during the beginning of incubation affect phenotypic characteristics of broiler chickens posthatching.  

PubMed

The significance and importance of the preincubation and incubation temperatures for broiler chickens has been elucidated by altering normal incubation conditions to study the effects on embryo development. Furthermore, only recently has convincing evidence that temperature could influence the sex ratio of avian offspring become available. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of temperature before or during (or both) the sex determination period of incubation on hatchability, apparent sex ratio, growth and development posthatching, and secondary sexual phenotypic characteristics. Two experiments were conducted in winter and summer using Cobb 500 fertile eggs that had been stored for 4 and 9 d, respectively. Four treatments of 180 eggs each were applied: control, preheating (Pre) 30.2°C for 12 h before incubation, heating (38.1°C) the embryos between embryonic d 0 (E0) and E5 (M) of incubation, and a combination of both (Pre+M). All 3 thermal treatments increased early embryonic deaths, but improved hatchability in both experiments. The point of 50% hatchability was achieved more rapidly in the treated eggs. The BW of males and females at 35 d of age in both experiments was numerically or significantly greater in the broilers that had been exposed to thermal treatments, which was coincident with a similar trend for increased relative breast muscle weight. Secondary sexual characteristics (comb, wattles, testes in males) were also affected by thermal treatments, being heavier in most cases, which may be attributed to the finding that the 3 thermal treatments resulted in numerically or significantly increased plasma testosterone concentration in both sexes and experiments. Differences in the level of significance between the experiments probably related to the length of storage period and the season in which each experiment took place. It was concluded that thermal treatments preincubation or during the sex determination period of incubation had, in general, a positive effect on hatchability, growth performance, and secondary sexual characteristics of broiler males and females, probably caused by the increase of plasma testosterone concentration in both sexes. PMID:23472010

Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

2013-04-01

70

Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp?+?P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr?+?P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp?+?P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr?+?P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

2012-01-01

71

Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.  

PubMed

Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

2013-01-01

72

Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics  

PubMed Central

Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

2013-01-01

73

Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?  

PubMed

Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms. PMID:21110493

Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

2006-01-01

74

Affective and Motivational Characteristics of 60 Urban JHS Math Classrooms: A Class-Level Analysis of Student Beliefs in Three Instructional Activity Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an exploratory analysis of class-level data concerning junior high school (JHS) students' affective and motivational beliefs. It examines class-level information on selected psychological characteristics that students, who read at the fifth-grade level, bring to learning mathematics and that teachers encounter during instruction.…

Hecht, Deborah; Tittle, Carol Kehr

75

Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.  

PubMed

To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids content were significantly greater for bulls fed R diet in relation to those fed L and S diets. PMID:19663972

Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

2010-08-01

76

Quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg as affected by tumbling after dry-salting and processing time.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg with different tumbling treatments after salting. The characteristics were measured at different processing times. Three batches of dry-cured lamb legs (nine legs per batch) were prepared with no-, short- and long-tumbling treatments, and microbial counts, NaCl, aw, proximate composition, pH, free fatty acids, water soluble nitrogen, volatile compounds, texture and colour were evaluated at days 1, 22 and 71 of processing. Furthermore, a descriptive sensory analysis (flavour and texture) was performed in the final product (day 71). Time-related changes were observed for most of the characteristics studied. The effect of tumbling was only observed for the sensory attribute pastiness that was higher in tumbled legs. Methyl-branched butanal was only detected in tumbled legs. PMID:24553493

Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Morán, Lara; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raul; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

2014-05-01

77

Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow affected by land use and cover in the Chickahominy River basin, Virginia, 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chickahominy River is the principal source of raw-water supply managed by the Department of Public Utilities, City of Newport News. Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow, and major land use and cover factors that affect the distribution, movement, and quality of water of the nontidal Chickahominy River were monitored at three continuous-record stations and two partial-record stations. The stations are located in areas that drain urban, residential, and rural land uses.

Focazio, M. J.; Cooper, R. E.

1995-01-01

78

Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

2010-01-01

79

Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dyads). A mixed-method approach was adopted…

Zwart, Rosanne C.; Wubbels, Theo; Bergen, Theo; Bolhuis, Sanneke

2009-01-01

80

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics were monitored at mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in two state forestry–fisheries enterprises, Tam Giang 3 and 184, in Ca Mau province, southern Vietnam. The aim was to identify key factors contributing to poor and declining shrimp production in the region over recent years. Shrimp yields were highly variable between farms but were generally low with

Danielle Johnston; Ngyuen Van Trong; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan

2000-01-01

81

Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs. PMID:24670354

Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah

2014-03-01

82

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p?0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

83

Does preoperative gabapentin affects the characteristics of post-dural puncture headache in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia?  

PubMed Central

Background: Gabapentin is effective for treating different types of headache including post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), also used for prophylaxis against migraine. We studied the effect of pre-operative administration of gabapentin on the characteristics of PDPH in parturients undergoing cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive preoperative gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 ?g fentanyl. Babies were followed up by Apgar scores, umbilical artery blood gases, breastfeeding difficulties, and need for NICU admission. The mothers were followed up for any side-effects of gabapentin for 24 h. Patients with PDPH were re-admitted and onset and duration of the headache were reported and severity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 days from diagnosis. Paracetamol with caffeine and diclofenac were given for treatment, and the doses were adjusted according to VAS; also number of doses given for each group was recorded. Results: Eighty eight patients were randomized, and 2 were excluded. The incidence of headache and co-existing symptoms were similar in both groups. The onset of headache was significantly delayed in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). Also, severity and duration of headache were significantly less in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). The incidence of sedation was more in gabapentin group 11 (26.19%) versus placebo group 3 (6.81%). Neonatal outcomes were statistically insignificant between both groups. Conclusion: Pre-operative administration of gabapentin has no effect on incidence of (PDPH) but delays its onset and reduces its severity and duration in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia without significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby.

Nofal, Walid Hamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

2014-01-01

84

Evaluation of morphological characteristics of septal rims affecting successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Determining other echocardiographic predictors along with the measured atrial septal defect (ASD) size and evaluating the closure together with these predictors would increase the chance of success for transcatheter closure of ASD. Aim To evaluate echocardiographic parameters affecting defect closure in children and adult patients with secundum ASD. Material and methods In all patients, size of ASD, total length of atrial septum (TS), superior-posterior, inferior-posterior, superior-anterior and inferior-anterior rims surrounding the defect were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and several measurement ratios were derived on the basis of TEE parameters. Results A total 216 patients with secundum ASD were included in this study. The device was successfully implanted in 65 children and 65 adults. Both in pediatric and adult cases, the ratio of successful closure was found to be significantly higher when the ratio of defect size to TS was ? 0.35, the ratio of superior-anterior (SA) rim to the defect size was > 0.75 and the ratio of inferior-posterior (IP) rim to the defect size was > 1.0. It was found that having more than one of these predictors in a single case increased the chance of closure success significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusions We concluded that a ratio of the defect size to TS ? 0.35, a ratio of SA rim to defect size > 0.75 and a ratio of IP rim to defect size > 1.0 were found to be echocardiographic predictors that could be used in successful transcatheter ASD closure both in children and adults. PMID:24570720

Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Balli, Sevket; Ece, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

85

Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal constitutes a large proportion of total energy supply in the world. Coalbed Methane (CBM) composes the greenhouse gases, which has attracted more and more scientists' concern and attention. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM on high-rank deformed coals are in favor of enhancing gas recovery, reducing coal mining accidents and carbon emission. Although the influence factors of CBM adsorption/desorption on different coals have been intensively studied, the combined action of metamorphism and deformation on high-rank coals have been rarely researched. Nevertheless. Metamorphism and deformation are the most fundamental driving forces that cause the changes of inner structures and compositions in coal strata, and then alter the adsorption/desorption capacities of CBM on different coalbeds. South of Qinshui Basin in Shanxi province developed with abundant high-rank coals is the first demonstrate area of CBM development in China. Meanwhile Southwest of Fujian province represents high metamorphic-deformed coals region due to the intense volcanic activities. Therefore samples were taken in both areas to elaborate the adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM. Based on hand specimens description, coal macerals testing, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and vitrinite reflectance testing, the physical properties and composition characteristics of high-rank deformed coals have been studied. Combined with liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, the results show that nano-pores increase and become homogenization with metamorphic-deformation enhancement, stacking of the macromolecular basic structural units (BSU) enhances, aromatic compound increases while aliphatic chain compound and oxygen-containing function groups decrease. Comparing to coal adsorption/desorption isotherm experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

2013-12-01

86

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

2010-01-01

87

Characteristics of Debris Flow-inducing Factors in Typhoon Morakot Affected Area- An Examination of the Topographic factors, rainfall intensity and Landslide Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan during Aug. 7 to 9, 2009. It dumped heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan, especially around the Central Mountain Range in Pingtung, Chia-Yi, and Kaohsiung County. In view of this, Comprehensive field investigation was carried out by government and private organizations after Typhoon Morakot, useful information of debris flow was gathered. Besides, after Typhoon Morakot, the debris flow-inducing factors become more challenging in Taiwan, many aspects had to be considered. The scope of this study was mainly discussed in debris flow-inducing factors in serious damaged areas which including Nantou, Chia-Yi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Taitung County. Totally 218 torrents were included. Field investigation data and disaster records of Typhoon Morakot were utilized to analyze debris flow-inducing factors in three aspects: terrain, rainfall and sediment source. First, by using Principle Component Analysis(PCA) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis(CA) to select significant factors, 101 factors were reduced to the most important 18 factors. Then through descriptive statistics and scatter diagram were selected to discuss the correlation among "Average slope gradient of watershed", "Landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone" as well as the "rainfall intensity during Typhoon Morakot". The above charts of characteristics analysis were used to summarize the range of factor value which tend to occur phenomenon of debris flow in Typhoon Morakot. Besides, Random Forest Algorithm (RF) was utilized to research the relationship toward multi-variables. The significant factors which tend to affect the debris flow-inducing factor were "effective accumulated rainfall", "hourly rainfall", "landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone", "average elevation value of effective watershed which higher than 10 degree", sequentially. By the results, the most significant factor is the rainfall factor during Typhoon Morakot. The results can be utilized in improving debris flow hazard management in the future. Key Words: Typhoon Morakot, Debris Flow-inducing Factors, Characteristics Analysis, Random Forest Algorithm

Shen, C.-W.; Lo, W.-C.; Hsiao, C.-Y.; Ku, B.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

2012-04-01

88

Hydrologic characterization of a permafrost-affected headwaters catchment using a coupled groundwater-surface water model and field measurements of active layer characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost degradation is expected to change the quantity and quality of solute fluxes from northern watersheds. In particular, fluxes of organic carbon (OC) and mercury (Hg) are of great concern for aquatic and marine ecosystems in this area. The total export of OC and Hg depends upon hydrology of permafrost-affected catchments; in particular, the magnitude and extent of groundwater-surface water flows. Hydrologic processes in these catchments are complex and poorly understood; furthermore, understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction is greatly complicated by permafrost degradation. Hydrologic modeling and field studies at West Twin Creek - a permafrost-affected, experimental headwaters catchment in interior Alaska - have been undertaken to identify the dominant controls upon catchment hydrology, groundwater-surface water interaction, and export of OC and Hg. A coupled groundwater-surface water model was developed using the code GSFLOW, calibrated to several years of streamflow data. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater-surface water flows are predominantly controlled by physical characteristics of the soil active layer in the catchment. A suite of measurements was designed to better constrain the properties of the soil active layer at West Twin Creek during a period of maximum thaw depth. Gridded permafrost probing and soil coring were undertaken along several transects through hillslope and riparian areas. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted to complement these point measurements, providing spatially continuous information on active layer thickness along survey lines. Soil coring and GPR surveys revealed distinct soil profiles and frost table depths at several hillslope locations. Soils varied from fine eolian silts to coarse schist cobbles, and differences corresponded to moisture, surface vegetation, and thaw depth. These differences may have large effects on moisture storage, hillslope hydraulic conductivity, and subsequently runoff potential. Artificial rainfall experiments were then performed to quantify surface runoff and interflow through organic and mineral horizons at control plots representative of each soil profile type. These experiments showed that water flow occurs predominantly at the interface between organic and mineral horizons in hillslope soils. The targeted measurements undertaken during this field campaign were used to revise the hydrologic model for the catchment, providing more accurate estimates of groundwater-surface water fluxes for the purposes of forecasting OC and Hg exports.

Kikuchi, C.; Koch, J.; Steelman, C. M.; Schuster, P. F.

2012-12-01

89

Pressure and Force Characteristics of Noncircular Cylinders as Affected by Reynolds Number with a Method Included for Determining the Potential Flow About Arbitrary Shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low-speed pressure-distribution and force characteristics of several noncircular two-dimensional cylinders were measured in wind tunnel through a range of Reynolds numbers and flow incidences. A method of determining the potential-flow pressure distribution for arbitrary cross sections is described. Application of the data in predicting the spin characteristics of fuselages is briefly discussed.

Polhamus, Edward C.; Geller, Edward W.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

1959-01-01

90

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011 (NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%), individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%), metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black (61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%), brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle (1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%), 2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%), 1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%) were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises, 0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/flank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identification (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition, there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011 = 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities. PMID:22952370

McKeith, R O; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

2012-12-01

91

Rumen enzyme profile and fermentation characteristics in sheep as affected by treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate as defaunating agent and presence of ciliate protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunating agent and effect of rumen protozoa on nutrient utilization, fermentation characteristics and enzyme profile were evaluated in adult sheep maintained on a mixed ration containing 65:35% Pala (Ziziphus numularia) leaf: concentrate. Twenty-one adult Malpura sheep divided into three equal groups (DF, RF and F) were either defaunated by oral administration of

A. Santra; S. A. Karim; O. H. Chaturvedi

2007-01-01

92

Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection by Chum Salmon and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at separate locations in a side channel near Ives Island, Washington, in the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity would not sufficiently explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of

David R. Geist; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Evan V. Arntzen; Geoffrey A. McMichael; Christopher J. Murray; Yi-Ju Chien

2002-01-01

93

Dietary incorporation of soybean meal and exogenous enzyme cocktail can affect physical characteristics of faecal material egested by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean meal (SBM) has a relatively low digestible nutrient\\/energy density compared to other common fish feed ingredients. Feeding high levels of SBM has been shown to affect growth and has also been predicted to result in increased solid waste outputs. The effect of SBM and an enzyme cocktail (Superzyme CS) on growth and waste outputs of rainbow trout was, therefore,

Ayoleke E. Ogunkoya; Greg I. Page; Morenike A. Adewolu; Dominique P. Bureau

2005-01-01

94

Dietary incorporation of soybean meal and exogenous enzyme cocktail can affect physical characteristics of faecal material egested by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean meal (SBM) has a relatively low digestible nutrient\\/energy density compared to other common fish feed ingredients. Feeding high levels of SBM has been shown to affect growth and has also been predicted to result in increased solid waste outputs. The effect of SBM and an enzyme cocktail (Superzyme CS) on growth and waste outputs of rainbow trout was, therefore,

Ayoleke E. Ogunkoya; Greg I. Page; Morenike A. Adewolu; Dominique P. Bureau

2006-01-01

95

LOW-QUALITY ROUGHAGES IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE PELLETED DIETS FOR SHEEP:DIGESTION AND METABOLISM CHARACTERISTICS AS AFFECTED BY CORNCOB AND(OR) RICE HULL ADDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted to determine effects of feeding corncobs, rice hulls or a combination of both on nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-can- nulated sheep (55-kg Rambouillet X Dorset rams; trial 1 ; 4 X 4 Latin square) as well as ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (24.1-kg crossbred rams; trial

A. R. Kinser; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger

96

Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic  

E-print Network

Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic Unlikely formal intersections Piotr Kowalski Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego June 14, 2012 Kowalski Unlikely formal intersections #12;Characteristic(A) + dim(V ) - dim(W). Kowalski Unlikely formal intersections #12;Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic

Kowalski, Piotr

97

Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

Geist, David R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Hanrahan, Timothy P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Arntzen, Evan V.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); McMichael, Geoffrey A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Murray, Christopher J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Chien, Yi-Ju (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

2002-11-01

98

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

99

The solubility and conformational characteristics of porcine myosin as affected by the presence of l-lysine and l-histidine.  

PubMed

The influence of l-lys and l-his on the solubility, surface hydrophobicity, sulphydryl content and conformational characteristics of porcine myosin solubilised in high (0.6M), physiological (0.15M) and low (1mM) ionic strength solutions were explored. The solubility of myosin was increased in the presence of l-his and/or l-lys in all ionic strength solutions used. The presence of l-his and l-lys caused increases in the surface hydrophobicity and reactive sulphydryl content (p<0.05). Circular dichroism revealed a significant decrease of ?-helical content with an increase of random coils, ?-turns and ?-sheets in the presence of l-his and/or l-lys. These results demonstrate that the introduction of l-lys and l-his causes the unfolding of myosin, resulting in loss of ?-helical structure, which is followed by increases in random coils, ?-turns and ?-sheets, which exposes buried hydrophobic and sulphydryl groups to the myosin surface, ultimately increasing the solubility of porcine myosin. PMID:25306337

Guo, X Y; Peng, Z Q; Zhang, Y W; Liu, B; Cui, Y Q

2015-03-01

100

Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System.  

