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Sample records for characteristics affecting demethylation-induced

  1. Regional characteristics affecting Greek migration.

    PubMed

    Unger, K

    1981-01-01

    An alternative analysis of Greek migration and regional characteristics using the same methodology employed by Tziafetas in a previous study is presented. Different variables and sources of data are used. (summary in FRE) PMID:12265186

  2. How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farek, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Cesk Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

  3. Motivation and Learner Characteristics Affecting Online Learning and Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to verify the effect of learner characteristics and motivation in traditional classrooms, but very few are found in online learning research. This study sought to identify what learner characteristics and motivation types affected a group of undergraduate students' learning and application of learning for a course…

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

  5. Affective Characteristics that Predict Preschool Achievement in Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Reports a study of 208 migrant children, three to four years of age and mostly Black, assessing school achievement and seven affective characteristics, i.e., delay of gratification, relationship with achievement model, dependency, motor inhibition, self-control, self-concept, and risk-taking. Suggests that findings of sex differences for

  6. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  7. Personal Characteristics of Teachers that Affect Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald B.; Peck, Robert F.

    The hypothesis that teacher personality characteristics affect student achievement is examined. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the relationship of teachers' selfdescriptions to their students' changes over a school year. Two types of teacher measurement were obtained: observations of behavior and self reports. All student

  8. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly. PMID:25592917

  9. Characteristics affecting survival after locally advanced colorectal cancer in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Perron, L.; Daigle, J.M.; Vandal, N.; Guertin, M.H.; Brisson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We estimated the relations of sociodemographic, organizational, disease, and treatment variables with the risk of death from colorectal cancer (crc) in a Quebec population-based sample of patients with locally advanced crc (lacrc) who underwent tumour resection with curative intent. Methods Information from medical records and administrative databases was obtained for a random sample of 633 patients surgically treated for stages iiiii rectal and stage iii colon cancer and declared to the Quebec cancer registry in 1998 and 2003. We measured personal, disease, and clinical management characteristics, relative survival, and through multivariate modelling, relative excess rate (rer) of death. Results The relative 5- and 10-year survivals in this cohort were 67.7% [95% confidence interval (ci): 65.8% to 69.6%] and 61.2% (95% ci: 58.3% to 64.0%) respectively. Stage T4, stage N2, and emergency rather than elective surgery affected 18%, 24% and 10% of patients respectively. Those disease progression characteristics each independently increased the rer of death by factors of 2 to almost 5. Grade, vascular invasion, and tumour location were also significantly associated with the rer for death. Receiving guideline-adherent treatment was associated with a 60% reduction in the rer for death (0.41; 95% ci: 0.28 to 0.61), an effect that was consistent across age groups. Clear margins (proximaldistal, radial) and clinical trial enrolment were each associated with a nonsignificant 50% reduction in the rer. Of patients less than 70 years of age and 70 years of age and older, 81.3% and 42.0% respectively received guideline-adherent treatment. Conclusions This study is the first Quebec population-based examination of patients with lacrc and their management, outcomes, and outcome determinants. The results can help in planning crc control strategies at a population level. PMID:26715887

  10. [Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

  11. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  12. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS

  13. Do Investigator Characteristics Affect Dietary Reports of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussow, Joan Dye; And Others

    1982-01-01

    High school students' (N=500) and elementary school students' (N=30) dietary reports did not appear to be affected by the apparent attitude toward good food habits of the persons asking for the information. It appeared that the subjects, to the best of their ability, were telling the truth to the investigators in the two studies reported.

  14. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group

  15. [Characteristic of affective disorders of the first week of puerperium].

    PubMed

    ?ukasik, Adrian; B?aszczyk, Krzysztof; Wojcieszyn, Micha?; Belowska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Prospective studies ware carried in 200 lying-ins. To diagnose affective disorders medical interview and anonymous questionnaire BDI and EPDS were used. During interview 31% showed baby-blues. Signs of postpartum depression occurred in 18.5% women. No case of psychosis as well as critical incident of stress debriefing were stated. Recapitulating postpartum affective disorders occurred in 49.5% of examined group. Among negative psycho-socioeconomic factors pathological course of pregnancy in 14%, incorrect relationship with parents in 9%, low material status in 7%, unemployment in 32% and unwanted pregnancy in 3% of women were observed. Affective disorders in lying-ins women with postpartum depression are correlated with occurring of least 3 of above-mentioned factors. Baby-blues was found in 31%, while signs of depression were found in 17-20% of women during first week of puerperium. Existence of at least 3 negative psycho-socioeconomic factors during pregnancy or labour correlates with appearance of postpartum depression. PMID:14669417

  16. The Colonoscopist's Expertise Affects the Characteristics of Detected Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Kyoung; Kim, Tae Oh; Kang, Mi Seon; Kim, Mo Se; Kim, Min Sik; Moon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The influence of the endoscopist on the polyp detection rate (PDR) is underappreciated in clinical practice. Moreover, flat lesions or lesions of the proximal colon are more difficult to detect. Here, we evaluated the differences in the PDR and the characteristics of detected polyps according to the experience of the colonoscopist. Methods: We collected data on 2,549 patients who underwent screening colonoscopy performed by three fellows. The PDR was calculated according to the percentage of patients who had at least one polyp (method A) and according to the percentage of detected lesions (method B). The primary outcome included the change in the PDR, and the secondary outcome included the change in the characteristics of the detected polyps with increasing experience of the colonoscopist. Results: No proportional correlation was found between the PDR and increasing experience in colonoscopy with method A; however, with method B, the PDR increased after 400 colonoscopies (p=0.0209). With method B, the detection rates of small polyps (<5 mm) (p=0.0015) and polyps in proximal sites (p=0.0050) increased after 300 colonoscopies. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the quality of a colonoscopy, measured by using the PDR, may increase when performed by experienced fellows. PMID:26855926

  17. Predation and landscape characteristics independently affect reef fish community organization.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Hanson, Katharine M; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta diversity across patchy landscapes. However, experimental tests of the predicted context dependency in top-down control remain limited. Using a factorial field experiment we quantify the effects of a focal predatory fish species (grouper) and habitat characteristics (patch size, fragmentation) on the partitioning of diversity and assembly of coral reef fish communities. We found independent effects of groupers and patch characteristics on prey communities. Groupers reduced prey abundance by 50% and gamma diversity by 45%, with a disproportionate removal of rare species relative to common species (64% and 36% reduction, respectively; an oddity effect). Further, there was a 77% reduction in beta diversity. Null model analysis demonstrated that groupers increased the importance of stochastic community assembly relative to patches without groupers. With regard to patch size, larger patches contained more fishes, but a doubling of patch size led to a modest (36%) increase in prey abundance. Patch size had no effect on prey diversity; however, fragmented patches had 50% higher species richness and modified species composition relative to unfragmented patches. Our findings suggest two different pathways (i.e., habitat or predator shifts) by which natural and/or anthropogenic processes can drive variation in fish biodiversity and community assembly. PMID:25000761

  18. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit specific behaviors among individuals. PMID:24602365

  19. Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence affecting transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on transportation structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically affected by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  20. Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, A.M.; Parrish, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence analysis, and associated with six major habitat types. Statistical differences were shown between a number of these habitat types for various ensemble variables of the fish assemblages. Overall, both for complete assemblages and for component major trophic and mobility guilds, these variables tended to have higher values where reef substratum was more structurally or topographically complex, and closer to reef edges. When study sites were separately divided into five depth strata, the deeper strata tended to have statistically higher values of ensemble variables for the fish assemblages. Patterns with depth varied among the various trophic and mobility guilds. Multiple linear regression models indicated that for the complete assemblages and for most trophic and mobility guilds, a large part of the variability for most ensemble variables was explained by measures of holes in the substratum, with important contributions from measured substratum rugosity and depth. A strong linear relationship found by regression of mean fish length on mean volume of holes in the reef surface emphasized the importance of shelter for fish assemblages. Results of this study may have practical applications in designing reserve areas as well as theoretical value in helping to explain the organization of reef fish assemblages.

  1. Does trait affectivity predict work-to-family conflict and enrichment beyond job characteristics?

    PubMed

    Tement, Sara; Korunka, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether negative and positive affectivity (NA and PA, respectively) predict different forms of work-to-family conflict (WFC-time, WFC-strain, WFC-behavior) and enrichment (WFE-development, WFE-affect, WFE-capital) beyond job characteristics (workload, autonomy, variety, workplace support). Furthermore, interactions between job characteristics and trait affectivity while predicting WFC and WFE were examined. Using a large sample of Slovenian employees (N = 738), NA and PA were found to explain variance in WFC as well as in WFE above and beyond job characteristics. More precisely, NA significantly predicted WFC, whereas PA significantly predicted WFE. In addition, several interactive effects were found to predict forms of WFC and WFE. These results highlight the importance of trait affectivity in work-family research. They provide further support for the crucial impact of job characteristics as well. PMID:23469478

  2. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Foreign Language Academic Skills and Affective Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Ganschow, Leonore

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between teachers' perceptions of students' foreign-language (FL) academic skills and affective characteristics and their performance on tests of native language skill and FL aptitude was examined. Comparisons of final grades and teachers' perceptions by skill level groups found significant overall effects when grouping students by…

  4. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elford, Greg; Mayberry, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both

  5. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed. PMID:26543698

  6. Physico-chemical change in vertical soil horizon characteristics of distillery affected soil.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Farid; Awasthi, A K; Kumar, P

    2013-10-01

    Effect of treated distillery effluent on the physico-chemical characteristics of vertical soil horizon was studied to observe the impact of effluent on soil of nearby area where distillery canal flows. The studies were also carried out with respect to the unaffected region to compare the soil characteristics. The results showed that in distillery affected soil pH, bulk density and alkalinity increased with depth whereas water holding capacity, chloride, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium decreased with depth compared to unaffected soil horizon. Preliminary study revealed that although most of the parameters were high in distillery affected soil horizon which might promote growth of plants but increase in pH and other toxic substances with depth could cause ground water pollution through constant and continuous leaching. PMID:25906588

  7. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

  8. Synchrotron microtomographic quantification of geometrical soil pore characteristics affected by compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, R. P.; Gantzer, C. J.; Anderson, S. H.; Assouline, S.

    2015-07-01

    Soil compaction degrades soil structure and affects water, heat, and gas exchange as well as root penetration and crop production. The objective of this study was to use X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) techniques to compare differences in geometrical soil pore parameters as influenced by compaction of two different aggregate size classes. Sieved (diam. < 2 mm and < 0.5 mm) and repacked (1.51 and 1.72 Mg m-3) Hamra soil cores of 5- by 5 mm (average porosities were 0.44 and 0.35) were imaged at 9.6-micrometer resolution at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (synchrotron facility) using X-ray computed microtomography. Images of 58.9 mm3 volume were analyzed using 3-Dimensional Medial Axis (3DMA) software. Geometrical characteristics of the spatial distributions of pore structures (pore radii, volume, connectivity, path length, and tortuosity) were numerically investigated. Results show that the coordination number (CN) distribution and path length (PL) measured from the medial axis were reasonably fit by exponential relationships P(CN) = 10-CN/Co and P(PL) = 10-PL/PLo, respectively, where Co and PLo are the corresponding characteristic constants. Compaction reduced porosity, average pore size, number of pores, and characteristic constants. The average pore radii (63.7 and 61 ?m; p < 0.04), largest pore volume (1.58 and 0.58 mm3; p = 0.06), number of pores (55 and 50; p = 0.09), characteristic coordination number (6.32 and 5.94; p = 0.09), and characteristic path length number (116 and 105; p = 0.001) were significantly greater in the low density than the high density treatment. Aggregate size also influenced measured geometrical pore parameters. This analytical technique provides a tool for assessing changes in soil pores that affect hydraulic properties and thereby provides information to assist in assessment of soil management systems.

  9. Synchrotron Microtomographic Quantification of Geometrical Soil Pore Characteristics Affected by Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Gantzer, Clark; Anderson, Stephen; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction degrades soil structure and affects water, heat, and gas exchange as well as root penetration and crop production. The objective of this study was to use X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) techniques to compare differences in geometrical soil pore parameters as influenced by compaction of two different aggregate size classes. Sieved (diam. < 2mm and < 0.5mm) and repacked (1.51 and 1.72 Mg m-3) Hamra soil cores of 5- by 5-mm (average porosities were 0.44 and 0.35) were imaged at 9.6-micrometer resolution at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (synchrotron facility) using X-ray computed microtomography. Images of 58.9 mm3 volume were analyzed using 3-Dimensional Medial Axis (3DMA) software. Geometrical characteristics of the spatial distributions of pore structures (pore radii, volume, connectivity, path length, and tortuosity) were numerically investigated. Results show that the coordination number (CN) distribution and path length (PL) measured from the medial axis were reasonably fit by exponential relationships P(CN)=10-CN/Co and P(PL)=10-PL/PLo, respectively, where Co and PLo are the corresponding characteristic constants. Compaction reduced porosity, average pore size, number of pores, and characteristic constants. The average pore radii (64 and 61 ?m; p<0.04), largest pore volume (1.6 and 0.6 mm3; p=0.06), number of pores (55 and 50; p=0.09), characteristic coordination number (6.3 and 6.0; p=0.09), and characteristic path length number (116 and 105; p=0.001) were significantly greater in the low density than the high density treatment. Aggregate size also influenced measured geometrical pore parameters. This analytical technique provides a tool for assessing changes in soil pores that affect hydraulic properties and thereby provides information to assist in assessment of soil management systems.

  10. Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Åkerman, Jeanette; Eerikäinen, Peter; Ambjörnsson, Annika; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Mihailovic, Marko; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Understanding Group and Leader (UGL), provided by the Swedish National Defense College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA) to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1) to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2) to investigate differences in personal characteristics. Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153) and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police) completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA), high affective (high PA, high NA), low affective (high PA, low NA), and self-destructive (low PA, high NA). Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70%) than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%). UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05) and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after certification. PMID:25374553

  11. Airfoil Section Characteristics as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.

  12. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  13. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  14. Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Ct, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

  15. Which characteristic of Natto: appearance, odor, or taste most affects preference for Natto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Japan, consumption of Natto, a fermented bean dish, is recommended because of its high quality protein, digestibility in the gut and its preventive effect on blood clot formation due to high vitamin K content. However, consumption of Natto in Kansai and the Chugoku area (the western part of Honshu) is less than that in the other areas of Japan probably because of a food related cultural inhibition. In this study, we determined which characteristic of Natto (appearance, odor or taste) most affect subjects perception of sensory attributes by observation of brain hemodynamics in relation to subjects preference for Natto. Findings In this experiment, we defined each subjects changes in brain hemodynamics as (+) or (?) corresponding to an increase or a decrease in total hemoglobin concentration after stimuli compared to that before stimuli. As a result, there was no relation between preference for Natto and change in brain hemodynamics by the stimuli of looking at or smelling, while there was a significant relationship between preference and stimulus of ingestion; (+) : (?)?=?21:15 in the subjects of the favorite group and (+):(?)?=?30:7 in the subjects of the non-favorite group (P?=?0.034). Conclusion This result indicated that characteristic taste of Natto most affects preference for Natto. PMID:22738664

  16. The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

    2014-01-10

    Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

  17. Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.

    PubMed

    Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

  18. Context matters: Community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristicssocial disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youthin relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Methods 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Results Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively co-varied with youths externalizing and internalizing scoresindicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p<0.05). The relationship between collective efficacy and mental health outcomes was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the post-conflict social context plays in shaping mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a four-year period of follow up. These results underscore the importance of the post-conflict social environment and the need to develop post-conflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs of the individual. PMID:24102324

  19. Metabolic issues in patients affected by schizophrenia: clinical characteristics and medical management

    PubMed Central

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Stella, Eleonora; Bellomo, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Patients affected by psychotic disorders are more likely to develop high rates of co-morbidities, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, myocardial infarction, stroke etc., in the long-term. These morbidities have a significant impact on the life-expectancy of these patients. Patients with chronic psychoses show a 2–3-fold increased risk of death mostly from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although there may be an independent link, between schizophrenia and metabolic conditions the cardio-metabolic risk is mostly related to an unhealthy lifestyle and the usage of antipsychotic agents (especially Second Generation Antipsychotics or atypical) even when these remain effective treatments in the management of major psychoses. Recently, many international organizations have developed screening and monitoring guidelines for the control of modifiable risk factors in order to reduce the rate of co-morbidity and mortality among patients affected by schizophrenia. This paper is a review of current knowledge about the metabolic issues of patients affected by schizophrenia and describes clinical characteristics and medical management strategies for such conditions. PMID:26388714

  20. How job characteristics affect international migration: the role of informality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Blanchard, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Despite the importance given to employment opportunities as a primary motive for migration, previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the kinds of jobs that are more likely to retain workers in their countries of origin. We use information from a panel survey of Mexican adults to examine how job characteristics affect the risk of international migration. The sampling strategy and overall size of the survey allow us to analyze the effect of employment characteristics on migration from urban areas, which have much greater labor market diversity, and to separate our analysis by gender. We also distinguish migrants according to whether they migrate for work or for other reasons. We find informality to be a significant predictor of international migration. Even after controlling for individual factors including workers' wages, as well as various household- and community-level predictors, we find that workers employed in the informal sector have significantly higher odds of migrating than their counterparts in the formal sector. The pervasive nature of informality in many developing countries from which a high proportion of international migrants originate may therefore create a constant supply of workers who are predisposed to migrate. Our findings thus have important implications for a proper understanding of the effects of economic development on migration. PMID:23073750

  1. The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Gene exchange between species occurs in areas of secondary contact, where two species have the opportunity to hybridize. If heterospecific males are more common than conspecific males, females will experience more encounters with males of other species. These encounters might increase the likelihood of heterospecific matings, and lead to the production of hybrid progeny. I studied the mating behavior of two pairs of sibling species endemic to Africa: Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila santomea and Drosophila simulans/Drosophila sechellia. Drosophila yakuba and D. simulans are cosmopolitan species widely distributed in the African continent, while D. santomea and D. sechellia are island endemics. These pairs of species hybridize in nature and have the potential to exchange genes in natural conditions. I used these two pairs of Drosophila species, and constructed mating communities of different size and different heterospecific:conspecific composition. I found that both the total number of potential mates and the relative frequency of conspecific versus heterospecific males affect female mating decisions in the cosmopolitan species but not in the island endemics. These results suggest that the population characteristics, in which mating occurs, may affect the magnitude of premating isolation. Community composition might thus facilitate, or impair, gene flow between species. PMID:25165530

  2. Do submucous myoma characteristics affect fertility and menstrual outcomes in patients underwent hysteroscopic myomectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Namazov, Ahmed; Karakus, Resul; Gencer, Ezgi; Sozen, Hamdullah; Acar, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Submucous myomas may be associated with menorrhagia, infertility and dysmenorrhea. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the long term effects of submucousal myoma resection on menorrhagia and infertility; also to detect whether the type, size, and location of myoma affect the surgical success. Materials and Methods: Totally 98 women referred to hysteroscopy for symptomatic submucousal fibroids (menorrhagia (n=51) and infertility (n=47)) between 2005- 2010 were enrolled in this historical cohort study Pregnancy rates and menstrual improvement rates were compared according to myoma characteristics (size, type and location). Results: After a mean postoperative period of 2310 months in 51 patients with excessive bleeding, 13 had recurrent menorrhagia (25%). In Other 38 patients excessive bleeding was improved (75%). The improvement rates by location and myoma type: lower segment 100%, fundus 92%, and corpus 63%; type 0) 70%, type 1) 78%, type 2) 80%. The mean sizes of myoma in recurred and improved patients were 23.33 mm and 29.88 mm respectively. 28 of 47 infertile women spontaneously experienced thirty pregnancies (60%). Pregnancy rates according to myoma location and type: lower segment 50%, fundus 57%, and corpus 80%; type 0) 75%, type 1) 62%, type 2) 50%. The mean myoma size in patients who became pregnant was 30.38 mm; in patients who did not conceive was 29.95 mm. Conclusion: The myoma characetesitics do not affect improvement rates after hysteroscopic myomectomy in patients with unexplained infertility or excessive uterine bleeding. PMID:26330852

  3. Factors Affecting the Professional Characteristics of Teacher Educators in Israel and in the USA: A Comparison of Two Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagrir, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to identify the factors affecting the professional characteristics of teacher educators by comparing two models of teacher education. The research findings revealed four major focal points that have an impact on professional characteristics: the operational model adopted by the institution where teacher

  4. Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

  5. Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachowicz, M. B.; Dudziński, W.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of ( γ- gg')-M x C y type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction γ-γ' can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the M x C y carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)- γ' phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the γ and γ' particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved γ' precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

  6. Myoelectric Control System and Task-Specific Characteristics Affect Voluntary Use of Simultaneous Control.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-01-01

    Clinically available myoelectric control does not enable simultaneous proportional control of prosthetic degrees of freedom. Multiple studies have proposed systems that provide simultaneous control, though few have investigated whether subjects voluntarily use simultaneous control or how they implement it. Additionally, few studies have explicitly evaluated the effect of providing proportional velocity control. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing when and how subjects use simultaneous myoelectric control, including the ability to proportionally control the velocity and the required task precision. Five able-bodied subjects used simultaneous myoelectric control systems with and without proportional velocity control in a virtual Fitts' Law task. Though subjects used simultaneous control to a substantial degree when proportional velocity control was present, they used very little simultaneous control when using constant-velocity control. Furthermore, use of simultaneous control varied significantly with target distance and width, reflecting a strategy of using simultaneous control for gross cursor positioning and sequential control for fine corrective movements. These results provide insight into how users take advantage of simultaneous control and highlight the need for real-time evaluation of simultaneous control algorithms, as the potential benefit of providing simultaneous control may be affected by other characteristics of the myoelectric control system. PMID:25769167

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villardn-Gallego, Lourdes; Yniz, Concepcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university

  8. Analysis of the characteristics of slot design affecting resistance to sliding during active archwire configurations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During orthodontic treatment, a low resistance to slide (RS) is desirable when sliding mechanics are used. Many studies showed that several variables affect the RS at the bracket-wire interface; among these, the design of the bracket slot has not been deeply investigated yet. This study aimed to clarify the effect of different slot designs on the RS expressed by five types of low-friction brackets in vertical and horizontal active configurations of the wire. Methods Five low-friction brackets (Damon SL II, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA; In-Ovation, GAC International, Bohemia, NY, USA; Quick, Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany; Time 2, AO, Sheboygan, WI, USA; Synergy, RMO, Denver, CO, USA) coupled with an 0.014-in NiTi thermal wire (Therma-Lite, AO) were tested in two three-bracket experimental models simulating vertical and horizontal bracket displacements. A custom-made machine was used to measure frictional resistance with tests repeated on ten occasions for each bracket-wire combination. Design characteristics such as the mesio-distal slot width, slot depth, and presence of chamfered edges at the extremities of the slot were evaluated on SEM images (SUPRA, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) and analyzed in relation to the data of RS recorded. Results Time 2 was found to show the higher frictional forces (1.50 and 1.35 N) in both experimental models (p < 0.05), while Quick and Synergy brackets showed the lower frictional values in the vertical (0.66 N) and in the horizontal (0.68 N) bracket displacements, respectively. With vertically displaced brackets, the increased mesio-distal slot width and the presence of clear angle at mesial and distal slot edges increase the values of RS. With brackets horizontally displaced, the RS expressed by the wire is influenced simultaneously by the depth of the slot, the mesio-distal slot width, and the presence of clear angle at the extremities of the slot base, the clip, or the slide. Conclusion In order to select the proper low-friction bracket system, clinicians should consider specific characteristics of slot design apart from the wire engaging method. PMID:24325837

  9. The severity of sediment desiccation affects the adsorption characteristics and speciation of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Attygalla, Nirmala W; Baldwin, Darren S; Silvester, Ewen; Kappen, Peter; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plants and algae, and can be the limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems. However, oversupply can lead to significant water quality issues. The largest source and sink of P in most aquatic systems is the sediment. As a consequence of drought, in many places sediments that normally would have remained inundated are now being desiccated. Based on previous studies, it is often difficult to predict what impact drying will have on the cycling of P. This is because most of these studies have looked at drying across a chronosequence in the field, where there may be differences in sediment composition or microbial community structure. In this paper we present the results of a study where sediment was exposed to progressively more severe drying in the laboratory - starting with wet sediment, followed by air drying and then sequential oven drying at 30, 50 and 85 °C. Drying resulted in a shift in P speciation, notably with an increase in NaHCO3-extractable reactive P and a decline in NaHCO3-extractable unreactive P, likely indicating an increase in bioavailable, easily exchangeable P. Drying also resulted in a decline in the microbial-P fraction. Drying significantly affected the P adsorption characteristics of the sediment. The total amount of P adsorbed by the sediment and the linear adsorption co-efficient both declined, while the amount of native P adsorbed to the sediment and the equilibrium P concentration both increased. Drying also affected iron speciation with a shift from more reactive oxalate-extractable Fe to more recalcitrant citrate-dithionate-bicarbonate-extractable Fe, suggesting an increase in iron crystallinity and hence decrease in P adsorption capacity. The increase in crystallinity is consistent with Fe EXAFS results, which showed that drying resulted in an increase in edge-sharing neighbours. We hypothesise that the shifts in P speciation, the decline in P adsorption capacity, the increase in the equilibrium P concentration, as well as the death of micro-organisms (as evidenced by a decline in microbial P) on drying all contribute to the Birch effect - the initial pulse of P and/or N upon inundation of dried soils or sediments. PMID:26686223

  10. Surface loading affects internal pressure source characteristics derived from volcano deformation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, Ronni; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Sturkell, Erik

    2010-05-01

    Deformation of the Earth's surface provides critical information about the migration of material beneath a volcano. The resulting displacements, recorded by geodetic techniques such as GPS or InSAR, are used to infer characteristics of the volcanic plumbing system which are critical for hazard mitigation in volcanic regions. Given some deformation data, we search for the source model that explains the data best. Discussions of the results usually focus on the validity of the chosen model and the underlying assumptions regarding crustal composition, e.g. the level of inhomogeneity, elastic versus plastic deformation, thermal effects, depth vs. volume trade offs of the applied analytical models, or the (in-)compressibility of materials. Surface loads such as lava flows, however, provide an additional source of deformation. The initial elastic response due to a load on the surface of the Earth is followed by a visco-elastic response of the ductile crust below the uppermost elastic layer. Thus, a deformation signal recorded in the vicinity of a volcano is often composed of at least two contributors: an internal pressure source (the magma chamber) and a surface load (e.g., a composition of previously erupted lava flows) - at the extreme the volcanic edifice and its glaciers. A test case for a circular lava flow on top of a deflating magma chamber shows that the crust will adjust to the load towards final relaxed response. During this relaxation process gradual subsidence occurs that may mistakenly be interpreted as due to pressure decrease in a magma chamber since the deformation pattern of both processes are very similar. This poses a problem when characteristics of a magma chamber are to be derived. Based on the ratio of horizontal and vertical displacement and a combination of model results (Green's functions and Mogi model), we can estimate the composition of observed deformation signals. This method is applied to the Icelandic volcano Mt. Hekla where we investigate InSAR observations prior to the Hekla 2000 eruption that show circular pattern of near field subsidence and far field inflation. We compare these data to the deformation pattern expected from pressure changes in a hypothetical, shallow magma reservoir. We estimate surface loading at the volcano to account for a displacement of 13.5mm-yr based on a comparison of expected Mogi source and observed InSAR line of sight velocity. From this we estimate an effective relaxation time of tr = 100yrs for this region. We infer an elastic plate thickness of H = 3.5km which controls the 15 - 20km radius of subsidence. We find that surface load signals in volcanic regions affect magmatic source model estimates significantly ; to the point of changing the preferred source model. This effect should be considered in virtually any volcanic region that shows lava flow emplacement, glacier dynamics, or sudden load removal (i.e., lateral blasts). Deformation data that remains uncorrected will most likely result in an overestimation of depth and volume of a magma reservoir. We find that the ratio of displacements aids the identification of composite signals and suggest that the ratio for GPS data be employed more rigorously in future studies since this allows volume independent source depth estimates.

