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1

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. Finally, spatial factor

Cook, Di

2

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. 1 Introduction

Cook, Di

3

Multiple Sclerosis Affects Skeletal Muscle Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. Methods In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19) patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC). Hereafter a muscle biopsy (m.vastus lateralis) was taken. Results Compared to HC, mean muscle fiber CSA of all fibers, as well as CSA of type I, II and IIa fibers were smaller and muscle strength of the quadriceps was lower in MS patients. Whole body composition was comparable between groups. However, compared to HC, the biopsied leg tended to have a higher fat percentage (p?=?0.1) and a lower lean mass (p?=?0.06) in MS patients. Conclusion MS seems to negatively influence skeletal muscle fiber CSA, muscle strength and muscle mass of the lower limbs of mildly affected MS patients. This emphasises the need for rehabilitation programs focusing on muscle preservation of the lower limb. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:25264868

Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank; Krekels, Maartje; Grevendonk, Lotte; Eijnde, Bert O.

2014-01-01

4

Repeated Sampling Affects Tree Swallow Semen Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) face intense sperm competition because mated pairs copulate frequently, extra-pair copulations are common, and females store sperm. We examined the effects of repeated sampling on the characteristics of Tree Swallow semen by manually expressing semen from 15 males immediately after capture (T0) and then hourly for 4 h (T1-T4). The semen characteristics of individual males

Michael P Lombardo; M. L. Green; P. A. Thorpe; M. R. Czarnowski; H. W. Power

2004-01-01

5

Motivation and Learner Characteristics Affecting Online Learning and Learning Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been conducted to verify the effect of learner characteristics and motivation in traditional classrooms, but very few are found in online learning research. This study sought to identify what learner characteristics and motivation types affected a group of undergraduate students' learning and application of learning for a course…

Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Hyunjoong

2003-01-01

6

Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

2014-01-01

7

Do Entry Characteristics of Online Learners Affect Their Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed learner characteristics that affect satisfaction in an online certificate program under two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine relationships among selected variables (age, gender, educational level, and online course experience), learners' initial perceptions (online technology self-efficacy, online learning…

Yukselturk, Erman

2009-01-01

8

Infinite experiences, affects and the characteristics of the unconscious.  

PubMed

The work of Matte-Blanco is little understood by psychoanalysts largely because he used mathematical logic as an essential method to elucidate psychoanalytic theory. His findings, however, seem to be important and warrant this simple introductory paper explaining key ideas. Two fundamentally distinct processes, defined as asymmetrical and symmetrical logics are introduced and illustrated. Asymmetrical logic is analogous to secondary process while symmetrical logic has affinity with primary process. Both logic seem to interweave in any thought processes but with asymmetry predominating in scientific thought while symmetrical logic is most evident in psychosis and dreams. It is furthermore argued that the various characteristics of the unconscious, as described by Freud, can be seen as different mental outcomes with symmetrical logic at the base of all of them. A parallel is discovered by Matte-Blanco between the characteristics of symmetrical logic and those of infinite sets as defined mathematically. This leads to an investigation of the concept of infinity and of psychological infinite experiences. These can be readily detected in omnipotence, omniscience, and idealization, but they also seem to occur in extreme emotional states such as being in love, dread and grief. If nuclei of extreme states are contained in any affect, then it is likely that all affects in their cognitive aspects contain experiences of infinity. Symmetrical logic may thus be a common background both to the characteristics of the unconscious and emotionality generally. PMID:7319692