PubMed

Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl) and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73%) and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2) of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10), Starter (d 11 to 20), Grower (d 21 to 33) and Finisher (d 34 to 42); and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p?0.009) and feed:gain (FG; p?0.03) were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p?0.04) and d 34 to 42 (p?0.009) was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p?0.006), FG (p?0.007) and litter moisture (LM; p?0.001) was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI) was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05); however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI) was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p?0.05) and d 21 to 33 (p?0.009). Except for d 34 to 42 (p?0.006), the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight) were improved while dressing percentage (DP) and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p?0.001). Higher plasma Na(+) and HCO3 (-) and lower Cl(-) and Ca(++) were observed in NH4Cl supplemented diets (p?0.001). Increasing supplementation of dCl increased plasma Cl(-) (p?0.04; quadratically) and linearly reduced plasma K(+) (p?0.001), Ca(++) (p?0.003), HCO3 (-) (p?0.001), and Na(+) (p?0.001; quadratically). Consequently, higher requirements of dietary chloride are suggested for feed intake; nevertheless, lower levels of dietary chloride are sufficient to support optimal BWG and FG with increasing age. The NH4Cl supplemented diets ameliorate breast and thigh meat yield along with overall energy balance (glucose). PMID:25049859

Mushtaq, M M H; Pasha, T N; Akram, M; Mushtaq, T; Parvin, R; Choi, H C; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H

2013-06-01

101

Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System  

PubMed Central

Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl) and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73%) and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2) of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10), Starter (d 11 to 20), Grower (d 21 to 33) and Finisher (d 34 to 42); and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p?0.009) and feed:gain (FG; p?0.03) were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p?0.04) and d 34 to 42 (p?0.009) was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p?0.006), FG (p?0.007) and litter moisture (LM; p?0.001) was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI) was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05); however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI) was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p?0.05) and d 21 to 33 (p?0.009). Except for d 34 to 42 (p?0.006), the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight) were improved while dressing percentage (DP) and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p?0.001). Higher plasma Na+ and HCO3? and lower Cl? and Ca++ were observed in NH4Cl supplemented diets (p?0.001). Increasing supplementation of dCl increased plasma Cl? (p?0.04; quadratically) and linearly reduced plasma K+ (p?0.001), Ca++ (p?0.003), HCO3? (p?0.001), and Na+ (p?0.001; quadratically). Consequently, higher requirements of dietary chloride are suggested for feed intake; nevertheless, lower levels of dietary chloride are sufficient to support optimal BWG and FG with increasing age. The NH4Cl supplemented diets ameliorate breast and thigh meat yield along with overall energy balance (glucose). PMID:25049859

Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Pasha, T. N.; Akram, M.; Mushtaq, T.; Parvin, R.; Choi, H. C.; Hwangbo, J.; Kim, J. H.

2013-01-01

102

Origin and Characteristics of Internal Genes Affect Infectivity of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus occurred continuously in China during the first half of 2013, with high infectivity and pathogenicity to humans. In this study, we investigated the origin of internal genes of the novel H7N9 virus and analyzed the relationship between internal genes and infectivity of the virus. Methodology and Principal findings We tested the environmental specimens using real-time RT-PCR assays and isolated five H9N2 viruses from specimens that were positive for both H7 and H9. Results of recombination and phylogeny analysis, performed based on the entire sequences of 221 influenza viruses, showed that one of the Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates, A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013, shared the highest identities on the internal genes with the novel H7N9 virus A/Anhui/1/2013, ranging from 98.98% to 100%. Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates were all reassortant viruses, by acquiring NS gene from A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011-like viruses and other five internal genes from A/brambling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Compared to A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), the homology on the NS gene was 99.16% with A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011, whereas only 94.27-97.61% with A/bramnling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Analysis on the relationship between internal genes and the infectivity of novel H7N9 viruses were performed by comparing amino acid sequences with the HPAI H5N1 viruses, the H9N2 and the earlier H7N9 avian influenza viruses. There were nine amino acids on the internal genes found to be possibly associated with the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses. Conclusions These findings indicate that the internal genes, sharing the highest similarities with A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013-like (H9N2) viruses, may affect the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses. PMID:24278391

Xu, Changping; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Yin; Yan, Juying; Gao, Jian; Li, Zhen; Xia, Shichang; Lu, Yiyu

2013-01-01

103

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

104

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

105

The framework of product affection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a conceptual framework for the process underlying emotional responses that result from the perception of products. The framework distinguishes different kinds of product affection on the basis of emotional psychology. Accordingly, the product affection is divided into three levels: the reflection emotional level, the basic emotional level, the emotional senior level. By revealing the characteristics of the

J. Q. Mao; Y. H. Zhou; H. B. Yang

2009-01-01

106

Structural stability, microbial biomass and community composition of sediments affected by the hydric dynamics of an urban stormwater infiltration basin. Dynamics of physical and microbial characteristics of stormwater sediment.  

PubMed

The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of stormwater infiltration basins is highly organic and multicontaminated. It undergoes considerable moisture content fluctuations due to the drying and inundation cycles (called hydric dynamics) of these basins. Little is known about the microflora of the sediments and its dynamics; hence, the purpose of this study is to describe the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the sediments at different hydric statuses of the infiltration basin. Sediments were sampled at five time points following rain events and dry periods. They were characterized by physical (aggregation), chemical (nutrients and heavy metals), and biological (total, bacterial and fungal biomasses, and genotypic fingerprints of total bacterial and fungal communities) parameters. Data were processed using statistical analyses which indicated that heavy metal (1,841 ?g/g dry weight (DW)) and organic matter (11%) remained stable through time. By contrast, aggregation, nutrient content (NH??, 53-717 ?g/g DW), pH (6.9-7.4), and biological parameters were shown to vary with sediment water content and sediment biomass, and were higher consecutive to stormwater flows into the basin (up to 7 mg C/g DW) than during dry periods (0.6 mg C/g DW). Coinertia analysis revealed that the structure of the bacterial communities is driven by the hydric dynamics of the infiltration basin, although no such trend was found for fungal communities. Hydric dynamics more than rain events appear to be more relevant for explaining variations of aggregation, microbial biomass, and shift in the microbial community composition. We concluded that the hydric dynamics of stormwater infiltration basins greatly affects the structural stability of the sedimentary layer, the biomass of the microbial community living in it and its dynamics. The decrease in aggregation consecutive to rewetting probably enhances access to organic matter (OM), explaining the consecutive release of NH??, the bloom of the microbial biomass, and the change in structure of the bacterial community. These results open new perspectives for basin management since the risk of OM and pollutant transfer to the aquifer is greatly affected by alternating dry and flood periods. PMID:21431934

Badin, Anne Laure; Monier, Armelle; Volatier, Laurence; Geremia, Roberto A; Delolme, Cécile; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

2011-05-01

107

Abstract. The climate exerts the dominant control on the spatial distribution of the major vegetation types on a global scale. In turn, vegetation cover affects climate via alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface  

E-print Network

vegetation types on a global scale. In turn, vegetation cover affects climate via alteration of the physical on "hot spots" where the interaction is the most significant: boreal forests, North Africa, and Amazon of temperate and boreal deforestation. In general, the climate models agree that tropical deforestation exerts

Brovkin, Victor

108

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

109

Characteristic 0 Characteristic p > 0  

E-print Network

Kowalski Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego May 22, 2010 Kowalski Transcendence in positive Algebraic independence Kowalski Transcendence in positive characteristic #12;Set-up Characteristic 0 independent modulo C, then trdegC (x, y) n + 1. Kowalski Transcendence in positive characteristic #12;Set

Kowalski, Piotr

110

Investigating the dynamics of affect: Psychological mechanisms of affective habituation to pleasurable stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective habituation (i.e., reductions in stimulus-evoked affective reactions as a result of previous exposure) may serve\\u000a a functional purpose. However, little is know about the psychological mechanisms underlying this process. To elucidate the\\u000a characteristics of affective habituation, two experiments that examined affective reactions to repeated exposures of pleasurable\\u000a stimuli were conducted. Results of these experiments indicated that habituation trajectories are

Adam M. Leventhal; Rodney L. Martin; Robert W. Seals; Evelina Tapia; Lynn P. Rehm

2007-01-01

111

Leisure constraints which affect continued nonresident hunter participation  

E-print Network

This thesis provides information about Texas nonresident hunter characteristics and uses a leisure constraints model to determine whether intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints affect continued nonresident hunting participation...

Cook, Kathrine Helen

2012-06-07

112

Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.  

E-print Network

??Cardiovascular risk factors have expanded to include personality and other psychological characteristics. Negative affect (NA) has a longstanding history in cardiovascular health, but the path… (more)

Martin, Luci A.

2008-01-01

113

The Role of Affect in Cognitive Psychology and Psychoanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neither cognitive psychology nor psychoanalysis has developed a comprehensive theory of affects. Such a theory of affect, integrating conceptions derived from Arnold, Lazarus, Tornkins, Bowlby, and Langer, is outlined. Affect is viewed as the subjective experience of feed back appraisal processes operating as part of motivational systems. Quality and intensity of affect are determined by the characteristics of the underlying

Allan D. Rosenblatt

1985-01-01

114

Affective Style and Affective Disorders: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience  

E-print Network

, in press) and vulnerability to psychopathology (Meehl, 1975). More- over, such differences are not a unique the relation between such individual differences and psychopathology. It is our intuition that some for assessment, treatment and plasticity. II. THE CONSTITUENTS OF AFFECTIVE STYLE Many phenomena are subsumed

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

115

Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing  

E-print Network

for me to clarify how the affective computing group specifies their goals. Common to most people, toys skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver: first, I will introduce what the term "Affective computing" is about, how has this research developed

Ouhyoung, Ming

116

The affect structure revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the ,affect structure dimensions. Responding ,to the ,methodological ,criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex ,we found ,three bipolar

Véronique Elefant-Yanni; Maria-Pia Victoria-Feser

117

Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation  

PubMed Central

Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

118

Factors Affecting the Starting Characteristics of Gas-Turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the effects of fuel volatility and engine design variables on the problem of starting gas-turbine engines at sea-level and altitude conditions. The starting operation for engines with tubular combustors is considered as three steps; namely, (1) ignition of a fuel-air mixture in the combustor, (2) propagation of flame through cross-fire tubes to all combustors, and (3) acceleration of the engine from windmilling or starting speed to the operating speed range. Pertinent data from laboratory researches, single-combustor studies, and full-scale engine investigations are presented on each phase of the starting problem.

1951-01-01

119

Personal and Institutional Characteristics Affecting Research Productivity of Academic Accountants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting research and publication have taken on a role far beyond the advancement and dissemination of knowledge. Academics and institutions now focus on publications in major journals for funding, prestige, merit, and tenure decisions.This article attempts to identify institutional and individual variables that correlate with accounting research productivity. The results could benefit new PhDs, current faculty, and institutions wishing to

Alan S. Levitan; Russ Ray

1992-01-01

120

Do the siblings of schizophrenia patients demonstrate affect perception deficits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect perception deficits have been extensively documented in schizophrenia and are associated with the social dysfunction that is characteristic of this disorder. The two previous studies examined facial affect perception in genetically at-risk samples and yielded mixed results. The current study was designed to provide a rigorous test of affect perception abilities among schizophrenia patients (n=58), their biological siblings without

Kimmy S. Kee; William P. Horan; Jim Mintz; Michael F. Green

2004-01-01

121

Affective MTV analysis based on arousal and valence features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, MTV has become an important favorite pastime to modern people because of its conciseness, convenience to play and the characteristic that can bring both audio and visual experiences to audiences. In this paper, we propose an affective MTV analysis framework, which realizes MTV affective state extraction, representation and clustering. Firstly, affective features are extracted from both audio and visual

Shiliang Zhang; Qi Tian; Shuqiang Jiang; Qingming Huang; Wen Gao

2008-01-01

122

[Affect and mimetic behavior].  

PubMed

The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

1998-05-01

123

INTRODUCTION Understanding factors that affect roost selection  

E-print Network

in the study of biology, ecology and conservation of bats. Roosting habits influence local and global). The thermo-physical characteristics of roosts also affect bat physiology (Altringham, 1996; Kerth et al., 2001). Almost two-thirds of the European bat species use tree cavities to roost in during part

Richner, Heinz

124

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

125

Relations between Affect and Personality: Support for the Affect-Level and Affective-Reactivity Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus has emerged that neuroticism is associated with negative affect and extraversion is associated with positive affect. However; it is unclear whether these personality traits are associated with magnitude of affective reactions (Affective-Reactivity view), with levels of tonic affect (Affect-Level view), or with both. To assess these views, affective state was manipulated using film clips, measured at multiple time

James J. Gross; Steven K. Sutton; Timothy Ketelaar

1998-01-01

126

Assessment of Affect Integration: Validation of the Affect Consciousness Construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI)

Ole André Solbakken; Roger Sandvik Hansen; Odd E. Havik; Jon T. Monsen

2011-01-01

127

Sorption characteristics of foam concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of sorption characteristics like absorption and sorptivity of building materials are of importance as they affect the durability and other properties. In the case of lightweight concrete like aerated and foam concrete, the moisture movement behaviour becomes more complex as such concretes contain much larger volume of air voids. This paper is aimed at investigating the sorption-related properties of

E. K. Kunhanandan Nambiar; K. Ramamurthy

2007-01-01

128

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

129

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision

Maddox, W. Todd

130

The Affective Side.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the affective development of gifted students who are underachieving considers external stresses including a feeling of invisibility and mixed messages from the environment, internal stresses such as self-image, unrealistic self-expectations, and the possible co-existence of a learning disability. (DB)

Strop, Jean

2001-01-01

131

Does Motivation Affect Exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the state of Indiana, 20-29 percent of residents are obese. Being obese may impact social experiences and health conditions. This research seeks to investigate whether motivation affects an individual’s ability to engage in an exercise program. This research will utilize a convenience sample of 10 overweight, sedentary individuals living in northwest Indiana. Each of these 10 individuals will be

Angelica Brown

2012-01-01

132

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

Haviland, Jeannette

133

Elements affecting runway traction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1974-01-01

134

Personalized affective music player  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are developed, using regression and kernel density estimation. We show how these models can be used for music

Joris H. Janssen; Egon L. van den Broek; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; J. Cohn; Anton Nijholt; M. Pantic

2009-01-01

135

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup transporters (nutrients) It slows down (curves) because the dark reactions can't process fast enough Light controlled by light and is linear Critical Depth! Given the previous assumptions, the Critical Depth (Zcr

Kudela, Raphael M.

136

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

137

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

138

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

139

Affective Factors: Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

Tasnimi, Mahshad

2009-01-01

140

An affective model of artificial psychology [computational affection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational approaches to affection are an important content of artificial psychology. In this paper, we present a new computational affection model for improving the interaction ability of a virtual agent with its environment. Our affection model consisted of emotion space, mood, biorhythm and personality. With the affection model, our interactive agent can generate plenty of affective behavior autonomously.

Wang Guojiang; Wang Zhiliang; Li Longxing

2005-01-01

141

Conditions affecting the foreskin.  

PubMed

This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions. PMID:22787889

Hunter, David

142

Comprehensive affected environment  

SciTech Connect

Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

NONE

1995-10-01

143

Affect and action: Towards an event-coding account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing emotion from an evolutionary perspective, researchers have argued that simple responses to affective stimuli can be triggered without mediation of cognitive processes. Indeed, findings suggest that positively and negatively valenced stimuli trigger approach and avoidance movements automatically. However, affective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena share so many central characteristics with nonaffective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena that one may doubt whether the underlying

Tristan Lavender; Bernhard Hommel

2007-01-01

144

Effects of an Affect Bridge for Age Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested tailored hypnotic inductions for age regression with an affect bridge to access meaning-laden events. They used emotional intensity, spontaneity, elaboration, and transitional-object measures to assess the genuineness of the topographic shift to primary process characteristic of hypnotic age regression. An affect bridge was used to access stressful events within the age range of 3 to 6 years.

Ciara Christensen; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

2009-01-01

145

Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

2009-01-01

146

Crowdsourcing Techniques for Affective Computing (Handbook of Affective Computing chapter)  

E-print Network

illustrate how these practices have been applied to affective computing, surveying recent research of crowdsourcing and we discuss how new developments in the field might benefit affective computing. GLOSSARY TERMSCrowdsourcing Techniques for Affective Computing (Handbook of Affective Computing chapter) Robert R

147

Classroom Management and Affect Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of classroom behavior is complex. Positive affect and negative affect are independent of each other, and management of student behavior is distinctly different from management of learning activities and thinking. Measures recognizing these distinctions document that: (a) positive affect is unrelated to achievement, but negative affect is negatively related; (b) close control of student behavior is associated with

Robert S. Soar; Ruth M. Soar

1987-01-01

148

A computational model of affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and feelings (i.e. affects) are a central fea- ture of human behavior. Due to complexity and interdisciplinarity of affective phenomena, attempts to define them have often be en unsatisfactory. This article provides a simple logical str ucture, in which affective concepts can be defined. The set of affects de fined is similar to the set of emotions covered in

Mika Turkia

2008-01-01

149

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

150

Individual Differences in Core Affect Variability and Their Relationship to Personality and Psychological Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

How people's feelings change across time can be represented as trajectories in a core affect space defined by the dimensions of valence and activation. In this article, the authors analyzed individual differences in within-person affective variability defined as characteristics of core affect trajectories, introducing new ways to conceptualize affective variability. In 2 studies, participants provided multiple reports across time describing

Peter Kuppens; Iven Van Mechelen; John B. Nezlek; Dorien Dossche; Tinneke Timmermans

2007-01-01

151

Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash  

PubMed Central

In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

2008-01-01

152

Affect sensitivity and affect regulation in dealing with positive and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between two types of affect sensitivity and two types of affect regulation were tested: low sensitivity to positive affect and high sensitivity to negative affect were expected to become maladaptive when self-motivation and self-relaxation are low, respectively. Consistent with expectations, specific Sensitivity×Regulation interactions emerged: low sensitivity to positive affect (i.e., independent, schizoid-like personality) was only associated with reduced emotional

Nicola Baumann; Reiner Kaschel; Julius Kuhl

2007-01-01

153

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

154

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

155

Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect  

PubMed Central

Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

2008-01-01

156

The Biological Affects: A Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental–interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects—subjectively experienced feelings and desires—involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational–emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal,

Ross Buck

1999-01-01

157

Affect and Creativity at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored how affect relates to creativity at work. Using both quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data from the daily diaries of 222 employees in seven companies, we examined the nature, form, and temporal dynamics of the affect-creativity relationship. The results indicate that positive affect relates positively to creativity in organizations and that the relationship is a simple linear one.

Teresa M. Amabile; Sigal G. Barsade; Jennifer S. Mueller; Barry M. Staw

2005-01-01

158

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

159

Non-thermic skin affections.  