  11. Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

  12. Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose

  13. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  14. PUFFING AND JET-COOKING AFFECT SOLUBILITY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF BARLEY A-GLUCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods containing barley or oats are often marketed as healthy because of the dietary fiber, (1-3) (1-4)-Beta-D-glucan. Processing conditions can affect the molecular structure of these dietary fibers, which in turn, affect quality and properties of the products. In this study, the effect of puffing ...

  15. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective

  16. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3??1.7?years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2?h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15?min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions considering the relation between affect and PA might not be suitable for this target group. PMID:23580167

  17. Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-08-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n=104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of impulsivity were seen in SMS, AS, CdCS, FXS and adults with CdLS. Negative affect was prominent in adults with CdLS, while positive affect was prominent in adults with AS and FXS. Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes. PMID:21080217

  18. Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

  19. Do Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Evidence from a Rural State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuls, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Using a unique dataset, this dissertation analyzes the relationship between observable teacher characteristics and teacher effectiveness. Effectiveness is measured as a teacher's ability to improve student achievement on a standardized test. This analysis focuses on teachers of math and science at the elementary and middle school levels, as…

  20. Characteristics Affecting Children's Responses to Childhood Sexual Encounters with Other Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugaard, Jeffrey J.

    The replies to a survey of more than 1,000 undergraduates concerning childhood sexual encounters are reported. Linear structural equation modeling is employed to analyze which characteristics of the sexual encounters with other children were associated with more positive or negative responses by the subjects. Approximately 42% of the subjects

  1. How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the

  2. Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders that Affect Inclusion in Regular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD…

  3. How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the…

  4. Factors Affecting Relationships between the Contextual Variables and the Information Characteristics of Accounting Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jong-Min; Lee, Jinjoo

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of accounting information systems that explored the interactions among influence factors (e.g., user participation in the development process, top management support, capability of information systems personnel, and existence of steering committees), contextual variables (e.g., organizational structure and task characteristics),…

  5. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

  6. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in

  7. Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. ); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

  8. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-12-01

    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. PMID:22857852

  9. Experimental and analytical determination of characteristics affecting light aircraft landing-gear dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Pappas, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine which characteristics of a light aircraft landing gear influence gear dynamic behavior significantly. The investigation focused particularly on possible modification for load control. Pseudostatic tests were conducted to determine the gear fore-and-aft spring constant, axial friction as a function of drag load, brake pressure-torque characteristics, and tire force-deflection characteristics. To study dynamic tire response, vertical drops were conducted at impact velocities of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 m/s onto a level surface; to determine axial-friction effects, a second series of vertical drops were made at 1.5 m/s onto surfaces inclined 5 deg and 10 deg to the horizontal. An average dynamic axial-friction coefficient of 0.15 was obtained by comparing analytical data with inclined surface drop test data. Dynamic strut bending and associated axial friction were found to be severe for the drop tests on the 10 deg surface.

  10. How a Married Woman`s Characteristics Affect her Contraceptive Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Khan, Tasnim

    In Pakistan, population growth rate is 2.2% and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is as high as 5.4. It is the result of low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of only 28%. Due to low CPR, women have high rate of unwanted births in Pakistan. In this study using probit estimation on primary data, we have analyzed the woman=s characteristics responsible for low contraceptive prevalence among married women in urban areas of Punjab (Pakistan). For the purpose one thousand married women in the age group of 15-49 years, who were not currently pregnant were interviewed from urban areas of Bahawalpur and Lahore. The individual characteristics of married women were focused, although household characteristics, socio-economic conditions of the community where woman is living, religious and cultural factors are also important. It is found that age of woman, education of woman, woman`s status, her economic activity, income level and age at marriage were found major determinants of contraceptive prevalence in women. The policies towards the education of women, status of women, labor force participation of women and legal interventions towards the increase in marriage age are stressed to increase the CPR.

  11. Changes in Liver Cell DNA Methylation Status in Diabetic Mice Affect Its FT-IR Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Ghiraldini, Flávia Gerelli; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of cytosine methylation have been found in the liver cell DNA from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice under hyperglycemic conditions. Because the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) profiles of dry DNA samples are differently affected by DNA base composition, single-stranded form and histone binding, it is expected that the methylation status in the DNA could also affect its FT-IR profile. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA FT-IR signatures obtained from the liver cell nuclei of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice of the same age were compared. Dried DNA samples were examined in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an all-reflecting objective (ARO) and adequate software. Conclusions/Significance Changes in DNA cytosine methylation levels induced by hyperglycemia in mouse liver cells produced changes in the respective DNA FT-IR profiles, revealing modifications to the vibrational intensities and frequencies of several chemical markers, including νas –CH3 stretching vibrations in the 5-methylcytosine methyl group. A smaller band area reflecting lower energy absorbed in the DNA was found in the hyperglycemic mice and assumed to be related to the lower levels of –CH3 groups. Other spectral differences were found at 1700–1500 cm−1 and in the fingerprint region, and a slight change in the DNA conformation at the lower DNA methylation levels was suggested for the hyperglycemic mice. The changes that affect cytosine methylation levels certainly affect the DNA-protein interactions and, consequently, gene expression in liver cells from the hyperglycemic NOD mice. PMID:25019512

  12. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Characteristics of dissolved oxygen and its affecting factors in the Yangtze Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Zhu, Zhuo-Yi

    2007-08-01

    The cruises on hypoxia research were carried out in the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent area of the East China Sea on June, August and October, 2006. DO, stability and the concentration of nitrate and phosphate in the section B were analyzed. The result indicates that there is distinct difference among the concentration of DO in the section B of the three cruises. The DO distribution is higher in surface water but lower in bottom. The oxygen minimum value (1.1 mg x L(-1)) is found at the bottom in August, and the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) is higher than 2.79 mg x L(-1) in the section B. The strong halocline above the hypoxic zone, as a result of affluent water from the coastwise, Taiwan Warm Current, and the high concentration of organic substance are major factors causing the formation of the hypoxia. The stability of the seawater goes down, the vertical mixing affect the DO through its effect on stratification, in October. deltaDO is primarily affected by the stability and the concentration of deltaNO3-, deltaDIP. PMID:17926388

  14. Does Food Insecurity Affect Parental Characteristics and Child Behavior? Testing Mediation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2014-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parents self-esteem) mediate household food insecuritys relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecuritys relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

  15. Clinic type and patient characteristics affecting time to resolution after an abnormal cancer-screening exam

    PubMed Central

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L.; Kurta, Michelle L.; Weier, Rory C.; Young, Greg S.; Carey, Autumn B.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research shows that multilevel factors influence healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. The study goal was to examine how clinic type (academic medical center (AMC) or federally-qualified health center (FQHC)) and patient characteristics influence time to resolution (TTR) among individuals with an abnormal cancer screening test enrolled in a patient navigation (PN) intervention. Methods Data were obtained from the Ohio Patient Navigation Research Project, a group-randomized trial of 862 patients from 18 clinics in Columbus, Ohio. Patients TTR after an abnormal breast, cervical, or colorectal screening test and the clinics patient and provider characteristics were obtained. Descriptive statistics and Cox shared frailty proportional hazards regression models of TTR were used. Results The mean patient age was 44.8 years and 71% of patients were white. In models adjusted for study arm, FQHC patients had a 39% lower rate of resolution than AMC patients (P=0.004). Patient factors of having a college education, private insurance, higher income, and being older were significantly associated with lower TTR. After adjustment for factors that substantially impacted the effect of clinic type (patient insurance status, education level and age), clinic type was not significantly associated with TTR. Conclusions These results suggest that TTR among individuals participating in PN programs is influenced by multiple socioeconomic patient-level factors rather than clinic type. Consequently, PN interventions should be tailored to address SES factors that influence TTR. Impact These results provide clues regarding where to target PN interventions and the importance of recognizing predictors of TTR according to clinic type. PMID:25312997

  16. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its ecosystem services. PMID:21930336

  17. Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the Overthrust Belt of Southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Jurassic-Triassic age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming Overthrust Belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic directional properties which have been inherited from the depositional environment, modified by diagenesis, and finally overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly eolian processes deposited crossbedded and horizontally-bedded, very fine-grained to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdunes and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and precipitation of hydrocarbon resins. Low-permeability, gougefilled and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and affect producibility; whereas discontinuous, open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in permeability between dune and interdune intervals ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune deposits are locally correlatable with the aid of core, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations can then be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

  18. Dust-storm dynamics over Sistan region, Iran: Seasonality, transport characteristics and affected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashki, A.; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Francois, P.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Legrand, M.

    2015-03-01

    The present work examines the seasonality, dust-plume altitudinal variation and affected areas for dust storms originated from the Sistan region, southeastern Iran during the summer (June-September) months of the period 2001-2012 synthesizing local meteorological records, satellite observations (TOMS, OMI, METEOSAT, MODIS) and HYSPLIT forward trajectories. Dust-storm days (356 in total) are associated with visibility below 1 km at Zabol, Iran meteorological station with higher frequency and intensity in June and July. Monthly-mean composite maps of TOMS and OMI AI show high (>3-3.5) values over Sistan and nearby downwind areas. HYSPLIT forward-trajectory analysis at 500 m for air masses originated from Sistan on the dust-storm days shows that they usually follow an anti-clockwise transport direction at elevations usually below 2 km, initially moving southwards and then shifting to east-northeast when they are approaching the Arabian Sea coast. This is the result of the influence of the local topography and formation of thermal low-pressure systems over the arid lands. It is found that in few cases the dust storms from Sistan affect central/south Arabian Sea and India, while they control the aerosol loading over northernmost Arabian Sea. The Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) images, which represent brightness temperature reduction due to dust presence over land, are used at specific periods of persistent dust storms over Sistan, confirming the main pathways of the dust plumes and illustrating the importance of the region as one of the most active dust sources in southwest Asia.

  19. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total instructional integration and proved to also be significantly related to student achievement. Qualitative methodologies revealed student improvements in "thinking skills" and "dynamic factors" and the importance of teachers, administrators, and teacher education to the success of the interdisciplinary program. Claims and criticisms of interdisciplinary education in general, and integrated mathematics and science education specifically, were examined through both methodologies. Discussed are the pedagogical considerations necessary for a school district to institute a program of integrated mathematics and science.

  20. Does Spatial Variation in Soil Characteristics Affect Tree Transpiration Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traver, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Loranty, M.; Mackay, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) both depends on and influences the local and regional atmospheric conditions. Because soil is the source of water for Ec, the soil's chemical and physical properties are also likely to be drivers of transpiration. The objective of this study is to spatially quantify the relationship between the soil's chemical and physical characteristics and Ec across environmental gradients. The two study sites are in northern Wisconsin, in mixed hardwood forest. In one site, the environmental gradient runs from a dry upland dominated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) to a wetland dominated by alders (Alnus rugosa). The second site has little elevational variation, is well-drained, and is dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bisected by a swath of red pine (Pinus resinosa). Ec data have been collected over three summers on the same set of trees using Granier sensors, while the soil samples were collected in 2006 from the same plots as the measured trees. Both of the approximately 120 m x 120 m plots have been sampled in 10 m x 10 m subplots based on a 3/7 cyclic sampling scheme to maximize spatially explicit information with a minimum number of sampled points. Roughly 150 trees were measured in each plot. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between the spatial autocorrelation of Ec and vapor pressure deficit (D). We thus hypothesize that a significant amount of this relationship can be explained by soil properties. Preliminary analysis of soil data from a representative transect in the aspen site show that soil texture, carbon (C) content, and nitrogen (N) content change along the gradient. From the upland through the wetland, Ec declined significantly, and, while all the soils were a sandy loam, the sand content showed a decreasing trend, while the silt content increased nearly two-fold. Across the same (upland to wetland) gradient, the C:N ratio showed a slightly increasing trend, but the total percentage values of the two elements increased nearly 25 fold: from C of 0.884 and N of 0.060 to C of 22.34 and N of 1.283. We hypothesize that the maple site will show less variability in Ec because of its more uniform soil characteristics. Ongoing work of soil moisture release curves, bulk density, and root biomass will provide additional explanations of the spatial relationships between Ec and D. Our analytical approach, then, provides a first step in explaining the processes behind spatial patterns in transpiration.

  1. Characteristics of low-slope streams that affect O2 transfer rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Gene W.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-regression techniques were used to derive the reaeration coefficients estimating equation for low sloped streams: K2 = 3.83 MBAS-0.41 SL0.20 H-0.76, where K2 is the reaeration coefficient in base e units per day; MBAS is the methylene blue active substances concentration in milligrams per liter; SL is the water-surface slope in foot per foot; and H is the mean-flow depth in feet. Fourteen hydraulic, physical, and water-quality characteristics were regressed against 29 measured-reaeration coefficients for low-sloped (water surface slopes less than 0.002 foot per foot) streams in Massachusetts and New York. Reaeration coefficients measured from May 1985 to October 1988 ranged from 0.2 to 11.0 base e units per day for 29 low-sloped tracer studies. Concentration of methylene blue active substances is significant because it is thought to be an indicator of concentration of surfactants which could change the surface tension at the air-water interface.

  2. Chemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso coffee as affected by grinding and torrefacto roast.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Susana; De Pea, M Paz; Cid, Concepcin

    2003-11-19

    Grinding is a critical step in the preparation of espresso coffee (EC). The addition of sugar during the torrefacto roasting process could influence the degree of brittleness and grinding. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the grinding grades (coarse, fine, and very fine) in Arabica/Robusta 20:80, natural roasted (A20:R80), and Arabica/Robusta 20:80 with 50% Robusta torrefacto roasted (A20:R80 50% torrefacto) on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of EC in order to select the optimal espresso grinding grade. A higher percentage of coarse particles was found in A20:R80 ground coffee. In both ECs, the extraction of solids and soluble and aroma compounds increased inversely with particle size. Higher foam indices and extraction yields were found in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs probably due to the solubilization of caramelized sugar and melanoidins. It has been suggested that the range of an acceptable extraction yield could be extended to 25% in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs. In conclusion, the optimal grinding grade for the obtainment of an EC with A20:R80 was fine and that for A20:R80 50% torrefacto was coarse. PMID:14611167

  3. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, R.; Hamidi Esfehani, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. PMID:26904649

  4. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  5. Building a Successful Communications Program Based on the Needs and Characteristics of the Affected Communities - 13152

    SciTech Connect

    Herod, Judy; Mahabir, Alexandra; Holmes, Sandy

    2013-07-01

    Over 200 local residents streamed through the doors of the Port Hope Lions Centre to see the detailed plans for the historic low-level radioactive waste clean-up project about to take place in their community. The event had a congenial atmosphere as people walked through the hall taking in rows of display panels that explained each element of the project, asked questions of project staff stationed around the room and chatted with friends and neighbours over light refreshments. Later that year, the results of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) 10. annual public attitude survey revealed an all-time high in community awareness of the project (94%) and the highest levels of confidence (84%) recorded since surveying began. Today, as the PHAI transitions from a decade of scientific and technical studies to implementation, the success of its communications program - as evidenced by the above examples - offers room for cautious encouragement. The PHAI has spent the past 10 years developing relationships with the southern Ontario communities of Port Hope and Port Granby in preparation for Canada's largest low-level radioactive waste environmental restoration project. These relationships have been built around a strong understanding of the communities' individual needs and characteristics and on the PHAI's efforts to consider and respond to these needs. The successes of the past, as well as the lessons learned, will inform the next stage of communications as the projects move into waste excavation and transportation and building of the long-term waste management facilities. (authors)

  6. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.

    PubMed

    Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

    2012-09-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:22912476

  7. [Characteristics of non-point source pollution in Tiaoxi watershed and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing-liang; Wang, Fei-er; Dai, Lu-ying; Tian, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-jian

    2011-08-01

    By using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, this paper simulated the surface runoff intensity and the export loadings of sediment particulates and nutrients via non-point source hydrological pathway in Tiaoxi watershed, and integrated with the simulation results, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed in 2008. In the study area, the per unit area non-point source pollution was stronger in northern region than in southern region and in eastern region than in western region, and the weakest in central region. Among the land utilization types, farmland had the biggest contribution to the sediment loading. There were significantly positive correlations between the loadings of surface runoff and associated sediment particulates and the rainfall intensity. The export loadings of nutrients through surface runoff were higher in rainy season (from June to September) than in dry season (from December to next March), and there existed significant correlations between the surface runoff loadings of sediment particulates, organic nitrogen, and nitrate and the average gradient of lands. PMID:22097376

  8. Characteristics of chicken nuggets as affected by added fat and variable salt contents.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ahmad, T; Manpreet, G; Mangesh, K; Das, P

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted in many countries on how to increase the per capita consumption of poultry meat. With the growing demand for poultry meat, the development of value added product, such as chicken nuggets has been identified as the best way to increase poultry meat consumption. Apart from this allowing for the flourishing growth of fast food industries; chicken nuggets needs to be produced in higher quantity and to reduce cost, there is increasing interest in using of various meat additives. Though, chicken fat are edible, it is important to evolve production processes for gainful utilization of this part. So the main objective of this work was to study the effect of the addition of chicken fat and various salt contents on the physicochemical, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets. Based on the results it is concluded that, even up to 5% level of chicken fat with 1.5-2% added salt there is no adverse effect in terms of physico-chemical, proximate composition and sensory qualities of cooked chicken nuggets. Even, at this fat and salt level product was more preferred by panellist than no fat-no salt chicken nuggets. PMID:24425908

  9. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Source population characteristics affect heterosis following genetic rescue of fragmented plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, M.; Field, D. L.; Rowell, D. M.; Young, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of heterosis and outbreeding depression over multiple generations is a key question in evolutionary biology and is essential for identifying appropriate genetic sources for population and ecosystem restoration. Here we use 2455 experimental crosses between 12 population pairs of the rare perennial plant Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae) to investigate the multi-generational (F1, F2, F3) fitness outcomes of inter-population hybridization. We detected no evidence of outbreeding depression, with inter-population hybrids and backcrosses showing either similar fitness or significant heterosis for fitness components across the three generations. Variation in heterosis among population pairs was best explained by characteristics of the foreign source or home population, and was greatest when the source population was large, with high genetic diversity and low inbreeding, and the home population was small and inbred. Our results indicate that the primary consideration for maximizing progeny fitness following population augmentation or restoration is the use of seed from large, genetically diverse populations. PMID:23173202

  11. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  12. Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Qiantori, Andri; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Background Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. Findings We present 26 tetanus patients who were admitted to eight hospitals following the earthquakes that occurred on May, 27, 2006, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The independent variables were age, gender, distance, admission, hospitalization, and type of hospital with the dependent variable surviving or perishing. Data were analyzed by logistic regression methods on SPSS 17.0. The distance from the patient's place of residence to the hospital were obtained and analyzed by using geospatial tools MapInfo 7.8 SCP and Global Mapper 7. Eight of the 26 patients were dead (30.8%) and statistical results showed that the distance (OR = 1.740, 95% CI = 1.0682.835) and type of hospital (OR = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.0013.520) were significant predictors of death. Conclusion Our findings show that in order to reduce the mortality rates, performing triage systems based on the distance and type of hospital priority for internally displaced persons could be proposed as well as making provisions for the generally old population in order to prevent an outbreak of tetanus following earthquakes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PMID:19284531

  13. Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the overthrust belt of southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, S.J.

    1983-07-01

    The Jurassic/Triassic Age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming overthrust belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic properties that have been inherited primarily from the depositional environment but also have been modified by diagenesis and overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly Eolian processes deposited crossbedded, low-angle to horizontally bedded and rippled, very-fine- to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdune areas, and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and the precipitation or emplacement of hydrocarbon asphaltenes or residues. Low-permeability gouge- and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and negatively affect producibility, whereas discontinuous open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in air permeability between dune and interdune deposits ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune intervals are correlatable locally with the aid of core log, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations then can be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

  14. Pork characteristics as affected by two populations of swine and six crude protein levels.

    PubMed

    Goerl, K F; Eilert, S J; Mandigo, R W; Chen, H Y; Miller, P S

    1995-12-01

    Previous research has investigated the effect of genetic line and dietary CP on gilt growth and carcass composition. The aim of this research was to characterize lean tissue composition, color, tenderness, and water-holding capacity as affected by protein level and genetic lines. Thirty-six Gene Pool pigs, a population with low lean growth potential, and 36 Hampshire pigs, a population with a high lean growth potential, had ad libitum access to diets consisting of 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, or 25% CP. Longissimus muscles of Hampshire pigs were lighter, more red, and more yellow than those from Gene Pool pigs (P< .01). Redness and yellowness of longissimus muscles decreased linearly (P < .01) as protein level increased. Chops from Hampshire pigs required less force and less total energy to shear but had lower cooking yields and water-holding capacity than chops from Gene Pool pigs (P < .01). Chops from pigs fed 19 and 22% protein required greater force (quadratic, P < .01) and more total energy (quadratic, P < .05) to shear. Objective color differences revealed that restructured, cured hams from Hampshire pigs were lighter, less red, and had less intense cured color (P < .01). The Hampshire line of gilts produced pork muscle that was leaner, more pale in color, more tender, and lower in water-holding capacity than the Gene Pool line. Level of dietary CP caused alterations in tenderness and lean composition, especially when diets contained less protein. PMID:8655436

  15. [Characteristics and affecting factors of denitrifying phosphorus removal in two-sludge sequencing batch reactor].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-yi; Peng, Yong-zhen; Yin, Fang-fang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu-kun

    2008-06-01

    The characteristics of denitrifying phosphorus removal in a lab-scale two-sludge anaerobic-anoxic/nitrification SBR (A2 NSBR) system were studied fed with domestic wastewater. The influence of some key operation parameters, like C/P, C/N, and HRT, were examined using parallel tests, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and redox potential (ORP) were monitored on line to validate whether they could be used as the control parameters for this denitrifying phosphorus removal process. Results indicated that P removal efficiency showed an increased trend on the whole with the increase of the C/P. When the influent C/P was greater than 19.39, good phosphorus removal efficiency was achieved. However, the phosphorus removal efficiency deteriorated once the influent C/P decreased less than 15.36. On the other hand, relatively good phosphorus removal efficiency could be maintained in the A2 NSBR system even at a low C/N ratio, though the denitrification efficiency decrease instead. It is also found that increasing the influent C/N increased the PHB amount stored by polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and therefore the ultimate denitrification and phosphorus removal efficiency were both improved. For an excessively high C/N, the incompletely reacted COD will be residual to anoxic stage. Thus, the pure denitrification reaction, which preferentially supports OHOs, becomes the dominant reaction. This decreases the amount of available electron acceptors for denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) at the anoxic stage which eventually impacts the anoxic phosphorus removal capacity. In addition, since A2 NSBR has two completely independent SBR systems, it benefits to establish a process control system in terms of the parameters DO, ORP, and pH. PMID:18763495

  16. Nutrient digestion by ileal cannulated dogs as affected by dietary fibers with various fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Muir, H E; Murray, S M; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Reinhart, G A

    1996-07-01

    We studied the effects of dietary fibers with various fermentation characteristics on nutrient digestion at the distal ileum and in the total tract of dogs. The following high-protein (34%), high-fat (23%) diets were fed: 1) a control treatment (CON) with 0% supplemental fiber; 2) beet pulp (BP), 7.5%; 3) low-cellulose mixture (LCM), 2.5% cellulose + 5.0% pectin; 4) high-cellulose mixture (HCM), 5.0% cellulose + 2.5% pectin; or 5) Solka Floc (SF), 7.5% cellulose. Nutrient intakes by fiber-supplemented dogs were similar among treatment groups but greater (P < .05) than for dogs fed the control diet. Digestion of nutrients at the distal ileum was similar among groups except for fat: the dogs fed BP digested less fat than those fed the other sources of dietary fiber. Digestion of amino acids at the distal ileum was similar for all groups, except for lysine, which increased (P < .05) in digestibility as dietary cellulose concentration increased. Dogs consuming LCM had lower apparent ileal digestibility values for all nutrients, including most amino acids, than dogs consuming HCM or SF. Total tract digestion of DM and OM by dogs fed supplemental fiber was less (P < .05) than for dogs fed the control diet. The BP treatment was higher than other fiber treatments in total tract digestion of OM (P < .10) and total dietary fiber (P < .05). Total tract digestibilities of all nutrients exhibited either linear or quadratic responses to dietary cellulose concentrations. Apparent ileal and total tract nutrient digestion was influenced by the source of dietary fiber consumed. PMID:8818810

  17. Factors affecting adsorption characteristics of Zn2+ on two natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Oren, Ali Hakan; Kaya, Abidin

    2006-04-17

    Mining-related and industrial wastes are primary sources of heavy metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The limitation of such waste in drinking water needs to meet government requirements in order to safeguard human health and environment. Zinc, one of the most preponderant pollutants, is difficult to remove from wastewater rather than other heavy metals (i.e. lead, copper and cadmium). This paper investigates Zn2+ adsorption characteristics of two natural zeolites found in the regions of Gordes and Bigadic, in western Turkey. The results show that the Zn2+ adsorption behavior of both zeolites is highly dependent on the pH. Adsorption dependence on lower pH values (pH<4) is explained by the dissolution of crystal structure and the competition of the zinc ions with the H+. Between pH 4 and 6, the basic mechanism is the ion exchange process. The results also showed that decrease in grain size does not increase the adsorption capacity of zeolite from Gordes, yet it increases that of zeolite from Bigadic about 23%. The results also reveal that an increase in the initial concentration of Zn2+ in the system causes an increase in the adsorption capacity to a degree, then it becomes more constant at higher concentrations. With this, the removal efficiency of Gordes zeolite is two times higher than that of Bigadic zeolite. Results show that an increase in slurry concentration results in a lower uptake of Zn2+. In the final part of the paper, we compared the experimental data with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that there is a good fit between the experimental data and empirical isotherms. PMID:16266781

  18. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

  19. Gold- and Silver Nanoparticles Affect the Growth Characteristics of Human Embryonic Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sderstjerna, Erika; Johansson, Fredrik; Klefbohm, Birgitta; Englund Johansson, Ulrica

    2013-01-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies and their applications in clinical research have raised concerns about the adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health and environment. NPs can be directly taken up by organs exposed, but also translocated to secondary organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS) after systemic- or subcutaneous administration, or via the olfactory system. The CNS is particularly vulnerable during development and recent reports describe transport of NPs across the placenta and even into brain tissue using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Here, we investigated whether well-characterized commercial 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs have an effect on human embryonic neural precursor cell (HNPC) growth. After two weeks of NP exposure, uptake of NPs, morphological features and the amount of viable and dead cells, proliferative cells (Ki67 immunostaining) and apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay), respectively, were studied. We demonstrate uptake of both 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs respectively, by HNPCs during proliferation. A significant effect on the sphere size- and morphology was found for all cultures exposed to Au- and AgNPs. AgNPs of both sizes caused a significant increase in numbers of proliferating and apoptotic HNPCs. In contrast, only the highest dose of 20 nm AuNPs significantly affected proliferation, whereas no effect was seen on apoptotic cell death. Our data demonstrates that both Au- and AgNPs interfere with the growth profile of HNPCs, indicating the need of further detailed studies on the adverse effects of NPs on the developing CNS. PMID:23505470

  20. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better hygiene, and fewer red mite infestations. This suggests that adjustments to the aviary housing design may further improve laying hen welfare and performance. PMID:26188031

  1. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

  2. Barrier Island Morphology and Sediment Characteristics Affect the Recovery of Dune Building Grasses following Storm-Induced Overwash

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Steven T.; Bissett, Spencer N.; Young, Donald R.; Wolner, Catherine W. V.; Moore, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

  3. Stability and Control Harmony in Approach and Landing. [analysis of factors affecting flight characteristics at low airspeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the factors which affect stability and control harmony in approach and landing is made to obtain a clearer understanding of the proper relationship, the trade-offs involved, and to show how limits in stability and control harmony are established for advanced aircraft. Factors which influence stability and control harmony include the longitudinal short period response of the aircraft and the level of several pitch control characteristics including control power, control sensitivity, and control feel. At low stability levels for advanced aircraft, less conventional control techniques such as DLC are needed to improve harmony and some form of stability augmentation must be provided to improve precession of flight path control and reduce pilot work load.