Rayner, E

1981-01-01

9

[Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

1995-10-01

10

Flow Characteristics in Permeable Reactive Barrier Affected by Biological Clogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are becoming popular for the in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The efficiency of the PRB is affected by permeability of the reactive zone, because when permeability decreases contaminants can bypass the reactive zone without degraded. One of the factors affecting permeability of the permeable reactive zone is biological clogging of soil pore, i.e., biomass buildup and resultant decrease in hydraulic conductivity. So far biological clogging in laboratory was mostly observed in one-dimensional flow field, but the actual flow field in PRB is better simulated in two-dimensional flow field. The objective of this study is to observe the flow characteristics in PRB by using simulated flow cells in laboratory, by comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional flow field. One-dimensional flow field was simulated by 20 cm length and 1 cm width flow cell, and two-dimensional flow field was simulated by 20 cm length and 10 cm width flow cell. Each flow cell was operated under water-saturated conditions, in horizontal position, and at a constant temperature of 20 degree centigrade. Glass beads of 0.1 mm mean diameter was packed uniformly in the flow cells and inoculum was injected into the nutrient injection ports at the middle of the flow cells. After 24 h incubation time continuous flow was started. Background flow of de-ionized water was supplied to the inlet ports, and the mineral medium was supplied from the nutrient injection ports. The flux was measured every day and local hydraulic head distribution was measured by water manometer, and hydraulic conductivity was calculated. The flow cell experiments were continued for 9 days. In one-dimensional flow cell, hydraulic conductivity of the nutrient supplied part decreased to about half of the initial value in 9 days flow period, where the hydraulic conductivity of the part where nutrient was not supplied remained constant. Bacterial and fungal number in the moderately clogged zone, where nutrient was supplied, increased in two orders of magnitude and the decrease in the hydraulic conductivity was associated with biomass buildup. In two-dimensional flow cell, biomass buildup of the nutrient supplied zone was also observed and moderately clogged biobarrier was formed. Unlike one-dimensional flow cell, where flux was kept uniform throughout the flow cell, the flux decreased at the biobarrier and the preferential flow between biobarriers was invoked. Flux at the preferential flow path was higher than average flux in the whole cell. This result suggests that biological clogging of PRB wells can cause changes in flow field pattern of contaminant plume, even if the extent of clogging is moderate.

Seki, K.; Hanada, J.; Miyazaki, T.

2004-12-01

11

Flow Characteristics in Permeable Reactive Barrier Affected by Biological Clogging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are becoming popular for the in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The efficiency of the PRB is affected by permeability of the reactive zone, because when permeability decreases contaminants can bypass the reactive zone without degraded. One of the factors affecting permeability of the permeable reactive zone is biological clogging of soil pore, i.e., biomass buildup

K. Seki; J. Hanada; T. Miyazaki

2004-01-01

12

Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

2014-01-01

13

Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-01-01

14

Characteristics of Nursing Homes that Affect Resident Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been increased interest in using outcomes as measures of quality, few studies have shown a link between structure or process and outcomes. In this analysis, based on approximately 2,500 residents in 80 nursing homes in Rhode Island, multivariate models estimate which aspects of care are associated with resident outcomes after controlling for resident characteristics. Outcomes, measured over

William D. Spector; Hitomi Adrianna Takada

1991-01-01

15

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence

Alan M Friedlander; James D Parrish

1998-01-01

16

Personal Characteristics Affecting Agricultural Extension Workers' Job Satisfaction Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: One of the closely associated concepts with performance of an organization is job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. Approach: A survey of 52 extension workers was conducted in Fars Province, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Bray field and Rothe Job Satisfaction Index was

Ali Asadi; Fereshteh Fadakar; Zahra Khoshnodifar; Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi; Gholamhossein Hosseinini

2008-01-01

17

Factors which Affect the Gelling Characteristics of Aluminium Soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods of making aluminium soaps are described, and one, the metathetic reaction between a sodium soap solution and an aluminium salt solution, is discussed in detail. The effect of variations in manufacturing technique upon the gelling characteristics of the product is considered. Recent work by various investigators on the structure of aluminium soaps is reviewed, particularly in relation to

G. A. Parry; J. E. Roberts; A. J. Taylor

1950-01-01

18

Characteristics of earthworm casts affecting herbicide sorption and movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various physical and chemical characteristics of earthworm casts collected from a laboratory incubation and a field experiment were examined in relation to their effect on the sorption and the movement of three 14C-labelled ionic herbicides: atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and metsulforon methyl. The earthworm casts contained higher levels of fine fractions and total and soluble C. This is attributed to the

N. S. Bolan; S. Baskaran

1996-01-01

19

The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

HOCKER RAY W

1933-01-01

20

Predation and landscape characteristics independently affect reef fish community organization.  