PubMed

The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate. PMID:11191420

Broz, L; Kripner, J

2000-01-01

160

Affective Experience in Adulthood and Old Age: The Role of Affective Arousal and Perceived Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in self-reported affect in adulthood. Measurement of affect encompassed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. The sample consisted of 277 participants who were between 20 and 80 years old. Older participants showed a higher level of low-arousal positive affect and did not significantly differ from the two younger

Eva-Marie Kessler; Ursula M. Staudinger

2009-01-01

161

Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

Mansson, Daniel H

2013-04-01

162

An Immunological Basis of Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 48 patients with schizophrenia and 32 patients with affective disorders, different immune parameters were tested. Compared to blood-donors, IgG and IgM serum concentrations were increased in both the schizophrenic and affective disorders. However, these abnormalities did not differ from hospital control populations. The patients failed to show an association of antibodies considered to be characteristic of autoimmune diseases. In

A. Fontana; U. Storck; J. Angst; R. Dubs; A. Abegg; P. J. Grob

1980-01-01

163

Expanding the link between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differentiated relationship between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes. In previous research, job characteristics were proposed to mediate this relationship. However, the facets of the job characteristics model have not yet been assessed separately. In the present study we tested which job characteristics (i.e., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) mediate the

Thorsten Stumpp; Ute R. Hülsheger; Peter M. Muck; Günter W. Maier

2009-01-01

164

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

165

Affective Learning Companions Winslow Burleson  

E-print Network

Affective Learning Companions Winslow Burleson MIT Media Lab, 20 Ames St. Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA win@media.mit.edu Abstract. Developing learning experiences that facilitate self influences. This thesis will center upon the development of a theory for using affective sensing and appro

166

Affective Perception Rosalind W. Picard  

E-print Network

Affective Perception Rosalind W. Picard M.I.T. Media Laboratory E15-392, 20 Ames St., Cambridge MA are especially important: 1. Perceiving the situation, 2. Perceiving affective expression, and 3. Knowing how 02139 http://www.media.mit.edu/~picard Imagine you have just logged in to your new computer

167

Affective phenomena - descriptive and theoretical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the work of 15 researchers (1910-1911), in the field of affective phenomena. The topics covered include a critical review of work in the field of affective psychology in the past 10 years, the theory of pleasure, the theory of empirical \\

H. N. Gardiner

1911-01-01

168

Flow, affect and visual creativity.  

PubMed

Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often-but inconsistently-facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement. PMID:24820517

Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

2015-02-01

169

Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Affective Film Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1) whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR), skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2) the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding. PMID:23646134

Bos, Marieke G. N.; Jentgens, Pia; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

2013-01-01

170

Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

Fricker, H. S.

1987-01-01

171

Affect and Behavior: Anxiety as a Negative Affect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a model of the human being, stressing the importance of relatively independent but interacting personality subsystems. The homeostatic system the drive system, and the affect system are the three motivational systems. The central assump...

C. E. Izard, S. S. Tomkins

1965-01-01

172

ORIGINAL PAPER Plumage characteristics, reproductive investment  

E-print Network

adult tree swallows and past reproductive investment, current reproductive investment and social mate pairing strategy. Both males and older females possess metallic green to metallic blue iridescent plumage plumage characteristics have been shown to be affected by endoparasites (Hill et al. 2005) and nutritional

Dawson, Russell D.

173

Stroking Characteristics during Time to Exhaustion Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALBERTY, M., M. SIDNEY, P. PELAYO, and H. M. TOUSSAINT. Stroking Characteristics during Time to Exhaustion Tests. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 637-644, 2009. Purpose: Race analyses during swimming reveal how exercise duration affects both clean swimming speed (v), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL). The aim of this study is to provide an explanation

MORGAN ALBERTY; MICHEL SIDNEY; PATRICK PELAYO; HUUB M. TOUSSAINT

2009-01-01

174

Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

Holmqvist, Rolf

2008-01-01

175

Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

2007-01-01

176

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

177

Caregiver Beliefs and Dysphoric Affect Directed to Difficult Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was predicted that affective responses of caregivers occur as an interactive function of child characteristics and adult attributions. Mothers in counseling at a child-abuse agency identified one of their children as relatively difficult (and more subject to discipline) and a second child as relatively easy; objective observations revealed that difficult children were more socially unresponsive and acted more inappropriately

Daphne Blunt Bugental; Jay Blue; Jeffrey Lewis

1990-01-01

178

How intimacy affects resource conceptualization  

E-print Network

Previous research regarding Foa and Foa's Resource Theory does not address whether the level of intimacy shared between the actors affects their resource conceptualization. Furthermore, siblings have not been utilized as a separate intimacy group...

Dunn, Allison L

2012-06-07

179

Globally mapping baseflow characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing baseflow, the slowly varying portion of streamflow, is important for water resources management, hydropower generation, tracking contaminant transport, and other applications. Most previous studies of baseflow have analyzed small groups of catchments with similar characteristics. Now, to develop globally applicable models of baseflow characteristics, Beck et al. studied observations from 3394 catchments around the world with a variety of climatic, hydrological, and physiographic characteristics. Their novel approach investigates the relationship between catchment characteristics and baseflow characteristics, showing how baseflow is related to annual potential evaporation, mean snow water equivalent depth, abundance of surface water bodies, and other landscape characteristics. Their global maps of baseflow characteristics—which could be useful for benchmarking and calibrating hydrological models and for a variety of other hydrological applications—are freely available at http://www.hydrology-amsterdam.nl.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-12-01

180

On Patterns in Affective Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

181

Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

Vaslilyeva, V. P.

1980-01-01

182

Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-03-01

183

Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  

PubMed

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

184

Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

185

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2005-08-23

186

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity. PMID:23946881

Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

2013-01-01

187

Positive Affect and College Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relation between positive affect and a variety of variables related to college success for undergraduate\\u000a students matriculating at 21 academically selective 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Positive affect—cheerfulness—is\\u000a generally positively related to students’ self-rated academic abilities, self-predicted likelihoods of various college outcomes,\\u000a self-stated major and academic-degree intentions, and self-reported subjective college outcomes, but

Carol Nickerson; Ed Diener; Norbert Schwarz

2011-01-01

188

Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

189

Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

McClelland, David C.

1987-01-01

190

The wind characteristics program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind characteristics research activities emphasize wind resource assessment, site selection and evaluation techniques, and wind characteristics for wind turbine design, performance and operations evaluation. Wind resource analysis shows the greatest area of high wind power resource is in the midsection of the U.S. High wind power is available in other sections of the country and is described in some detail

L. L. Wendell

1981-01-01

191

ELM characteristics in MAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edge localized mode (ELM) characteristics in a large spherical tokamak (ST) with significant auxiliary heating are explored. High confinement is achieved in mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) at low ELM frequencies even though the ELMs exhibit many type III characteristics. These ELMs are associated with a reduction in the pedestal density but no significant change in the pedestal temperature or

A. Kirk; G. F. Counsell; H. R. Wilson; J.-W. Ahn; R. Akers; E. R. Arends; J. Dowling; R. Martin; H. Meyer; M. Hole; M. Price; P. B. Snyder; D. Taylor; M. J. Walsh; Y. Yang

2004-01-01

192

On the Primacy of Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

Zajonc, R. B.

1984-01-01

193

Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

2011-01-01

194

The affective costs of overconfidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive illusions, though often beneficial (Taylor & Brown, 1988), can diminish the pleasure of outcomes. This prediction follows from decision affect theory. We investi- gated this prediction by measuring the confidence that recreational basketball players felt while making shots and the pleasure they felt with subsequent outcomes. Results showed that most players were overconfident. Those who were more overconfident tended

A. Peter McGraw; Barbara A. Mellers; Ilana Ritov

2004-01-01

195

Affective Development in University Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…

Grootenboer, Peter

2010-01-01

196

Affective memory and schizophrenic anhedonia.  

PubMed

Two experiments attempted to isolate and measure schizophrenic anhedonia as it is reflected in the mnemonic processing of affectively laden stimuli. In the first experiment, subjects were required to sort a list of words repeatedly, each in terms of pleasantness, until a consistent sorting was achieved. Then, they were unexpectedly asked to recall the list. Schizophrenics' total recall was comparable to that of normals; but while normals recalled significantly more pleasant than unpleasant words (a Pollyanna tendency), such differential recall was absent in schizophrenics (anhedonia). These results were complicated, however, by the intrusion of semantic variables into the affective processing. In the second experiment, human faces were used to minimize semantic intrusions. Subjects were induced to encode photographs of faces in the context of favorable-unfavorable personality traits, and their recognition memory for these faces was subsequently tested. In spite of comparable overall performance, normals recognized significantly more favorably than unfavorably encoded faces, and such asymmetric recognition was absent in schizophrenics. Furthermore, a significant Group by Affect interaction emerged. The results were taken as evidence of schizophrenic anhedonia and normals' Pollyanna tendency. Nonschizophrenics also served as controls but their results were equivocal. Several problems which may be typical in the experimental investigation of affect were discussed. PMID:7280568

Koh, S D; Grinker, R R; Marusarz, T Z; Forman, P L

1981-01-01

197

Affective incoherence: When affective concepts and embodied reactions clash  

E-print Network

rejection (Tamir, Robinson, Clore, Martin, & Whitaker, 2004). Studying the effects of head movements on persuasion, Brin˜ol and Petty (2003) replicated past findings that head nodding in- creased persuasion relative to head shaking when persuasive ar... of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad...

Centerbar, David; Schnall, Simone; Clore, Gerald L.; Garvin, Erica

2008-01-01

198

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2008-10-10

199

Aircraft compass characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

1937-01-01

200

Salience-Affected Neural Networks  

E-print Network

We present a simple neural network model which combines a locally-connected feedforward structure, as is traditionally used to model inter-neuron connectivity, with a layer of undifferentiated connections which model the diffuse projections from the human limbic system to the cortex. This new layer makes it possible to model global effects such as salience, at the same time as the local network processes task-specific or local information. This simple combination network displays interactions between salience and regular processing which correspond to known effects in the developing brain, such as enhanced learning as a result of heightened affect. The cortex biases neuronal responses to affect both learning and memory, through the use of diffuse projections from the limbic system to the cortex. Standard ANNs do not model this non-local flow of information represented by the ascending systems, which are a significant feature of the structure of the brain, and although they do allow associational learning with...

Remmelzwaal, Leendert A; Ellis, George F R

2010-01-01

201

Ordinal logistic regression for affective product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective product design, which focuses on customers¿ affective responses and aspirations, is arousing attention increasingly. This paper draws on ordinal logistic regression to deal with affective product design, mapping from designer domain to customer domain. It takes a designer¿s perspective and facilitates the handling of affective information and assists the designers to make trade-off decisions. Specifically, ten generic affective dimensions

F. Zhou; D. Wu; X. Yang; J. Jiao

2008-01-01

202

Mathematics classrooms, gender and affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics learning outcomes persist and several explanatory models incorporate affective variables.\\u000a Current understandings of how children learn mathematics seem inconsistent with traditional mathematics instruction. The literature\\u000a reveals that little is known about the relationship between classroom factors and students’ beliefs about themselves as learners\\u000a of mathematics. The study reported here explored this relationship at two levels: a

Helen J. Forgasz; Gilah C. Leder

1996-01-01

203

What Variables Affect Crystal Growth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate variables that may influence the growth of crystals which they have learned to make. There are two options for implementing this activity. The first is open-ended, with the students deciding what variables affect crystal growth and then deciding on the manipulating variables they would like to study. The second is prescriptive and explains to students how to test three variables in making crystals: temperature, method of mixing (such as shaking or stirring), and concentration.

204

Do Cities Affect the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore clouds and how they form. Learners compare the cloud formation in two bottles, one with air freshener and one without, to examine the importance of condensation nuclei. Learners will discover that pollution and dust in cities increase the number of condensation nuclei in the atmosphere, which can affect the local weather. This activity is written as a demonstration for a whole group, but can be conducted by individual learners.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

205

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

206

Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric comorbidity and impaired emotional functioning have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but have\\u000a been less well documented in adolescents. Thus, we investigated mental health problems and emotion regulation abilities in\\u000a adolescents and young adults with cannabis dependence. Moreover, we explored the relationships between consumption modalities\\u000a and affective style. Therefore, 32 cannabis abusers (CA) and 30 healthy controls

Géraldine Dorard; Sylvie Berthoz; Olivier Phan; Maurice Corcos; Catherine Bungener

2008-01-01

207

Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils  

SciTech Connect

Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

Townsend, F.C.

1985-01-01

208

Anthropogenic noise affects vocal interactions.  

PubMed

Animal communication plays a crucial role in many species, and it involves a sender producing a signal and a receiver responding to that signal. The shape of a signal is determined by selection pressures acting upon it. One factor that exerts selection on acoustic signals is the acoustic environment through which the signal is transmitted. Recent experimental studies clearly show that senders adjust their signals in response to increased levels of anthropogenic noise. However, to understand how noise affects the whole process of communication, it is vital to know how noise affects the receiver's response during vocal interactions. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated ambient noise levels to expose male European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to two playback treatments consisting of the same song: one with noise and another one without noise. We found that males responding to a conspecific in a noise polluted environment increased minimum frequency and decreased song complexity and song duration. Thus, we show that the whole process of communication is affected by noise, not just the behaviour of the sender. PMID:24333298

McMullen, Heather; Schmidt, Rouven; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

2014-03-01

209

Cortical Control of Affective Networks  

PubMed Central

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1–Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1–Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1–Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J.; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M.; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E.; Dzirasa, Kafui

2013-01-01

210

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

211

3D Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contributions to the Method of Characteristics in Three Dimensions, which previously received incomplete recognition, are reviewed. They mostly follow from a fundamental paper by Rusanov which led to several developments in Russia, described by Chushkin.

Holt, Maurice

1998-01-01

212

Physical characteristics related to bra fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper

Chin-Man Chen; Karen LaBat; Elizabeth Bye

2010-01-01

213

Housing characteristics 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

NONE

1995-06-01

214

Identifying plant family characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed for students to discover how making observations of the environment is the key to making sound predictions. Students will also learn how both positive and negative outcomes of these predictions can affect and shape future decisions.

Kate Olson Riverway Learning Community Minnesota City, Mn

215

The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming  

PubMed Central

Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

2008-01-01

216

Neuroanatomical Evidence for Distinct Cognitive and Affective Components of Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether the cognitive and affective components of self-reflection can be dissociated using func- tional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a simple paradigm in which subjects judged the personal relevance of personality characteristics that were either favorable (e.g., ''honest'') or unfavorable (e.g., ''lazy''), we found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and

J. M. Moran; C. N. Macrae; Todd F. Heatherton; C. L. Wyland; William M. Kelley

2006-01-01

217

Can Leaf Litter from Genetically Modified Trees Affect Aquatic Ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations,\\u000a including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue.\\u000a We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of

E. Petter Axelsson; Joakim Hjältén; Carri J. LeRoy; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Anders Wennström; Gilles Pilate

2010-01-01

218

Affect the CodeJohn Wiles Sponsored by the Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center  

E-print Network

PV Basics Affect the CodeJohn Wiles Sponsored by the Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center Sandia to radiation cooling, and the surface may be a few degrees cooler than the ambient Photovoltaic modules have some very important characteristics that affect the electrical safety of PV installations

Johnson, Eric E.

219

Photosynthetic performance of two maize genotypes as affected by chilling stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chilling on light dependence of photosynthetic and chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics in two maize genotypes CE 704 and CE 810 grown in a glasshouse during spring and autumn was studied. In spring, the net photosynthetic rate (P N ) of CE 704 plants was not affected by chilling under moderate irradiance but it was strongly affected under

K. Kosová; D. Haisel; I. Tichá

2005-01-01

220

The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2013-01-01

221

Delineation of salt-affected soils through digital analysis of Landsat MSS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat MSS digital data over parts of Uttar Pradesh (Northern India) covering an area of 60243 km were analysed on an interactive multispectral data analysis system (MDAS) to delineate salt-affected soils. Based on the spectral response of these soils and subsequent correlation in the field by studying terrain characteristics and soil profiles, two categories of salt-affected soils that require different

A. N. SINGH; R. S. DWIVEDI

1989-01-01

222

Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

2008-01-01

223

High-Resolution Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Increased Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited life span and senescence are near-universal characteristics of eukaryotic organisms, controlled by many interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with individually small effects, whose expression is sensitive to the environment. Analyses of mutations in model organisms have shown that genes affecting stress resistance and metabolism affect life span across diverse taxa. However, there is considerable seg- regating variation for life

Rhonda H. Wilson; Theodore J. Morgan; Trudy F. C. Mackay

2006-01-01

224

How Hazardous Substances Affect People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students gain an appreciation for how scientists determine the human health effects of hazardous substances. Students also demonstrate how hazardous substances can affect the health of test animals. They will discover that toxicology is the study of the effects of poisons on living organisms and that scientists conduct a variety of studies to discover toxicological information about hazardous substances. Students will also learn about two of the most common types of studies, which are epidemiological studies, matching disease and other adverse health effects in humans with possible causes, and animal toxicological studies.

225

Customer retention: examining the roles of store affect and store loyalty as mediators in the management of retail strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a strategic view of the antecedents of loyalty through a model in which store affect and store loyalty mediate the effects of store characteristics on store outcomes and business performance. It is proposed that store atmosphere, store uniqueness, merchandise value and store familiarity are directly related to store affect and that store affect, operating via store loyalty,

Ipshita Ray; Larry Chiagouris

2009-01-01

226

Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))

1993-06-01

227

Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

Gorti, Sridhar

2013-01-01

228

Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

1980-07-01

229

Affect Intensity Analysis of Dark Web Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affects play an important role in influencing people's perceptions and decision making. Affect analysis is useful for measuring the presence of hate, violence, and the resulting propaganda dissemination across extremist groups. In this study we performed affect analysis of U.S. and Middle Eastern extremist group forum postings. We constructed an affect lexicon using a probabilistic disambiguation technique to measure the

Ahmed Abbasi; Hsinchun Chen

2007-01-01

230

Affect Regulation, Nicotine Addiction, and Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous investigators have examined the role of negative affective states and affect regulation in the initiation and development of cigarette smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and relapse prevention. Affect regulation refers to any attempt to alleviate negative mood states by means of pharmacologic-, cognitive-, behavioral-or environmental change methods. The psychological construct\\/process of affect regulation is examined in relation to (1) the

Timothy P. Carmody

1992-01-01

231

Affect Regulation, Tobacco Addiction, and Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous investigators have examined the role of negative affective states and affect regulation in the initiation and development of cigarette smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and relapse prevention. Affect regulation refers to any attempt to alleviate negative mood states by means of pharmacologic-, cognitive-, behavioral-or environmentalchange methods. The psychological construct\\/process of affect regulation is examined in relation to (1) the initiation,

Timothy P. Carmody

1989-01-01

232

Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

2014-01-01

233

Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  

PubMed

Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

2014-05-01

234

Visual processing of facial affect.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of the fusiform gyrus in identifying and processing facial emotional expression in humans, MEG data were collected while six healthy subjects judged whether photographs of faces displayed emotion (happiness or disgust) compared to neutral faces and equiluminant scrambled faces. For all six subjects, a magnetic source localizing to right fusiform gyrus was evident approximately 150 ms following presentation of face stimuli, but not following non-face stimuli. MEG source strength for this component was greatest for happy, intermediate for disgust, and lowest for neutral facial expressions, suggesting that activity in fusiform gyrus is sensitive to both face-specific stimuli and to the affective content of the face. These findings are considered in the context of a specialized neural face-dependent information system. PMID:14534432

Lewis, Stephen; Thoma, Robert J; Lanoue, Marianna D; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Edgar, Christopher; Huang, Minxiong; Weisend, Michael P; Irwin, Jessica; Paulson, Kim; Cañive, José M

2003-10-01

235

Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine  

PubMed Central

This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet. PMID:22649454

Engmann, Birk

2012-01-01

236

Propagators from characteristic surfaces  

E-print Network

We study the Goursat or characteristic problem, i.e. a hyperbolic equation with given data on a surface (the half of the standard Cauchy problem), with some kind of dimensional regularization procedure to deal with the divergences that appear. We will also comment some possible relation with a holographic setup.