  4. Antioxidant activities and selected characteristics of gelatin hydrolysates from seabass (Lates calcarifer) skin as affected by production processes.

    PubMed

    Sae-Leaw, Thanasak; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Benjakul, Soottawat; O'Brien, Nora M

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant activities and selected characteristics of gelatin hydrolysates from seabass skin as affected by production processes were investigated. Hydrolysates were prepared using different processes, including hydrolysis during and after gelatin extraction. Samples hydrolysed during gelatin extraction showed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) and yield compared with those hydrolysed after gelatin extraction (p?

  5. Individual physical characteristics of neonatal piglets affect preweaning survival of pig-lets born in a non-crated system.

    PubMed

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2013-08-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of individual physical charac-teristics on preweaning survival and growth of piglets born in a non-crate system. Data were collected from 3,402 neonatal piglets from 203 Landrace Yorkshire sows housed in non-crate pens in a commercial Danish sow herd. Piglets were categorized into groups according to their survivability: surviving to weaning (SURV), stillborn (STILL), or dead between birth and weaning (DBW), which were subdivided into dead d 0 to 1 after farrowing, (DEAD1) or dead d 2 to 26 after farrowing (DEAD26). Linear models were used to deter-mine which physical characteristics affected survivability and growth of piglets. Results showed that characteristics related to the individual piglets had a greater degree of explanato-ry power in relation to survival than variables related to the sow. Survival of piglets increased if piglets were females (P < 0.001), had a greater body mass index (P < 0.001), and if piglets were born to sows of parity 3 or more (P = 0.017). Piglets with a greater birth weight were more likely to survive (P < 0.001), but birth weight was inferior to body mass index in ex-plaining differences between SURV and DBW. Piglets that died 2 to 26 d after birth had a lower birth weight (P < 0.001), were born to sows of parity 1 or 2 (P = 0.014), and were born after a shorter gestation (P = 0.011) compared to SURV. Piglets that died on d 0 to 1 after birth had a lower body mass index (P < 0.001), displayed a greater degree of growth re-striction (P = 0.004) and were born in large litters (P = 0.005). The gender of the piglets af-fected survivability at both d 0 to 1 (P < 0.001) and d 2 to 26 (P < 0.001). Piglets in DEAD1 differed from STILL by having a shorter crown to rump length (P < 0.001), a birth weight that deviated more from the mean weight of the litter (P = 0.001), and were more likely to be born before d 116 of gestation (P = 0.008). The only physical characteristic that was im-portant for growth performance in the suckling period was birth weight (P < 0.001); yet using only birth weight as indicator for survivability was too simplistic. Results of this study em-phasized that individual characteristics of neonatal piglets could serve as indicators of survivability of piglets born in non-crate systems; however, the results suggested the importance of characteristics differed in different periods of the preweaning period. PMID:23965391

  6. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 ?L L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. PMID:24731335

  7. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p???0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p???0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p???0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  8. Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of

  9. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  10. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

  11. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

  12. Microsatellite mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting female reproductive tract characteristics in Meishan x Large White F(2) pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosendo, A; Iannuccelli, N; Gilbert, H; Riquet, J; Billon, Y; Amigues, Y; Milan, D; Bidanel, J P

    2012-01-01

    A QTL analysis of female reproductive data from a 3-generation experimental cross between Meishan and Large White pig breeds is presented. Six F(1) boars and 23 F(1) sows, progeny of 6 Large White boars and 6 Meishan sows, produced 502 F(2) gilts whose reproductive tract was collected after slaughter at 30 d of gestation. Five traits [i.e., the total weight of the reproductive tract, of the empty uterine horns, of the ovaries (WOV), and of the embryos], as well as the length of uterine horns (LUH), were measured and analyzed with and without adjustment for litter size. Animals were genotyped for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were carried out based on interval mapping methods, using a line-cross regression and a half-full sib maximum likelihood test. A total of 18 genome-wide significant (P < 0.05) QTL were detected on 9 different chromosomes (i.e., SSC 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 18, and X). Five genome-wide significant QTL were detected for LUH, 4 for weight of the empty uterine horns and WOV, 2 for total weight of the reproductive tract, and 1 for weight of the embryos. Twenty-two additional suggestive QTL were also detected. The largest effects were obtained for LUH and WOV on SSC13 (9.2 and 7.0% of trait phenotypic variance, respectively). Meishan alleles had both positive (e.g., on SSC7) and negative effects (e.g., on SSC13) on the traits investigated. Moreover, the QTL were generally not fixed in founder breeds, and opposite effects were in some cases obtained in different families. Although reproductive tract characteristics had only a moderate correlation with reproductive performances, most of the major QTL detected in this study were previously reported as affecting female reproduction, generally with reduced significance levels. This study thus shows that focusing on traits with high heritability might help to detect loci involved in low heritability major traits for breeding. PMID:21948608

  13. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  14. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  15. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics affect the spatial distribution of pesticide and transformation product loss to an agricultural brook.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, M; Olsson, O; Stamm, C; Weiler, M; Kümmerer, K

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse entry of pesticide residues from agriculture into rivers is spatially unevenly distributed. Therefore, the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) may support water quality management in agricultural catchments. In contrast to former studies, we followed the hypothesis that not only hydrological and topographical characteristics but also physico-chemical properties of pesticide residues have a major influence on their loss to rivers and on corresponding formation of CSAs. We designed a virtual experiment, i.e. a numerical experiment as close as possible to environmental conditions, in a headwater catchment where pronounced spatial differences in hydrological transport processes were identified in the past. 144 scenarios with different combinations of adsorption coefficients (KOC = 10-1000 ml/g) and transformation half-lives (DT50 = 3-60 days) for pesticide parent compounds (PCs) and their transformation products (TPs) were simulated using the catchment-scale spatially distributed reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra. Export fractions of substances in the virtual experiment ranged from 0.001-15% for pesticides and 0.001-1.8% for TPs. The results of the scenario investigations suggest that more of the calculated export mass variability could be attributed to KOC than to DT50 for both PCs and TPs. CSAs for TPs were spatially more equally distributed in the catchment than for PC export which was likely an effect of changing physico-chemical properties during transformation. The ranking of highest export fields was different between PCs and TPs for most of the investigated scenarios but six fields appeared among the top ten export fields in 95% of the scenarios, which shows the influence of site characteristics such as tile drains or soil properties in the catchment. Thus, the highest export fields were determined by a combination of site characteristics and substance characteristics. Therefore, despite the challenge of widely differing physico-chemical characteristics of pesticides on the market, these characteristics are an important consideration when delineating pesticide residue CSAs. PMID:26119387

  17. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, School and Personal Characteristics, and Principal Behaviors Related to Affecting Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymendera, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current principals' beliefs and behaviors in an attempt to identify the driving forces behind principal behaviors related to indirectly and directly affecting student achievement. The study utilized Canonical Correlation Analysis to examine the relationship between principals' perceived

  18. Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow affected by land use and cover in the Chickahominy River basin, Virginia, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, M.J.; Cooper, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Chickahominy River is the principal source of raw-water supply managed by the Department of Public Utilities, City of Newport News. Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow, and major land use and cover factors that affect the distribution, movement, and quality of water of the nontidal Chickahominy River were monitored at three continuous-record stations and two partial-record stations. The stations are located in areas that drain urban, residential, and rural land uses.

  19. Characteristics of Human Turbinate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Affected by Allergic Condition of Donor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Cho, Hye Kyung; Park, Sang Hi; Lee, WeonSun; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Dong Chang; Park, Sun Hwa; Lim, Mi Hyun; Back, Sang A; Yun, Byeong Gon; Sun, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human turbinates (hTMSCs) have not been investigated in allergic rhinitis. We evaluated the influence of allergic state of the donor on the characteristics, proliferation, and differentiation potential of hTMSCs, compared with hTMSCs derived from non-allergic patients. hTMSCs were isolated from five non-allergic and five allergic patients. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in hTMSCs was measured by FACS, and cell proliferation was measured using a cell counting kit. Cytokine secretion was analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. The osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials of hTMSCs were evaluated by histology and gene expression analysis. In allergic patients, FACS analysis showed that TLR3 and TLR4 were more highly expressed on the surface of hTMSCs than TLR2 and TLR5. The proliferation of hTMSCs was not influenced by the presence of TLR priming. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IP-10, and RANTES was upregulated after the TLR4 priming. The differentiation potential of hTMSCs was not influenced by TLR priming. These characteristics of hTMSCs were similar to those of hTMSCs from non-allergic patients. We conclude that the allergic condition of the donor does not influence TLR expression, proliferation, or immunomodulatory potential of hTMSCs. PMID:26376485

  20. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  1. Child and setting characteristics affecting the adult talk directed at preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder in the inclusive classroom.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Odom, Samuel L

    2015-02-01

    Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Research on typically developing children and children with disabilities, in general, suggests the adult talk received in the classroom is related to their social development. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the types and amounts of adult talk children with autism spectrum disorder are exposed to in the preschool classroom and (2) the associations between child characteristics (e.g. language), activity area, and adult talk. Kontos' Teacher Talk classification was used to code videos approximately 30 min in length of 73 children with autism spectrum disorder (ages 3-5) in inclusive classrooms (n = 33) during center time. The results indicated practical/personal assistance was the most common type of adult talk coded, and behavior management talk least often coded. Child characteristics (i.e. age and autism severity) and activity area were found to be related to specific types of adult talk. Given the findings, implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24463432

  2. Nonsynonymous natural genetic polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene affect biochemical and biological characteristics of the mature hormone.

    PubMed

    Reicher, S; Ramos-Nieves, J M; Hileman, S M; Boisclair, Y R; Gootwine, E; Gertler, A

    2012-02-01

    Leptin (LEP) is a cytokine-like hormone proven to be involved in diverse biological processes. In livestock, it regulates feed intake, BW homeostasis, and energy balance, among other traits. Natural nonsynonymous genetic polymorphisms in the ovine leptin (oLEP) alter the biochemical and physiological characteristics of its gene products. Here we studied in vitro and in vivo the biochemical and physiological characteristics of recombinant hormones representing the oLEP and bovine leptin (bLEP) reference sequences of wild-type (WT) leptins (GenBank accession No. U84247 and U50365, respectively), oLEP and bLEP recombinant muteins carrying the R4C mutation, and oLEP recombinant hormones carrying the A59V and Q62R mutations, which were detected in bLEP. All proteins were purified to homogeneity as monomers and formed 1:1 molar ratio complexes with the chicken leptin-binding domain (LBD). Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that all protein variants exhibit reduced (P < 0.05) affinity to chicken (ch) and human (h) LBD compared with the WT oLEP and bLEP recombinant proteins. The ovine and bovine R4C muteins exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) greater induction of cell proliferation in a Baf/3 cell line bioassay, despite lower affinity toward both hLBD and chLBD. Intra-third cerebral ventricle infusion of oLEP and its 3 muteins in sheep resulted in reduced feed intake. However, the 3 tested muteins had a decreased (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect than the WT LEP. It was concluded that natural genetic polymorphisms in the bLEP are associated with variation in the biochemical and physiological properties of the protein. PMID:21926317

  3. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 g-800 g of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

  4. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2013-12-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4??2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P?

  5. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting hemicellulose characteristics based on cell wall composition in a wild and cultivated rice species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Ju; Song, Xue-Qin; Yu, Bai-Sheng; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Sun, Chuan-Qing; Knox, J Paul; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides are structurally complex and diverse. Knowledge about the synthesis of cell wall hemicelluloses and their biological roles is limited. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a helpful tool for the dissection of complex phenotypes for gene identification. In this study, we exploited the natural variation in cell wall monosaccharide levels between a common wild rice, Yuanj, and an elite indica cultivar, Teqing, and performed QTL mapping with their introgression lines (ILs). Chemical analyses conducted on the culms of Yuanj and Teqing showed that the major alterations are found in glucose and xylose levels, which are correlated with specific hemicellulosic polymers. Glycosidic linkage examination revealed that, in Yuanj, an increase in glucose content results from a higher level of mixed linkage ?-glucan (MLG), whereas a reduction in xylose content reflects a low level of xylan backbone and a varied arabinoxylan (AX) structure. Seventeen QTLs for monosaccharides have been identified through composition analysis of the culm residues of 95 core ILs. Four major QTLs affecting xylose and glucose levels are responsible for 19 and 21% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. This study provides a unique resource for the genetic dissection of rice cell wall formation and remodeling in the vegetative organs. PMID:21914650

  6. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  7. Dysmenorrhea Characteristics of Female Students of Health School and Affecting Factors and Their Knowledge and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods.

    PubMed

    Midilli, Tulay Sagkal; Yasar, Eda; Baysal, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the menstruation and dysmenorrhea characteristics and the factors affecting dysmenorrhea of health school students, and the knowledge and use of the methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) on the part of those students with dysmenorrhea. This is a descriptive study. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the number, percentage, mean, Pearson χ, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 488 female students participated in the research and 87.7% (n = 428) of all students experienced dysmenorrhea. It was detected that a family history of dysmenorrhea and regular menstrual cycles of the students were dysmenorrhea-affecting factors (P < .05). Seven of 10 students with dysmenorrhea used CAM methods. Heat application of CAM methods for dysmenorrhea management was the most commonly used and also known by the students. The students who experienced severe pain used analgesics (P < .05) and CAM methods (P < .05). PMID:26086463

  8. Factors Affecting the Temporal and Spatial Variability and Characteristics of Marine Hydrocarbon Seepage, Coal Oil Point, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Sontro, T. S.; Leifer, I.; Luyendyk, B.

    2004-12-01

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) natural marine hydrocarbon (HC) seep field of the Santa Barbara Channel is one of the largest and most intensively studied marine HC seepage regions. Daily oil emissions were estimated at ˜100 barrels, while total gas emissions reach ˜100,000 m3day-1. The COP seep field consists of several intense areas of seepage that are each made up of dozens to hundreds or thousands of individual vents. Observations show that COP seepage varies spatially (cm-km), temporally (second - decade), and in magnitude (from trace to 104 m3day-1). The primary seepage trends (scale of 100s-1000s meters) lie above major WNW-ESE faults cutting the Coal Oil Point and South Ellwood anticlines. There is significant variation in seepage along these trends with the most intense emissions at intersections with NE-SW cross-cutting faults. Spatial variations on shorter scales (10s of meters) are related to fractures, exposed shale beds, and seabed characteristics (pebbles, sand, tar, etc.). Individual vent distribution varies on sub-meter scales. Seabed characteristics, seepage spatial distribution, and gas and oil emissions relate to seabed and subsurface geologic features. For example, bubble sizes are correlated with the substrate from which they are emitted. Small-sized bubbles (<0.1 cm diameter) emerge directly from fractures in the exposed shale. Larger-sized bubbles (0.1 < 1.0 cm) tend to escape after passing through a sediment overburden, with the size of the bubbles increasing with the sediment coarseness. Giant bubbles (>1.0 cm) are associated with a tar-sand overburden. The bubble size is an important factor with regards to bubble-mediated transport of seep gas and oil to the sea surface. A network of small conical tents was developed and deployed in active seep areas to gather high time resolution (0.2 s) gas emission rates that also had high spatial resolution (1 m). The tents ( ˜1-m tall, ˜2-m diameter) sit directly on the seabed over areas of seepage, typically spanning several vents. Rising bubbles generate an upwelling flow of water that spins a turbine with an optical encoder on its axis. The encoders are connected to a multi-channel datalogger. Measurements are recorded in revolutions per second and converted to gas volume flux based on laboratory calibration. Spectra of the seepage time series showed the effect of external forcings, including swell and tides. Responses to external forcing factors, such as a 1% swell variation, differ between multiple tents. Seeps with a higher flux exhibit a smaller response than seeps with a lower flux. Flux variations between tents demonstrate the complexity of the underlying processes of gas, oil, and tar migration through an inter-connected subsurface fracture network.

  9. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p⩽0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  10. Cognitive tasks during walking affect cerebral blood flow signal features in middle cerebral arteries and their correlation to gait characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gatouillat, Arthur; Bleton, Hlose; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Perera, Subashan; Thompson, Scott; Smith, Traci; Sejdi?, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    Gait is a complex process involving both cognitive and sensory ability and is strongly impacted by the environment. In this paper, we propose to study of the impact of a cognitive task during gait on the cerebral blood flow velocity, the blood flow signal features and the correlation of gait and blood flow features through a dual task methodology. Both cerebral blood flow velocity and gait characteristics of eleven participants with no history of brain or gait conditions were recorded using transcranial Doppler on mid-cerebral artery while on a treadmill. The cognitive task was induced by a backward counting starting from 10,000 with decrement of 7. Central blood flow velocity raw and envelope features were extracted in both time, frequency and time-scale domain; information-theoretic metrics were also extracted and statistical significances were inspected. A similar feature extraction was performed on the stride interval signal. Statistical differences between the cognitive and baseline trials, between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries signals and the impact of the antropometric variables where studied using linear mixed models. No statistical differences were found between the left and right mid-cerebral arteries flows or the baseline and cognitive state gait features, while statistical differences for specific features were measured between cognitive and baseline states. These statistical differences found between the baseline and cognitive states show that cognitive process has an impact on the cerebral activity during walking. The state was found to have an impact on the correlation between the gait and blood flow features. PMID:26409878

  11. Does preoperative gabapentin affects the characteristics of post-dural puncture headache in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Walid Hamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gabapentin is effective for treating different types of headache including post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), also used for prophylaxis against migraine. We studied the effect of pre-operative administration of gabapentin on the characteristics of PDPH in parturients undergoing cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive preoperative gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 ?g fentanyl. Babies were followed up by Apgar scores, umbilical artery blood gases, breastfeeding difficulties, and need for NICU admission. The mothers were followed up for any side-effects of gabapentin for 24 h. Patients with PDPH were re-admitted and onset and duration of the headache were reported and severity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 days from diagnosis. Paracetamol with caffeine and diclofenac were given for treatment, and the doses were adjusted according to VAS; also number of doses given for each group was recorded. Results: Eighty eight patients were randomized, and 2 were excluded. The incidence of headache and co-existing symptoms were similar in both groups. The onset of headache was significantly delayed in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). Also, severity and duration of headache were significantly less in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). The incidence of sedation was more in gabapentin group 11 (26.19%) versus placebo group 3 (6.81%). Neonatal outcomes were statistically insignificant between both groups. Conclusion: Pre-operative administration of gabapentin has no effect on incidence of (PDPH) but delays its onset and reduces its severity and duration in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia without significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby. PMID:25191187

  12. Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M., Jr.; Buszka, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Dissolved-solids loads increased from 1986 to 1988 at nine streamflow water-quality stations on the upper Colorado River and its tributaries between Lake J.B. Thomas and O.H. Ivie Reservoir. About 51 percent of the dissolved-solids load to E.V. Spence Reservoir resulted from saline-water outflow from Natural Dam Salt Lake on Beals Creek. The concen- tration of dissolved solids in streamflow generally decreased in the downstream direction as flows increased in all reaches of the river and its tributaries. The estimated disolved-solids concen- tration exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter for water from about 233 of 386 wells and springs for which specific conductance was measured in 1986. The mean concentration for all wells was about 1,750 milligrams per liter. Mixing with brine associated with oil and gas producton is a major process affecting the salinity of streamflow and shallow-aquifer water. Dissolution of gypsum and pyrite contributed to salinity of water in shallow aquifers because of the presence of these minerals in most formations. Some salinity in streamflow and shallow-aquifer water was attributed to evapotranspiration in areas where water was close to land surface, in irrigated areas, and along streams. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in water samples from shallow aquifers as classified using salt-norm analysis. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinatoins.

  13. The biochemical characteristics of wear testing lubricants affect polyethylene wear in orthopaedic pin-on-disc testing.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Leah E; Turgeon, Thomas R; Bohm, Eric R; Brandt, Jan-M

    2015-01-01

    Lubricant protein concentration is known to affect crosslinked polyethylene wear in in vitro testing; however, the biochemical nature of these lubricants may also have a significant effect on wear and dictate its clinical relevance. A modified approach to pin-on-disc testing was implemented to explore the effect of four biochemically different lubricants on the wear of two types of crosslinked polyethylene materials (XLK™ and Marathon™; DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN, USA). XLK was associated with higher wear rates than Marathon. In comparison to lubricants containing deionized water, lubricants containing phosphate buffered saline solution and hyaluronic acid increased osmolality by up to 1.2 times and thermal stability by up to 1.4 times. This biochemical change reduced wear by up to 12.5 times. Wear rates for XLK and Marathon differed by a factor of 3.2 using lubricants with phosphate buffered saline solution as the dilutive media, but only 2.0 for lubricants with deionized water. Interestingly, varying the concentration of hyaluronic acid did not have a significant effect on wear, and differences between XLK and Marathon wear rates were not found to be statistically significant when hyaluronic acid was added to the lubricant. The findings of this study showed that increasing the osmolality and thermal stability of lubricants to more clinical levels decreased wear; however, the effect of hyaluronic acid on wear may not be apparent in simplistic pin-on-disc testing. It was suggested that phosphate buffered saline solution be used as the dilutive media of choice in order to better differentiate the ranking of materials while maintaining some clinical relevance. PMID:25655957

  14. Thallus morphology and optical characteristics affect growth and DNA damage by UV radiation in juvenile Arctic Laminaria sporophytes.

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Wiencke, Christian; Hanelt, Dieter

    2006-02-01

    Growth of young sporophytes of the brown algae Laminaria digitata, L. saccharina and L. solidungula from Spitsbergen were measured in the laboratory after being exposed for 21 days to either photosynthetically active radiation (PAR = P) or to full light spectrum (PAR + UV-A + UV-B = PAB) using of cutoff glass filters. The plants were grown at 8+/-2 degrees C and 16 h light : 8 h dark cycles with 6 h additional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the middle of the light period. Growth was measured every 10 min using growth chambers with online video measuring technique. Tissue morphology and absorption spectra were measured in untreated young sporophytes while chlorophyll (Chl) a content and DNA damage were measured in treated thalli at the end of the experiment. In all species, growth rates were significantly higher in sporophytes exposed to P alone compared to sporophytes exposed to PAB. Tissue DNA damage is dependent on thallus thickness and absorption spectra characteristics of pigments and UV-absorbing compounds. In sporophytes exposed to UVR, energy demands for repair of DNA damage and synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds for protection effectively diverts photosynthate at the expense of growth. Photosynthetic pigment was not significantly different between treatments suggesting a capacity for acclimation to moderate UVR fluence. The general growth pattern in sporophytes exposed to P alone showed an increasing growth rate from the onset of light (0500-0900 hours) to a peak at the middle of the light phase (0900-1500 hours), a decline towards the end of the light phase (1500-2100 hours) and a minimum "low" growth in the dark (2100-0500 hours) relative to growth during the entire light phase. Under PAB, different growth patterns were observed such as growth compensation at night in L. digitata, delayed growth recovery in L. saccharina and minimal but continuous growth in L. solidungula. Growth as an integrative parameter of all physiological processes showed that the effect of UVR is correlated to the depth distribution of these species. PMID:16244865

  15. Discontinuous gas-exchange cycle characteristics are differentially affected by hydration state and energy metabolism in gregarious and solitary desert locusts.