PubMed

Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta diversity across patchy landscapes. However, experimental tests of the predicted context dependency in top-down control remain limited. Using a factorial field experiment we quantify the effects of a focal predatory fish species (grouper) and habitat characteristics (patch size, fragmentation) on the partitioning of diversity and assembly of coral reef fish communities. We found independent effects of groupers and patch characteristics on prey communities. Groupers reduced prey abundance by 50% and gamma diversity by 45%, with a disproportionate removal of rare species relative to common species (64% and 36% reduction, respectively; an oddity effect). Further, there was a 77% reduction in beta diversity. Null model analysis demonstrated that groupers increased the importance of stochastic community assembly relative to patches without groupers. With regard to patch size, larger patches contained more fishes, but a doubling of patch size led to a modest (36%) increase in prey abundance. Patch size had no effect on prey diversity; however, fragmented patches had 50% higher species richness and modified species composition relative to unfragmented patches. Our findings suggest two different pathways (i.e., habitat or predator shifts) by which natural and/or anthropogenic processes can drive variation in fish biodiversity and community assembly. PMID:25000761

Stier, Adrian C; Hanson, Katharine M; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

2014-05-01

21

Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style. PMID:19859795

Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-04-01

22

Myocardial tolerance to mechanical actuation is affected by biomaterial characteristics.  

PubMed

Direct mechanical ventricular actuation (DMVA) uses a pressure regulated heart cup, fabricated from silicone rubber (SR) for mechanical massage of the heart. Because DMVA has demonstrated potential for long-term circulatory support, investigations are currently exploring the use of more durable materials for fabricating DMVA heart cups. This study assessed the acute effects of heart cups fabricated from SR versus polyurethane (PU) on the myocardium. Dogs (n - 18) received DMVA for 4 hr of ventricular fibrillation (VF) using either SR (n = 10) or PU (n = 8) cups. Microspheres were used to determine perfusion during sinus rhythm (control) and at 2 and 4 hr of support. After support, myocardial biopsies were assayed for high energy phosphate content. Results demonstrated that PU cups required relatively frequent adjustments in drive line parameters that were likely due to material softening during PU cup support. Both PU and SR cups achieved similar hemodynamics during 4 hr of support. Myocardial perfusion, however, demonstrated a marked hyperemia at 4 hr of PU versus SR cup support. Regional high energy phosphate content was significantly decreased in hearts supported by PU versus SR cups. These results suggest that the relatively compliant characteristics of SR materials are important for achieving effective DMVA support without injuring the myocardium. PMID:8555534

Anstadt, M P; Perez-Tamayo, R A; Banit, D M; Walthall, H P; Cothran, R L; Abdel-Aleem, S; Anstadt, G L; Jones, P L; Lowe, J E

1994-01-01

23

Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence affecting transportation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on transportation structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically affected by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.

2009-01-01

24

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence analysis, and associated with six major habitat types. Statistical differences were shown between a number of these habitat types for various ensemble variables of the fish assemblages. Overall, both for complete assemblages and for component major trophic and mobility guilds, these variables tended to have higher values where reef substratum was more structurally or topographically complex, and closer to reef edges. When study sites were separately divided into five depth strata, the deeper strata tended to have statistically higher values of ensemble variables for the fish assemblages. Patterns with depth varied among the various trophic and mobility guilds. Multiple linear regression models indicated that for the complete assemblages and for most trophic and mobility guilds, a large part of the variability for most ensemble variables was explained by measures of holes in the substratum, with important contributions from measured substratum rugosity and depth. A strong linear relationship found by regression of mean fish length on mean volume of holes in the reef surface emphasized the importance of shelter for fish assemblages. Results of this study may have practical applications in designing reserve areas as well as theoretical value in helping to explain the organization of reef fish assemblages.