Jorge Conde

2005-01-17

237

Characteristics of risky play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores what makes children's risky play risky. Risky play can generally be defined as thrilling and exciting forms of play that involve a risk of physical injury. Few, if any, studies have been conducted to explore what identifies play activity as risky. The present study aims to determine what characteristics to judge risky play by. Risky play in

Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter

2009-01-01

238

Characteristic Curves of PEMFC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise will allow students hands-on experience working with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, or PEMFC. The class will examine the characteristic curve of one of these fuel cells and measure the voltage and current output of the cell. Step by step instructions are provided for the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-11

239

Hypnosis, Demand Characteristics, and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In introducing the notion of demand characteristics, Martin T. Orne acknowledged his debt to Egon Brunswik (1947), who held similar views. Orne (1959) took it several steps further by proposing the real-simulator design as a means of evaluating the degree to which experimental outcomes might be artifactual of implicit cues in the design and\\/or procedure of empirical studies. By contrast,

Campbell Perry

2002-01-01

240

Characteristics of Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the problem of manipula- tor design for increased dynamic performance. Opti- mization techniques are used to determine the design parameters which improve manipulator performance. The dynamic ,performance of a manipulator is char- acterized by the inertial and acceleration properties of the end-effector. Our study of inertial and accelera- tion properties have provided separate descriptions of the characteristics

Oussama Khatib; Alan Bowling

241

Behavioural characteristics of rapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of past research on rapists has focused on their motives. This paper reports on two studies that investigated the behavioural characteristics of rapists. The first study gathered behavioural data from police rape files to determine the types of behaviours exhibited by 130 men charged with rape. The second study was designed to validate the behavioural clusters found

Marita P. McCabe; Michelle Wauchope

2005-01-01

242

Personality Characteristics of Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

2007-01-01

243

Implications of the effects of wind characteristics on the operation of large wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind Characteristics Program Element of the DOE Wind Systems Branch is examined. Three subtasks are considered: wind energy prospecting; wind characteristics for design, performance evaluation, and operations; and site evaluation. Attention is given to how wind characteristics affect the overall performance of large wind turbines. The first simulation of turbine output lends support to the potential need for site-specific

A. H. Miller

1980-01-01

244

Sugars proportionately affect artemisinin production.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effect of sugars in controlling secondary metabolism. In this study, sugars alone or in combination with their analogs were used to investigate their role in the production of the antimalarial drug, artemisinin, in Artemisia annua L. seedlings. Compared to sucrose, a 200% increase in artemisinin by glucose was observed. Different ratios of fructose to glucose yielded artemisinin levels directly proportional to increases in relative glucose concentration. When the glucose analog, 3-O-methylglucose, was added with glucose, artemisinin production was dramatically decreased, but hexokinase activity was significantly increased compared to glucose alone. In contrast, neither mannose nor mannitol had any significant effect on artemisinin yield. In comparison with 30 g/l sucrose, artemisinin levels were significantly reduced by 80% in the presence of 27 g/l sucrose + 3 g/l palatinose, which cannot be transported into cells through the sucrose transporter. Together these results suggest that both monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars are likely acting not only as carbon sources but also as signals to affect the downstream production of artemisinin, and that the mechanism of these effects appears to be complex. PMID:17221224

Wang, Y; Weathers, P J

2007-07-01

245

Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification  

PubMed Central

We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2014-01-01

246

Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles?  

PubMed Central

Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 ?m Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 ?m totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns. PMID:22939204

DeStefano, Joseph J.; Schuster, Stephanie A.; Lawhorn, Jason M.; Kirkland, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

247

Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

2009-01-01

248

Physicochemical Characteristics of Nigella Seed ( Nigella sativa L . ) Oil as Affected by Different Extraction Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of crude Nigella seed (Nigella sativa L.) oil which was extracted using Soxhlet, Modified Bligh–Dyer and Hexane extraction methods were determined. The effect of\\u000a different extraction methods which includes different parameters, such as temperature, time and solvent on the extraction\\u000a yield and the physicochemical properties were investigated. The experimental results showed that temperature, different solvents\\u000a and extraction

Ali Khoddami; Hasanah M. Ghazali; Ali Yassoralipour; Yogeshini Ramakrishnan; Ali Ganjloo

2011-01-01

249

Canopy Characteristics Affecting Avian Reproductive Success: The Golden-cheeked Warbler  

E-print Network

Habitat disturbances play a major role in wildlife distribution. Disturbances such as loss of breeding habitat and fragmentation are of particular concern for Neotropical migrant songbird populations. Additionally, different avian species respond...

Klassen, Jessica Anne

2012-07-16

250

Physical and chemical characteristics of topographically affected airflow in an open borehole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole UZ6S, on the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, has exhaled approximately 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of gas annually during winter months for three successive years. The flow arises from thermal-topographic effects. The average composition of the exhausted gas is: N{sub 2} = 78%, O{sub 2} = 21%, Ar = 0.94%, CO{sub 2} = 0.125%, and CH{sub 4} = 0.2 ppMv. The CO{sub 2} has the following isotopic signature: {sup 14}C = 108.5 percent modern carbon (pmc), and {delta}{sup 13}C = 17.1 per mil. In the thirty-month observation period, there has been a net flux to the atmosphere of approximately 40 m{sup 3} of liquid water and 1150 kg of carbon. The gas flowing from UZ6S appears to originate in the soil and/or shallow unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain crest. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Thorstenson, D.C.; Woodward, J.C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA); Weeks, E.P. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (USA); Haas, H. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA). Radiocarbon Lab.

1989-12-31

251

Characteristics of lignin from flax shives as affected by extraction conditions.  

PubMed

Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, syringol, eugenol, isoeugenol, catechol, homocatechol, and vanillin were detected in all of the samples. PMID:21152318

Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

252

Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions  

PubMed Central

Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, syringol, eugenol, isoeugenol, catechol, homocatechol, and vanillin were detected in all of the samples. PMID:21152318

Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

253

Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity  

E-print Network

within earthworm casts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37,Earthworms and rate of break- down of soybean and maize residues in soil. Soil Biologyearthworm activity in a marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land. Biology

Pulleman, M M; Six, J; van Breemen, N; Jongmans, A G

2005-01-01

254

Characteristics of Samples and Linking Items Affecting a Partial Pre-Calibrations Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests several explanations for discrepant results in an earlier study (Cook et al., 1985) which presented a partial pre-calibration method for equating new editions of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) to the same scale as older editions. In contrast to full pre-calibration, which seeks to equate all items from two or more editions,…

Cook, Linda L.; And Others

255

Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the Overthrust Belt of Southwestern Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jurassic-Triassic age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming Overthrust Belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic directional properties which have been inherited from the depositional environment, modified by diagenesis, and finally overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly eolian processes deposited crossbedded and horizontally-bedded, very fine-grained to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdunes and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat

1982-01-01

256

Environmental characteristics affecting plant growth on deep-mine coal refuse banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains of black waste from the mining and processing of coal mar the landscape in many parts of Pennsylvania. They are not only eyesores, but major sources of air and water pollution as well. Natural colonization by plants is slow and most attempts at planting fail. The results of a study of the factors which may limit plant growth indicate

D. N. Thompson; R. J. Hutnik

1971-01-01

257

Fertilization regimes affect the soil biological characteristics of a sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system.  

PubMed

The sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) rotation is an intensive and new cropping system in Central China. Nutrient management practices in this rotation system may influence soil fertility, the important aspects of which are soil biological properties and quality. As sensitive soil biological properties and quality indicators, soil microbial community activity, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N resulting from different fertilization regimes in this rotation system were studied through a four-year field experiment from April 2005 to May 2009. Treatments included control (CK), fertilizer phosphorus and potassium (PK), fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK), fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) and a fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK). Soil microbial community activities in the NK, NP and NPK treatments were significantly lower than those in the CK and PK treatments after the sudangrass and ryegrass trial. The highest microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, SOM, total N, sucrase and urease activities were found in the NPK treatment, and these soil quality indicators were significantly higher in the NK, NP and NPK treatments than in the PK and CK treatments. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were positively associated with SOM in the sudangrass and ryegrass rotation system, indicating that fertilization regimes, especially N application, reduced microbial community activity in the soil. Proper fertilization regimes will increase microbial biomass, enzyme activity and SOM and improve soil fertility. PMID:21706419

Li, WenXi; Lu, JianWei; Li, FangBai; Wang, Yan; Lu, JunMing; Li, XiaoKun

2011-06-01

258

Analysis of the characteristics of mouthguards that affect isokinetic muscular ability and anaerobic power  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of occlusal stability to identify action mechanisms of mouthguards, known to have a modulatory effect on limb muscle function. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 20 male subjects to perform the isokinetic muscle tests and the Wingate anaerobic power test on both knee joints under five closed-mouth conditions: without or with 4 types of mouthguards with thickness of 2 mm based on premolar area: (1) full-coverage, (2) anterior partial-coverage, (3) right posterior partial-coverage, and (4) left posterior partial-coverage. The obtained results were subjected to One-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by post hoc test of the contrast method (?=.05). RESULTS There was no significant difference between the closed position with and without a full-coverage mouthguard in all variables. However, significant differences were observed between with and without a partial-coverage mouthguard in muscular endurance during extension of the left knee, muscular power and endurance during flexion of the right knee. Additionally, significant differences were found between occlusal states with full- and partial-coverage mouthguards in muscular power and endurance during extension of the left knee. CONCLUSION These findings indicate the elevation of vertical dimension by 2 mm or the inducement of occlusal stability had little effect on isokinetic muscle strength and anaerobic performance, while uneven distribution of occlusal force might have some positive effects. PMID:24353875

Jung, Jae-Kwang; Chae, Woen-Sik

2013-01-01

259

Housing system affects broiler characteristics of local Chinese breed reciprocal crosses.  

PubMed

Artificial selection in closed populations can fix or differentiate alternative alleles of loci associated with selected traits. Two closed chicken populations, A and B, originating from Jiuwu, a Chinese native breed, were bred for more than 10 generations. We compared progeny from reciprocal crosses (AB and BA) under free range (trial 1) and cage and pen (trial 2) systems. Traits measured included feed conversion, live BW, subcutaneous fat thickness, percentages of carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, eviscerated carcass, breast muscle (pectoralis major and minor), leg muscle (boneless drum and thigh), heart, gizzard, proventriculus, liver, comb, and abdominal fat, plus moisture and fat content in breast muscle at 91 d. In trial 1, there were no significant differences between crosses for any trait except percentage proventriculus (AB > BA). Males were significantly heavier with greater proportions of semi-eviscerated carcass, leg muscle, heart, and comb than females, whereas females had thicker subcutaneous fat and higher percentage abdominal fat, breast muscle, gizzard, and proventriculus than males. In trial 2, chickens raised in cages were significantly heavier, had superior feed efficiency, thicker subcutaneous fat, higher fat content and percentage abdominal fat, carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, liver, and comb than those reared in pens. Those reared in pens exhibited significantly greater proportions of breast muscle, gizzard, and proventriculus than those raised in cages. The only significant 2-way interaction was cross × sex for percentage semi-eviscerated and eviscerated carcass, because BA males were greater than other combinations. Interactions of cross × sex × housing system for percentage liver and abdominal fat were significant; cage-reared AB females displayed higher percentages than pen-reared BA males. Results implied that subpopulations should be considered rather than a single larger population as a way to reduce loss of genetic variation in local and heritage stocks. Although performance of reciprocal crosses was similar across housing systems, caging during the finishing stage of a slow-growing breed enhanced feed efficiency, BW, and meat composition. PMID:22912481

Zhao, X L; Siegel, P B; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Gilbert, E R; Zhu, Q; Zhang, L

2012-09-01

260

Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton as Affected by Varietal Characteristics and Other Factors.  

E-print Network

the harvester. Figure 1. Cross section of Texas Station Harvester and Bur Extractor. No tests were made at Lubbock in 1935 because of the drought. The cotton grown for mechanical harvesting during the three years 1936 to 1938 was irrigated, so that material... the harvester. Figure 1. Cross section of Texas Station Harvester and Bur Extractor. No tests were made at Lubbock in 1935 because of the drought. The cotton grown for mechanical harvesting during the three years 1936 to 1938 was irrigated, so that material...

Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1939-01-01

261

Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs That Affect Their Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an analysis of teachers' ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum…

Stanišic Stojic, Svetlana M.; Dobrijevic, Gordana; Stanišic, Nemanja; Stanic, Nenad

2014-01-01

262

Microbial and sensory characteristics of camel meat during refrigerated storage as affected by gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to assess the microbiological profile of fresh camel meat and the possibility of improving microbial quality and extending the refrigerated storage life of meat by using low-dose gamma irradiation. Camel meat samples were subjected to 0 (control), 1.5 and 3 kGy doses and stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. the microbial and sensory attributes were evaluated. Exposure to 1.5 kGy dose significantly reduced the initial counts of Aerobic Plate Counts (APCs), psychrophilic bacteria, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococci. Moreover, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli were below the detection levels. Irradiation at 3 kGy significantly reduced the initial counts of APCs LAB and Enterococci by 99.5, 93.5 and 93.9%, respectively. Pseudomonas, coliforms, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli were not found at dose of 3 kGy during entire storage period, also psychrophilic bacteria and molds and yeasts were below the detection levels during 6 days of storage. This study shows that irradiation had no significant effects on the sensory attributes of camel meat. Refrigerated shelf-life of the meat irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy were 15 and 21 days, respectively, compared to 7 days for non-irradiated controls. PMID:18814652

Fallah, Aziz A; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Rahnama, Mohammad

2008-03-15

263

Some experiments on liquid helium heat transfer: characteristics affecting stability of superconducting magnet operation  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer from 25 ..mu..m thick, 6.36 mm wide Nb tape into boiling helium in vertical channels of 1.7 x 21 mm cross section was studied. Normal zones were initiated by heaters attached to the tape surface not in contact with the liquid. Two heat transfer effects of possible importance for superconductor stability were observed: 1. steady normal zones enabling the measurement of localized heat transfer, and 2. heat transport to neighboring tapes by means of the coolant.

Wipf, S.L.

1980-01-01

264

Micro-Raman spectroscopy shows how the coating process affects the characteristics of hydroxylapatite.  

PubMed

The diversity in the structural and chemical state of apatites allows implant manufacturers to fine-tune implant properties. This requires suitable manufacturing processes and characterization tools to adjust the amorphous phase and hydroxyl content from the source hydroxylapatite. Hydroxylapatite was processed by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, plasma spraying and flame spraying, and primarily analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Investigation of rounded splats, the building blocks of thermal spray coatings, allowed correlation between the visual identity of the splat surface and the Raman spectra. Splats were heat-treated to crystallize any remaining amorphous phase. The ?1 PO4 stretching peak at 950-970 cm(-1) displayed the crystalline order, but the hydroxyl peak at 3572 cm(-1) followed the degree of dehydroxylation. Hydroxyl loss was greatest for flame-sprayed particles, which create the longest residence time for the melted particle. Higher-frequency hydroxyl peaks in flame- and plasma-sprayed splats indicated a lower structural order for the recrystallized hydroxylapatite within the splats. Crystallization at 700 °C has shown potential for revealing hydroxyl ions previously trapped in amorphous calcium phosphate. This work compares Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to measure the hydroxyl content in rapidly solidified apatites and shows that Raman spectroscopy is more suitable. PMID:23973389

Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Alamara, Kadhim; Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Gross, Karlis A

2013-12-01

265

Forest Stand Characteristics Altered by Restoration Affect Western Bluebird Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest managers are setting Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- derosa) forests in the southwestern United States on a tra- jectory toward a restored ecosystem by reducing tree densities and managing with prescribed fire. The process of restoration dramatically alters forest stands, and the ef- fects of these changes on wildlife remain unclear. Our research evaluated which aspects of habitat alteration from

Catherine S. Wightman; Stephen S. Germaine

2006-01-01

266

Factors affecting the electro-catalytic characteristics of Eu doped SnO2/Sb electrode.  

PubMed

Different compositions of Eu doped electrodes were prepared by a pyrolysis method in order to investigate the effect of Eu on the electro-catalytic behavior of Ti-based SnO(2)/Sb electrodes. The electrodes were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and their degradation abilities were evaluated using phenol. The electro-catalytic performance of prepared electrodes was strongly influenced by the heat-treatment temperature and Eu doping content. A temperature of 750 degrees C and a Eu content of 2% provided optimal catalytic activity for the SnO(2)/Sb electrode. Phenol removal percentage was lowered by 13.2% compared to the control when higher Eu doping (5%) was applied due to the potential concentration of oxygen vacancies and the enrichment of Eu atoms on electrode surface. The unit cell of SnO(2) expanded by about 2% after Eu doping due to the replacement of the smaller Sn(4+) by larger Eu(3+). The average size of the SnO(2) grains on the electrode surface for the Eu doped samples ranged from 8 to 9 nm, which was smaller than that of the control, suggesting catalysis improvement since smaller grain sizes produced more active sites on the electrode surface. PMID:20167422

Feng, Yujie; Cui, Yu-Hong; Liu, Junfeng; Logan, Bruce E

2010-06-15

267

How Ligand Properties Affect the Formation and Characteristics of Recoupled Pair Bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has developed a theoretical framework for understanding hypervalency called recoupled pair bonding. In a recoupled pair bond, a singly occupied orbital of an incoming ligand is able to decouple a pair of electrons on a central atom and form a bond with one of the electrons. The other electron is then free to bond with a second ligand. However, not every ligand is able to induce recoupling and lead to the formation of hypervalent compounds; SF_4 exists, but SH_4 is not stable, for example. We have investigated a large variety of monovalent ligands (including H, F, Cl, OH, NH_2, CH_3, and other radicals) to discover which ligands are capable of recoupling the 3p^2 electron pair of sulfur and to quantify the strength of these bonds relative to covalent bonds formed with the same ligand. Also of interest is which properties of the various ligands correlate with their ability to recouple a pair of electrons. We have also benchmarked the accuracy of density functional theory in the description of recoupled pair bonds compared to high level MRCI and RCCSD(T) calculations as a possible way to test the recoupling ability of larger ligands such as the phenyl radical (C_6H_5).