    PubMed

    Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2015-12-01

    The termination of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) in severely dehydrated insects casts doubt on the generality of the hygric hypothesis, which posits that DGCs evolved as a water conservation mechanism. We followed DGC characteristics in the two density-dependent phases of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria throughout exposure to an experimental treatment of combined dehydration and starvation stress, and subsequent rehydration. We hypothesized that, under stressful conditions, the more stress-resistant gregarious locusts would maintain DGCs longer than solitary locusts. However, we found no phase-specific variations in body water content, water loss rates (total and respiratory) or timing of stress-induced abolishment of DGCs. Likewise, locusts of both phases re-employed DGCs after ingesting comparable volumes of water when rehydrated. Despite comparable water management performances, the effect of exposure to stressful experimental conditions on DGC characteristics varied significantly between gregarious and solitary locusts. Interburst duration, which is affected by the ability to buffer CO2, was significantly reduced in dehydrated solitary locusts compared with gregarious locusts. Moreover, despite similar rehydration levels, only gregarious locusts recovered their initial CO2 accumulation capacity, indicating that cycle characteristics are affected by factors other than haemolymph volume. Haemolymph protein measurements and calculated respiratory exchange ratios suggest that catabolism of haemolymph proteins may contribute to a reduced haemolymph buffering capacity, and thus a compromised ability for CO2 accumulation, in solitary locusts. Nevertheless, DGC was lost at similar hydration states in the two phases, suggesting that DGCs are terminated as a result of inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. PMID:26486365

  16. Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Coal constitutes a large proportion of total energy supply in the world. Coalbed Methane (CBM) composes the greenhouse gases, which has attracted more and more scientists' concern and attention. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM on high-rank deformed coals are in favor of enhancing gas recovery, reducing coal mining accidents and carbon emission. Although the influence factors of CBM adsorption/desorption on different coals have been intensively studied, the combined action of metamorphism and deformation on high-rank coals have been rarely researched. Nevertheless. Metamorphism and deformation are the most fundamental driving forces that cause the changes of inner structures and compositions in coal strata, and then alter the adsorption/desorption capacities of CBM on different coalbeds. South of Qinshui Basin in Shanxi province developed with abundant high-rank coals is the first demonstrate area of CBM development in China. Meanwhile Southwest of Fujian province represents high metamorphic-deformed coals region due to the intense volcanic activities. Therefore samples were taken in both areas to elaborate the adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM. Based on hand specimens description, coal macerals testing, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and vitrinite reflectance testing, the physical properties and composition characteristics of high-rank deformed coals have been studied. Combined with liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, the results show that nano-pores increase and become homogenization with metamorphic-deformation enhancement, stacking of the macromolecular basic structural units (BSU) enhances, aromatic compound increases while aliphatic chain compound and oxygen-containing function groups decrease. Comparing to coal adsorption/desorption isotherm experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

  17. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

  18. Characteristics of Debris Flow-inducing Factors in Typhoon Morakot Affected Area- An Examination of the Topographic factors, rainfall intensity and Landslide Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.-W.; Lo, W.-C.; Hsiao, C.-Y.; Ku, B.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan during Aug. 7 to 9, 2009. It dumped heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan, especially around the Central Mountain Range in Pingtung, Chia-Yi, and Kaohsiung County. In view of this, Comprehensive field investigation was carried out by government and private organizations after Typhoon Morakot, useful information of debris flow was gathered. Besides, after Typhoon Morakot, the debris flow-inducing factors become more challenging in Taiwan, many aspects had to be considered. The scope of this study was mainly discussed in debris flow-inducing factors in serious damaged areas which including Nantou, Chia-Yi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Taitung County. Totally 218 torrents were included. Field investigation data and disaster records of Typhoon Morakot were utilized to analyze debris flow-inducing factors in three aspects: terrain, rainfall and sediment source. First, by using Principle Component Analysis(PCA) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis(CA) to select significant factors, 101 factors were reduced to the most important 18 factors. Then through descriptive statistics and scatter diagram were selected to discuss the correlation among "Average slope gradient of watershed", "Landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone" as well as the "rainfall intensity during Typhoon Morakot". The above charts of characteristics analysis were used to summarize the range of factor value which tend to occur phenomenon of debris flow in Typhoon Morakot. Besides, Random Forest Algorithm (RF) was utilized to research the relationship toward multi-variables. The significant factors which tend to affect the debris flow-inducing factor were "effective accumulated rainfall", "hourly rainfall", "landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone", "average elevation value of effective watershed which higher than 10 degree", sequentially. By the results, the most significant factor is the rainfall factor during Typhoon Morakot. The results can be utilized in improving debris flow hazard management in the future. Key Words: Typhoon Morakot, Debris Flow-inducing Factors, Characteristics Analysis, Random Forest Algorithm

  19. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    Optimization of ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) is strongly driven by the needs of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The rapidly growing use of genomic selection in cattle has increased the interest in using OPU-IVP technology to increase the number of embryos and offspring per donor, thus allowing enhanced selection intensity for the next generation. The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes. The effects on embryo production and on embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryo survival, and calf characteristics, including gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex ratio were studied. In study 1, immature slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine, fertilized and cultured for 7 days in 0.5 ml SOFaaBSA. In study 2, cysteamine was present during both IVM (0.1 mM) and IVC (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mM) from Days 1 to 4. In study 3, OPU-derived COCs were matured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine in a 2 2 factorial design (OPU week and cysteamine treatment). Embryos were evaluated for stage and grade on Day 7 and, depending on the number of transferable embryos and recipients available, the embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen-thawed at a later date. The presence of cysteamine during IVM significantly increased the embryo production rate with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (24.0% vs. 19.4%). The higher number of embryos at Day 7 was due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas the distribution of embryos among different quality grades and cryotolerance was not affected. Embryo production rate was negatively affected when cysteamine was present during both the processes of IVM and IVC during Days 1 to 4 of culture (13.2%-19.3% vs. 26.4%). The presence of cysteamine during IVM of OPU-derived COCs also significantly increased the embryo production rate (34.4% vs. 23.4%). The higher number of embryos was again totally due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas cryotolerance was not affected. The relative increase in embryo production rate was higher with OPU-derived oocytes compared with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (47% vs. 24%). This improvement resulted in a mean of 1.73 transferable embryos per OPU session compared with 1.06 in the absence of cysteamine. The presence of cysteamine did not affect pregnancy rate, gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex of calves born from either fresh or frozen-thawed embryos. This study reported that cysteamine supplementation during IVM greatly improved the efficiency and affectivity of an OPU-IVP program. PMID:23746876

  20. How do care-provider and home exercise program characteristics affect patient adherence in chronic neck and back pain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of people with chronic neck or low back pain about how characteristics of home exercise programs and care-provider style during clinical encounters may affect adherence to exercises. Methods This is a qualitative study consisting of seven focus groups, with a total of 34 participants presenting chronic neck or low back pain. The subjects were included if they were receiving physiotherapy treatment and were prescribed home-based exercises. Results Two themes emerged: home-based exercise programme conditions and care provider's style. In the first theme, the participants described their positive and negative experiences regarding time consumption, complexity and effects of prescribed exercises. In the second theme, participants perceived more bonding to prescribed exercises when their care provider presented knowledge about the disease, promoted feedback and motivation during exercise instruction, gave them reminders to exercise, or monitored their results and adherence to exercises. Conclusions Our experiential findings indicate that patient's adherence to home-based exercise is more likely to happen when care providers' style and the content of exercise programme are positively experienced. These findings provide additional information to health care providers, by showing which issues should be considered when delivering health care to patients presenting chronic neck or back pain. PMID:20219095

  1. Acute myocardial infarction does not affect functional characteristics of adipose-derived stem cells in rats, but reduces the number of stem cells in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Naaijkens, B A; Krijnen, P A J; Meinster, E; Ter Horst, E N; Vo, K; Musters, R J P; Kamp, O; Niessen, H W M; Juffermans, L J M; van Dijk, A

    2015-12-01

    In most pre-clinical animal studies investigating stem cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the administered stem cells are isolated from healthy donors. In clinical practice, however, patients who suffer from AMI will receive autologous cells, for example using adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). During AMI, inflammation is induced and we hypothesized that this might affect characteristics of ASC. To investigate this, ASC were isolated from rat adipose tissue 1day (1D group, n?=?5) or 7days (7D group, n?=?6) post-AMI, and were compared with ASC from healthy control rats (Control group, n?=?6) and sham-operated rats (Sham 1D group, n?=?5). We found that significantly fewer ASC were present 1day post-AMI in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), determined by a colony-forming-unit assay (p?

  2. Hydrologic characterization of a permafrost-affected headwaters catchment using a coupled groundwater-surface water model and field measurements of active layer characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, C.; Koch, J.; Steelman, C. M.; Schuster, P. F.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is expected to change the quantity and quality of solute fluxes from northern watersheds. In particular, fluxes of organic carbon (OC) and mercury (Hg) are of great concern for aquatic and marine ecosystems in this area. The total export of OC and Hg depends upon hydrology of permafrost-affected catchments; in particular, the magnitude and extent of groundwater-surface water flows. Hydrologic processes in these catchments are complex and poorly understood; furthermore, understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction is greatly complicated by permafrost degradation. Hydrologic modeling and field studies at West Twin Creek - a permafrost-affected, experimental headwaters catchment in interior Alaska - have been undertaken to identify the dominant controls upon catchment hydrology, groundwater-surface water interaction, and export of OC and Hg. A coupled groundwater-surface water model was developed using the code GSFLOW, calibrated to several years of streamflow data. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater-surface water flows are predominantly controlled by physical characteristics of the soil active layer in the catchment. A suite of measurements was designed to better constrain the properties of the soil active layer at West Twin Creek during a period of maximum thaw depth. Gridded permafrost probing and soil coring were undertaken along several transects through hillslope and riparian areas. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted to complement these point measurements, providing spatially continuous information on active layer thickness along survey lines. Soil coring and GPR surveys revealed distinct soil profiles and frost table depths at several hillslope locations. Soils varied from fine eolian silts to coarse schist cobbles, and differences corresponded to moisture, surface vegetation, and thaw depth. These differences may have large effects on moisture storage, hillslope hydraulic conductivity, and subsequently runoff potential. Artificial rainfall experiments were then performed to quantify surface runoff and interflow through organic and mineral horizons at control plots representative of each soil profile type. These experiments showed that water flow occurs predominantly at the interface between organic and mineral horizons in hillslope soils. The targeted measurements undertaken during this field campaign were used to revise the hydrologic model for the catchment, providing more accurate estimates of groundwater-surface water fluxes for the purposes of forecasting OC and Hg exports.

  3. Do the Fibroblasts Contained in Early Passage MSC Population Adversely Affect the Characteristics of Stem Cell Population Obtained from Human Placenta?

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jun-Woo; Kim, Jin-A; Ha, Chul-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained from various human tissues by harvesting plastic adherent fibroblast-like cell population. For potential use in regeneration medicine, early passage MSC population is preferred to avoid cell senescence. The early passage adherent cell population contains MSCs as well as fibroblasts, however, the significance of the contained fibroblasts has not been well investigated. Thus, we investigated the stem cell characteristics of the early passage MSC population with and without fibroblasts depletion. Methods and Results: We obtained adherent cell populations from full term placenta at passage 2∼3 and divided them into two subpopulations: fibroblasts depleted (popFD) and non-depleted population (popFND) using magnetic cell sorting method. The two subpopulations were compared in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation for adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. The percentage of fibroblasts contained in the early passage MSC population was 5.3% (2.9∼8.4). Both the popFD and popFND was spindle shaped from early passages and maintained long term culture up to 20∼22 passages. CFU-F assay showed no difference between the subpopulations. Overall, tri-lineage differentiation showed a tendency of better differentiation potential of popFND than popFD. Conclusions: We confirmed that fibroblasts are contained in early population of placenta-derived MSCs obtained by current method. This study revealed that the contained fibroblasts in early passage MSC population do not adversely affect the properties of MSCs in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation. PMID:24298361

  4. Pressure and Force Characteristics of Noncircular Cylinders as Affected by Reynolds Number with a Method Included for Determining the Potential Flow About Arbitrary Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; Geller, Edward W.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1959-01-01

    The low-speed pressure-distribution and force characteristics of several noncircular two-dimensional cylinders were measured in wind tunnel through a range of Reynolds numbers and flow incidences. A method of determining the potential-flow pressure distribution for arbitrary cross sections is described. Application of the data in predicting the spin characteristics of fuselages is briefly discussed.

  5. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were

  6. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  7. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    McKeith, R O; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011 (NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%), individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%), metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black (61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%), brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle (1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%), 2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%), 1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%) were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises, 0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/flank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identification (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition, there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011 = 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities. PMID:22952370

  8. Training, Transfer and the Influence of Job Search Procedures, Psychological Attributes and Personal Characteristics on Earnings of Workers Affected by a Plant Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, James L.; And Others

    This followup study on plant closures was designed to replicate an earlier study in order to ascertain whether training would again show no payoff relative to direct labor market participation. The major variables used were: Influence of personal characteristics, psychological attributes and job search patterns, in addition to the variables of

  9. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

  10. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  11. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Iakiviak, M; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-09-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively affect immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonella typhimurium-infected chicks. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old commercial broiler chicks (n = 240 chicks; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments differing in concentration of GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) or containing 2% Safmannan or 2% short-chain fructooligosaccharides. Cellulose was used to make diets iso-total dietary fiber. On d 10 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either phosphate-buffered saline (sham control) or Salmonella typhimurium (1 × 10(8) cfu). All birds were euthanized on d 10 postinoculation (PI) for collection of intestinal contents and select tissues. Body weight gain and feed intake of chicks were greater (P < 0.05) in infected chicks PI for all time periods, except for weight gain on d 0 to 3 PI. Gain:feed was affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with Safmannan-fed chicks having the highest G:F and 1% GGMO-AX-fed chicks having the lowest. The GGMO-AX substrate demonstrated effects similar to a prebiotic substrate as indicated by increased cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, decreased cecal pH, and increased populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. as dietary GGMO-AX concentration increased. Excreta Salmonella typhimurium populations on d 5 and 10 PI, and ileal and cecal Salmonella typhimurium populations, tended to be affected (P < 0.10) by the main effect of diet. Messenger RNA expression of IFN-γ in the cecal tonsils was the only cytokine independently affected by infection and diet (P < 0.01). Chicks fed 2 and 4% GGMO-AX had similar expressions of IFN-γ and IL-1β, regardless of infection, suggesting that Salmonella typhimurium virulence was suppressed. Dietary supplementation with GGMO-AX resulted in prebiotic-like effects but did not limit Salmonella typhimurium intestinal colonization or shedding, but possibly decreased the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium within the digestive tract. PMID:22912459

  12. Retention and rainfastness of mancozeb as affected by physicochemical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surface after enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Bringe, Katja; Hunsche, Mauricio; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Noga, Georg

    2007-02-01

    It is not clear so far whether alteration of leaf micromorphology and surface wax chemistry due to the impact of environmental factors, such as UV-B radiation, affects retention and rainfastness of applied pesticide solutions. In this study; UV-B treated and untreated adaxial leaf surfaces of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were characterized in terms of chemical composition, micromorphological fine structure, hydrophobicity, and wettability. Furthermore, the retention and rainfastness of applied fungicide mancozeb were studied. The samples were examined 0, 24 and 48 h after ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (0.022 kW m(-2) for 150 min) The total wax mass, recovered from the adaxial leaf surface, amounted from 0.38 microg cm(-2) (control) up to 0.49 microg cm(-2) (24 h). Chemical composition of surface wax altered, whereas the contact angle of applied water droplets on leaf surface of UV-B treated plants did not change significantly compared to the control. The alteration of surface wax quantity and quality significantly affected retention of a.i.; it increased at a sampling time of 24 h after UV-B irradiation, whereas rainfastness of the fungicide spray solution was not significantly influenced. PMID:17365327

  13. [Accumulation Characteristics and Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil-Crop System Affected by Wastewater Irrigation Around a Chemical Factory in Shenmu County].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-bing; Chu, Wan-lin; Pu, Jie; Liu, Meng-yun; Chang, Qing-rui

    2015-04-01

    Soil heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd, are regarded as "chemical time bombs" because of their propensity for accumulation in the soil and uptake by crops. This ultimately causes human toxicity in both the short and long-term, making farmland ecosystems dangerous to health. In this paper, accumulation and spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in soil-crop system affected by wastewater irrigation around a chemical factor in northern Shaanxi province were analyzed. Results showed that wastewater irrigation around the chemical factory induced significant accumulation in soils compared with control areas. The average concentrations of available Cu and total Cu were 4.32 mg x kg(-1) and 38.4 mg x kg(-1), which were twice and 1.35 times higher than those of the control area, respectively. Soil Zn and Pb were slightly accumulated. Whereas soil Cd was significantly accumulated and was higher than the critical level of soil environmental quality (II), the available and total Cd concentrations were 0.248 mg x kg(-1) and 1.21 mg x kg(-1), which were 10 and 6.1 times higher than those of the control areas. No significant correlations were found between available and total heavy metals except between available Cd and total Cd. All the heavy metals were mainly accumulated in the top layer (0-10 cm). Spatially, soils and plants high in heavy metal concentration were distributed within the radius of about 100 m from the waste water outlet for Cu, Zn and Cd and about 200 m for Pb, and decreased exponentially with the distance from the factory. Affected by wastewater irrigation, contents of Cu, Pb and Cd in maize were 4.74, 0.129 and 0.036 mg x kg(-1) which were slightly higher than those in the control area. The content of Zn was similar to that in the control area. Affected by the vehicle exhaust, the over standard rate of Pb was 5.7% in maize. All the heavy metals did not show significant correlation between soil and crop, except Cd. The square correlation coefficients were 0.83 and 0.75 between soil available and total Cd with maize. Therefore, the chemical factory contributed to the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil around it, but the contribution to the crop was limited, and thus temporarily caused no threat to human health. The reason for the lower accumulation was the high soil pH and low soil organic matter content. But more attentions should be paid to the higher accumulation of Pb in the maize caused by the vehicle and dust. PMID:26164926

  14. Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, U.S.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva-Murray, K.; Riemann, R.; Murdoch, P.; Fischer, J.M.; Brightbill, R.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread and increasing urbanization has resulted in the need to assess, monitor, and understand its effects on stream water quality. Identifying relations between stream ecological condition and urban intensity indicators such as impervious surface provides important, but insufficient information to effectively address planning and management needs in such areas. In this study we investigate those specific landscape metrics which are functionally linked to indicators of stream ecological condition, and in particular, identify those characteristics that exacerbate or mitigate changes in ecological condition over and above impervious surface. The approach used addresses challenges associated with redundancy of landscape metrics, and links landscape pattern and composition to an indicator of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware River Basin, and landscape data of high spatial and thematic resolution were obtained from photointerpretation of 1999 imagery. An ordination-derived 'biotic score' was positively correlated with assemblage tolerance, and with urban-related chemical characteristics such as chloride concentration and an index of potential pesticide toxicity. Impervious surface explained 56% of the variation in biotic score, but the variation explained increased to as high as 83% with the incorporation of a second land use, cover, or configuration metric at catchment or riparian scales. These include land use class-specific cover metrics such as percent of urban land with tree cover, forest fragmentation metrics such as aggregation index, riparian metrics such as percent tree cover, and metrics related to urban aggregation. Study results indicate that these metrics will be important to monitor in urbanizing areas in addition to impervious surface. ?? 2010 US Government.

  15. Supplementation of grazing dairy cows with rumen-protected tuna oil enriches milk fat with n-3 fatty acids without affecting milk production or sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Gulati, Suresh K; Simos, Gillian C; Ashes, John R; Scott, Trevor W; Fleck, Eva; Wynn, Peter C

    2004-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of incorporation of dietary EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into milk, and to evaluate consequent changes in milk fat composition and sensory characteristics. Fourteen multiparous cows in early lactation were divided into two groups and were offered supplements for 10 d. While individual stalls after each morning milking, one group was offered a mixture of rumen-protected tuna oil (RPTO)-soyabean supplement (2 kg; 30:70, w/w; +RPTO) and the second group was offered the basal ration without RPTO (-RPTO). Both groups grazed together on a spring pasture after supplementation. Feeding supplemental RPTO increased the concentrations of EPA and DHA in milk fat from undetectable levels in -RPTO cows to 6.9 and 10.1 g/kg milk fat respectively. Total n-3 PUFA concentration in milk fat was increased three- to fourfold by tuna-oil supplementation (8.4 to 32.0 g/kg milk fat). There were no significant effects on milk production (35.4 v. 33.9 l/d), milk protein (28.2 v. 30.1 g/kg) or milk fat (36.2 v. 40.4 g/kg for -RPTO and +RPTO respectively). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat was significantly reduced (568 v. 520 g/kg total fatty acids) and there was a 17 % reduction in the atherosclerotic index of milk after tuna-oil supplementation. Untrained consumer panellists (n 61) rated milk from both groups of cows similarly for taste and smell. We conclude that it is possible to enrich milk with n-3 PUFA without deleterious effects on yield, milk composition or sensory characteristics. PMID:14756913

  16. Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product. PMID:20181879

  17. Disruption of the actin filament network affects delivery of endocytic contents marker to phagosomes with early endosome characteristics: the case of phagosomes with pathogenic mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Guérin, I; de Chastellier, C

    2000-10-01

    Phagosomes containing live virulent mycobacteria undergo fusion with early endosomes, but they are unable to mature normally. Accordingly, they do not fuse with lysosomes. Although M. avium-containing phagosomes retain fusion and intermingling characteristics of early endosomes indefinitely, fusions with early endosomes are increasingly restricted as bacteria multiply. In addition, when endocytic tracers, such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP), are added to M. avium-infected macrophages at 1 or up to 15 days after infection, an atypical time course of acquisition of the tracer by the phagosomes is observed, i.e., a 10 to 20 min lag, instead of immediate acquisition as is typical for early endosomes (and phagosomes with early endosome characteristics). These events coincide with a marked disorganization of the actin filament network in M. avium-infected macrophages. In the present study, we have therefore addressed the following question: Do actin filaments play a role in fusion and intermingling of contents between early endosomes and immature phagosomes that undergo homotypic fusion with early endosomes? We examined the time course of acquisition of subsequently internalized endocytic marker (HRP) by early endosome-like preexisting phagosomes, i.e. 2 hour-old phagosomes with either hydrophobic latex particles, virulent or avirulent M. avium, after depolymerization of the actin filament network with cytochalasin D or after repolymerization of the actin filament network with jasplakinolide, in cases where the network had been depolymerized (macrophages infected with M. avium, at 1 or up to 7 days after infection). By direct morphological observation at the electron microscope level and by a kinetic approach, we show here that depolymerization of the actin filament network with cytochalasin D delays acquisition of HRP whereas repolymerization restores immediate acquisition of the marker. We conclude that the actin filament network is involved in fusion and intermingling of endocytic contents between early endosomes and early endosome-like phagosomes, and that disruption of this network by M. avium is the cause for the atypical acquisition of content marker by phagosomes containing these pathogenic mycobacteria. PMID:11089922

  18. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic low-wave-drag elliptical body-tail combinations as affected by changes in stabilizer configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 to determine systematically the effects of the addition and position of outboard stabilizers and vertical- and vee-tail configurations on the performance and stability characteristics of a low-wave-drag elliptical body. The basic body shape was a zero-lift hypersonic minimum-wave-drag body as determined for the geometric constraints of length and volume. The elliptical cross section had an axis ratio of 2 (major axis horizontal) and an equivalent fineness ratio of 6.14. Base-mounted outboard stabilizers were at various dihedral angles from 90 deg to minus 90 deg with and without a single center-line vertical tail or a vee-tail. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 6 to 27 deg at sideslip angles of 0 and 5 deg and a constant Reynolds number of 4.58 x one million (based on body length).