Lindquist, Beth A.; Woon, D. E.; Dunning, T. H.; , Jr.

2011-06-01

268

Characteristics of brush treatments affecting habitat use patterns by cattle in South Texas  

E-print Network

, such as broomweed (Xanthoce halum spp. ) and flowered thistle (Cirsium spp. ), were characterized by visually estimating cover (4) and by measuring their height (cm) within each 0. 5 m quadrat. 2 Fistula Collections Four esophageally fistulated cows were..., such as broomweed (Xanthoce halum spp. ) and flowered thistle (Cirsium spp. ), were characterized by visually estimating cover (4) and by measuring their height (cm) within each 0. 5 m quadrat. 2 Fistula Collections Four esophageally fistulated cows were...

Rowland, Mary Ellen

2012-06-07

269

Biochemical and physical factors affecting color characteristics of selected bovine muscles  

E-print Network

of discoloration. M. longissimus lumborum, M. longissimus thoracis, M. semitendinosus, and M. tensor fasciae latae were grouped as "high" color stability muscles, M. semimembranosus, M. rectus femoris, and M. vastus lateralis were grouped as "moderate" color...

McKenna, David Richard

2004-09-30

270

Microstructure and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-chitosan film as affected by composition.  

PubMed

Edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch and chitosan were developed by casting method. The effects of the ratio of high-amylose corn starch to chitosan, concentration of glycerol and methyl cellulose on the oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, water vapor transmission, tensile strength and percent elongation at break values of edible composite films were investigated. Film microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase of the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol in the film forming suspensions both made the structure of films flexible, causing the decrease of tensile strength and increase of percent elongation of composite films, while showing poor water vapor barrier properties as the water vapor transmission values increased. The addition of methyl cellulose as to reinforce the structure of matrix improved the water vapor barrier properties of the edible films with the decrease of water vapor transmission from 1946 to 1668 g/(m(2)·24?h), as well as the mechanical properties were improved as expected, which could be attributed to the differentia of the interaction between methyl cellulose and other components in the film preparation as the concentration ranged from 2% (w/w) to 8% (w/w). Films with different compositions, resulting different microstructures, showed variance in barrier and mechanical properties. PMID:23493788

Feng, Qianqian; Hu, Fei; Qiu, Liping

2013-06-01

271

CORN YIELD AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE, PLANT DENSITY, AND IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on a deep, well drained silt loam soil (Aridic Argiustolls) at Colby, Kansas, from 2004 to 2007 using three plant densities (66,300, 74,500, or 82,300 plants \\/ha) under conventional, strip, or no tillage systems for irrigation capacities that were limited to 25 mm every 4, 6, or 8 days. Corn yield increased approximately 10%

F. R. Lamm; R. M. Aiken; A. A. Abou Kheira

272

Photodetector and Receiver Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic receivers. Investigate the components of an optical receiver; how a photodetector converts an optical signal to an electrical one; and the characteristics of PIN, avalanche, and metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes.The video runs 2:07 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

273

Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Inner ear symptoms like hearing loss, dizziness or tinnitus are often developed after head trauma, even in cases without inner ear destruction. This is also known as labyrinthine concussion. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical manifestations, characteristics of audiometry and prognostic factors of these patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of the 40 patients that had been diagnosed as labyrinthine concussion from 1996 to 2007. We studied the hearing levels in each frequency and classified them according to type and degree of hearing loss. Rates of hearing improvement were evaluated according to age, sex, hearing loss type, degree and presence of dizziness or tinnitus. To find out any correlation between hearing improvement and these factors, we used ?2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 22 patients, and unilateral hearing loss in 18 patients. There were 4 (6.5%) ascending, 34 (54.8%) descending, 24 (38.7%) flat type hearing loss, which indicated hearing loss was greater in high frequencies than low frequencies. Among 62 affected ears, 20 (32.3%) gained improvement, and it was achieved mainly in low frequencies. There were only 2 ears with dizziness in 20 improved ears and among 20 dizziness accompanied ears, also only 2 ears were improved. Conclusions High frequencies are more vulnerable to trauma than low frequencies. The hearing gain is obtained mainly in low frequencies, and association with dizziness serves poor prognosis. PMID:24653897

Choi, Mi Suk; Yeon, Je Yeob; Choi, Young Seok; Kim, Jisung; Park, Soo Kyoung

2013-01-01

274

[Harmful practices affecting women's health].  

PubMed

The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

1990-07-01

275

Focus cues affect perceived depth  

PubMed Central

Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

2007-01-01

276

Intentional Affect: An Alternative Notion of Affective Interaction with a Machine  

E-print Network

and training of potential affective computing technologies. For example, most of the computational techniquesIntentional Affect: An Alternative Notion of Affective Interaction with a Machine Shazia Afzal.Robinson}@cl.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT Affective Computing envisages truly effective human-machine interactions as being affect

Robinson, Peter

277

The heterosexual affectional system in monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that the heterosexual affectional system in the rhesus monkey, like all the other affectional systems, goes through a series of developmental stages––an infantile heterosexual stage, a preadolescent stage, and an adolescent and mature heterosexual stage.\\

Harry F. Harlow

1962-01-01

278

Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as ?13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated ?13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

2012-12-01

279

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

280

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Depression, and  

E-print Network

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Depression, and Communication/Relationship Problems in Deaf.P.H. #12;Overview · Seasonal Affective Disorder · Depression · Communication and Relationship Problems irritable and agitated #12;Prevalence of SAD · Affects millions of adults and children · Varies

Goldman, Steven A.

281

Personalized MTV Affective Analysis Using User Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, MTV has become an important favorite pastime to peo- ple. Affective analysis which can extract the affective states contained in MTVs could be a potential and promising solution for efficient and intelligent MTV access. One of the most challenging and insufficiently covered problems of af- fective analysis is that affective understanding is personal and various among users. Consequently,

Shiliang Zhang; Qingming Huang; Qi Tian; Shuqiang Jiang; Wen Gao

2008-01-01

282

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same- valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii, which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

J. IAN

283

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same-valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii , which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

Jeff T. Larsen; J. Ian Norris

2009-01-01

284

EFL teachers' factors and students' affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students ' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence students ' affect, what the teachers should do to develop and make good

QIN Lei

2007-01-01

285

Automatic Affective Feedback in an Email Browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a new approach to recognizing and presenting the affect of text. The approach starts with a corpus of 400,000 responses to questions about everyday life in Open Mind Common Sense. This so-called commonsense knowledge is the basis of a textual affect sensing engine. The engine dynamically analyzes a user's text and senses broad affective qualities of the

Hugo Liu; Henry Lieberman; Ted Selker

2002-01-01

286

An Affect Control Theory of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

Shank, Daniel B.

2010-01-01

287

Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

2005-01-01

288

Affective and Psychiatric Disorders in Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraintestinal clinical manifestations have been reported in celiac disease (CD). Among them, growing evidence suggests the association between CD and affective and psychiatric disorders. In this review the most frequent affective and psychiatric disorders associated with CD and the possible mechanisms involved in these associations were analyzed. The available data suggest that screening for CD in patients with affective

Giovanni Addolorato; Lorenzo Leggio; Cristina D’Angelo; Antonio Mirijello; Anna Ferrulli; Silvia Cardone; Luisa Vonghia; Ludovico Abenavoli; Veruscka Leso; Antonio Nesci; Salvatore Piano; Esmeralda Capristo; Giovanni Gasbarrini

2008-01-01

289

4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 3055­3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

290

BRIEF REPORTS Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Affect  

E-print Network

have tested whether reappraisal can up- and down-regulate physiological correlates of negative affectBRIEF REPORTS Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Affect: Converging Evidence From EMG and Self generally focused on the down-regulation of negative affect, and have demonstrated either changes in self

Ochsner, Kevin

291

Diurnal variation in the Positive Affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the circadian rhythm of two basic dimensions of mood—Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). Subjects were 196 college students in two studies who completed a mood rating form approximately seven times a day for 1 week. Significant diurnal variation was found to exist in overall Positive Affect, and in four component content areas, but not in Negative

Lee Anna Clark; David Watson; Jay Leeka

1989-01-01

292

1989 Summary of New Legislation Affecting Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of major legislation enacted by the 1989 New York State Legislature affecting education and the professions is organized in eight sections: (1) laws affecting school districts generally; (2) state aid; (3) taxation and financial administration; (4) miscellaneous; (5) laws of local application; (6) higher education; (7) laws affecting

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Counsel.

293

Wave Types and Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first in a series of new marine meteorology modules based on COMETâs old laser disk and CD-ROM modules on marine meteorology. This module is an introduction to waves and their associated characteristics. Several types of waves are presented, from the common wind wave to the rare tsunami wave. The basic physical, mathematical, and statistical traits of waves are discussed, along with how they change once waves become swell. This material serves as a building block to subsequent modules on wave generation, propagation, and dispersion.

Comet

2003-07-31

294

LED and Transmitter Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic transmitters. Explore the components of a fiber optic transmitter, including a source, a modulator, an electrical driving circuit, and fiber coupling mechanics. Animations illustrate how the process of spontaneous emission converts electrical information to an optical signal in a light-emitting diode, or LED. In addition, learn about characteristics that make a source suitable for fiber optic communications.The video runs 3:12 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-05-30

295

Physical characteristics related to bra fit.  

PubMed

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

2010-04-01

296

Resist Outgassing Characteristics in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography requires a vacuum environment for exposure. The hydrocarbons outgassing ion species affect the reflectivity of the mask and the imaging mirror under EUV irradiation. Concerning the high-annealing-type chemically amplified (CA) resist based on the polyhydroxy styrene (PHS) resin, it is confirmed that propylene glycol monomethylether (PGME) which is employed as a solvent has the lowest outgassing characteristics under EUV irradiation. Mitigation of the hydrocarbons outgassing species and line edge roughness (LER) requires the main-chain-decomposition-type CA resist. From the outgassing measurement results, the methacrylate base resin can be employed in the resist process in EUV lithography.

Watanabe, Takeo; Hamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Hada, Hideo; Komano, Hiroshi

2004-06-01

297

Physics Classroom: Motion Characteristics for Circular Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guides the user through characteristics of circular motion. The same concepts and principles used to describe the motion of an object can also be used to describe and explain the motion of objects in circular pathways. This tutorial is broken into five sections addressing: the mechanics of circular motion, centripetal force, algebraic and trigonometric problems and solutions, and a full chapter that debunks the centrifugal "force" misconception. The interactive problems use diagrams and force vectors to help students visualize how vector components affect the way circular motion is characterized.

Henderson, Tom

2007-01-18

298

Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of borderline patients (and axis II comparison participants). Seventeen positive states (4 affective, 10 cognitive, and 3 mixed) were found to be significantly more common among axis II comparison participants than borderline patients. Twelve of these states were common to both borderline patients and axis II comparison participants. Furthermore, 4 positive states, when co-occurring together, were particularly strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (three negatively and one positively): (a) Fond of myself, (b) That things around me are real, (c) That I’ve forgiven others, and (d) Assertive. Finally, the overall mean score on the PAS significantly distinguished patients with borderline personality disorder from axis II comparison participants. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients are far less likely to report experiencing positive states of an affective, cognitive, and mixed nature than axis II comparison participants. They also suggest that being assertive is a positive state particularly discriminating for borderline personality disorder. PMID:22217230

Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C.

2011-01-01

299

Affective priming using a color-naming task: a test of an affective-motivational account of affective priming effects.  

PubMed

The affective priming effect, i.e. shorter response latencies for affectively congruent as compared to affectively incongruent prime-target pairs, is now a well-documented phenomenon. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific processes that underlie the affective priming effect. Several mechanisms have been put forward by different authors, but these theoretical accounts only apply to specific types of tasks (e.g. evaluation lexical decisions) or are rather unparsimonious. Hermans, De Houwer, and Eelen (1996) recently proposed a model of the affective priming effect that is based on the idea of the activation of corresponding or conflicting affective-motivational action tendencies. According to this model, affectively incongruent prime-target pairs should not only lead to relatively longer response latencies on tasks that concern the target word itself (target-specific tasks, e.g. evaluation pronunciation), but also on tasks that are unrelated to the actual identity of the specific target word. This hypothesis was tested in a series of four experiments in which participants had to name the color in which the target word was printed. In spite of procedural variations, results showed that the congruence between the valence of prime and target did not influence the color-naming times. The present results therefore provide no direct support for the affective-motivational account of the affective priming effect. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:9677860

Hermans, D; Van den Broeck, A; Eelen, P

1998-01-01

300

Characteristics of Business Owners Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released the results of the 1992 Characteristics of Business Owners Survey (CBO). These results provide data for comparing the "selected economic, demographic, and sociological characteristics" of business owners.

1997-01-01

301

Growth Characteristics of Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter a systems viewpoint is taken of the growth characteristics of normal and malignant tissue. We find that such growth is well analyzed by the concepts of Shannon and Fisher information. In Section 3.1 conventional mechanisms of information transmission via DNA, RNA, and proteins are identified, as well as unconventional structures such as lipids and ion gradients. Information storage, flow, and utilization are analyzed, both within cells and over a system of cells. In Section 3.2, malignant tissue growth is found to be accurately described by the use of Fisher information in particular. Cancer growth is seen to occur as a disease of information, in fact an information catastrophe due to the regression of cells to a minimally ordered state consistent with life. The analysis yields many predictions about the growth of healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, some of which are nonintuitive and have a strong bearing on cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Gatenby, Robert A.; Frieden, B. Roy

302

[Characteristics of aging skin].  

PubMed

The change in the population's age structure in most industrial countries, as in Germany, requires geriatric medicine to play an increasingly important role. Dermatology also has to meet the new challenges by expert discussion and ethical considerations. The physiological aging process is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and causes a variety of morphological and functional alterations in the skin. Those alterations are the cause for an increasing prevalence of many dermatoses. Infections, wound healing disorders, inflammatory diseases, tumors and associated paraneoplastic syndromes are of particular importance. The structural and functional characteristics of aging skin in combination with the reduced mobility and declining cognitive abilities in elder patients require specific recommendations for skin protection as well as qualified advice about topical and systemic use of medications. PMID:25231590

Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wohlrab, A

2014-10-01

303

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

DOEpatents

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19

304

Delrin material characteristics.  

PubMed

Delrin acetal resin, a product of DuPont, is formed from the polymerization of formaldehyde. The tightly interlocked helical molecules and high crystallinity result in excellent mechanical properties. Its superiority in tensile strength, stiffness, creep resistance, and fatigue classify it as an "engineering resin', a term used for plastics which can compete with metals in many applications. One of the important characteristics separating Delrin from other engineering plastics such as polyamides (nylons) is its very low water absorption and the small effect of aqueous solutions on its properties. The structure of Delrin is reviewed on several levels: chemical, crystallographic, lamellar, and spherulitic. The relationship of the structure to the properties of moldings of Delrin is discussed. PMID:8905519

Clark, E S

1996-08-01

305

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

306

Effect of mixing technique on surface characteristics of impression materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the disinfection process, wettability, and mass change of impression materials. Hand-mixed high viscosity impression materials usually result in a material with numerous voids, which contribute to surface roughness and affect the surface characteristics of the material.Purpose. This study evaluated the effect of mixing technique on advancing contact angle, receding contact

Xavier Lepe; Glen H. Johnson; John C. Berg; Tar C. Aw

1998-01-01

307

Characteristics of Calls to Israeli Hotlines During the Gulf War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study presents results of a survey of 3,215 calls received at seven centers of telephone emergency services (TES) in Israel during the Gulf War, when citizens of Israel experienced severe stress resulting from SCUD missile attacks. Whereas former surveys have shown that characteristics of calls to TES in Israel are generally not affected by external stressogenic events, a

Izhak Gilat; Thalma E. Lobel; Tsvie Gil

1998-01-01

308

Germination characteristics of Zannichellia palustris from New South Wales, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the germination characteristics of a population of Zannichellia palustris from the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Laboratory experiments indicate that germination of Z. palustris is affected by temperature, dormancy, stratification and salinity. Five trials, conducted at 30-day intervals, on stored seeds were undertaken. The pattern of germination differed between fresh seed and seed-bank seeds. Higher germination

M. E. Greenwood; P. J. DuBowy

2005-01-01

309

Demographic Characteristics and Population Dynamical Patterns of Solitary Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds and many other animals, there are large interspecific differences in the magnitude of annual variation in population size. Using time-series data on populations of solitary bird species, we found that fluctuations in population size of solitary birds were affected by the deterministic characteristics of the population dynamics as well as the stochastic factors. In species with highly variable

Bernt-Erik Sæther; Steinar Engen; Erik Matthysen

2002-01-01

310

Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles Laurent Pilon*  

E-print Network

Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles Laurent Pilon* Mechanical and Aerospace, ceramics, and glass, gas bubbles can form in liquid and solid phases. The presence of such bubbles affects media containing large gas bubbles (bubble radius is much larger than the wavelength of radiation

Pilon, Laurent

311

Effects of Personal Characteristics on Materiality Decisions: A Multivariate Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to contribute to improved audit efficiency and quality, an experiment was administered to 596 CPAs to study the potential effects on materiality judgments of auditors' personal characteristics. A multivariate analysis indicates that age and place of employment can affect materiality decisions, while years of external auditing experience, place of employment, frequency of materiality decisions, and gender may