  19. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jrgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-?-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. PMID:25172739

  20. Long-term history and immediate preceding state affect EEG slow wave characteristics at NREM sleep onset in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Mckillop, L E; Fisher, S P; Oliver, P L; Vyazovskiy, V V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cortical activity across the 24-h day and at vigilance state transitions is regulated by an interaction between global subcortical neuromodulatory influences and local shifts in network synchrony and excitability. To address the role of long-term and immediate preceding history in local and global cortical dynamics, we investigated cortical EEG recorded from both frontal and occipital regions during an undisturbed 24-h recording in mice. As expected, at the beginning of the light period, under physiologically increased sleep pressure, EEG slow waves were more frequent and had higher amplitude and slopes, compared to the rest of the light period. Within discrete NREM sleep episodes, the incidence, amplitude and slopes of individual slow waves increased progressively after episode onset in both derivations by approximately 10-30%. Interestingly, at the beginning of NREM sleep episodes slow waves in the frontal and occipital derivations frequently occurred in isolation, as quantified by longer latencies between consecutive slow waves in the two regions. Notably, slow waves during the initial period of NREM sleep following REM sleep episodes were significantly less frequent, lower in amplitude and exhibited shallower slopes, compared to those that occurred in NREM episodes after prolonged waking. Moreover, the latencies between consecutive frontal and occipital NREM slow waves were substantially longer when they occurred directly after REM sleep compared to following consolidated wakefulness. Overall these data reveal a complex picture, where both time of day and preceding state contribute to the characteristics and dynamics of slow waves within NREM sleep. These findings suggest that NREM sleep initiates in a more "local" fashion when it occurs following REM sleep episodes as opposed to sustained waking bouts. While the mechanisms and functional significance of such a re-setting of brain state after individual REM sleep episodes remains to be investigated, we suggest that it may be an essential feature of physiological sleep regulation. PMID:25828687

  1. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, M M H; Pasha, T N; Akram, M; Mushtaq, T; Parvin, R; Choi, H C; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H

    2013-06-01

    Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl) and chloride salts were determined by using 42 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73%) and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2) of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10), Starter (d 11 to 20), Grower (d 21 to 33) and Finisher (d 34 to 42); and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p?0.009) and feed:gain (FG; p?0.03) were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p?0.04) and d 34 to 42 (p?0.009) was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p?0.006), FG (p?0.007) and litter moisture (LM; p?0.001) was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI) was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05); however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI) was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p?0.05) and d 21 to 33 (p?0.009). Except for d 34 to 42 (p?0.006), the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight) were improved while dressing percentage (DP) and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p?0.001). Higher plasma Na(+) and HCO3 (-) and lower Cl(-) and Ca(++) were observed in NH4Cl supplemented diets (p?0.001). Increasing supplementation of dCl increased plasma Cl(-) (p?0.04; quadratically) and linearly reduced plasma K(+) (p?0.001), Ca(++) (p?0.003), HCO3 (-) (p?0.001), and Na(+) (p?0.001; quadratically). Consequently, higher requirements of dietary chloride are suggested for feed intake; nevertheless, lower levels of dietary chloride are sufficient to support optimal BWG and FG with increasing age. The NH4Cl supplemented diets ameliorate breast and thigh meat yield along with overall energy balance (glucose). PMID:25049859

  2. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Pasha, T. N.; Akram, M.; Mushtaq, T.; Parvin, R.; Choi, H. C.; Hwangbo, J.; Kim, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl) and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73%) and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2) of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10), Starter (d 11 to 20), Grower (d 21 to 33) and Finisher (d 34 to 42); and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p≤0.009) and feed:gain (FG; p≤0.03) were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p≤0.04) and d 34 to 42 (p≤0.009) was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p≤0.006), FG (p≤0.007) and litter moisture (LM; p≤0.001) was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI) was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05); however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI) was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p≤0.05) and d 21 to 33 (p≤0.009). Except for d 34 to 42 (p≤0.006), the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight) were improved while dressing percentage (DP) and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p≤0.001). Higher plasma Na+ and HCO3− and lower Cl− and Ca++ were observed in NH4Cl supplemented diets (p≤0.001). Increasing supplementation of dCl increased plasma Cl− (p≤0.04; quadratically) and linearly reduced plasma K+ (p≤0.001), Ca++ (p≤0.003), HCO3− (p≤0.001), and Na+ (p≤0.001; quadratically). Consequently, higher requirements of dietary chloride are suggested for feed intake; nevertheless, lower levels of dietary chloride are sufficient to support optimal BWG and FG with increasing age. The NH4Cl supplemented diets ameliorate breast and thigh meat yield along with overall energy balance (glucose). PMID:25049859

  3. Morphology and enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 are affected by the physical and structural characteristics of cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Peciulyte, Ausra; Anasontzis, George E; Karlstrm, Katarina; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-11-01

    The industrial production of cellulolytic enzymes is dominated by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina). In order to develop optimal enzymatic cocktail, it is of importance to understand the natural regulation of the enzyme profile as response to the growth substrate. The influence of the complexity of cellulose on enzyme production by the microorganisms is not understood. In the present study we attempted to understand how different physical and structural properties of cellulose-rich substrates affected the levels and profiles of extracellular enzymes produced by T. reesei. Enzyme production by T. reesei Rut C-30 was studied in submerged cultures on five different cellulose-rich substrates, namely, commercial cellulose Avicel and industrial-like cellulosic pulp substrates which consist mainly of cellulose, but also contain residual hemicellulose and lignin. In order to evaluate the hydrolysis of the substrates by the fungal enzymes, the spatial polymer distributions were characterised by cross-polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR) in combination with spectral fitting. Proteins in culture supernatants at early and late stages of enzyme production were labeled by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and protein profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001304. In total 124 proteins were identified and quantified in the culture supernatants, including cellulases, hemicellulases, other glycoside hydrolases, lignin-degrading enzymes, auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) family (formerly GH61), supporting activities of proteins and enzymes acting on cellulose, proteases, intracellular proteins and several hypothetical proteins. Surprisingly, substantial differences in the enzyme profiles were found even though there were minor differences in the chemical composition between the cellulose-rich substrates. PMID:25093270

  4. Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hbler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

    2011-03-01

    We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in southern Russia and southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 3 and 7 km and a slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

  5. Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic climate (ARCPAC) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hbler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

    2010-11-01

    We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in Southern Russia and Southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 2 and 7 km and a~slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in fresh wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

  6. Characteristics of gravitationally affected colloidal plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkhowa, Kavita Rani; Ramachandran, H.

    2004-03-01

    The presence of massive dust grains modifies the flow structures of plasma species in presheath and sheath regions as well as the nature of boundary conditions at the sheath edge. The work presents a one-dimensional approach to study the plasma sheath profiles in the presheath and sheath regions of a colloidal plasma. Electrons are assumed to be Boltzmannian and ions and dusts are assumed to be adiabatic fluid with finite temperature in the absence of a source. The set of equations is solved numerically for the presheath and the sheath regions to explore the possible physical solutions. Solutions for presheath and sheath regions in continuity are obtained. Combined effects of electrostatic, neutral drag, and external gravity forces are included to analyze the solutions for three distinct cases for both interacting and noninteracting dust. The likely existence of levitational equilibrium is explored.

  7. Structural stability, microbial biomass and community composition of sediments affected by the hydric dynamics of an urban stormwater infiltration basin. Dynamics of physical and microbial characteristics of stormwater sediment.

    PubMed

    Badin, Anne Laure; Monier, Armelle; Volatier, Laurence; Geremia, Roberto A; Delolme, Ccile; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of stormwater infiltration basins is highly organic and multicontaminated. It undergoes considerable moisture content fluctuations due to the drying and inundation cycles (called hydric dynamics) of these basins. Little is known about the microflora of the sediments and its dynamics; hence, the purpose of this study is to describe the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the sediments at different hydric statuses of the infiltration basin. Sediments were sampled at five time points following rain events and dry periods. They were characterized by physical (aggregation), chemical (nutrients and heavy metals), and biological (total, bacterial and fungal biomasses, and genotypic fingerprints of total bacterial and fungal communities) parameters. Data were processed using statistical analyses which indicated that heavy metal (1,841 ?g/g dry weight (DW)) and organic matter (11%) remained stable through time. By contrast, aggregation, nutrient content (NH??, 53-717 ?g/g DW), pH (6.9-7.4), and biological parameters were shown to vary with sediment water content and sediment biomass, and were higher consecutive to stormwater flows into the basin (up to 7 mg C/g DW) than during dry periods (0.6 mg C/g DW). Coinertia analysis revealed that the structure of the bacterial communities is driven by the hydric dynamics of the infiltration basin, although no such trend was found for fungal communities. Hydric dynamics more than rain events appear to be more relevant for explaining variations of aggregation, microbial biomass, and shift in the microbial community composition. We concluded that the hydric dynamics of stormwater infiltration basins greatly affects the structural stability of the sedimentary layer, the biomass of the microbial community living in it and its dynamics. The decrease in aggregation consecutive to rewetting probably enhances access to organic matter (OM), explaining the consecutive release of NH??, the bloom of the microbial biomass, and the change in structure of the bacterial community. These results open new perspectives for basin management since the risk of OM and pollutant transfer to the aquifer is greatly affected by alternating dry and flood periods. PMID:21431934

  8. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  9. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were

  10. Positive affect and psychobiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes are independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes. PMID:20097225

  11. Does sediment resuspension by storms affect the fate of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in the benthic food chain? Interactions between changes in POM characteristics, adsorption and absorption by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Grémare, Antoine; Michel Amouroux, Jean; Desmalades, Martin; Vétion, Gilles; Escoubeyrou, Karine

    2005-12-01

    Environmental parameters and gross sedimentation rates (GSR) were monitored at a fixed site located in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (NW Mediterranean), between March 1997 and April 1998, together with the main biochemical characteristics of both sedimenting and sedimented particulate organic matter (POM). Three storms which occurred during this time period resulted in natural sediment resuspension. This is indicated by the corresponding increase in GSR and a decrease in the enzymatically hydrolysable amino acids/totally hydrolysable amino acids ratio (EHAA/THAA), within the sedimenting POM. Only the strongest storm resulted in (1) a transitory increase in fine-grained particles, (2) concomitant increases in organic carbon, carbohydrates, lipids and THAA, and (3) a decrease in the EHAA/THAA ratio in surficial sediments. For most of the assayed parameters, the values recorded after the December 1997 storm corresponded to extremes for the whole period under study. This emphasises the role of storms in controlling the characteristics of sedimented and sedimenting POM. Ten sediment types, with contrasting biochemical characteristics, were selected for experiments; these were based on the results of the monitoring survey and were used during adsorption and absorption experiments involving 14C tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB). Adsorption rates differed significantly between the sediment types, but did not correlate with any of the assayed biochemical parameters. Absorption efficiency by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis also differed between the sediment types; it correlated positively with all the assayed biochemical parameters, except lipids. Comparison between the magnitudes of the increase in GSR, together with the decrease in absorption efficiency during resuspension events, suggests that resuspension tends to enhance the transfer of organic pollutants in the benthic food chain.

  12. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marlia C; Arajo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly--before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status. PMID:26135475

  13. Factors Affecting the Starting Characteristics of Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    This report summarizes the effects of fuel volatility and engine design variables on the problem of starting gas-turbine engines at sea-level and altitude conditions. The starting operation for engines with tubular combustors is considered as three steps; namely, (1) ignition of a fuel-air mixture in the combustor, (2) propagation of flame through cross-fire tubes to all combustors, and (3) acceleration of the engine from windmilling or starting speed to the operating speed range. Pertinent data from laboratory researches, single-combustor studies, and full-scale engine investigations are presented on each phase of the starting problem.

  14. Spray characteristics affected by physical properties of adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four drift adjuvants, Array, In-Place, Vector and Control, were tested and physical properties and spray spectrum parameters measured. Array had the highest conductivity, indicating a good potential for the electrostatic charging, and the highest shear viscosity. All adjuvants had very similar neut...

  15. Landscape characteristics affect animal control by urban residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological patterns exist within urban landscapes. Among urban patterns of biodiversity, species occurrences may coincide with interactions between humans and wildlife. However, research focused on consequences of human reaction to interactions with wildlife is limited. We evalua...

  16. Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

  17. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  18. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  19. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

  20. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. This condition is called seasonal affective disorder, or ... activities you used to enjoy Fatigue and decreased energy Difficulty concentrating, remembering details and making decisions Difficulty ...

  1. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  2. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with depression and helps ease the sense of isolation or loneliness that people with depression often feel. ... serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain that affect mood and energy. Medications need to be prescribed ...

  3. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics. PMID:17599784

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERGAN, JOHN R.

    EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF FACTORS WERE STUDIED. THE FACTORS WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT

  5. Affective antecedents of revenge.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kieran; Adams, Gabrielle S

    2013-02-01

    We propose that revenge responses are often influenced more by affective reactions than by deliberate decision making as McCullough et al. suggest. We review social psychological evidence suggesting that justice judgments and reactions may be determined more by emotions than by cognitions. PMID:23211216

  6. Predicting affective choice.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2013-08-01

    Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PMID:22924884

  7. Accountability in Affective Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; Dronberger, Gladys B.

    1977-01-01

    Counselors developing evidence on the potency of affective education programs find that student autobiographies are a rich source of data. This article describes a system for counting words that relates to self, home, and school and how the frequency counts within categories discriminate among students by gender and academic classification.…

  8. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter. ... As with other types of depression, antidepressant medicines and talk ... YOUR DEPRESSION AT HOME To manage your symptoms at home: ...

  9. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soils resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  10. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  11. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several

  12. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  13. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,

  14. Reaching affects saccade trajectories.

    PubMed

    Tipper, S P; Howard, L A; Paul, M A

    2001-01-01

    The pre-motor theory suggests that, when attention is oriented to a location, the motor systems that are involved in achieving current behavioural goals are activated. For example, when a task requires accurate reaching, attention to a location activates the motor circuits controlling saccades and manual reaches. These actions involve separate neural systems for the control of eye and hand, but we believe that the selection processes acting on neural population codes within these systems are similar and can affect each other. The attentional effect can be revealed in the subsequent movement. The present study shows that the path the eye takes as it saccades to a target is affected by whether a reach to the target is also produced. This effect is interpreted as the influence of a hand-centred frame used in reaching on the spatial frame of reference required for the saccade. PMID:11206286

  15. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  16. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Kelly J.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children's Perception of Nonlinguistic Human Affective Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Seth D.; Holt, Lori L.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, we developed a database of nonlinguistic sounds that mirror prosodic characteristics typical of language and thus carry affective information, but do not convey linguistic information. In a dichotic-listening task, we used these novel stimuli as a means of disambiguating the relative contributions of linguistic and affective

  18. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated

  19. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  20. Distinguishing affective and non-affective reactions to daily events.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B

    2005-12-01

    The study of daily events has been dominated by a focus on affective reactions to daily events. Although informative, this research needs to be complemented by research on non-affective and cognitive reactions to events. Although daily events are certainly related to how people feel, they are also related to how people think, particularly about themselves. The present article presents the results of a series of studies examining relationships between daily events and both affective and non-affective states. These results suggest that although affective and non-affective reactions to daily events may covary (e.g., when people feel badly, they may think more poorly about themselves and vice versa), this covariation is not perfect. Non-affective states covary with daily events above and beyond the covariation between events and affect, and affective states covary with events above and beyond the covariation between events and non-affective states. PMID:16274445

  1. Affective disorder and hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Zerouni, Celen; Kummerow, Elaine; Martinez, Mariflor; Diaz, Ana; Ezequiel, Uribe; Wix-Ramos, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old female patient with bipolar disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder did not present any physical evidence of virilization, treated with quetiapine and lithium carbonate. Laboratory testing showed evidence of hyperandrogenism (Testosterone levels 88.5ng/dL). After control, testosterone levels were normal (free testosterone 0.20 pg/ml, total testosterone 27.90ng/dl), as free thyroxine levels decreased (T4 0.83ng/dl) and increased progesterone levels (progesterone 3.80ng/ml). We consider an association between increased androgenic hormone levels in women, quetiapine and lithium carbonate treatment as well as the presence of an affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this review. PMID:23198704

  2. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  3. Chronotype and Diurnal Patterns of Positive Affect and Affective Neural Circuitry in Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Germain, Anne; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Kupfer, David J.; Krafty, Robert T.; Rothenberger, Scott D.; James, Jeffrey A.; Bi, Wenzhu; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While insomnia is a well-established risk factor for the initial onset, recurrence or relapse of affective disorders, the specific characteristics of insomnia that confer risk remain unclear. Insomnia patients with an evening chronotype may be one particularly high-risk group, perhaps due to alterations in positive affect and its related affective circuitry. We explored this possibility by comparing diurnal patterns of positive affect and the activity of positive affect-related brain regions in morning- and evening-types with insomnia. We assessed diurnal variation in brain activity via the relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography during morning and evening wakefulness. We focused on regions in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have been consistently linked with positive affect and reward processing. As predicted, chronotypes differed in their daily patterns in both self-reported positive affect and associated brain regions. Evening-types displayed diurnal patterns of positive affect characterized by phase delay and smaller amplitude compared to those of morning-types with insomnia. In parallel, evening-types showed a reduced degree of diurnal variation in the metabolism of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the striatum, as well as lower overall metabolism in these regions across both morning and evening wakefulness. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that alterations in the diurnal activity of positive affect-related neural structures may underlie differences in the phase and amplitude of self-reported positive affect between morning and evening chronotypes, and may constitute one mechanism for increased risk of mood disorders among evening-type insomniacs. PMID:22369504

  4. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

  5. Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

  6. Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

  7. Affective monitoring: a generic mechanism for affect elicitation.

    PubMed

    Phaf, R Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

  8. Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local matchmismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

  9. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of

  10. The Affective Domain: Undiscovered Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Eleanor; Oughton, John

    2007-01-01

    The authors argue that the affective is the most-overlooked of the three domains identified by Bloom & Krathwohl's committees. Research suggest the affective domain is the gateway to learning, yet the cognitive and psychomotor domains take precedence. Some complexities of the affective domain are neglected. They further suggest that many college

  11. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  12. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective

  13. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  14. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-12-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  15. Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

  16. Student Characteristics Report, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edison O.; McMillan, Robert L.

    A total of nineteen student characteristic variables subsumed into four categories--basic classification, demographic, cognitive, and affective--were examined in a study of 2,253 new students in fall 1974 and 2,330 new students in winter 1975 at Essex County College (ECC) New Jersey. The purpose of the study was to allow ECC to determine the areas…

  17. Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

    Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

  18. Some probable characteristics of the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Elbert A.

    1987-01-01

    A number of Mars surface environmental factors seriously affect the properties of the Martian regolith. The result is a regolith that is rather different from that of the moon. Some of the anticipated differences are discussed: weathering and lack of old glass; desert varnish; lack of micrometeorite impact products; abundance of meteorite fragments; and different grain size characteristics.

  19. Characteristics of Learning Disabilities: A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara G.

    Based on an empirical study of over 3,000 learning disabled children and on a review of research, the paper outlines intellectual, attention and verbal mediation, social-affective, and oral and written characteristics of learning disabled students. Among the findings reported are the following: the median educational retardation is one grade below

  20. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256-263. Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., Organic matter and wettability characteristics of wildfire ash from Mediterranean conifer forests. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.018 Dorta Almenar, I., Navarro Rivero, F.J., Arbelo, C.D., Rodríguez, A., Notario del Pino, J., The temporal distribution of water-soluble nutrients from high mountain soils following a wildfire within legume scrubland of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Catena. Escuday, M., Arancibia-Miranda, N., Pizarro, C., Antilén, M., Effect of ash from forest fires on leaching in volcanic soils. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.08.006 León, J., Echeverría, M.T., Marti, C., Badía, D., Can ash control infiltration rate after burning? An example in burned calcareous and gypseous soils in the Ebro Basin (NE Spain). Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.05.024 Lombao, A., Barreiro, A., Carballas, T., Fontúrbel, M.T., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Díaz-Raviña, M., 2014. Changes in soil properties after a wildfire in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (Galicia, NW Spain). Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.08.007 Pereira, P., Jordan, A., Cerda, A., Martin, D. (2014) Editorial: The role of ash in fire-affected ecosystems, Catena (In press) doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.11.016 Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Burguet, M. (2014a) Wildfire effects on extractable elements in ash from a Pinus pinaster forest in Portugal, Hydrological Processes, 28, 3681-3690. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Oliva, M., Novara, A. (2014) Short-term spatio-temporal spring grassland fire effects on soil colour,organic matter and water repellency in Lithuania, Solid Earth, 5, 209-225. Silva, V., Pereira, J.S., Campos, I., Keizer, J.J., Gonçalves, F., Abrantes, N., Toxicity assessment of aqueous extracts of ash from forest fires. Catena doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.021

  1. Perfectionism affects change in psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Sauer, Eric M; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Roberts, Kristin E; Garrison, Angela M

    2015-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine how perfectionism affects psychological symptoms during the course of treatment. We examined session-by-session symptom changes in a sample of 105 adult clients who presented for counseling at a psychology training clinic housed at a large Midwestern university in the United States. Using a recently developed measure of perfectionism (Short Almost Perfect Scale [SAPS]) that possesses good psychometric features, we were able to investigate effects of both maladaptive (high self-criticism) and adaptive (high standards with low self-criticism) perfectionistic characteristics on indicators of personal and interpersonal psychological distress across time. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that both symptomatic distress and interpersonal problems improved over the course of therapy. Maladaptive perfectionism was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems and distress at the outset of therapy, and related differentially to change patterns in symptom distress and interpersonal problems over the course of treatment. Maladaptive perfectionism, however, was not related to level of symptoms at the end of therapy. Adaptive perfectionistic characteristics were associated with fewer interpersonal problems at the beginning and end of therapy. Results suggest the value of assessing perfectionistic characteristics at the onset of treatment, even for clients not presenting with obvious concerns linked to such individual differences. PMID:24866970

  2. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which

  3. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly

  4. [Emotions and affect in psychoanalysisis].

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Widlöcher, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to give some indications on the concept of affect in psychoanalysis. There is no single theory of affect, and Freud gave successive definitions, which continue to be deepened in contemporary psychoanalysis. We review some steps of Freud works on affect, then we look into some present major questions, such as its relationship to soma, the nature of unconscious affects and the repression of affect, which is particularly developed in the field of psychoanalytic psychosomatic. From Freud's definitions of affect as one of the drive representative and as a limit-concept between the somatic and the psychic, we develop some major theoretical perspectives, which give a central place to soma and drive impulses, and which agree on the major idea that affect is the result of a process. We then note some parallelism between psychoanalysis of affect and psychology and neurosciences of emotion, and underline the gaps and conditions of comparison between these different epistemological approaches. PMID:22713847

  5. Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

  6. Castration Depression: Affect, Signal Affect, and/or Depressive Illness?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Les M

    2015-04-01

    The value of Charles Brenner's ideas regarding depression is assessed, focusing on the significance of castration depressive affect. His discussion of whether depression is an affect, a signal affect, or an illness is examined, with special emphasis on his failure to sufficiently address depression as an illness or disorder as defined by psychiatry. Clinical material from the analysis of a man who suffers from severe depression suggests that incorporating psychiatric concepts (biological and pharmacological) with modern conflict theory can be a useful way to understand and treat some patients with depression. Theoretical and clinical controversies associated with combining psychiatric/biological and psychoanalytic views of depression are examined. PMID:25922375

  7. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  8. Measuring and modeling facial affect.

    PubMed

    Schiano, D J; Ehrlich, S; Rahardja, K; Sheridan, K

    2000-11-01

    In recent years, researchers in computer science and human-computer interaction have become increasingly interested in characterizing perception of facial affect. Ironically, this applied interest comes at a time when the classic findings on perception of human facial affect are being challenged in the psychological research literature, largely on methodological grounds. This paper first describes two experiments that empirically address Russell's methodological criticisms of the classic work on measuring "basic emotions," as well as his alternative approach toward modeling "facial affect space." Finally, a user study on affect in a prototype model of a robot face is reported; these results are compared with the human findings from Experiment 1. This work provides new data on measuring facial affect, while also demonstrating how basic and more applied research can mutually inform one another. PMID:11189850

  9. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,

  10. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  11. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raph, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raph and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  12. Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Affective Film Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Marieke G. N.; Jentgens, Pia; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1) whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR), skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2) the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding. PMID:23646134

  13. Soil resources area affects herbivore health.

    PubMed

    Garner, James A; Ahmad, H Anwar; Dacus, Chad M

    2011-06-01

    Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991-1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass), kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL) and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI), which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P≤0.001). Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P≤0.002). Mass and conception date (CD) were affected (P≤0.001) by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P≤0.001) and CD (P<0.04). Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer. PMID:21776246

  14. Cognitive and Affective Dimensions in Health Related Education. Proceedings of a Conference (Gainesville, Florida, January 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret K., Ed.; And Others

    Ten papers dealing with various aspects of cognitive and affective dimensions of the allied health student are presented. They are: "A Review of Research on Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Education for the Health Related Professions" by Margaret K. Morgan, "Methodological Problems in the Study of Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of

  15. Poor facial affect recognition among boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hinton, V J; Fee, R J; De Vivo, D C; Goldstein, E

    2007-11-01

    Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a matching-to-sample test with four types of visual recognition (Object, Face, Affect, and Situation matching) developed by Lucci and Fein. Within-group analyses on 50 boys with MD found decreased Affect matching relative to the other matching conditions. Between-group comparisons on 20 sibling pairs found the boys with Duchenne performed more poorly only on the Affect-matching condition. Thus, mildly impaired facial affect recognition may be part of the phenotype associated with Duchenne or Becker MD. PMID:17177118

  16. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's

  17. The Affective Gatekeeper: A Synthesis of Perspectives on Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Dan S., III

    1979-01-01

    The article presents research reports on the nature of creativity, including such elements as its characteristics; the function of the affective gatekeeper (which filters the "reality" perceived by each individual); the constructs of perception; and the functions of role playing, altered states of consciousness, and fantasy. (PHR)

  18. Key Factors Affecting Conceptual Gains from CAL Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Identifies key factors affecting conceptual gains from using a CAL (computer-assisted learning) package and their application to a college practical laboratory class. Considers students' biographical characteristics, design features of the CAL package, and the way that the CAL was integrated into the curriculum. (Author/LRW)

  19. Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

  20. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  1. Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to

  2. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  3. Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a

  4. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  5. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize

  6. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonly measured using by a set of containers. The problem with this method of the measurement of characteristics is block of the airflow with collections of containers. Therefore, this work is using the visualization method.

  7. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  8. Compressor and fan wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

    1978-01-01

    A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

  9. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  10. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Post-Surgery Diet Post-Surgery Exercise How are diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic ... fatigued. Pancan.org has published a very informative Diet and Nutrition booklet. You can review this booklet ...

  11. On Patterns in Affective Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

    In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

  12. AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

  13. Petrophysical Characteristics of Impaktites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, S. I.; Popov, Yu.

    2015-09-01

    We give examples of petrophysical characteristics of Impactites. We differ between impact breccia and impact melt rocks, and shocked & displaced target rocks. We use our datasets obtained from PuchezhKatunki, Ries, Chicxulub and Chesapeake.

  14. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  15. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  16. Mixtures and Characteristic Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Klonecki, Witold

    1970-01-01

    Let g(u|c,y) = exp {y?ck(uk - 1)} with y > 0, ?k=0?ck = 1,|u| < 1, and c standing for {ck}, be a probability generating function of a nonnegative integer-valued random variable. Let S be a distribution function on (0, ?) non-degenerate at zero. The functions g and S determine another probability generating function, G(u|Sc) = ?0? gdS(y). One of the results obtained asserts that, if the sequence c is finite and the characteristic function of S is entire, then G determines uniquely both S and c. The assertion does not hold if these conditions are not satisfied. Another group of results refers to properties of characteristic functions. Let P(z) be a polynomial of degree m and f(z|y) = exp- {yP(z)}. The theorem of Marcinkiewicz asserts that with m > 2 the function f cannot be a characteristic function. It is shown that, if the characteristic function of S is entire, then F(z) = ?0? f(z|y)dS(y) can be characteristic function only if m ? 2. Again the assertion need not be true if the characteristic function of S is not entire. PMID:16591826

  17. [Infant characteristics and anger reduction].

    PubMed

    Mischkulnig, M

    1989-01-01

    Konrad Lorenz first suggested in 1943 that certain physical and behavioral characteristics common to infants (babyishness) serve as cues to attract adult attention and care as well as to decrease the likelihood of aggression. The present study was designed to determine whether the visual stimuli of a baby's face alone are sufficient to reduce anger. The subjects were 60 female students between 18 and 30 years of age. Anger was evoked by setting unsolvable tasks and by noise and maintained by adequate instructions and by continuing noise. Three procedures of measurement (heart rate, retrospective self-report, and interpretation of facial affect by two observers) were designed to show the reactions of the subjects viewing photos of babies and adults. We found a slight increase in heart rate to be an expression of happiness and a massive acceleration to be an expression of anger. The self-report measures and interpretation of facial affect supported the hypothesis that there is a more positive response to infants than to adults, and to cute babies also a more positive one than to less attractive infants. We found weak evidence that babyishness reduces anger. As a consequence of the length of the experiment, subjects who should not be aroused became angry. Thus, it was possible to register a reduction of anger as reaction to cute infants. PMID:2629360

  18. Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaslilyeva, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

  19. How relative humidity affects random packing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, N.; Lumay, G.; Ludewig, F.; Fiscina, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has been experimentally investigated. Millimeter-sized glass beads are considered. Compaction curves are fitted by stretched exponentials with characteristic time τ and exponent δ, which are seen to be deeply affected by the moisture content. A kinetic model, taking into account both triboelectric and capillary effects, is in excellent agreement with our results. It confirms the existence of an optimal condition at a relative humidity ≈45% for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads. The exponent δ is seen to depend strongly on the diffusive character of grains and voids inside the packing: diffusion for cohesiveless particles and subdiffusion when cohesion plays a role. As a consequence, the RH represents a relevant parameter that should be reported for every experimental work on a slowly driven dense random packing.

  20. Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihong; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Jin, Yuzhen; Lin, Jin; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Chuanyu

    2010-04-01

    Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5, 37.5, 44.5)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5 For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.

  1. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,

  2. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  3. Cumulative effects of job characteristics on health.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Sindelar, Jody L; Yamaguchi, Shintaro

    2011-05-01

    We examine whether the job characteristics of physical demands and environmental conditions affect individual's health. Five-year cumulative measures of these job characteristics are used to reflect findings in the biological and physiological literature that indicate that cumulative exposure to hazards and stresses harms health. To create our analytic sample, we merge job characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles with the PSID data set. We control for early and also lagged health measures and a set of pre-determined characteristics to try to address concerns that individuals self-select into jobs. Our results indicate that individuals who work in jobs with the 'worst' conditions experience declines in their health, though this effect varies by demographic group. We also find some evidence that job characteristics are more detrimental to the health of females and older workers. Finally, we report suggestive evidence that earned income, a job characteristic, partially cushions the health impact of physical demands and harsh environmental conditions for workers. These results are robust to inclusion of occupation fixed effects. PMID:21433217

  4. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  5. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  6. Field emission characteristics of iridium oxide tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Reuss, Robert H.; Dean, Kenneth A.; Sosa, Edward; Golden, David E.

    2002-05-01

    An important issue in field emission vacuum microelectronics is the stability of the field emitters with the residual ambient gas. Particularly important is that the field emitter tips made of refractory metals like molybdenum, niobium and tungsten are susceptible to oxidation. The corresponding metal oxides are insulating and adversely affect the emission current characteristic by increasing the width of the effective tunneling barrier. With this perspective, we studied iridium oxide field emitters to evaluate the characteristics of conductive oxide tips. We studied the field emission characteristics of iridium and thermally prepared iridium oxide field emitters using field emission microscopy and current-voltage measurements. We found that, upon oxidation, the voltage required to achieve the desired emission current desire dropped significantly. In addition, oxidation led to a decrease of emission current fluctuations. The development of stable conductive oxide field emitters should improve the performance of field emitter tips, especially under adverse vacuum conditions.

  7. Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

  8. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

  9. Nonverbal Assessment of Interpersonal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)

  10. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by

  11. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task

  12. On the Primacy of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  13. Affective temperament and personal identity.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, Ren

    2010-10-01

    The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood. PMID:20236706

  14. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary choices were ...

  15. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and

  16. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a

  17. Bodily action penetrates affective perception.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer's internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer's internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on perception: specifically, facial expressions of emotion are penetrable by action-induced mood. Affective priming by action valence is a candidate mechanism for the influence of observer's internal states on properties experienced as phenomenally objective and yet loaded with meaning. PMID:26893964

  18. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on perception: specifically, facial expressions of emotion are penetrable by action-induced mood. Affective priming by action valence is a candidate mechanism for the influence of observer’s internal states on properties experienced as phenomenally objective and yet loaded with meaning. PMID:26893964

  19. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with

  20. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. Highly reactive o-quinones couple with phenolics and specific amino acids on proteins to form the characteristic browning products in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and leaf tissues of plant...

  2. Attractive characteristics of mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1994-12-15

    A summary of the attractive characteristics of mirror devices is presented. Recent progress in development of axisymmetric mirror devices is described. Potentialities of mirrors as a basis for D{sup 3}He fusion power generators and high-flux neutron sources for fusion material tests are discussed.

  3. Metering Characteristics of Carburetors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

    1919-01-01

    Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

  4. Negative affect predicts subsequent cognitive change in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Christopher; Melville, Patricia; Scherl, William F; Macallister, William S; Abensur, Rebecca L; Troxell, Regina M; Krupp, Lauren B

    2009-01-01

    Baseline predictors of cognitive change were explored in a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Potential predictors included demographic features, baseline clinical characteristics, and psychological state. Participants were 38 individuals diagnosed with either relapsing remitting or secondary progressive MS who did not meet criteria for a current major depressive episode. Subjects were tested at baseline and approximately 1 year in an ongoing longitudinal study of cognition in MS. Participants completed neuropsychological tests sensitive to impairment in MS. They also completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, fatigue, apathy, and positive and negative affect. Baseline measures of negative affect (e.g., depressed mood, state anxiety, and negative affective state) consistently predicted cognitive change over the course of the study. Higher baseline levels of negative affect were associated with greater relative declines in cognitive performance. This longitudinal relation occurred in the absence of a cross-sectional relation between negative affect and overall cognition. High baseline negative affect particularly predicted a relative decline in episodic memory for newly learned verbal and visuospatial information. The negative affect measures were unique in their predictive value among all the baseline measures assessed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 53-61.). PMID:19128528

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction affecting visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Leruez, S; Amati-Bonneau, P; Verny, C; Reynier, P; Procaccio, V; Bonneau, D; Milea, D

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to cellular energetic impairment, which may affect the visual pathways, from the retina to retrochiasmal structures. The most common mitochondrial optic neuropathies include Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy, but the optic nerve can be affected in other syndromic conditions, such as Wolfram syndrome and Friedreich's ataxia. These disorders may result from mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA or in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Despite the inconstant genotype-phenotype correlations, a clinical classification of mitochondrial disorders may be made on the basis of distinct neuro-ophthalmic presentations such as optic neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy and retrochiasmal visual loss. Although no curative treatments are available at present, recent advances throw new light on the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders. Current research raises hopes for novel treatment of hereditary optic neuropathies, particularly through the use of new drugs and mitochondrial gene therapy. PMID:24798923

  6. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

  7. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  8. Rodent Empathy and Affective Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences. PMID:21672550

  9. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications. PMID:25773634

  11. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system. PMID:19592728

  12. The wind characteristics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.

    Wind characteristics research activities emphasize wind resource assessment, site selection and evaluation techniques, and wind characteristics for wind turbine design, performance and operations evaluation. Wind resource analysis shows the greatest area of high wind power resource is in the midsection of the U.S. High wind power is available in other sections of the country and is described in some detail on a state by state basis in twelve regional atlases. To carry the wind prospecting process to a finer scale, site selection techniques for small and large wind turbines were developed, tested, and documented. There is a broad range of sophistication and reliability in these techniques and their application must be matched with the priorities and time available for energy planning efforts. The nature of wind gustiness was evaluated statistically and modeled for calculating fatigue cycles and extreme events.

  13. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  14. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F. Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries.

  15. Characteristics of healthcare wastes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, L F; Eggerth, L L; Enkhtsetseg, Sh; Savage, G M

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries. PMID:17651963

  16. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  17. [Characteristics of antiretroviral drugs].

    PubMed

    Ribera, Esteban; Tuset, Montse; Martn, Maite; del Cacho, Elena

    2011-05-01

    As of November 2010, a total of 22 antiretroviral agents are marketed in Spain. These agents are divided into 6 classes according to their mechanism of action: 1) nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) (abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, zidovudine, and tenofovir), 2) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) (efavirenz, etravirine, and nevirapine), 3) protease inhibitors (PI) (atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir), 4) entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide), 5) coreceptor CCR5 inhibitors (maraviroc), and 6) integrase inhibitors (raltegravir). All 22 agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Most have also proven to be active against HIV-2 (except the NNRTIs, enfuvirtide, and maraviroc) and some are active against hepatitis B virus (lamivudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir). The present article reviews the main characteristics of the different antiretroviral agents and classes, namely, commercial presentations, paediatric and adult dosages, dose adjustments in renal and hepatic insufficiency, pharmacokinetics and interactions, mechanism of action, treatment indications, resistance, adverse effects, and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some of the characteristics of antiretrovirals are class-specific and common to other agents of the same class, and others are individual and different from those of other drugs in the same class. Knowledge of these characteristics enables us to prepare efficacious therapeutic regimens according to the specific requirements of the patient (tolerability, simplicity, adaptability to lifestyle) and clinical setting (naive, simplification, rescue, resistance). PMID:21531048

  18. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th to 75th percentiles) body mass index (BMI) values were 23.2 (21.6 - 24.6) and 20.6 (19.4 - 21.9) kg . m (-2) for the men and women, respectively. Men were significantly taller, heavier and had greater BMI's across all age groups compared with the women. Among the top-5 overall finishers, mean BMI values were 23.2 (range 22.4 - 24.7) for the men and 19.8 (range 17.3 - 21.1) for the women. Average running speed and BMI were negatively correlated for both men (r (2) = 0.11, p < 0.0001) and women (r (2) = 0.10, p = 0.02). From this analysis, it is concluded that those participating in ultramarathon runs can vary widely in physical characteristics with BMI values that would classify some individuals as underweight and others as overweight. BMI varied considerably even among the top finishers, but lower BMI values were associated with faster running times. PMID:18401807

  19. Analysis of arterial subtrees affected by pulmonary emboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Pichon, Eric; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Although Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is one of the most common causes of unexpected death in the U.S., it may also be one of the most preventable. Images acquired from 16-slice Computed Tomography (CT) machines of contrast-injected patients provide sufficient resolution for the localization and analysis of emboli located in segmental and sub-segmental arteries. After a PE is found, it is difficult to assess the local characteristics of the affected arterial tree without automation. We propose a method to compute characteristics of the local arterial tree given the location of a PE. The computed information localizes the portion of the arterial tree that is affected by the embolism. Our method is based on the segmentation of the arteries and veins followed by a localized tree computation at the given site. The method determines bifurcation points and the remaining arterial tree. A preliminary segmentation method is also demonstrated to locally eliminate over-segmentation of the arterial tree. The final result can then be used assess the affected lung volume and arterial supply. Initial tests revealed a good ability to compute local tree characteristics of selected sites.

  20. Quantifying ice sheet flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    Advances have been made in describing ice sheet motion, but in situ rheology (characteristics that affect the flow) of the ice has been hard to measure in the field. Gillet-Chaulet et al. show that they can measure ice rheology and strain rates in situ using a phase-sensitive radar. They used the technique on the Greenland ice sheet to quantify the rheology there. The researchers were able to achieve sufficient resolution to measure a flow phenomenon known as the Raymond effect, in which the ice sheet shows horizontal variations of the vertical strain rate pattern, sometimes creating anticlines in radar-detected stratigraphic layers that are known as Raymond arches. This effect is due to a highly viscous plug of nearly stagnant ice under an ice ridge. The study is, the researchers believe, the first direct confirmation of the Raymond effect. Their results suggest that laboratory ice studies do not capture the full range of ice flow that exists in nature, so additional field studies are needed. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL049843, 2011)

  1. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  2. How commissioning affects community nursing.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jane; Horrocks, Susan; Gibbard, Emma; Harland, Lizanne; Wye, Lesley

    Community nurses have direct experience of how changes in the local health economy affect the quality of care patients receive, so it is important that they engage with commissioning to influence decisions made about the quality and direction of their service. This article seeks to demystify commissioning priorities by drawing on findings from a survey of Commissioning for Quality and Innovation indicators for community nursing conducted in England, 2014-15. The article focuses specifically on organisational goals, highlighting the impact of the Francis report and other NHS priorities on quality assessment in community nursing. PMID:26721091

  3. Techniques for estimating flow characteristics of Wyoming streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowham, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents relations for estimating peak flows and mean annual flow characteristics are: (1) The Channel-geometry method, whereby flow characteristics are related to channel dimensions; and (2) the basin-characteristics method, whereby flow characteristics are related to physiographic and climatic features of the drainage basin. Development of the channel-geometry method showed channel width to be the most significant channel dimension for estimating flow characteristics. Use of this method requires a field measurement of channel width. Development of the basin-characteristics method showed drainage-area size to be the most significant basin feature for estimating streamflow. In the mountainous areas, basin elevation also affect streamflow. Because these basin features can be determined from maps, this method does not require a visit to the site. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive

  5. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral

  6. Mothers' amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one's own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valen...

  7. Therapists' Affective Reactions to Working with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A study of therapists' affective reactions to working with adult survivors of child sexual abuse found that the most common responses were feelings of being overwhelmed by the work, vulnerability in personal relationships, rage, sadness, and horror. Affective reactions varied by several characteristics associated with the survivors and their

  8. How Passive-Aggressive Behavior in Emotionally Disturbed Children Affects Peer Interactions in a Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Janet

    Passive-aggressive behavior in an emotionally disturbed child affects the child's progress and affects peer interactions in classroom settings. Passive-aggressive personalities are typically helpless, dependent, impulsive, overly anxious, poorly oriented to reality, and procrastinating. The characteristics of passive-aggressive children need to be

  9. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

  10. Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles?

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Joseph J.; Schuster, Stephanie A.; Lawhorn, Jason M.; Kirkland, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 ?m Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 ?m totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns. PMID:22939204

  11. Roles of cognitive characteristics in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the cognitive characteristics that affect the emotional and functional distress caused by tinnitus and to decide and test the model to explain their relations, 167 patients with tinnitus, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between March 2001 and May 2002 were recruited. To examine their features related to tinnitus, the following scales were administered; Tinnitus-related basic questionnaire including dysfunctional beliefs, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxious Thought and Tendencies, Self-Consciousness Scale, and modified 'catastrophic thought' from Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results showed that the duration of experiencing tinnitus was 4.7 +/-7.1 yr, those who complained of hearing one sound were the most common (45.5%), and hearing sounds similarly described to whistling were the most common (22.5%). Also, there were significant correlations among tinnitus features, cognitive characteristics, and distresses from tinnitus. As a result of testing the model, Normed fit index, Incremental fit index, Tucker-Lewis index, and Comparative fit index were over .90, indicating that it is a good model, and Root mean square error of approximation showed a reasonable fit. Also, the direct effects of the trait or severity of tinnitus on distress did not appear to be significant, thus it appeared to be affecting indirectly through the cognitive characteristics. This result shows that cognitive interventions can be important for the psychological adaptations of tinnitus patients. PMID:15608399

  12. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  13. [Neuroimmunology of bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimmunological studies focused mostly on depression, regardless of its diagnostic category. In this paper, the studies on the immunological system in patients with bipolar affective illness, including manic episode, have been presented. Research possibilities of neuroimmunology of affective disorders using molecular-genetic methods have also been shown. The studies on the neuroimmunology of depression have always been connected with studies on changes in the immunological system related to stress situations. Disturbances of the immunological system regulation have features of either decrease or pathological increase of the immunological system, with increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 and 6, interferon). Some pathogenic role for the disturbances of immunological system in depression is also played by viral infections (herpes, Borna viruses). The changes of the immunological system in mania are mostly similar to those observed during depression. An increase of activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, connected with the lymphocyte Th1 system is especially evident. Like in depression, the role of viral infections has been pointed out (herpes, Borna, parvovirus B19). The oldest mood-stabilizing drug, lithium, has been shown to have strong action against herpes viruses. Molecular-genetic studies point to an association of some genes of the immunological system with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. An association of some genes with a predisposition to depression and efficacy of antidepressant drugs has also been shown. PMID:20449978

  14. How anthropogenic noise affects foraging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Siemers, Bjrn M; Koselj, Klemen

    2015-09-01

    The influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. While direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. Here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. Noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. We developed a diagnostic framework that can be applied to identify the potential mechanisms of disturbance in any species capable of detecting the noise. We tested this framework using Daubenton's bats, which find prey by echolocation. We found that traffic noise reduced foraging efficiency in most bats. Unexpectedly, this effect was present even if the playback noise did not overlap in frequency with the prey echoes. Neither overlapping noise nor nonoverlapping noise influenced the search effort required for a successful prey capture. Hence, noise did not mask prey echoes or reduce the attention of bats. Instead, noise acted as an aversive stimulus that caused avoidance response, thereby reducing foraging efficiency. We conclude that conservation policies may seriously underestimate numbers of species affected and the multilevel effects on animal fitness, if the mechanisms of disturbance are not considered. PMID:26046451

  15. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    PubMed

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Frster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed. PMID:23815456

  16. Frictional Characteristics of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changgu; Carpick, Robert; Hone, James

    2009-03-01

    The frictional characteristics of graphene were characterized using friction force microscopy (FFM). The frictional force for monolayer graphene is more than twice that of bulk graphite, with 2,3, and 4 layer samples showing a monotonic decrease in friction with increasing sample thickness. Measurements on suspended graphene membranes show identical results, ruling out substrate effects as the cause of the observed variation. Likewise, the adhesion force is identical for all samples. The frictional force is independent of load within experimental uncertainty, consistent with previous measurements on graphite. We consider several possible explanations for the origin of the observed thickness dependence.

  17. Food consumption as affect modulation in borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Morey, Leslie C

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessment and questionnaires assessing personality and eating attitudes/behaviors. Women reporting more borderline personality features exhibited greater negative affect across time and were more reactive to the sad film. Food presentation appeared to have a small ameliorative effect on sadness and general negative affect. However, quantity of food consumption was associated with improvements in mood only for women reporting higher levels of borderline personality features. These data suggest that women with borderline personality characteristics may be at elevated risk for developing problems with binge eating, because consuming larger quantities of food appeared to have a tempering effect on their negative mood and feelings of sadness. PMID:23445477

  18. Effects of an affect bridge for age regression.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ciara; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2009-10-01

    The authors tested tailored hypnotic inductions for age regression with an affect bridge to access meaning-laden events. They used emotional intensity, spontaneity, elaboration, and transitional-object measures to assess the genuineness of the topographic shift to primary process characteristic of hypnotic age regression. An affect bridge was used to access stressful events within the age range of 3 to 6 years. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C was administered to determine high hypnotizables-reals, (n = 8, scores 9-12) and low hypnotizables-simulators, (n = 8, scores 3 or less). The groups behaved differently on frequency of transitional objects, spontaneity, and intensity but not on elaboration. The hypnotizable-reals but not the simulators produced a plethora of primary-process childlike affective responses that could not be produced by the role-playing simulators. PMID:20182998

  19. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n?=?51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  20. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  1. Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

  2. Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Maria Tereza; Nascimento, Antnio Galvo; Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Ttola, Marcos Rogrio

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified), Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 2041 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 2041. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation. PMID:24031246

  3. Characteristics of Microbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, A. B.; Spence, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts are governed by the interplay between the various source and loss terms. Electron microbursts represent a particular form of electron loss through precipitation to the atmosphere. The total loss from each individual microburst is relatively small; however microbursts are often seen in very large numbers. Accordingly, the total loss due to electron microbursts is a still unresolved question. Taking advantage of the length and continuity of microburst observations from SAMPEX, I will present analysis of the characteristics of ~685,000 electron (> 1 MeV) microburst events. Examining the event frequency, intensity, and duration I will show that microbursts are typically seen on the dawnside from L of approximately 4 to 7, with event frequencies that track with geomagnetic indices such as AE. Individual microburst intensities typically follow power-law like distributions and peak in power close to dawn, and typical event durations are ~100ms. Using the event characteristics and an epoch analysis of over 200 storm intervals from this period we examine the differences in microburst precipitation across different storms as well as provide estimates and constraints on the total effectiveness of microburst precipitation as a form of radiation belt loss. We hope to use the estimates to contextualize results from the upcoming RBSP mission.

  4. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of dissolved carbohydrates in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhen; Wang, Qi; Yang, Gui-Peng; Gao, Xian-Chi; Wu, Guan-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Carbohydrates are the largest identified fraction of dissolved organic carbon and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Seawater samples were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) during June and October 2012 to study the spatiotemporal distributions of total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHOs) constituents, including dissolved monosaccharides (MCHOs) and polysaccharides (PCHOs). The concentrations of TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs showed significant differences between summer and autumn 2012, and exhibited an evident diurnal variation, with high values occurring in the daytime. Phytoplankton biomass was identified as the primary factor responsible for seasonal and diurnal variations of dissolved carbohydrates in the ECS. The TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs distributions in the study area displayed similar distribution patterns, with high concentrations appearing in the coastal water. The influences of chlorophyll-a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these carbohydrates were examined. A carbohydrate enrichment in the near-bottom water was found at some stations, implying that there might be an important source of carbohydrate in the deep water or bottom sediment.

  5. How Teacher Evaluation Is Affected by Class Characteristics: Are Observations Biased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Newman, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Classroom observation is an important component of teacher evaluation systems. Most states are implementing systems that assign a composite score to each teacher based on weights assigned to several different measures. Policy discussions often address this weighting, with many states adopting formulas with high weights for the summative scores…

  6. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

  7. Characteristics of suspended solids affect bifenthrin toxicity to the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi.

    PubMed

    Parry, Emily; Lesmeister, Sarah; Teh, Swee; Young, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. The dissolved concentration is generally thought to be the best predictor of acute toxicity. However, for the filter-feeding calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, ingestion of pesticide-bound particles could prove to be another route of exposure. The present study investigated bifenthrin toxicity to E. affinis and P. forbesi in the presence of suspended solids from municipal wastewater effluent and surface water of the San Francisco (CA, USA) Estuary. Suspended solids mitigated the toxicity of total bifenthrin to E. affinis and P. forbesi, but mortality was higher than what would be predicted from dissolved concentrations alone. The results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of particle-associated bifenthrin was significantly correlated with counts of 0.5-m to 2-m particle sizes. Potential explanations could include direct ingestion of bifenthrin-bound particles, changes in food consumption and feeding behavior, and physical contact with small particles. The complex interactions between pesticides and particles of different types and sizes demonstrate a need for future ecotoxicological studies to investigate the role of particle sizes on aquatic organisms. PMID:25939857

  8. Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The

  9. How Teacher Evaluation Is Affected by Class Characteristics: Are Observations Biased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Newman, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Classroom observation is an important component of teacher evaluation systems. Most states are implementing systems that assign a composite score to each teacher based on weights assigned to several different measures. Policy discussions often address this weighting, with many states adopting formulas with high weights for the summative scores

  10. Physical and chemical characteristics of topographically affected airflow in an open borehole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Thorstenson, D.C.; Woodward, J.C.; Weeks, E.P.; Haas, H.

    1989-12-31

    Borehole UZ6S, on the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, has exhaled approximately 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of gas annually during winter months for three successive years. The flow arises from thermal-topographic effects. The average composition of the exhausted gas is: N{sub 2} = 78%, O{sub 2} = 21%, Ar = 0.94%, CO{sub 2} = 0.125%, and CH{sub 4} = 0.2 ppMv. The CO{sub 2} has the following isotopic signature: {sup 14}C = 108.5 percent modern carbon (pmc), and {delta}{sup 13}C = 17.1 per mil. In the thirty-month observation period, there has been a net flux to the atmosphere of approximately 40 m{sup 3} of liquid water and 1150 kg of carbon. The gas flowing from UZ6S appears to originate in the soil and/or shallow unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain crest. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  12. The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth

  13. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of

  14. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, syringol, eugenol, isoeugenol, catechol, homocatechol, and vanillin were detected in all of the samples. PMID:21152318

  15. Genetic factors affect the etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Takeji; Ota, Masao

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the liver, hypergammaglobulinemia, the presence of serum autoantibodies, histologic evidence of interface hepatitis, and a favorable response to immunosuppressive treatment. Although the etiology of AIH remains undefined, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been associated with disease onset for decades. AIH resistance and severity are presumably linked to HLA alleles as well. Individuals in different geographic regions of the world may have varying susceptibility alleles that reflect indigenous triggering antigens. In this review, we describe the influence of HLA alleles and gene polymorphisms on AIH, along with the results of genome-wide association studies on this disease. PMID:26661115

  16. Dirhodium(II,II) complexes: molecular characteristics that affect in vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M; Chifotides, Helen T; Aguirre, J Dafhne; Chouai, Abdellatif; Fu, Patty K-L; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2006-11-16

    In the series Rh2(O2CR)4 (R=CH3, 1; R=CF3, 2), [Rh2(O2CR)2(phen)2]2+ (R=CH3, 3; R=CF3, 4), and [Rh2(O2CR)2(dppz)2]2+ (R=CH3, 5; R=CF3, 6), 2, 4, and 6 are twice as cytotoxic as 1, 3, and 5, respectively. The substitution reactions of 2 with 9-ethylguanine at various temperatures take place at faster rates than those of 1, and the activation energy Ea(1)=69+/-4 kJ/mol is twice Ea(2)=35+/-2 kJ/mol. The higher cytotoxicities of [Rh2(micro-O2CCH3)2(eta1-O2CCH3)L(MeOH)]+ (L=dppz, 7; L=dppn, 8) relative to [Rh2(micro-O2CCH3)2(bpy)L]2+ (L=dppz, 10; L=dppn, 11) are attributed to the labile equatorial groups in 7 and 8 not present in 10 and 11. The toxicities of complexes 1-8 are not related to their charge or the ease by which they transverse the cellular membrane but to the lability of the ligands on the dirhodium core. PMID:17154514

  17. Factors affecting flight capacity and invasive characteristics of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is a highly destructive invasive pest of annual and perennial crops in the eastern United States and is an increasing threat to agriculture in the Pacific Northwest. In Oregon, this pest has become common in urban areas interspersed among high-val...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  19. Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs That Affect Their Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniic Stojic, Svetlana M.; Dobrijevic, Gordana; Staniic, Nemanja; Stanic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum

  20. Personal Characteristics Affecting Selection of Psychologists of Counseling Centers and Mental Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchack, James A.; Volksdorf, Norman R.