Ralph Estes; D. D. Reames

1988-01-01

312

Filtering characteristics of thin, planar 3D printed element arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic arrays of metallic elements have been popular in printed antenna designs for the past two decades. For these applications the elements are individually excited and the array factor is the primary design consideration, affecting directly the radiation pattern characteristics of the array. Therefore, in these applications, the element lattice and excitation distribution is of primary importance, while the interelement

Harry Contopanagos; C. Kyriazidou; W. Merrill; Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos

1999-01-01

313

Shrinkage Characteristics and Porosity of Pears during Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high moisture content of pears (about 80%) results in a high degree of shrinkage when drying takes place, which strongly affects the fruit structure and quality. The aim of the present work was to study the shrinkage characteristics of pears during air drying by evaluating their dimensions and volume along the drying process and by predicting particle and bulk

R. P. F. Guiné; M. A. Ramos; M. Figueiredo

2006-01-01

314

Student Mathematics Achievement Test Scores, Dropout Rates, and Teacher Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between teacher quality and California high school student mathematics achievement, investigating student dropout rates in conjunction with faculty characteristics. Results suggest that poverty strongly affects student achievement. A direct relationship exists between teacher experience and preparation and student…

Fetler, Mark

2001-01-01

315

Persistence Characteristics of Stormwater BMPs  

E-print Network

Characteristics Temperature Conductivity pH Dissolved Oxygen Turbidity Nutrients Organic Carbon #12;6 What Are "Ambient", "Natural", or "Predevelopment" Characteristics? Water quantity Water quality #12;4 Water Quantity Characteristics Base flow Median flow Dominant discharge Variability Memory #12;5 Water Quality

316

Affect, cognition, and awareness: Affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective primacy hypothesis ( R. B. Zajonc, 1980 ) asserts that positive and negative affective reactions can be evoked with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing. The present work tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of affective and cognitive priming under extremely brief (suboptimal) and longer (optimal) exposure durations. At suboptimal exposures only affective primes produced

Sheila T. Murphy; R. B. Zajonc

1993-01-01

317

Interactions of Metacognition With Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The “metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning” (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task × Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like characteristics such as cognitive ability, metacognitive knowledge and skills, self-concept, perceptions of control,

Anastasia Efklides

2011-01-01

318

Association Between Positive Affect and Attentional Shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation tested the hypothesis that individuals low in positive affect are slower to shift attention from one focus to another. Ninety-six participants completed a self-report mood questionnaire and a standard attentional orienting task. Results indicated a significant correlation between cue validity effects and self-reported positive affect, such that individuals low in positive affect were relatively faster to respond to

Rebecca J. Compton; Derrick Wirtz; Golnaz Pajoumand; Eric Claus; Wendy Heller

2004-01-01

319

Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

2008-03-01

320

How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? KidsHealth > Parents > Emotions ... that spiritual people exhibit fewer self-destructive behaviors (suicide, smoking, and drug and alcohol abuse, ...

321

Recognizing Nonverbal Affective Behavior in Humanoid Robots  

E-print Network

the traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, and negative affective state from such short exposure as 5 dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. Traits are more or less

322

Acute lesions that impair affective empathy  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

2013-01-01

323

Acute lesions that impair affective empathy.  

PubMed

Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy--making inferences about how another person feels--engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

Leigh, Richard; Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E

2013-08-01

324

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The rediscovery of affect in achievement goal theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that determine and maintain performance?related behaviour. In recent years affect has

Gunnar Bjørnebekk

2008-01-01

325

The Impact of Negative Affect on Performance Standards: Evidence for an Affect-as-Information Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the influence of negative affect on self-regulatory cognition, including the mechanism by which negative affect may induce comparatively higher standards for performance. Both studies tested affect-as-information theory using a discounting manipulation. As predicted, induced negative affect generated comparatively higher minimal performance standards except under conditions in which the mood induction procedure was made highly salient. Negative affect

Walter D. Scott; Daniel Cervone

2002-01-01

326

A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance.  

PubMed

This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833

Baudouin, A; Hawkins, D

2002-12-01

327

Factors affecting the use and non use of contraception.  

PubMed

Data from the 1982 Jakarta Modular Survey were used to study the factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception. Specific study objectives were: to present some characteristics of contraceptors and noncontraceptors; to identify the major factors affecting contraceptive use; to determine the causal structure between the factors and contraceptive use; and to understand the relationship among these factors. The data collected were organized into 4 modules: socioeconomic and migration module; contraceptive prevalence and fertility module; mortality, morbidity, nutrition, and health practice module; and contraceptive continuation module. The first 3 modules were used for collecting information from all currently married women aged 15-49 years. The last module was used for collecting information from women who used some contraceptive method through the services of a family planning clinic during the 1977-82 period. Data on 2727 women were analyzed. Users and nonusers distributed differently depending on their characteristics. The characteristics selected included age, respondent's education, husband's education, working status of the respondent, age at 1st marriage, number of living children, and experience of abortion. These variables were considered to be associated with use and nonuse of contraceptives. Compared to the nonusers, the current users were slightly older in age more educated (and had husbands who were more educated), were older when 1st married, had more living children, and had more experience in abortion. Log-linear analysis was performed on 2 groups of women. Group I included all currently married women aged 15-49 years; Group II included only "high risk" women, i.e., currently married women aged 15-34 years, not pregnant, not in menopausal stage, and have had at least 1 live birth. Contraceptive use rates were lower in Group I than in Group II. Within both groups, the users rates differed significantly according to age, age at marriage, number of living children, education, and media exposure. There were no significant differences in contraceptive use rates according to experience of abortion and working status. The analysis on the selection of a model suggests that there were 4 independent major factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception: number of living children, frequency of exposure to mass media, level of education, and current age. There also was a relationship among the following factors: age with number of living children and with media exposure; number of living children with level of education; and education with media exposure and with age. Although the experience of abortion did not affect contraceptive use, it was strongly associated with age. Among these 4 factors, education had the strongest effects, followed consecutively by number of living children, current age, and media exposure. PMID:12280177

Utomo, B; Alimoeso, S; Park, C B

1983-12-01

328

Noise characteristics in IFOG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IFOG (Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope) is the most promising angular velocity sensor in the inertial guidance market due to its attractive advantages, which is often regarded as the next generation gyro that can ultimately replace the traditional mechanical gyroscope. In order to improve the performance of IFOG, especially to low down the bias drift and angle random walk (ARW) of IFOG, it is valuable to research the noise characteristics of IFOG. In this paper, the ultra low frequency random noise and the relatively high frequency random noise has been investigated respectively. The experimental data of a practical open loop IFOG is obtained by different sampling frequency, through which the different frequency scope of the noise can be researched separately. The frequency spectral analysis of the noise deduces the follow result: (1) the relative high frequency (higher than about 0.001 Hz) random noise can be approximately modeled as Gaussian white noise (GWN), and its spectral range is determined by the system bandwidth of IFOG. The angle random walk of IFOG is determined by this kind of noise. (2) The ultra low frequency (lower than about 0.001 Hz) random noise can not be Gaussian white noise, which is much more great than other noises, and with the rise of frequency, the power of the relevant frequency component is lower down sharply. The ultra low frequency noise is often regarded as the source of bias drift of IFOG.

Chang, Jianxin; Wang, Peng; Qin, BingKun; Chen, Shufen

2000-10-01

329

Arcjet load characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.

Hamley, John A.

1990-01-01

330

Wetting Characteristics of Immiscibles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early microgravity experiments with immiscible alloys were usually carried out with the intent of forming dispersed microstructures. By processing under microgravity conditions, the main mechanism leading to gross phase separation could be eliminated. However, analysis of flight samples revealed a separated structure where the minor phase was present along the outer surface, while the major phase was present in the center. The Wetting Characteristics of Immiscibles (WCI) project, which flew aboard the USMP-4 (United States Microgravity Payload) mission in November of 1997, was designed to gain insight into the mechanisms causing segregation of these alloys. This investigation utilized an immiscible transparent organic alloy system and a transparent container in order to facilitate direct observation of the separation process. A range of immiscible alloy compositions was utilized in order to obtain variations in the minor and major phases present and observe the influence on the segregation processes. A small composition range was found where the minor liquid phase perfectly wet the cell gasket. Unexplained observations were made at the extremes of the composition range.

Andrews, J. B.; Little, L. J.

1999-01-01

331

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01

332

Influence of the Asymmetry of Static Loads on the Vibration Characteristics of Planetary Gearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of planetary double-reduction gearing is used to study how the asymmetry of dynamical loads affects its vibration characteristics. Design methods for reducing the asymmetry of static loads are shown to be efficient

É. L. Airapetov; V. I. Aparkhov; I. A. Bednyi; M. Yu. Leont'ev

2003-01-01

333

LANDSCAPE MODELING OF CHARACTERISTIC HABITAT SCALES, DISPERSAL, AND CONNECTIVITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...

334

HOW OFFLINE GATHERINGS AFFECT ONLINE COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on past studies of virtual community by illuminating the effect of offline gatherings (‘meetups’) on physically dispersed virtual communities. Although research to date has examined the way in which online interaction affects offline community, the question of how offline interaction affects online community has largely been ignored. On the one hand, these offline gatherings may provide individual

Lauren F. Sessions

2010-01-01

335

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

336

Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

Baldwin, Alexinia

2009-01-01

337

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

338

Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

Boehman, Joseph

2007-01-01

339

A New Emphasis on Affective Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The affective training component of the counselor education program at the University of Houston is described in this report. The goals of the affective training program are to enable the student to improve his self-awareness through self-exploration and to improve the effectiveness of his professional and interpersonal behavior. Implicit in the…

Axford, Barbara E.; And Others

340

Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

Schneider, Mark

341

Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum's groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function,

Kent C. Berridge

342

Affect Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although difficulty with affect regulation is generally considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD), surprisingly little research has focused on the nature of affect regulation and dysregulation in BPD. A random national sample of 117 experienced clinicians provided data on a randomly selected patient with BPD (N 90) or dysthymic disorder (DD; N 27). Clinicians described their patients

Carolyn Zittel Conklin; Rebekah Bradley; Drew Westen

2006-01-01

343

Methodology for Engineering Affective Social Applications  

E-print Network

on the communication of affect between agents, we can develop a new class of applications that are both socialMethodology for Engineering Affective Social Applications Derek J. Sollenberger and Munindar P- tertainment and education. Yet, current techniques for building such applications are limited

344

Organisational trust, affective commitment and bureaucratic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the relationship between employee perceptions of organisational trust and their affective commitment. We also tested the extent to which the strength of this relation depended on the structural context. Data were provided by employees drawn from a variety of organisational settings. In addition to indicating their levels of organisational trust and affective commitment, study respondents

Ian R. Gellatly; Michael J. Withey

2012-01-01

345

The affective beneficence of vigorous exercise revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. High exercise intensity may be associated with reduced adherence to exercise programmes, possibly because it is perceived as aversive. However, several authors have suggested that an intensity as high as 60% or 70% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) is necessary for exercise to elicit positive affective changes. To elucidate this discrepancy, the affective responses to increasing levels of exercise

Eric E. Hall; Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Steven J. Petruzzello

2002-01-01

346

Subjectivist Psychology: An Affective-Constructivist Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes subjectivist psychology, discussing its use for guiding teaching and learning. Subjectivist psychology focuses on joint cognitive and affective experiences of learning. It describes the natural affective-cognitive enculturation processes that children experience in learning the skills, understandings, and values of their…

Bastick, Tony

347

Summary of New Legislation Affecting Education, 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes major legislation, enacted by the 1993 New York State Legislature, that affected education and its related professions. Eight sections offer brief descriptions of legislation enacted in the following areas: laws affecting school districts generally; cultural education; state aid; taxation and financial administration;…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

348

Affect and retrieval of personal memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of pleasantness and intensity of affect to retrieval of reallife experiences was investigated in three experiments. Subjects reported the first specific personal experience that came to mind for a series of prompt words. Latency of report was regarded as a measure of memory accessibility. The first study compared retrieval time for prompts that sampled affects varying in pleasantness

John A. Robinson

1980-01-01

349

Affective Priming of Nonaffective Semantic Categorization Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that robust affective priming effects can be obtained when participants are required to categorize the targets on the basis of their valence, but not when participants are asked to categorize the targets on the basis of nonaffective features. On the basis of this pattern of results, it has been argued that affective priming is due to

Adriaan Spruyt; Jan De Houwer; Dirk Hermans; Paul Eelen

2007-01-01

350

Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory  

PubMed Central

The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

2014-01-01

351

The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

2008-01-01

352

Does attention affect visual feature integration?  

PubMed

Two questions are investigated in this work: first, whether the integration of color and shape information is affected by attending to the stimulus location, and second, whether attending to a stimulus location enhances the perceptual representation of the stimulus or merely affects decision processes. In three experiments, subjects were briefly presented with colored letters. On most trials, subjects were precued to the stimulus location (valid cue); on some trials, a nonstimulus location was cued (invalid cue). Subjects were less likely to incorrectly combine colors and letter shapes following a valid cue. The attentional facilitation afforded by the cue was not limited to feature integration but also affected the registration of features. However, when the amount of feature information was strictly controlled, attention still affected feature integration. The results indicate that orienting attention to the location of the cue affects the quality of the perceptual representation for features and their integration. PMID:2943864

Prinzmetal, W; Presti, D E; Posner, M I

1986-08-01

353

Characteristics Data Base  

SciTech Connect

The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-08-01

354

Rural Housing Quality in the Ozark Region as Related to Characteristics of Housing Units and Occupants, 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of housing units and of their occupants in a 125-county area of the Ozarks were examined in this 1966 study set up to determine how selected physical characteristics of housing units affect the adequacy of rural housing in the Ozarks and to assess personal characteristics of the occupants that may influence the quality of housing…

Spurlock, Hughes H.

355

Lambert et al, 2007 (Aquaculture 270, 276-288) Hemocyte characteristics in families of oysters, Crassostrea gigas,  

E-print Network

Lambert et al, 2007 (Aquaculture 270, 276-288) Hemocyte characteristics in families of oysters. This supports the existence of a genetic basis, at least partly, for the hemocyte characteristics of oysters strongly affected the hemocyte characteristics of all families of oysters, most notably hemocyte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

2014-01-01

357

Affective priming of nonaffective semantic categorization responses.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that robust affective priming effects can be obtained when participants are required to categorize the targets on the basis of their valence, but not when participants are asked to categorize the targets on the basis of nonaffective features. On the basis of this pattern of results, it has been argued that affective priming is due to processes that operate at a response selection stage rather than to processes that operate at an encoding stage. We demonstrate (a) that affective priming of nonaffective semantic categorization responses can be obtained when participants assign attention to the affective stimulus dimension, and (b) that affective priming in the standard evaluative categorization task is strongly reduced when participants assign attention to nonaffective stimulus features. On the basis of these findings, we argue (a) that processes operating at an encoding stage do contribute to the affective priming effect, and (b) that automatic affective stimulus processing is reduced when participants selectively attend to nonaffective stimulus features. PMID:17341014

Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan; Hermans, Dirk; Eelen, Paul

2007-01-01

358

The power of influence: what affects public library staff's attitudes to the Internet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of public library staff, which affect attitudes to the Internet, are considered based on the results of a PhD study. Data generated from a survey of more than 900 public library staff in England, which included an amended version of the technology acceptance model in conjunction with management interviews, focus groups with staff and a bulletin board, was

Rachel Spacey; Anne Goulding; Ian Murray

2004-01-01

359

TQ4. Human Health and Urbanization How does urbanization affect the local, regional, and global  

E-print Network

, and emissivity for calculation of global urban surface energy balance characteristics. HyspIRI data-Questions · How do changes in land cover and land use affect surface energy balance and the sustainability: ·Satellite observations for measurement of surface temperature, energy balance, energy fluxes, emissivity

Christian, Eric

360

Treating Traumatized OEF\\/OIF Veterans: How Does Trauma Treatment Affect the Clinician?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this article describe the rewards and challenges for clinicians treating veterans who have served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Issues of vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout are defined and reviewed, as are compassion satisfaction and posttraumatic growth. Patient, clinician, and organizational characteristics that are likely to affect clinicians

Sarah C. Voss Horrell; Dana R. Holohan; Lea M. Didion; G. Todd Vance

2011-01-01

361

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep  

E-print Network

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep A environmental and genetic factors influencing udder characteristics and milk production in Chios sheep. All. Seasonal effects were significant for udder circumference, test-day milk and total milk production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Factors Affecting on Mechanical Properties of Soft Martensitic Stainless Steel Castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the factors affecting mechanical properties of soft martensitic stainless steel castings that have lower carbon contents and increased nickel contents of up to 6% compared with normal martensitic stainless steel castings. The effect of alloying elements and impurities on the microstructural features and tempering characteristics was considered in detail, with special reference to reverted austenite and temper

Yoshitaka Iwabuchi

2003-01-01

363

Factors affecting strategy commitment to community-oriented policing (COP) among South Korean police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Prior studies examining the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational behavior contain several limitations, such as mixed levels of measurement and lack of empirical study in different social contexts. Using Mowday, Porter, and Steers's approach, this study aims to investigate individual demographic, personal, departmental and community characteristics as factors affecting police officers' levels of strategy commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Chang-Hun Lee; Chang-Bae Lee

2011-01-01

364

Analysis of Factors Affecting the Human Behavior Safety in Metal Underground Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the fact that human behavior is determined by both miners' intrinsic characteristics and external environment, the factors that may affect human behavior safety in metal underground mining are analyzed. Based on the analysis, countermeasures such as choose eligible miners and optimize environment are proposed, consequently to minimize the adverse effect and maximize the efficiency of miners matching the requirements

Zhenhua Lv; Nailian Hu; Guoqing Li

2011-01-01

365

Water Removal in Bioretention Devices by Evapotranspiration Process and Related Issues Affecting Performance  

E-print Network

will be the There are many soil processes that affect stormwater bioretention facility performance. This poster examines (WinSLAMM). Data Needs and Example Soil and Plant Characteristics The following is a brief listing i) soil layer depths and root depths for the plants being used · Current soil moisture level

Clark, Shirley E.