    1976-01-01

    An analogue study was conducted to ascertain whether hiring preferences for psychologists are influenced by race, sex, marital status or physique. It was found that applicants who were either Black or female were preferred by the counseling center respondents, and that applicants who were without physical limitation were preferred. (Author)

  1. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange capacity. The highest amount of mercury was adsorbed by the vermicompost from garden bio-waste. This vermicompost contained the most humic acids and the least amount of other fractions of organic matter. Acknowledgements: Financial support for these investigations was provided by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic; Project No. 503/12/0682 and Czech University of Life Science Prague; Project No. 21140/1313/3130.

  2. Ocean plankton. Environmental characteristics of Agulhas rings affect interocean plankton transport.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Farrant, Gregory K; Follows, Michael; Garczarek, Laurence; Speich, Sabrina; Audic, Stéphane; Bittner, Lucie; Blanke, Bruno; Brum, Jennifer R; Brunet, Christophe; Casotti, Raffaella; Chase, Alison; Dolan, John R; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Grima, Nicolas; Guidi, Lionel; Hill, Christopher N; Jahn, Oliver; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Le Goff, Hervé; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Malviya, Shruti; Pelletier, Eric; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste; Roux, Simon; Santini, Sébastien; Scalco, Eleonora; Schwenck, Sarah M; Tanaka, Atsuko; Testor, Pierre; Vannier, Thomas; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Boss, Emmanuel; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stéphane; Sullivan, Matthew B; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele

    2015-05-22

    Agulhas rings provide the principal route for ocean waters to circulate from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic basin. Their influence on global ocean circulation is well known, but their role in plankton transport is largely unexplored. We show that, although the coarse taxonomic structure of plankton communities is continuous across the Agulhas choke point, South Atlantic plankton diversity is altered compared with Indian Ocean source populations. Modeling and in situ sampling of a young Agulhas ring indicate that strong vertical mixing drives complex nitrogen cycling, shaping community metabolism and biogeochemical signatures as the ring and associated plankton transit westward. The peculiar local environment inside Agulhas rings may provide a selective mechanism contributing to the limited dispersal of Indian Ocean plankton populations into the Atlantic. PMID:25999514

  3. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed. PMID:19919033

  4. It's a predator-eat-parasite world: how characteristics of predator, parasite and environment affect consumption.

    PubMed

    Orlofske, Sarah A; Jadin, Robert C; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the effects of predation on disease dynamics is increasingly important in light of the role ecological communities can play in host-parasite interactions. Surprisingly, however, few studies have characterized direct predation of parasites. Here we used an experimental approach to show that consumption of free-living parasite stages is highly context dependent, with significant influences of parasite size, predator size and foraging mode, as well as environmental condition. Among the four species of larval trematodes and two types of predators (fish and larval damselflies) studied here, parasites with larger infective stages (size >1,000 μm) were most vulnerable to predation by fish, while small-bodied fish and damselflies (size <10 mm) consumed the most infectious stages. Small parasite species (size approx. 500 μm) were less frequently consumed by both fish and larval damselflies. However, these results depended strongly on light availability; trials conducted in the dark led to significantly fewer parasites consumed overall, especially those with a size of <1,000 μm, emphasizing the importance of circadian shedding times of parasite free-living stages for predation risk. Intriguingly, active predation functioned to help limit fishes' infection by directly penetrating parasite species. Our results are consistent with established theory developed for predation on zooplankton that emphasizes the roles of body size, visibility and predation modes and further suggest that consumer-resource theory may provide a predictive framework for when predators should significantly influence parasite transmission. These results contribute to our understanding of transmission in natural systems, the role of predator-parasite links in food webs and the evolution of parasite morphology and behavior. PMID:25648648

  5. Sugar concentration and timing of feeding affect feeding characteristics and survival of a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Williams, Livy; Deschodt, Pauline; Pointurier, Olivia; Wyckhuys, Kris A G

    2015-08-01

    The availability of food sources is important for parasitoid survival, especially for those that inhabit ecosystems where nectar and honeydew are spatially or temporally scarce. Therefore, the value of even a single meal can be crucial for survival. Psyttalia lounsburyi is a parasitoid, and biological control agent, of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. In order to improve our understanding of the basic nutritional ecology of P. lounsburyi and its role in survival we evaluated the effect of a single sucrose meal on the longevity of female and male wasps. We measured the duration of feeding, volume ingested, sucrose consumption, energy content, and longevity of wasps provided with different concentrations of sucrose (0.5, 1, and 2M) at different times after emergence (0, 1, 2 or 3 days after emergence). Our results showed that longevity was significantly influenced by sucrose concentration and timing of feeding. For females, feeding on sucrose increased the likelihood of survival to varying degrees, ranging from 32.3% to 95.4%, compared to water-only controls. The longest duration of feeding was observed for the highest sucrose concentrations and oldest wasps. The amount of sugar ingested and energy uptake increased, up to a point, as sugar concentration increased. Our results suggest that P. lounsburyi derived greatest benefit from the intermediate concentration (1M) of sucrose provided 2 or 3 days after emergence. Our study emphasizes the importance of finding balance between increasing longevity and limiting the duration of feeding, and concomitant uptake of nutrients, that is fundamental for survival of the wasp in nature. PMID:26021561

  6. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  7. Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

  8. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease. PMID:25684928

  10. Rural women: factors affecting fertility.

    PubMed

    Youssef, N H

    1980-10-01

    Explanations of the factors affecting women's conscious decisions regarding childbearing generally concentrate on 3 aspects of the status of women: education; employment; and the husband-wife relationship. Although these assumptions are probably valid at the broad theoretical level, at the practical level these assumptions hold little predictive value for policymakers working to influence population growth rates through programs to improve the status of women. The analysis of women's status and its impact on fertility requires the benefit of a unifying theory. A unifying theory would work to explain the variances observed at the field level while simultaneously making allowances for the impact of the broad changes in social and economic structures occurring in all societies undergoing economic modernization. The unit of analysis should be the woman rather than the household, since men and women may have different motivations with respect to childbearing and childrearing. The concept of a sex-based division of labor is a possible focus for such a unified theory. Increased women's employment in agriculture and in work at or near the home frequently has a neutral, and at times a positive, effect on fertility. Certain patterns of female labor, usually those associated with subsistence farming and household-based enterprises, are frequently associated with a high preference for children. When more of the work assigned to women is performed outside the household, as in the case of most wage labor, a somewhat different situation results. Different patterns in the sexual division of labor also affect women's status relative to men both within the household and within the community. PMID:12310008

  11. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,

  12. Spray characteristics of two combined jet atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambour, Y.; Portnoy, D.

    The downstream changes in droplet volume concentration of a vaporizing fuel spray produced by two jet atomizers which form an overlapping zone of influence is analyzed. One of the atomizers is located below the other at a certain distance downstream. Such an injection geometry can be found in afterburners of modern jet engines. The influence of various vertical and horizontal distances between the two atomizers on the downstream spray characteristics is investigated for a vaporizing kerosene spray in a 'cold' (293 K) and a 'hot' (450 K) environment. The present analysis shows how one can control the downstream spray characteristics via the geometry of injection. Such geometrical considerations may be of great importance in the design of afterburner wall geometry and in the reduction of wall thermal damage. The injection geometry may also affect the intensity of the spray distribution which determines the mode of droplet group combustion. The latter plays an important role in improving afterburner combustion efficiency.

  13. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  14. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  15. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. PMID:21766997

  16. How do disaster characteristics influence risk perception?

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Shaw, Daigee; Lin, Shuyeu; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine how risk perception is influenced by the type of disaster (flood or landslide) and victim characteristics. The data reported here are based on the National Risk Perception Survey (NRPS) that was administered for the victims and the general public in Taiwan in 2004. In that year, many towns in Taiwan were seriously affected by floods and landslides, resulting in huge economic losses and fatalities. The primary findings are: (1) the victims and the general public are concerned about the different potential hazards that might affect their residential area, (2) the negative associations between the sense of controllability and the perceived impact is high for landslide victims, but not for flood victims, and (3) disaster type, gender, and previously experienced disasters are good predictors of victims' attitudes toward natural disasters. PMID:18643821

  17. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA. PMID:22879706

  18. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  19. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2010-10-19

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  20. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  1. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes

  2. Affective reactions to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M M; Lang, P J

    2000-03-01

    Emotional reactions to naturally occurring sounds (e.g., screams, erotica, bombs, etc.) were investigated in two studies. In Experiment 1, subjects rated the pleasure and arousal elicited when listening to each of 60 sounds, followed by an incidental free recall task. The shape of the two-dimensional affective space defined by the mean ratings for each sound was similar to that previously obtained for pictures, and, like memory for pictures, free recall was highest for emotionally arousing stimuli. In Experiment 2, autonomic and facial electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded while a new group of subjects listened to the same set of sounds; the startle reflex was measured using visual probes. Listening to unpleasant sounds resulted in larger startle reflexes, more corrugator EMG activity, and larger heart rate deceleration compared with listening to pleasant sounds. Electrodermal reactions were larger for emotionally arousing than for neutral materials. Taken together, the data suggest that acoustic cues activate the appetitive and defensive motivational circuits underlying emotional expression in ways similar to pictures. PMID:10731770

  3. Modelling fire affected ecosystem restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M.; Santini, M.; Rosso, R.

    2011-12-01

    Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems is usually ascribed to the seasonal climate, that is characterized by the alternation between mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in Spring and Autumn, and the high temperatures and scarce rainfall producing severe water deficit in Summer. Many factors influence watershed response altered by forest fire forcing: rainfall intensity, fire intensity, vegetation cover, soil properties and moisture content, the time interval between the fire and a rainfall episode and its associated rain rate. The fire changed soil propreties and the burned vegetation cover and the consequent soil surface exposition to high raindrops impacts are found to trigger increasing overland flow, so accelerating soil erosion. Post fire water erosion usually strongly increases in the time interval ranging from the fire extinction to the first year after it. Its persistence is strictly connected to the soil and vegetation restoration, the last occurring at different time scales. In this context, a new model aimed to analyse fire affected ecosystem restoration is presented. It is a spatially distributed model accounting of the hydrological fluxes generation and propagation, the water erosion and of the vegetation dynamic connected both to hydrological cycle and erosion. The model is able to take into account the diverse fire effects persistance of its various components (soil and vegetation) at different time scales. The application to the case study of Rio Mannu basin, a typical Mediterranean ecosystem site located in Sardinia, Italy, highlights modelling capability in studying ecosystem restoration.

  4. How crystals affect magma rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Sebastian; Llewellin, Edward W.; Mader, Heidy M.

    2010-05-01

    The presence of solid particles in a liquid melt inevitably affects its flow behaviour: the crystals increase the bulk viscosity of the magma, and may impede flow at low driving stresses and cause shear thinning at increasing strain rates. Despite a multitude of theoretical and experimental investigations on suspension rheology no comprehensive flow model exists that satisfactorily accounts for the effects of particle concentration, particle shape and strain rate. We here present the data of an analogue experimental study, aimed to cover a broadest possible parameter space. We have measured suspensions of monodisperse particles of varying aspect ratio, from oblate to prolate, and covering particle volume fractions φ from dilute to highly concentrated. Rheology is characterized by fitting the experimental data to the model of Herschel & Bulkley (1926), yielding three rheometric parameters: consistency K (cognate with viscosity); flow index n (a measure of shear-thinning); yield stress ?0. We develop models to predict these three parameters in dependence of particle aspect ratio. We relate our rheological observations to the underlying particle motions via Jeffery's (1922) theory. We extend Jeffery's work to calculate, numerically, the Einstein coefficient for a suspension of many, initially randomly oriented particles. This provides a physical, microstructural explanation of our observations, including transient oscillations seen during run start-up and changes of rheological regime as φ increases.

  5. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here. PMID:26283246

  6. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  7. How Feeling Betrayed Affects Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  8. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  9. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    PubMed Central

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experiencei.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhoodaffects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically deaf and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

  10. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  11. Daily Negative Mood Affects Fasting Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Skaff, Marilyn M.; Mullan, Joseph T.; Almeida, David; Hoffman, Lesa; Masharani, Umesh; Mohr, David; Fisher, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between mood and blood glucose in a 21 day daily diary study. Design During a home visit, information was gathered from two hundred six persons with type 2 diabetes regarding demographics, disease characteristics and treatment, and depressive symptoms. They had blood drawn at a laboratory, yielding HbA1C. The participants were then telephoned each evening for 21 days and were asked about their positive and negative mood during the past 24 hours. They also tested their blood glucose upon rising in the morning. Main Outcome Measures The main outcomes measures were positive and negative affect and fasting glucose. Results Multilevel analyses revealed a relationship between negative affect on one day and morning glucose on the next day. There was no such relationship between positive affect and glucose, nor was there a comparable effect of glucose on one day and either positive or negative affect on the next day. Conclusion The observed relationship between mood and blood glucose appears to be due to negative affect, not positive, with no evidence of a lagged effect of glucose on mood. PMID:19450031

  12. Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

    2014-05-01

    The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

  13. Invasion of Impatiens glandulifera affects terrestrial gastropods by altering microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckli, Regina; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Invasive species can have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Invasive plants may be able to change habitat structure and quality. We conducted a field experiment to examine whether the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera affects native terrestrial gastropods. We also evaluated whether the invasive plant alters forest soil characteristics and microclimate which in turn may influence gastropod abundance. We sampled gastropods in plots installed in patches of I. glandulifera, in plots in which I. glandulifera was regularly removed by hand, and in control plots which were not yet colonized by the invasive plant. The three types of plots were equally distributed over three mixed deciduous forest areas that were slightly, moderately or heavily affected by a wind throw 11 years ago. A total of 33 gastropod species were recorded. Gastropod species richness was not affected by delayed effects of the wind throw, but it was significantly higher in invaded plots than in uninvaded plots. Similarly, gastropod abundance was higher in invaded plots than in the two types of control plots. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed marginally significant shifts of gastropod communities between the three types of plots and indicated that soil moisture, presence of I. glandulifera and cover of woody debris affected gastropod species composition. Field measurements showed that soil moisture was higher and daily soil temperature was more damped in patches of I. glandulifera than in the native ground vegetation. The changed microclimatic conditions may favour certain gastropod species. In particular, ubiquitous species and species with a high inundation tolerance increased in abundance in plots invaded by I. glandulifera. Our field experiment demonstrated that an invasive plant can indirectly affect native organisms by changing soil characteristics and microclimate.

  14. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the Action «Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers» of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" (Action's Beneficiary: General Secretariat for Research and Technology) and is co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Greek State. Some funding from the Australian Research Council is also acknowledged.

  15. Characteristics of 32 Supercentenarians

    PubMed Central

    Schoenhofen, Emily A.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Andersen, Stacy; Pennington, JaeMi; Young, Robert; Terry, Dellara F.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report phenotypic characteristics of 32 age-validated supercentenarians. DESIGN Case series. SETTING U.S.-based recruitment effort. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two supercentenarians. MEASUREMENTS Multiple forms of proof were used to validate age claims. Sociodemographic, activities of daily living, and medical history data were collected. RESULTS Age range was 110 to 119. Fifty-nine percent had Barthel Index scores in the partially to totally dependent range, whereas 41% required minimal assistance or were independent. Few subjects had a history of clinically evident vascular-related diseases, including myocardial infarction (n = 2, 6%) and stroke (n = 4, 13%). Twenty-two percent (n = 7) were taking medications for hypertension. Twenty-five percent (n = 8) had a history of cancer (all cured). Diabetes mellitus (n = 1, 3%) and Parkinsons disease (n = 1, 3%) were rare. Osteoporosis (n = 14, 44%) and cataract history (n = 28, 88%) were common. CONCLUSION Data collected thus far suggest that supercentenarians markedly delay and even escape clinical expression of vascular disease toward the end of their exceptionally long lives. A surprisingly substantial proportion of these individuals were still functionally independent or required minimal assistance. PMID:16913991

  16. Characteristics of Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mann, I. R.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulsating auroral patches observed with an all-sky imager located at Poker Flat, Alaska. Pulsating aurora often covers the entire sky with intermixed large and small-scale patches that vary in intensity or disappear and reappear on different time scales and timings. The broad definition of pulsating aurora covers patches and bands from tens to several tens of km which have a quasi-periodic temporal variation from 1 s to tens of seconds. In this paper we examine >15 patches from different events. We analyze all-sky movies (557.7 nm, 3.31 Hz) with a simple, yet robust, technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability of the >15 individual patches. A spatial 2D Fourier Transform is used to separate the aurora into different horizontal scale sizes, and by correlating each patch for all image separations and available scale sizes smaller than the patch itself, we reveal what scale sizes are pulsating and their variability. The patches are found to be persistent, meaning that we can follow them for typically 5 minutes. The period of the pulsations is often remarkably variable and it seems that only certain scale sizes pulsate (typically the size of the patch). The patches drift with the background ExB plasma drift indicating that the magnetospheric source mechanism drifts with the field lines.

  17. Arcjet load characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.

  18. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  19. Invariant Characteristics of Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Simon; Rathnayake, Nirosha; Mdzinarishvili, Tengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenic modeling is aimed at mathematical descriptions of cancer development in aging. In this work, we assumed that a small fraction of individuals in the population is susceptible to cancer, while the rest of the population is resistant to cancer. For individuals susceptible to cancer we adopted methods of conditional survival analyses. We performed computational experiments using data on pancreatic, stomach, gallbladder, colon and rectum, liver, and esophagus cancers from the gastrointestinal system collected for men and women in the SEER registries during 1975-2009. In these experiments, we estimated the time period effects, the birth cohort effects, the age effects and the population (unconditional) cancer hazard rates. We also estimated the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates, which are, correspondingly, the hazard and survival rates conditioned on the susceptibility to cancer. The performed experiments showed that for men and women, patterns of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates are: (i) intrinsic for each cancer subtype, (ii) invariant to the place of living of the individuals diagnosed with cancer, and (iii) well adjusted for the modifiable variables averaged at a given time period. Such specificity and invariability of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates suggest that these carcinogenic characteristics can be useful for predictive carcinogenic studies by methods of inferential statistics and for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention. PMID:26465159

  20. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  1. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  2. Invariant Characteristics of Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Rathnayake, Nirosha; Mdzinarishvili, Tengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenic modeling is aimed at mathematical descriptions of cancer development in aging. In this work, we assumed that a small fraction of individuals in the population is susceptible to cancer, while the rest of the population is resistant to cancer. For individuals susceptible to cancer we adopted methods of conditional survival analyses. We performed computational experiments using data on pancreatic, stomach, gallbladder, colon and rectum, liver, and esophagus cancers from the gastrointestinal system collected for men and women in the SEER registries during 1975–2009. In these experiments, we estimated the time period effects, the birth cohort effects, the age effects and the population (unconditional) cancer hazard rates. We also estimated the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates, which are, correspondingly, the hazard and survival rates conditioned on the susceptibility to cancer. The performed experiments showed that for men and women, patterns of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates are: (i) intrinsic for each cancer subtype, (ii) invariant to the place of living of the individuals diagnosed with cancer, and (iii) well adjusted for the modifiable variables averaged at a given time period. Such specificity and invariability of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates suggest that these carcinogenic characteristics can be useful for predictive carcinogenic studies by methods of inferential statistics and for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention. PMID:26465159

  3. Characteristics of success

    SciTech Connect

    Scattolini, R.

    1988-02-01

    The advent of personal computers can bring powerful analytical techniques to individuals for relatively little expense. As with any computer work, database building can be tedious and time consuming. Putting aside the time spent, the way such a database is used is most important. For interpretation work, the effort invested can be a valuable addition to understanding the earth, its hydrocarbon resources, and its drillable prospects. Using an interactive relational database program and files with discovery-well information, one can determine quickly, and without subsurface mapping, the regional dip direction of a single productive formation. Another possible application is assessing quickly if the magnitude of the discoveries in the county is appropriate for continued investment. Also, it is possible to determine the trend of multiple pay areas within a county. Determining which formations are suitable exploration targets by separating the productive formations stratigraphically is yet another application. A reasonable estimate of pay thickness can be determined and used for volumetric estimates of hydrocarbon reserves for prospects generated within a county. Other uses include searching the county for the name of an operating company which has recently sold production and examining the characteristics of a single oil or gas field. Examples from Goliad, Montgomery, and Stephens Counties, Texas, and Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, are used to illustrate these points. These are but a few of a multitude of possible applications available to the earth scientist.

  4. The characteristics of success

    SciTech Connect

    Scattolini, R.

    1986-01-01

    The advent of personal computers can bring powerful analytical techniques to individuals for relatively little expense. As with any computer work, database building can be tedious and time consuming. Putting aside the time spent, the way such a database is used is most important. For interpretation work, the effort invested can be a valuable addition to understanding the earth, its hydrocarbon resources, and its drillable prospects. Using an interactive relational database program and files with discovery-well information, one can determine quickly, and without subsurface mapping, the regional dip direction of a single productive formation. Another possible application is assessing quickly if the magnitude of the discoveries in the county is appropriate for continued investment. Also, it is possible to determine the trend of multiple pay areas within a county. Determining which formations are suitable exploration targets by separating the productive formations stratigraphically is yet another application. A reasonable estimate of pay thickness can be determined and used for volumetric estimates of hydrocarbon reserves for prospects generated within a county. Other uses include searching the county for the name of an operating company which has recently sold production and examining the characteristics of a single oil or gas field. Examples from Goliad, Montgomery, and Stephens Counties, Texas, and Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, are used to illustrate these points. These are but few of a multitude of possible applications available to the earth scientist.

  5. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  6. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  7. Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as ?13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated ?13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

  8. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill point within the structure. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  10. Specific nucleoprotein residues affect influenza virus morphology.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Kristy M; Bussey, Kendra A; Stone, Raychel L; Takimoto, Toru

    2014-02-01

    Influenza virus strains are often pleiomorphic, a characteristic that is largely attributed to specific residues in matrix protein 1 (M1). Although the mechanism by which M1 controls virion morphology has not yet been defined, it is suggested that the M1 interaction with other viral proteins plays an important role. In this study, we rescued recombinant virus WSN-AichiM1 containing the spherical A/WSN/33 (WSN) backbone and the M1 protein from A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi). Aichi M1 differs from WSN M1 by 7 amino acids but includes those identified to be responsible for filamentous virion formation. Interestingly, Aichi virus produced spherical virions, while WSN-AichiM1 exhibited a long filamentous morphology, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Additional incorporation of Aichi nucleoprotein (NP) but not the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), or M2 gene to WSN-AichiM1 abrogated filamentous virion formation, suggesting that specific M1-NP interactions affect virion morphology. Further characterization of viruses containing WSN/Aichi chimeric NPs identified residues 214, 217, and 253 of Aichi NP as necessary and sufficient for the formation of spherical virions. NP residues 214 and 217 localize at the minor groove between the two opposite-polarity NP helical strands of viral ribonucleocapsids, and residue 253 also localizes near the surface of the groove. These findings indicate that NP plays a critical role in influenza virus morphology, possibly through its interaction with the M1 layer during virus budding. PMID:24335312

  11. Specific Nucleoprotein Residues Affect Influenza Virus Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Kristy M.; Bussey, Kendra A.; Stone, Raychel L.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus strains are often pleiomorphic, a characteristic that is largely attributed to specific residues in matrix protein 1 (M1). Although the mechanism by which M1 controls virion morphology has not yet been defined, it is suggested that the M1 interaction with other viral proteins plays an important role. In this study, we rescued recombinant virus WSN-AichiM1 containing the spherical A/WSN/33 (WSN) backbone and the M1 protein from A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi). Aichi M1 differs from WSN M1 by 7 amino acids but includes those identified to be responsible for filamentous virion formation. Interestingly, Aichi virus produced spherical virions, while WSN-AichiM1 exhibited a long filamentous morphology, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Additional incorporation of Aichi nucleoprotein (NP) but not the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), or M2 gene to WSN-AichiM1 abrogated filamentous virion formation, suggesting that specific M1-NP interactions affect virion morphology. Further characterization of viruses containing WSN/Aichi chimeric NPs identified residues 214, 217, and 253 of Aichi NP as necessary and sufficient for the formation of spherical virions. NP residues 214 and 217 localize at the minor groove between the two opposite-polarity NP helical strands of viral ribonucleocapsids, and residue 253 also localizes near the surface of the groove. These findings indicate that NP plays a critical role in influenza virus morphology, possibly through its interaction with the M1 layer during virus budding. PMID:24335312

  12. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  13. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  14. Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses…

  15. Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses

  16. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  17. Feasibility Studies of Teacher Core Job Characteristics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, W. W., Jr.; And Others

    Work redesign for improving satisfaction or productivity depends partially on employee attributes because employees respond differently to work conditions. The Hackman-Oldham theory distinguishes "job" from employee responses to job. A job's motivating potential is thus linked to five core characteristics that affect three psychological states

  18. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job

  19. Individual differences in negative affect repair.

    PubMed

    Hemenover, Scott H; Augustine, Adam A; Shulman, Tirza; Tran, Tuan Q; Barlett, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    The extant literature implicates affect repair ability as one source of individual differences in negative affect. Emerging from this literature are three regulatory traits that should predict repair ability (negative mood regulation expectancies, monitoring, labeling), yet no experimental examination of this possibility exists. Two studies explored this issue. Participants (Ns=305, 146) watched negative affect-inducing videos and completed a repair or control writing task, before and after which they reported their affect. Results revealed wide individual differences in repair ability. Specifically, participants with high expectancies of repair success and those who attend to and understand their affect experienced the largest decreases in negative affect and largest increases in positive affect following the repair tasks. These findings advance understanding of individual differences in affect regulation and have implications for future research. PMID:18729579

  20. Education of Affect: A Social Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschlein, Beulah M.; Jones, John G.

    1970-01-01

    The article on the education of affect discusses the various deterrents to the development of affective learning experiences. It is now imperative educational institutions find strategies for dealing constructively with the attitudes, emotions, and feelings of individuals. (Author/KJ)

  1. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

  2. Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity?