366

Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted…

Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

2014-01-01

367

Factors Affecting Placement Failure: An Analysis Of Sacramento County Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of factors that affect failure probabilities for juvenile offenders sentenced to placement programs in Sacramento County, California. The application of regression analysis facilitates the examination of the relationship between placemen t failure and the theorized explanatory factors: criminal history, conduct and personality, family background, substance abuse, and personal characteristics. The identification of statistically significant factors

Catherine J. Burnette

368

How Does Social Background Affect the Grades and Grade Careers of Norwegian Economics Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines how social background characteristics affect the academic achievement and grade careers of Norwegian economics students. The analyses show that the parents' social class is of great importance for the offspring's grades. Students with parents who are academics perform better than their fellow students of working-class…

Helland, Havard

2007-01-01

369

An empirical analysis of factors affecting adolescent attachment in adoptive families with homosexual and straight parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected on 154 adoptive families with gay\\/lesbian and straight adoptive parents (154 parent respondents and 210 adolescent respondents). This study was principally interested in factors affecting adolescent attachment including parent sexual orientation, adolescent and parent life satisfaction, and parent level of relationship satisfaction with their adopted child as well as other key parent, child and adoption characteristics. The

Stephen Erich; Heather Kanenberg; Kim Case; Theresa Allen; Takis Bogdanos

2009-01-01

370

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

371

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

372

Exploring Nonresponse Bias in a Health Survey Using Neighborhood Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined potential nonresponse bias in a large-scale, population-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey in California and its association with the response rate. Methods. We used California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data and US Census data and linked the two data sets at the census tract level. We compared a broad range of neighborhood characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents to CHIS. We projected individual-level nonresponse bias using the neighborhood characteristics. Results. We found little to no substantial difference in neighborhood characteristics between respondents and nonrespondents. The response propensity of the CHIS sample was similarly distributed across these characteristics. The projected nonresponse bias appeared very small. Conclusions. The response rate in CHIS did not result in significant nonresponse bias and did not substantially affect the level of data representativeness, and it is not valid to focus on response rates alone in determining the quality of survey data. PMID:19696379

Brown, E. Richard; Grant, David; Belin, Thomas R.; Brick, J. Michael

2009-01-01

373

The structure of affective action representations: temporal binding of affective response codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that preparing an action with a specific affective connotation involves the binding\\u000a of this action to an affective code reflecting this connotation. This integration into an action plan should lead to a temporary\\u000a occupation of the affective code, which should impair the concurrent representation of affectively congruent events, such\\u000a as the planning of another action

Andreas B. Eder; Jochen Müsseler; Bernhard Hommel

374

Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Stress, and Social Support as Mediators of the Forgiveness-Health Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect,

Michelle Green; Nancy DeCourville

2012-01-01

375

Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Stress, and Social Support as Mediators of the Forgiveness-Health Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect,

Michelle Green; Nancy DeCourville

2011-01-01

376

Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect

Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

2009-01-01

377

Relationships Between Hostility, Affective Ratings of Pictures, and State Affects During Task-Induced Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relationship of hostility with (a) affective ratings of pictures and (b) state affects evoked by task-induced stress in 95 healthy men and women 22-37 years of age. Pictures were from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; P. J. Lang, M. M. Bradley, & B. N. Cuthbert, 1999). Stressors included a startle task, mental arithmetic task, and

Tarja Heponiemi; Niklas Ravaja; Marko Elovainio; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2007-01-01

378

Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect After a Classroom Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect were obtained immediately following the classroom test. It was

Gordon L. Flett; Kirk R. Blankstein; Paul L. Hewitt

2009-01-01

379

Context of Success, Affective Arousal, and Generosity: The Neglected Role of Negative Affect in Success Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary Boys' generosity toward peers following a success experience varied according to resulting positive and negative affects. Role of context of success relative to affective arousal and generosity were explored. Results indicated importance of considering the context of success and relevance of negative affects induced by a success…

Bryant, Brenda K.

1983-01-01

380

Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

1995-01-01

381

Ocean Carbon Cycle Affected by Drought  

NSF Publications Database

... near Hawaii have caused a decrease in the strength of the carbon dioxide sink, according to a study ... of ocean characteristics by connecting instrumented moorings to the ALOHA observatory and using ...

382

Environmental Factors Related to the Distribution, Abundance, and Life History Characteristics of Mountain Whitefish in Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni are a broadly distributed native salmonid in western North America, but comparatively little investigation has been made regarding their population characteristics. We surveyed 2,043 study sites to assess whether physiochemical stream conditions affected mountain whitefish distribution and abundance in southern Idaho, and at 20 of these sites life history characteristics were also estimated. A total of

Kevin A. Meyer; F. Steven Elle; James A. Lamansky Jr

2009-01-01

383

Characteristic study of ionospheric clutter in high-frequency over the horizon surface wave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of ionospheric clutter in high-frequency over the horizon surface wave radar may extremely affect the performance of radar system and degrade the capability of detecting target. The characteristic analysis of ionospheric clutter is the foundation of studying method to suppress ionospheric clutter. By using the MUSIC algorithm to analyze plentiful radar echoes data, directivity characteristic of several major

Jiang Wei; Deng Weibo; Shi Jialin

2009-01-01

384

Analysis of Ground Clutter Characteristics of Airborne Forward Looking Pulse Doppler Radar in High PRF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground clutter characteristics of airborne pulse Doppler radar affected by some factors such as antenna array orientation, pulse repetition frequency. This paper analyzed the ground clutter characteristic of airborne forward looking pulse Doppler radar in high PRF, pointed out some notable features of the clutter, presented the results of clutter simulation, thereby offering valuable reference for the ground clutter suppression

Zhang Chun-cheng; Ge Jian-jun; Luo jian; Sheng Jing-tai

2006-01-01

385

The Impact of Job Characteristics on Social and Human Service Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The work environment characteristics of job stress, job variety, job autonomy, and supervision are theorized to affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of social and human service workers. Most research to date has focused upon the impact of these variables on job satisfaction, with little attention being paid to organizational commitment. To determine the effects these characteristics have

Reva I. Allen; Eric G. Lambert; Sudershan Pasupuleti; Terry Cluse-Tolar; Lois A. Ventura

2004-01-01

386

Study on heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow in a fin bundle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow under frosting conditions. A slit fin bundle was used for the simulation of fins of a heat exchanger. The effects of the cooling block temperature, air humidity and air velocity on the frosting characteristics were experimentally investigated. The frosted mass was affected considerably by the cooling block

Dong-Hwi Kim; Shigeru Koyama; Ken Kuwahara; Jeong-Tae Kwon; Byung-Duck Park

2010-01-01

387

Water sorption characteristics of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

When restorative materials take up water, their dimensions and structural integrity may be affected. This study determined, using gravimetric measurements, the water sorption characteristics of four resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) immersed in either distilled water or artificial saliva. The dimensional changes on water storage were also determined. The RMGICs exhibited differing characteristics as they absorbed water. Percentage water uptake and

Widchaya Kanchanavasita; H. M. Anstice; Gavin J. Pearson

1997-01-01

388

Effects of Maternal Employment on Perceived Parental Sex-Role Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated young adults' (N=88) perceptions of their parents' sex role characteristics on the basis of maternal employment status. The object of the study was to assess whether an employed mother's nontraditional role affected perceptions of her sex-role characteristics and those of her husband. In addition, the study looked at the…

Chambliss, Catherine

389

Impact of Optical Instrument Transformer Characteristics on the Performance of Protective Relays and Power Quality Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the influence of optical instrument transformers (OIT) characteristics on the performance of protection and power quality metering intelligent electronic devices (IED). Lab research and experience from field application have shown that instrument transformer characteristics may affect the performance of relays, revenue metering systems and power quality meters. Recently, optical voltage and current instrument transformers have become readily

M. Kezunovic; L. Portillo; G. Karady; S. Kucuksari

2006-01-01

390

Effect of Air gap variation on characteristics of an Axial flux hysteresis motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial flux hysteresis motor (AFHM) such as other types of hysteresis motor is self-starting synchronous motor that use the hysteresis characteristics of magnetic materials. It is known that the magnetic characteristics of hysteresis motor could be easily affected by air gap and structure dimensions variation. Air gap length plays an important role in flux distribution in hysteresis ring that can

Mohammad Modarres; Abolfazl Vahedi; Mohammadreza Ghazanchaei

2010-01-01

391

The effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing sheep  

E-print Network

and 4 h after feeding. Serum total protein, glucose (Glu) and total cholesterol were very similar amongThe effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics and blood profiles in growing characteristics and blood profiles were measured. The AC in diets seemed to affect daily weight gain (DG) and FCR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis

Prapatsorn Tipparat; Surapol Natakankitkul; Pipop Chamnivikaipong; Sirot Chutiwat

393

Characteristics of a PVDF Membrane Hydrophone for Use in the Range 1-100 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrocr-The experimental determination of the frequency response, directionality, and electrical characteristics of membrane hydrophones are reported. These characteristics are interpreted in terms of theoretical models, based mainly on published values for the properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (pvdf). The frequency response was determined using both linear and nonlinear acoustic fields. The directionality is affected by the angular variation of piezoelectric sensitivity

DAVID R. BACON

1982-01-01

394

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:

Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs

1991-01-01

395

LEAF CUTICLE CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF ADJUVANTS ON CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Sida SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of plant leaf surface as well as adjuvants in the spray solution may affect the performance of post- emergence herbicides. This work had the objective of knowing the leaf surface morphologic characteristics of Sida rhombifolia L., Sida glaziovii K. Schum and Sida cordifolia L. and the behavior of herbicides in the presence of adjuvants. Electronic microscopy

LÚCIA HELENA DE BARROS; RICARDO VICTORIA FILHO

396

Continuities and Discontinuities in Cognitive and Social Characteristics From Age 2 to Age 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stability of child and mother characteristics and the predictability of children's cognitive competence and affective characteristics were investigated as part of a longitudinal study. At 2 years of age, 46 sets of male twins and their parents were observed in the home and were rated for attachment, independence, compliance and conscience on the…

Lytton, Hugh; Watts, Denise

397

Wind-tunnel procedure for determination of critical stability and control characteristics of airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.

Goett, Harry J; Jackson, Roy P; Belsley, Steven E

1944-01-01

398

Psychophysiological signals associated with affective states.  

PubMed

We present a preliminary quantitative study aimed at developing an optimal standard protocol for automatic classification of specific affective states as related to human- computer interactions. This goal is mainly achieved by comparing standard psychological test-reports to quantitative measures derived from simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of psychophysiological signals of interest, namely respiration, galvanic skin response, blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Forty-three healthy students were exposed to computer-mediated stimuli, while wearable non-invasive sensors were applied in order to collect the physiological data. The stimuli were designed to elicit three distinct affective states: relaxation, engagement and stress. In this work we report how our quantitative analysis has helped in redefining important aspects of the protocol, and we show preliminary findings related to the specific psychophysiological patterns correlating with the three target affective states. Results further suggest that some of the quantitative measures might be useful in characterizing specific affective states. PMID:21096828

Mauri, Maurizio; Magagnin, Valentina; Cipresso, Pietro; Mainardi, Luca; Brown, Emery N; Cerutti, Sergio; Villamira, Marco; Barbieri, Riccardo

2010-01-01

399

Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1989-12-01

400

Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality  

E-print Network

In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

1997-06-30

401

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2010-07-01

402

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2011-07-01

403

Recognizing Nonverbal Affective Behavior in Humanoid Robots  

E-print Network

the traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, and negative affective state from such short exposure as 5, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. Traits are more or less time-invariant, and specify

404

Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Young Women: Lifestyle-related factors that increase heart disease risk ...

405

An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Soltes, Glenn

2012-06-28

406

Beyond usability -- affect in web browsing  

E-print Network

feelings of pleasantness / unpleasantness, arousal, as well as motivational pleasantness / unpleasantness in web users. These elicited emotional responses, which mediate the effect of homepage aesthetic features, in turn affect web users' subsequent...

Deng, Liqiong

2009-06-02

407

Older Drivers: How Health Affects Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... affect your driving, especially in challenging situations like merging or changing lanes. Age-related changes that may ... by all of the signs, signals, pedestrians, and vehicles at intersections. Older adults may also have trouble ...

408

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

409

Affect regulation, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Numerous investigators have examined the role of negative affective states and affect regulation in the initiation and development of cigarette smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and relapse prevention. Affect regulation refers to any attempt to alleviate negative mood states by means of pharmacologic-, cognitive-, behavioral- or environmental-change methods. The psychological construct/process of affect regulation is examined in relation to (1) the initiation, development, and maintenance of the cigarette smoking habit; (2) the process of quitting smoking; and (3) the long-term maintenance of smoking abstinence versus relapse. Various psychosocial factors and physiological mechanisms are explored that have been hypothesized to be links between negative mood states, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation. Implications for smoking cessation treatment are discussed in the areas of (1) the use of pharmacologic agents, such as clonidine, in the reduction of nicotine withdrawal symptoms; (2) nicotine replacement therapy; and (3) skills-training approaches to smoking cessation and relapse prevention. PMID:2681631

Carmody, T P

1989-01-01

410

Affect regulation, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Numerous investigators have examined the role of negative affective states and affect regulation in the initiation and development of cigarette smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and relapse prevention. Affect regulation refers to any attempt to alleviate negative mood states by means of pharmacologic-, cognitive-, behavioral- or environmental-change methods. The psychological construct/process of affect regulation is examined in relation to (1) the initiation, development, and maintenance of the cigarette smoking habit; (2) the process of quitting smoking; and (3) the long-term maintenance of smoking abstinence versus relapse. Various psychosocial factors and physiological mechanisms are explored that have been hypothesized to be links between negative mood states, nicotine addiction, and smoking cessation. Implications for smoking cessation treatment are discussed in the areas of (1) the use of pharmacologic agents, such as clonidine, in the reduction of nicotine withdrawal symptoms; (2) nicotine replacement therapy; and (3) skills-training approaches to smoking cessation and relapse prevention. PMID:1506996

Carmody, T P

1992-01-01

411

Emotionally charged earcons reveal affective congruency effects.  

PubMed

In the present study, the affective impact of earcons on stimulus classification is investigated. We show, using a picture-categorization task, that the affective connotation of earcons in major and minor mode (representing positive and negative valence, respectively) can be congruent or incongruent with response valence. Twenty participants classified pictures of animals and instruments in 256 trials, using positive and negative Yes or No responses. Together with the pictures, either a chord in major mode or minor mode was played. The affective valence of the chords either did or did not match the valence of responses. Response-time latencies show congruency effects of the matching and non matching sound and response valences, indicating that it is important to carefully investigate human-computer interfaces for potential affective congruency effects, as these can either facilitate or inhibit user performance. PMID:18033613

Lemmens, P M C; De Haan, A; Van Galen, G P; Meulenbroek, R G J

2007-12-01

412

Cardiovascular and affective recovery from anticipatory threat  

PubMed Central

Anticipating a stressor elicits robust cardiovascular and affective responses. Despite the possibility that recovery from these responses may have implications for physical and mental well-being, little research has examined this issue. In this study, participants either gave a public speech or anticipated giving a speech. Compared with speech-givers, participants who anticipated giving a speech, on average, exhibited similar cardiovascular recovery (decreased heart rate [HR] and increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]), and reported lower negative affect during recovery. Only in the anticipation condition, however, were cardiovascular recovery and affective recovery associated: poor affective recovery predicted incomplete HR recovery and decreased RSA. These are the first data to compare explicitly recovery from anticipation of a stressor with recovery from the stressor itself. These findings suggest that failing to recover from anticipation has unique physiological costs that, in turn, may contribute to mental and physical illness. PMID:20096747

Waugh, Christian E.; Panage, Sommer; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Gotlib, Ian H.

2010-01-01

413

Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace.  

PubMed

The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its definition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers' feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and challenges remain. PMID:11752487

Brief, Arthur P; Weiss, Howard M

2002-01-01

414

Factors affecting mother-child play  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...: Psychology FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content bg: T' othy A. Cavell...

Welch, Jennifer Colleen

2012-06-07

415

Affective Computing Model Based on Emotional Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the basic emotions theory, the paper presents personality,mood, and emotion space. The mapping relationship among\\u000a personality , mood and emotion is built. The equations for updating the affective and mood states are induced and a generic\\u000a computing model for personality ,mood and emotion simulation for virtual human is constructed. The simulation results demonstrate\\u000a that the affective model can

Yang Guoliang; Wang Zhiliang; Wang Guojiang; Chen Fengjun

2006-01-01

416

Surface characteristics of lead ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under cold conditions, ice growth in a lead occurs rapidly, giving young sea ice a high bulk salinity. The surface characteristics of this ice type are dominated by a thin, highly saline surface skim and often by the formation of frost flowers. These surface characteristics are of particular interest because of their significant temporal variability and large impact on the

Donald K. Perovich; Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge

1994-01-01

417

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics  

E-print Network

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics in Virtual Environments Deliverable to Office of Naval This document can be found at http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/jgabbard/ve/taxonomy/ #12;#12;A Taxonomy of Usability accomplished, yielding a comprehensive multi-dimensional taxonomy of usability characteristics specifically

Gabbard, Joseph L.

418

Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

2008-01-01

419

Voltage/temperature charge characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of nickel cadmium batteries were tested to determine the effects of boltages and various temperatures on the charge discharge ratios and the recharge percentage. It was concluded that the selection of a proper temperature should consider the satellite orbit characteristics, the cell operating characteristics, the battery operating temperature range, and the final taper charge current.

Betz, F. E.

1978-01-01

420

The Valuation of Forest Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most work on valuing the recreational benefits of public forests has concentrated on arriving at consumers surplus per visit figures, using either the travel cost method, or contingent valuation. We use both methods to try and explain the variation in consumers surplus across different forest types, by placing values on the physical characteristics of individual forests. These characteristics are also

Nick Hanley; Robin Ruffell

1992-01-01

421

Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

1981-01-01

422

Measurement of perceived task characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews studies examining 6 psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency and reliability, convergent validity, and substantive validity) of 2 frequently used measures of perceived task characteristics––the Job Diagnostic Survey and the Job Characteristic Inventory. The evidence provides some support for the theoretical assumptions on which the scales are based, but it suggests serious difficulties as well. Alternative approaches to measurement of

Ramon J. Aldag; Steve H. Barr

1981-01-01

423

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for

Wim Labree; Henk Nijman; Hjalmar van Marle; Eric Rassin

2010-01-01

424

CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BACKWATER AREAS Manne Bio and Wildlife, John S. Gottschalk, Direct or CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER B 16 Ifercentage composition 16 Weight per acre 16 Comparison with other waters 20 Mississippi River

425

14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section...Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics during taxiing,...

2010-01-01

426

14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section...Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics during taxiing,...

2010-01-01

427

40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicity characteristic. 261.24 Section...Characteristics of Hazardous Waste § 261.24 Toxicity characteristic. (a) A solid waste...waste) exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity...

2010-07-01

428

Venous leg ulcer pain and its characteristics.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence, severity and characteristics of pain associated with venous leg ulceration. Sixty-five patients suffering with venous leg ulceration were randomised to one of three treatment groups over a 12-week treatment period. All patients received short-stretch compression bandaging. Data were collected by use of a visual analogue scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Seventy per cent of patients reported pain on entry to the study and within 2 weeks of effective treatment initial pain was dramatically reduced. Patients typically described their pain as throbbing, sharp, itchy, sore and tender. The affective nature of pain was often described as tiring and patients evaluated their pain as being annoying and nagging. This study highlights the importance of pain associated with venous leg ulceration. PMID:12476504

Charles, Hildegard

2002-10-01

429

Characteristics of megavoltage cone-beam digital tomosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the image characteristics of megavoltage cone-beam digital tomosynthesis (MVCB DT). MVCB DT is an in-room imaging technique, which enables the reconstruction of several two-dimensional slices from a set of projection images acquired over an arc of 20 deg. - 40 deg. The limited angular range reduces the acquisition time and the dose delivered to the patient, but affects the image quality of the reconstructed tomograms. Image characteristics (slice thickness, shape distortion, and contrast-to-noise ratio) are studied as a function of the angular range. Potential clinical applications include patient setup and the development of breath holding techniques for gated imaging.

Descovich, M.; Morin, O.; Aubry, J. F.; Aubin, M.; Chen, J.; Bani-Hashemi, A; Pouliot, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0226 (United States); Siemens Oncology Care Systems, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2008-04-15

430

Factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n = 107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n = 112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant. PMID:21073036

Bhagat, Vijay Manohar; Gattani, Prakash Laxminarayan

2010-09-01

431

Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview  

SciTech Connect

In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

Not Available

1990-01-01

432

Fat-tailed sheep traits as affected by docking.  

PubMed

The literature mostly indicates that docking fat-tailed lambs initially reduces growth but that post-weaning growth and feed conversion efficiency then increase. The amount of fat deposited, the total separable lean meat to fat ratio and the meat quality all increase, while the percentage of bone in the carcase either decreases or does not change in the carcases of the docked lambs. Wool growth and characteristics are, in general, not affected and reproductive traits in ewes and lambs are improved by docking. The rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate are decreased following docking. The concentrations of immunoreactive beta-endorphin and cortisol in the plasma and the incidence of foot stamping and restlessness, as indicators of stress, increase after docking. Other constituents of the blood are not significantly altered following docking or by the methods of docking. Docking of fat-tailed sheep using rubber rings at one day of age can be recommended. PMID:14509541

Marai, I F M; Bahgat, L B

2003-08-01

433

Behavioral genetics of affective and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

As shown by clinical genetic studies, affective and anxiety disorders are complex genetic disorders with genetic and environmental factors interactively determining their respective pathomechanism. Advances in molecular genetic techniques including linkage studies, association studies, and genome-wide association studies allow for the detailed dissection of the genetic influence on the development of these disorders. Besides the molecular genetic investigation of categorical entities according to standardized diagnostic criteria, intermediate phenotypes comprising neurobiological or neuropsychological traits (e.g., neuronal correlates of emotional processing) that are linked to the disease of interest and that are heritable, have been proposed to be closer to the underlying genotype than the overall disease phenotype. These intermediate phenotypes are dimensional and more precisely defined than the categorical disease phenotype, and therefore have attracted much interest in the genetic investigation of affective and anxiety disorders. Given the complex genetic nature of affective and anxiety disorders with an interaction of multiple risk genes and environmental influences, the interplay of genetic factors with environmental factors is investigated by means of gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies. Pharmacogenetic studies aid in the dissection of the genetically influenced heterogeneity of psychotropic drug response and may contribute to the development of a more individualized treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. Finally, there is some evidence for genetic factors potentially shared between affective and anxiety disorders pointing to a possible overlapping phenotype between anxiety disorders and depression. PMID:22307738

Domschke, Katharina; Reif, Andreas

2012-01-01

434

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

435

Habitat availability and animal community characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

1984-12-01

436

Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment.  

PubMed

According to the revised 2nd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, primary headaches can be categorized as chronic or episodic; chronic migraine is defined as headaches in the absence of medication overuse, occurring on ?15 days per month for ?3 months, of which headaches on ?8 days must fulfill the criteria for migraine without aura. Prevalence and incidence data for chronic migraine are still uncertain, owing to the heterogeneous definitions used to identify the condition in population-based studies over the past two decades. Chronic migraine is severely disabling and difficult to manage, as affected patients experience substantially more-frequent headaches, comorbid pain and affective disorders, and fewer pain-free intervals, than do those with episodic migraine. Data on the treatment of chronic migraine are scarce because most migraine-prevention trials excluded patients who had headaches for ?15 days per month. Despite this lack of reliable data, a wealth of expert opinion and a few evidence-based treatment options are available for managing chronic migraine. Trial data are available for topiramate and botulinum toxin type A, and expert opinion suggests that conventional preventive therapy for episodic migraine may also be useful. This Review discusses the evolution of our understanding of chronic migraine, including its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and treatment options. PMID:22331030

Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J; Lipton, Richard B; Olesen, Jes; Silberstein, Stephen D

2011-01-01

437

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

Bjornebekk, Gunnar

2008-01-01

438

Affecting speed and accuracy in perception.  

PubMed

An account of affective modulations in perceptual speed and accuracy (ASAP: Affecting Speed and Accuracy in Perception) is proposed and tested. This account assumes an emotion-induced inhibitory interaction between parallel channels in the visual system that modulates the onset latencies and response durations of visual signals. By trading off speed and accuracy between channels, this mechanism achieves (a) fast visuo-motor responding to course-grained information, and (b) accurate visuo-attentional selection of fine-grained information. ASAP gives a functional account of previously counterintuitive findings, and may be useful for explaining affective influences in both featural-level single-stimulus tasks and object-level multistimulus tasks. PMID:24853268

Bocanegra, Bruno R

2014-12-01

439

Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  

PubMed

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-02-01

440

EEG-based workload estimation across affective contexts  

PubMed Central

Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG) offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human–computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood), has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful) while the participant solved a task with two workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain–computer interfaces in general. PMID:24971046

Muhl, Christian; Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien

2014-01-01

441

Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

2011-01-01

442

Root-zone glyphosate exposure adversely affects two ditch species.  

PubMed

Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

Saunders, Lyndsay E; Koontz, Melissa B; Pezeshki, Reza

2013-01-01

443

Theories of Willpower Affect Sustained Learning  

PubMed Central

Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower–whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource–impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people’s ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time. PMID:22745675

Miller, Eric M.; Walton, Gregory M.; Dweck, Carol S.; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; McClure, Samuel M.

2012-01-01

444

On the affective force of "nasty love".  

PubMed

Tackling the mimetic logic of sex-gender that limits the transsexual subject's sexuality into seeming a poor representation, the author argues that trans pornography and autoethnographic accounts from trans scholars emphasize the affective dimension of trans sex, a material remainder absent from mimetic theories of sexuality. Developing concepts from Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, in tandem with Morty Diamond's film Trans Entities: The Nasty Love of Papí and Wil (2007) and a selection of trans theorists, this article elaborates on the horizon of affective potential opened by transgender, brown, kinky, and pornographic "nastiness." The event of "nasty love" solicits a differential becoming, growing the edge of self. PMID:24294885

Steinbock, Eliza

2014-01-01

445

Characteristics of in Higher Education  

E-print Network

Characteristics of EXCELLENCE in Higher Education Requirements of Affiliation and Standards Education #12;Published by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education 3624 Market Street Philadelphia States Commission on Higher Education Twelfth edition All rights reserved. Previous editions of Standards

Aronov, Boris

446

Original article Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics,  

E-print Network

Original article Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, performance and survival of freshly was eval- uated in situ using determinations of chlorophyll fluorescence and plant water status. Pre growth potential (RGP), root electrolyte leakage (REL), shoot water content and chlorophyll fluorescence

Boyer, Edmond

447

Affects Separable and Inseparable: On the Hierarchical Arrangement of the Negative Affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watson and Tellegen (1985) proposed a hierarchical model of self-rated affect in which 2 broad, general dimensions—Negative Affect and Positive Affect—are each composed of several correlated yet ultimately distinguishable emotions. As a partial test of this model, we conducted 4 studies examining relations among measures of fear, sadness, hostility, and guilt through a series of multitrait–multimethod matrixes. Consistent with a

David Watson; Lee Anna Clark

1992-01-01

448

Negative Affectivity and Drinking in Adolescents: An Examination of Moderators Predicted by Affect Regulation Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined potential moderators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and drinking. Specifically\\u000a tested was the degree to which alcohol expectancies and coping styles moderate the relation between negative affectivity in\\u000a early adolescence and drinking in middle and late adolescence. Four hundred ninety nine early adolescents completed inventories\\u000a of negative affectivity, coping style, and tension reduction expectancies, and

Gavin D. Shoal; Lauren C. Gudonis; Peter R. Giancola; Ralph E. Tarter

2008-01-01

449

Energy characteristics of an explosively driven plasma compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Two basic parameters affect the energy characteristics of an explosively driven plasma compressor: the fill density and the\\u000a ratio of the mass of explosive to the plate mass. Despite the increase in plasma energy, as the filling density in the compression\\u000a chamber is increased, the specific energy of the plasma decreases due to the arrival of impurities from the chamber

V. I. Kirko

1979-01-01

450

The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin-layer drying characteristics of garlic slices (2–4 mm) were investigated for a temperature range 50–90 °C, a relative humidity range 8–24%, and an airflow range 0.5–1 m\\/s. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that temperature and slice thickness significantly affected the drying rate while relative humidity and airflow rate were insignificant factors during drying. Effective diffusivity of water varied

Ponciano S. Madamba; Robert H. Driscoll; Ken A. Buckle

1996-01-01

451

Oxidation characteristics of molybdenum-zirconium oxide cermets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxidation of molybdenum is affected by the factors of temperature, the oxygen pressure in the oxidizing atmosphere, and the time of exposure. Studies of the oxidation characteristics of Mo show that the oxidation rate increases strongly when the temperature exceeds 600 C. Investigations of the behavior of cermets with various percentages of zirconium oxide are discussed, taking into account oxidation conditions at temperatures under and above the melting point of molybdenum trioxide.

Heitzinger, B.

1984-01-01

452

Does street network design affect traffic safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the effect of street and street network characteristics on total crashes, severe injury crashes, and fatal crashes. Data from over 230,000 crashes taking place over 11 years in 24 California cities was analyzed at the U.S. Census Block Group level of geography. In our analysis we controlled for variables such as vehicle

Wesley Earl Marshall; Norman W. Garrick

2011-01-01

453

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability prediction methods are based solely on equipment failures, neglecting the human component of man-machine systems (MMS). These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes (i.e., MMS) are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The

Don O. Koval; H. Landis Floyd

1998-01-01

454

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability predictive methods are based solely on equipment failures neglecting the human component of man-machine systems. These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The consequences of human

D. O. Koval

1997-01-01

455

Body, Image and Affect in Consumer Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the relationship between body, image and affect within consumer culture. Body image is generally understood as a mental image of the body as it appears to others. It is often assumed in consumer culture that people attend to their body image in an instrumental manner, as status and social acceptability depend on how a person

Mike Featherstone

2010-01-01

456

How Does Bankruptcy Risk Affect Stock Values?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in corporate restructuring argues that the risk of bankruptcy reduces firm value by the present value of both the direct and indirect costs of bankruptcy. Additionally, the potential for bankruptcy affects both the investment horizon of investors and the discount rate implicit in equity values. This paper empirically examines the effect of cross-sectional differences in the probability of bankruptcy

John D. Neill; Glenn M. Pfeiffer

2005-01-01

457

FACTORS AFFECTING AURAL DETECTIONS OF SONGBIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts

Mathew W. Alldredge; Theodore R. Simons; Kenneth H. Pollock

2007-01-01

458

Criminal behavior in males with affective disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of criminal behavior in a population of 261 male inpatients with affective disorders was studied. The patients were divided into 3 RDC subgroups and compared with the same number of matched subjects drawn from the general population. The full account of conviction records in the criminal register was used as a measure of criminal behavior. Altogether, 42% of patients

Jiri Modestin; Andreas Hug; Roland Ammann

1997-01-01

459

How Becoming Parents Can Affect Your Relationship  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents > School & Family Life > Family Life > How Becoming Parents Can Affect Your Relationship Print A A A Text Size What's in ... you can give your child is a good relationship with each other. Tips for New Parents As you enter this new stage of life ...

460

Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

2011-01-01

461

Forest landscapes: Affective Embodiment, Identity and Materiality  

E-print Network

is being termed an "affective turn" in the social sciences. This turn ·demands a very different set ·draws upon (and demands) a very different set of intellectual (philosophical) backgrounds ·and demands an adjusted set of research methods and ideas of how meaningful knowledge can be generated I

462

Affect, Citizenship, Politics: Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the role of emotions in the constitution of political identity and boundary formation, and discusses the educational implications of that analysis in the context of citizenship education. The author begins by examining how affect is fundamental to the formation of borders, nationhood and citizenship, and discusses the role of…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2009-01-01

463

Factors affecting persistence of Deaf college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of attrition after the first year of college was conducted with the 1984 entry class of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. A path-analytic model of 9 factors affecting student persistence was tested using LISREL (N = 233). The results indicate that social integration is an important factor in college persistence. Grade point average is not a

Michael S. Stinson; Marcia J. Scherer; Gerard G. Walter

1987-01-01

464

Teaching Children Affected by Substance Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents and describes six effective teaching strategies for use with children affected by substance abuse before birth. This introduction provides information on the scope of the problem and the educational implications. It is noted that even without intervention when the child is still very young, teachers can improve the educational…

Grollman, Sharon; Brady, Joanne P.

465

Toward a Minimal Representation of Affective Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for analysis of affective behavior starting with a reduced amount of visual information related to human upper-body movements. The main goal is to individuate a minimal representation of emotional displays based on nonverbal gesture features. The GEMEP (Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals) corpus was used to validate this framework. Twelve emotions expressed by 10 actors form

Donald Glowinski; Nele Dael; Antonio Camurri; Gualtiero Volpe; Marcello Mortillaro; Klaus Scherer

2011-01-01

466

Affect, artificial intelligence, and internal space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is Artificial Intelligence (AI) affectless? This essay explores a small fragment from the early history of AI when questions about affect became pressing. It focuses on biographical and intellectual data about Walter Pitts, one of the important early practitioners of cybernetics. The essay addresses two interlocking difficulties in early AI: (1) it points to the harm caused to a science

Elizabeth A. Wilson

2008-01-01

467

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

468

Applied Stress Affecting the Environmentally Assisted Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is affected by the mode of applied stress, i.e., tension, compression, or torsion. The cracking is measured in terms of initiation time to nucleate a crack or time to failure. In a simple uniaxial loading under tension or compression, it is observed that the initiation time can vary in orders of magnitude depending on the alloy and the environment. Fracture can be intergranular or transgranular or mixed mode. Factors that affect SCC are solubility of the metal into surrounding chemical solution, and diffusion rate (like hydrogen into a tensile region) of an aggressive element into the metal and liquid metallic elements in the grain boundaries. Strain hardening exponent that affects the local internal stresses and their gradients can affect the diffusion kinetics. We examine two environments (Ga and 3.5 pct NaCl) for the same alloy 7075-T651, under constant uniaxial tension and compression load. These two cases provide us application to two different governing mechanisms namely liquid metal embrittlement (7075-Ga) and hydrogen-assisted cracking (7075-NaCl). We note that, in spite of the differences in their mechanisms, both systems show similar behavior in the applied K vs crack initiation time plots. One common theme among them is the transport mechanism of a solute element to a tensile-stress region to initiate fracture.

Vasudevan, A. K.

2013-03-01

469

Conference on Affect and Flashbulb Memories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conference was held on February 2-3, 1990, in Atlanta on the Emory campus on the topic of Affect and Flashbulb Memories. Fourteen speakers presented their research or discussed research presented by other conferees. The primary focus was on flashbulb me...

E. Winograd, U. Neisser

1990-01-01

470

The genetics of affective disorder and suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicidal behaviour shows evidence of familial clustering and the twin data on completed suicide suggest moderate heritability. The extent to which the genetics of suicidal behaviour overlaps with the genetics of affective disorders is unclear but there is overwhelming evidence that both bipolar and unipolar disorder are substantially influenced by genes. So far, candidate gene studies of suicidality have provoked

P. McGuffin; N. Perroud; R. Uher; A. Butler; K. J. Aitchison; I. Craig; C. Lewis; A. Farmer

2010-01-01

471

Social Desirability And Bipolar Affective Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the bipolar (manic-depressive) and the unipolar (depression without mania) subtypes of primary affective disorders, this study determines whether the conforming attitudes of bipolar subjects are related to depression as possible coping mechanisms. The findings explain the less self-reported depression and psychopathology in the bipolar…

Donnelly, Howard F.; Murphy, Dennis L.

1973-01-01

472

Affect Listeners -From dyads to group interactions  

E-print Network

of individuals and groups as part of their decision mechanism. 1 Introduction The project CyberEmotions2 deals- sion. To date, Affect Listeners were applied in a range of experiments in dyadic settings which served: psychological studies and experiments on perception and generation of emotionally charged online content [11

473

Factors affecting nurses' perceptions of patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nurses heavily influence patient care quality and safety. This paper aims to examine socioeconomic and organizational\\/system factors affecting patient safety and quality perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was constructed to gather demographic, managerial support, information technology implementation and integration information. Data were collected from nurses in five Riyadh hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Registered nurses working in hospital departments participated

Ari Mwachofi; Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar

2011-01-01

474

Situational factors affecting Preschoolers' responses to advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of advertising directed at preschool children was investigated. An experimental design, crossing program\\u000a type, social condition of viewing, and frequency of exposure to commercials was utilized. Results indicate the possibility\\u000a that young children's preferences are only affected under special circumstances.

T. K. Clarke

1984-01-01