    PubMed

    Furst, A

    2002-01-01

    Universally, the general population is exposed to a variety of "toxic" substances. Some of these are from manufactured goods and some from air and water pollution. Toxins are also normally found in many foods; however, unless the exposure is overwhelming, we are many times (even unknowingly) protected by the foods we eat. A judicious choice of food will counteract noxious agents. Therefore, the diet can be a major factor in determining who does and who does not show toxic symptoms following exposure. This review will cover three aspects. The first will be on protectors against metal toxicity. For example, whereas humans can consume fish that have absorbed mercury from contaminated bay water, selenium can act as a natural antagonist for mercury poisoning. (Naturally, too much selenium itself can be detrimental!) Some vegetables can accumulate cadmium from contaminated soil, and zinc from a variety of nuts is an antagonist of cadmium toxicity. Nitrites in preserved meats can be converted into nitroamines by saliva or mild stomach acid. Vitamin C found in oranges and bell peppers can inhibit that conversion. In addition, calcium antagonizes both lead and aluminum toxicity. The second aspect is on oxidants and antioxidants. Oxidative stress can lead to some cancers, atherosclerosis, and adverse effects of aging. Antioxidants are the best protectors of the damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The most effective antioxidants are found in highly colored fruits and vegetables such as carrots, tomatoes, and berries, called carotenoids. Flavonoids (polyphenols), another class of effective antioxidants that negate ROS, may or may not be colored. The third aspect is on gaps in current knowledge. Many foods naturally contain chemicals that are, in larger concentrations, quite toxic or carcinogenic. Biotransformations (detoxification mechanisms) involving type I and type II enzymes are known. Some foods do modify these enzymes either positively or negatively. Grapefruit contains a substance that inhibits an isoform of P450, making some cardiac drugs, as substrates, more toxic. There is inadequate information on what specific components are in a variety of foods that are associated with cancer prevention. The experimental carcinogenic compound (and suspected as a human carcinogen) found in overcooked, burnt, and fried meats and fish, namely IQ (2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5f]quinoline, will be used as a prototype for what needs to be known about foods that will affect toxins. PMID:12396688

  3. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. )

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  4. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective

  5. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key

  6. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on

  7. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  8. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this

  9. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships

  10. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  11. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  12. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  13. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  14. 40 CFR 1508.3 - Affecting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affecting. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX 1508.3 Affecting. Affecting means will or may have an effect on....

  15. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings

  16. Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Sedimentary Soft Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Shun'ichi; Yoshida, Nozomu; Sahara, Mamoru

    Soil under the engineering seismic base layer is treated as elastic material in the engineering practice, however, evidence that its nonlinear behavior affects surface response begins to appear. Test data on dynamic deformation characteristics and tri-axial compression test on sedimentary soft rock are collected and compiled to consider its nonlinearity. In addition, nonlinear characteristics of soft rock and note on practical use are described. Static tri-axial compression test of the sample taken by means of diamond core drill is first carried out by using a LDT (Local deformation transducer), and shear modulus is found to keep nearly constant up to strain of about 10-3 for the undisturbed sample, whereas that decreases significantly even at strain of 10-5. Secondly, dynamic deformation test data on Pleistocene and Tertiary soft rock with SPT-N value greater than 30 or shear wave velocity greater than 300 m/s is collected and compiled. It is found that there exist data that shows similar behavior of static test described in the preceding. These samples is supposed be undisturbed, which means there exists many disturbed samples even if they are retrieved by, so called, undisturbed sampling method. Shear modulus at shear strain of 10-3, which is used as index of nonlinearity, is independent from effective confining stress, but it has positive correlation with plastic index. Finally, dynamic deformation characteristics of undisturbed samples are shown to be modeled by Ramberg-Osgood model well.

  17. Affective impressions and memorability of color-form combinations.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Yuiko; Gyoba, Jiro

    2006-04-01

    In this study the authors investigate how various impressions affect the recognition of color-form pairs. They performed a preliminary study, a main study of impression rating using the semantic differential method, and a recognition experiment. On the basis of the preliminary study, the authors chose 14 appropriate pairs of adjectives and 48 color and form stimuli and used them for the main study. Factor analysis of the main study extracted three factors: Activity, Potency, and Evaluation. In the recognition test, the authors found that color-form pairs with congruent impressions in Activity or Potency were more easily recognized than pairs with incongruent impressions. In contrast, pairs with incongruent impressions in Evaluation were recognized more easily than congruent pairs. These results are discussed in relation to the assumed network representations of affective impressions that have different characteristics depending on the three factors. PMID:16705912

  18. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  19. LANDSCAPE MODELING OF CHARACTERISTIC HABITAT SCALES, DISPERSAL, AND CONNECTIVITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...

  20. Spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations and ecological risk assessment in the Songhua River, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and lo...

  1. Implicit affectivity and rapid processing of affective body language: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. PMID:26032148

  2. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features. PMID:25552571

  3. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. PMID:24438316

  4. Positive Affect and Processes of Recovery among Treatment-Seeking Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Woods, William J.; Siever, Michael D.; Discepola, Michael V.; Dilwort, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Miller, Nicole; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Revised Stress and Coping Theory proposes that positive affect serves adaptive functions, independent of negative affect. However, scant research has examined whether, how, and under what circumstances positive affect is associated with decreased substance use. Methods Eighty-eight methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) completed the baseline assessment for substance abuse treatment outcome study which included measures of positive and negative affect, cognitive-behavioral change processes (i.e., approach-oriented coping, self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, and abstinence-related action tendencies), abstinence-specific social support, and self-reported substance use. Participants also provided a urine sample for toxicology screening. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and negative affect, higher positive affect was independently associated with greater approach-oriented coping, abstinence-related action tendencies, and abstinence-specific social support. Positive affect was also independently associated with greater self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, but only at lower levels of negative affect. Through these cognitive-behavioral and social pathways, positive affect was indirectly associated with lower frequency of stimulant use in the past 30 days, lower odds of reporting stimulant use two or more days in a row, and lower odds of providing a urine sample that was reactive for stimulant metabolites. On the other hand, negative affect was not indirectly associated with any measure of stimulant use. Conclusions Clinical research is needed to examine the pathways whereby positive affect may predict better substance abuse treatment outcomes. PMID:23684632

  5. Evaluator Characteristics and Methodological Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the central question "How do evaluators' background characteristics relate to their evaluation design choices?" Evaluators were provided with a fictitious description of a school-based program and asked to design an evaluation of that program. Relevant background characteristics such as level of experience, methodological

  6. Teachers' Job Characteristics and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabe, Clermont; Burns, Mildred

    1994-01-01

    To test the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation, 247 Quebec teachers completed the Job Diagnostic Survey. Results demonstrated the utility of the model and the instrument for the teaching profession. Psychological states influenced the relationship between job characteristics and motivation/satisfaction outcomes. (SK)

  7. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for

  8. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  9. Geosynchronous platform definition study. Volume 3: Geosynchronous mission characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine the nature of currently planned and new evolutionary geosynchronous programs, to analyze alternative ways of conducting missions, to establish concepts for new systems to support geosynchronous programs in an effective and economical manner, and to define the logistic support to carry out these programs. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to define and examine general geosynchronous mission characteristics and the potentially applicable electromagnetic spectrum characteristics. An organized compilation of these data is given with emphasis on the development and use of the data. Fundamental geosynchronous orbit time histories, mission profile characteristics, and delivery system characteristics are presented. In addition, electromagnetic spectrum utilization is discussed in terms of the usable frequency spectrum, the spectrum potentially available considering established frequency allocations, and the technology status as it affects the ability to operate within specific frequency bands.

  10. From task characteristics to learning: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wielenga-Meijer, Etty G A; Taris, Toon W; Kompier, Michiel A J; Wigboldus, Danil H J

    2010-10-01

    Wielenga-Meijer, E. G. A., Taris, T. W., Kompier, M. A. J. & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2010). From task characteristics to learning: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 363-375. Although many theoretical approaches propose that job characteristics affect employee learning, the question is why and how job characteristics influence learning. The present study reviews the evidence on the relationships among learning antecedents (i.e., job characteristics: demands, variety, autonomy and feedback), learning processes (including motivational, meta-cognitive, cognitive and behavioral processes) and learning consequences. Building on an integrative heuristic model, we quantitatively reviewed 85 studies published between 1969 and 2005. Our analyses revealed strong evidence for a positive relation between job demands and autonomy on the one hand and motivational and meta-cognitive learning processes on the other. Furthermore, these learning processes were positively related to learning consequences. PMID:20180922

  11. Measuring gay and lesbian group affect.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Brian J; Pettis, Gregory A

    2005-01-01

    There is a large literature in psychology on how affect toward social groups affects person perception. This literature is applicable to political science, where increasingly, political candidates from non-traditional groups-women, African Americans and gays and lesbians- are running for public office and entering the political arena. In this paper we explore the components of group affect as it relates to these evaluations. Specifically, we examine gay and lesbian candidates, since they are increasingly visible in politics, and Americans typically have strong affect toward and strong stereotypes about gays and lesbians. Using factor analysis in LISREL, we estimate a confirmatory factor analysis to better understand homosexual affect. The results illustrate that it is necessary to consider gay and lesbian affect as a three-factor latent model to reduce measurement error. Hence, this work should guide future research dealing with gay and lesbian political candidates and candidates belonging to other non-traditional groups. PMID:16048899

  12. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  13. [Bioelectrical brain activity in different affective disorders in patients with cerebral stroke].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Georgievskaia, N A; Kichuk, I V; Shaklunova, N V; Savina, M A; Skvortsova, V I

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and forty-nine patients with ischemic stroke who had different affective disorders developed one year after stroke (depression, anxiety, depression-anxiety disorders) were included in the study. Based on the computer data analysis of EEG, we singled out the characteristics of bioelectrical brain activity in patients with different types of poststroke affective disorders in acute, early and late restorative periods. PMID:20559279

  14. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random

  15. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts. PMID:25351730

  16. Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Recent research efforts in the improvement of the maneuverability of fighter aircraft in the high-subsonic and transonic speed range are reviewed with emphasis on the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice. The investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing-design parameters. These results illustrated the sensitivity of section and planform geometry to a selected design point. The incorporation of variable-geometry wing devices in the form of flaps or leading-edge slats was shown to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient, moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

  17. Acoustic characteristics of engine air cleaner boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Iljae; Selamet, Ahmet; Li, Sean

    2002-05-01

    Air cleaner boxes placed on the induction system of engines play a critical role in the attenuation of airborn sound. The acoustic performance of such configurations is investigated experimentally and computationally in the absence of mean flow. The transmission loss of a fabricated rectangular box (prototype) with various inlet and outlet locations and extensions is predicted by a three-dimensional boundary element method. The predictions are then compared with experimental data obtained from an impedance tube setup. The results demonstrate that: (1) the variations of locations and extension lengths of inlet and outlet affect the acoustic behavior of the prototype at higher frequencies, as expected; (2) the transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies may be estimated by a one-dimensional analysis; and (3) the boundary element method is effective throughout the entire frequency range of interest in predicting the acoustic performance of air cleaner boxes with asymmetric shape and/or inlet and outlet extensions.

  18. XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft noise characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bryan D.

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the most recent noise test of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft which, in addition to level-flight studies of airspeed and nacelle angle, includes takeoff and landing flight procedures representative of those that might be used in vertiport operations. The paper first reviews basic tiltrotor noise characteristics, defining modes of tiltrotor flight that affect the noise generated, then applies the quiet operating modes to realistic takeoff and landing operations to define their effect upon noise exposure near a vertiport. This effect is illustrated for the XV-15 in the form of day-night level contours, initially assuming 50 takeoff and landing operations per day. These XV-15 contours are then extrapolated to approximate the noise of a civil variant of the larger V-22 Osprey tiltrotor for up to 200 operations per day.

  19. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  20. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon. PMID:26385691

  1. Molecular Characteristics of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ottenhof, Niki A.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally lethal disease and despite extensive research over the last decades, this has not changed significantly. Nevertheless, much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suggesting that different therapeutic strategies based on these new insights are forthcoming. Increasing focus exists on designing the so-called targeted treatment strategies in which the genetic characteristics of a tumor guide therapy. In the past, the focus of research was on identifying the most frequently affected genes in PDAC, but with the complete sequencing of the pancreatic cancer genome the focus has shifted to defining the biological function that the altered genes play. In this paper we aimed to put the genetic alterations present in pancreatic cancer in the context of their role in signaling pathways. In addition, this paper provides an update of the recent advances made in the development of the targeted treatment approach in PDAC. PMID:21512581

  2. Wind-tunnel procedure for determination of critical stability and control characteristics of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Jackson, Roy P; Belsley, Steven E

    1944-01-01

    This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.

  3. Students' Preferences Regarding Four Characteristics of Information Literacy Screencasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    Information literacy screencasts were created by librarians and integrated into all of the nursing department's distance learning courses. Before creating more videos, the researcher decided to evaluate the screencasts' effectiveness based on certain video characteristics. The researcher identified four characteristics that might affect

  4. Wind-Tunnel Procedure for Determination of Critical Stability and Control Characteristics of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J.; Jackson, Roy P.; Belsley, Steven E.

    1944-01-01

    This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.

  5. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  6. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  8. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  9. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition

  10. Exposure Effects and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brentar, James E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds an inverted-U shaped relationship between frequency of exposure to rock and popular songs and affect toward the songs among undergraduate students. Finds no support for the hypothesis that subjective novelty and complexity interact with exposure in determining affective evaluations. (SR)

  11. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect

  12. Achievement and Affect in OECD Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trevor; Williams, Kitty; Kastberg, David; Jocelyn, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    A statistical relationship between student affect and student achievement is routinely observed--students who like a particular subject also tend to do well in that subject. Theory suggests that the underlying causality is a mutual influence relationship in which affect influences, and is influenced by, achievement. Published analyses, however,…

  13. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modification of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, the creation of an affective niche can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition. PMID:27014164

  14. Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

  15. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  16. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was

  17. 47 CFR 1.2003 - Applications affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications affected. 1.2003 Section 1.2003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 § 1.2003 Applications affected. The certification required by § 1.2002 must be...

  18. 47 CFR 1.2003 - Applications affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications affected. 1.2003 Section 1.2003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 § 1.2003 Applications affected. The certification required by § 1.2002 must be...

  19. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the

  20. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other

  1. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  2. Evaluation in the Affective Domain. NSPER: 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, William J.; And Others

    The National Symposium for Professors of Educational Research for 1976 focused on two topics: the nature of affect, and principles and guidelines for measuring individual affect and learning environment. This document contains five major papers presented at the conference. The first paper contrasted the physiological and emotional concept of…

  3. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  4. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

  5. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  6. Toward a Definition of Affect in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Albert R.

    A model for expansion of educational objectives beyond the usual narrow focus on low-level cognitive abilities and the transmission of facts is suggested. A brief definition of the three domains--psychomotor (doing), cognitive (thinking), and affective (feeling)--is given, and it is pointed out that affect (Feelings) is present with either

  7. Measurement in Support of Affective Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Albert R.; Doxsey, James R.

    General concerns and considerations regarding measurement in affective education, primarily, measurement to support the student in his learning program and the teacher as a facilitator of learning, are explored. The following topics are discussed: (1) Accountability (of the schools for achievement of affective goals of education), (2) Purpose of

  8. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  9. Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity. PMID:21280383

  10. Characteristics of megavoltage cone-beam digital tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Descovich, M.; Morin, O.; Aubry, J. F.; Aubin, M.; Chen, J.; Bani-Hashemi, A; Pouliot, J.

    2008-04-15

    This article reports on the image characteristics of megavoltage cone-beam digital tomosynthesis (MVCB DT). MVCB DT is an in-room imaging technique, which enables the reconstruction of several two-dimensional slices from a set of projection images acquired over an arc of 20 deg. - 40 deg. The limited angular range reduces the acquisition time and the dose delivered to the patient, but affects the image quality of the reconstructed tomograms. Image characteristics (slice thickness, shape distortion, and contrast-to-noise ratio) are studied as a function of the angular range. Potential clinical applications include patient setup and the development of breath holding techniques for gated imaging.

  11. Portrait characteristics of QCD jets

    SciTech Connect

    Dokshitser, Y.L.; Troyan, S.I.; Khoze, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the perturbation-theory approach to the description of multihadron production in hard processes we analyze the portrait characteristics of jets (the energy and the multiplicity distribution in an isolated jet) and their influence on each other (drag effects, the azimuthal asymmetry of the jet in an aggregate). In contrast to the common but theoretically unjustified procedure of analyzing multijet events, we develop a consistent approach based on inclusive and calorimetric characteristics.

  12. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  13. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Margaix-Muoz, Maria; Bagn, Jos V.; Jimnez, Yolanda; Sarrin, Mara-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  14. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muoz, Maria; Bagn, Jos V; Jimnez, Yolanda; Sarrin, Mara-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  15. Effective connectivity during visual processing is affected by emotional state.

    PubMed

    Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Ligeza, Tomasz S; Grzybowski, Szczepan J

    2015-12-01

    The limitations of our cognitive resources necessitate the selection of relevant information from the incoming visual stream. This selection and prioritizing of stimuli allows the organism to adapt to the current conditions. However, the characteristics of this process vary with time and depend on numerous external and internal factors. The present study was aimed at determining how the emotional state affects effective connectivity between visual, attentional and control brain areas during the perception of affective visual stimuli. The Directed Transfer Function was applied on a 32-electrode EEG recording to quantify the direction and intensity of the information flow during two sessions: positive and negative. These data were correlated with a self-report of the emotional state. We demonstrated that the current mood, as measured by self-report, is a factor which affects the patterns of effective cortical connectivity. An increase in prefrontal top-down control over the visual and attentional areas was revealed in a state of tension. It was accompanied by increased outflow within and from the areas recognized as the ventral attentional network. By contrast, a positive emotional state was associated with heightened flow from the parietal to the occipital area. The functional significance of the revealed effects is discussed. PMID:25339066

  16. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  17. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlr, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time

  18. Spray characteristics of two combined jet atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambour, Y.; Portnoy, D.

    The downstream changes in droplet volume concentration of a vaporizing fuel spray produced by two jet atomizers which form an overlapping zone of influence is theoretically analyzed, employing experimental data of Yule et al. (1982) for a single jet atomizer as initial conditions. One of the atomizers is located below the other at a certain distance downstream. Such an injection geometry can be found in afterburners of modern jet engines. The influence of various vertical and horizontal distances between the two atomizers on the downstream spray characteristics is investigated for a vaporizing kerosene spray in a 'cold' (293 K) and a 'hot' (450 K) environment. The analysis shows how one can control the downstream spray characteristics via the geometry of injection. Such geometrical considerations may be of great importance in the design of afterburner wall geometry and in the reduction of wall thermal damage. The injection geometry may also affect the intensity of the spray distribution which determines the mode of droplet group combustion. The latter plays an important role in improving afterburner combustion efficiency.

  19. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    PubMed

    Li, J D; Li, D X

    2016-03-10

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530

  20. Associations Between Infant Negative Affect and Parent Anxiety Symptoms are Bidirectional: Evidence from Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes. PMID:26696939

  1. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  2. Flow of affective information between communicating brains

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Silke; Heinzle, Jakob; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ethofer, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2011-01-01

    When people interact, affective information is transmitted between their brains. Modern imaging techniques permit to investigate the dynamics of this brain-to-brain transfer of information. Here, we used information-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the flow of affective information between the brains of senders and perceivers engaged in ongoing facial communication of affect. We found that the level of neural activity within a distributed network of the perceiver's brain can be successfully predicted from the neural activity in the same network in the sender's brain, depending on the affect that is currently being communicated. Furthermore, there was a temporal succession in the flow of affective information from the sender's brain to the perceiver's brain, with information in the perceiver's brain being significantly delayed relative to information in the sender's brain. This delay decreased over time, possibly reflecting some ‘tuning in’ of the perceiver with the sender. Our data support current theories of intersubjectivity by providing direct evidence that during ongoing facial communication a ‘shared space’ of affect is successively built up between senders and perceivers of affective facial signals. PMID:20624471

  3. Recognition of affect based on gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Karg, Michelle; Kühnlenz, Kolja; Buss, Martin

    2010-08-01

    To provide a means for recognition of affect from a distance, this paper analyzes the capability of gait to reveal a person's affective state. We address interindividual versus person-dependent recognition, recognition based on discrete affective states versus recognition based on affective dimensions, and efficient feature extraction with respect to affect. Principal component analysis (PCA), kernel PCA, linear discriminant analysis, and general discriminant analysis are compared to either reduce temporal information in gait or extract relevant features for classification. Although expression of affect in gait is covered by the primary task of locomotion, person-dependent recognition of motion capture data reaches 95% accuracy based on the observation of a single stride. In particular, different levels of arousal and dominance are suitable for being recognized in gait. It is concluded that gait can be used as an additional modality for the recognition of affect. Application scenarios include monitoring in high-security areas, human-robot interaction, and cognitive home environments. PMID:20350859

  4. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  5. Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted

  6. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  7. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and

  8. Stress and Burnout among Health-Care Staff Working with People Affected by HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David

    1995-01-01

    The nature, causes, consequences, and symptoms of stress and burnout among health-care staff working with people affected by HIV are identified. The extent to which these characteristics are specific to HIV/AIDS workers is discussed. Some options for prevention and management of burnout are presented. (Author)

  9. HARD WHEAT MILLING AND BREAD BAKING TRAITS AFFECTED BY THE SEED-SPECIFIC OVEREXPRESSION OF PUROINDOLINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain texture affects many milling characteristics and end-use qualities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) such as milling yield, flour particle size, and starch damage. In wheat, grain texture is controlled primarily by the two genes puroindoline a (pina) and puroindoline b (pinb) that reside at the ...

  10. How Features of Educational Technology Applications Affect Student Reading Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to learn from rigorous evaluations of alternative technology applications how features of using technology programs and characteristics of their evaluations affect reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards.

  11. Individual and School Factors Affecting Students' Participation and Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'

  12. Factors Affecting Net Tuition Revenue at Private Colleges. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bethaviva

    Factors affecting changes in net tuition revenue in private colleges were studied, and a model accounting for these factors was tested using 1976-1977 and 1977-1978 data. Analysis focused on the influence of tuition price, financial aid, and enrollment. Secondary consideration was given to those institutional characteristics that may distinguish…

  13. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  14. A STUDY ABOUT HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIONOIDA UNDER FLOWING WATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hironori; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Kozaki, Ken; Ikematsu, Shinya; Tsujimoto, Yotaku

    Fresh water mussels (order Unionoida) have one of the important biological roles for river ecosystems. However, abundance and habitat range of Unionoida are drastically decreasing, because of environmental change based on many artificial river works, such as over riverbed excavation and loss of floodplain habitat. There are three Unionoida species in the Matsuura river, and one lentic species (Anodouta lauta) has been dominantly decreased over the past 50 years. As they have low mobility, Unionoida are strongly affected by physical environmental change of river. In this study, we focused attention on the hydraulic characteristics of Unionoida in flowing water condition, and conducted some hydraulic experiment to three Unionoida species. The result indicated that lentic species (Anodonta lauta) was easily affected by flowing water than lotic species (Unio douglasiae nipponensis, Lanceolaria grayana). And the result suggested that hydraulic characteristic of Unionoida was one of the reason that caused a decrement of lentic Unionoida species in the Matsuura river.

  15. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  16. The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system. PMID:16262989

  17. [Study on the thermal radiation polarization characteristics of ice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-03-01

    As an important parameter of the global energy balance, climate, hydrological and ecological model, ice directly affects the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system, weather and climate. It is of great significance to use the thermal infrared polarization technology to study ice thermal radiation. For the ice monitoring and the impact of global climate change on the ice, studies on ice thermal radiation polarization characteristics were conducted based on the wavelength, detection angle and azimuth angle. The results show that the wavelength has an obvious impact on the ice thermal radiation polarization properties. The polarized radiance of four bands shows that L(CH1) > L(CH3) > L(CH4) > L(CH2) while the polarization brightness temperature shows that T(CH4) > T(CH1) > TCH2 > TCH3. It's better to use the brightness temperature of the third channel than the radiance to study the thermal radiation polarization. The detection angle affects the ice thermal radiation polarization characteristics greatly and there are some differences between the polarization angles. The brightness temperature of ice is the lowest in the detection angle of 10 degrees and the polarization angle of 30 degrees, which are non-accidental factors. These was closely related to ice physical and chemical properties. The degree of ice polarization performance shows that P0 < P40 affected by the detection angle, which is directly related to the differences in the brightness temperature at different polarization angles. The degree of polarization changes with the azimuth angles and plays an important role in ice physical and chemical characteristics monitoring. The impact of azimuth angle on the ice thermal radiation polarization characteristics was not significant. And it is affected by the roughness of the surface, organizational structure and other factors which are direct results of ice emitted radiation at different azimuth angles. PMID:25208376

  18. Oxidation characteristics of molybdenum-zirconium oxide cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitzinger, B.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation of molybdenum is affected by the factors of temperature, the oxygen pressure in the oxidizing atmosphere, and the time of exposure. Studies of the oxidation characteristics of Mo show that the oxidation rate increases strongly when the temperature exceeds 600 C. Investigations of the behavior of cermets with various percentages of zirconium oxide are discussed, taking into account oxidation conditions at temperatures under and above the melting point of molybdenum trioxide.

  19. Parental Sensitivity, Infant Affect, and Affect Regulation: Predictors of Later Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Garwood, Molly M.; Powers, Bruce P.; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent to which parent sensitivity, infant affect, and affect regulation at 4 months predicted mother- and father-infant attachment classifications at 1 year. Found that affect regulation and maternal sensitivity discriminated infant-mother attachment groups. The association between maternal sensitivity and infant-mother attachment was

  20. Respiratory responses during affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Stahel, Werner A; Danuser, Brigitta

    2004-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated covariation of physiological responding with judgments of valence and arousal. However, until now links between these affective dimensions and respiratory measures have not been extensively investigated. In this study, eight picture series of different affective valence and arousal level were shown to 30 subjects, while respiration, skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and affective judgments were measured. With increasing pleasantness, inspiratory time lengthened, mean inspiratory flow decreased and thoracic breathing increased. With increasing arousal, inspiratory time and total breath duration shortened and mean inspiratory flow, minute ventilation, thoracic breathing and electrodermal activity increased. These findings confirm the importance of arousal in respiratory responding, but also indicate a modulatory role of affective valence. We propose that the arousal effects reflect energy mobilization in preparation to act, and that the valence effects might be a manifestation of an attention bias toward negative stimuli. PMID:15294392