Friedlander, A.M.; Parrish, J.D.

1998-01-01

25

Does trait affectivity predict work-to-family conflict and enrichment beyond job characteristics?  

PubMed

The present study examines whether negative and positive affectivity (NA and PA, respectively) predict different forms of work-to-family conflict (WFC-time, WFC-strain, WFC-behavior) and enrichment (WFE-development, WFE-affect, WFE-capital) beyond job characteristics (workload, autonomy, variety, workplace support). Furthermore, interactions between job characteristics and trait affectivity while predicting WFC and WFE were examined. Using a large sample of Slovenian employees (N = 738), NA and PA were found to explain variance in WFC as well as in WFE above and beyond job characteristics. More precisely, NA significantly predicted WFC, whereas PA significantly predicted WFE. In addition, several interactive effects were found to predict forms of WFC and WFE. These results highlight the importance of trait affectivity in work-family research. They provide further support for the crucial impact of job characteristics as well. PMID:23469478

Tement, Sara; Korunka, Christian

2013-01-01

26

The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

2007-01-01

27

Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both…

Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elford, Greg; Mayberry, Murray

2005-01-01

28

Characteristics of White Pan Bread as Affected by Tempering of the Fat Ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 73(4):462-465 This study investigated the effect of tempering of four shortening for- ening. Texture of the shortenings was profoundly affected by increasing mulations on the baking characteristics of white pan bread. The fats used the level of POS. Tempering at 23°C of all formulations resulted in a were palm oil and blends of palm oil (PO) and palm

I. NOR

29

Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake.During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As(aqua

Katja Bogdan; Manfred K. Schenk

2009-01-01

30

Metal contents in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) as affected by soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake by plants is a potential pathway of metal transfer to the human food-chain. A correct quantification critically affects the outcome of environmental risk assessment. Using data of soils and plants ( Urtica dioica L.) from 382 locations north-east of Ghent, the relation between soil characteristics (clay content, organic carbon content, CEC, soil pH and total metal content) and plant

F. M. Tack; M. G. Verloo

1996-01-01

31

Physical characteristics of indigestible solids affect emptying from the fasting human stomach.  

PubMed

Gastric emptying of indigestible solids depends on their size. It is not clear whether physical characteristics other than particle size affect emptying of indigestible solids from the fasting human stomach. We studied gastric emptying of three differently shaped particles, (cubes, spheres, rods) of either hard or soft consistency during the fasting state in human volunteers. The shape of indigestible particles did not affect their emptying. The area under the gastric emptying curve (AUC: particles x hour) was for hard cubes 24.7 (2.2), for hard spheres 27.9 (1.6), for hard rods 26.9 (2.7). All soft particles emptied faster than their identically shaped hard counterparts, but there was no difference among the three shapes (AUC for soft cubes: 29.2 (3.0), for soft spheres 32.0 (1.8), for soft rods 34.1 (1.2). If gastric emptying of hard and soft particles was compared independently of their shape, soft particles emptied significantly faster than hard ones: AUC 31.8 (1.2) v 26.5 (1.3) (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, the consistency but not the shape significantly affects gastric emptying. Specific physical characteristics other than size and shape may affect gastric emptying of indigestible particles which may be of importance in the design of drugs. PMID:2599438

Meyer, B; Beglinger, C; Neumayer, M; Stalder, G A

1989-11-01

32

External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.  

PubMed

External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders. PMID:24464242

Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

2014-10-01

33

Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles  

PubMed Central

Background: The Understanding Group and Leader (UGL), provided by the Swedish National Defense College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA) to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1) to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2) to investigate differences in personal characteristics. Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153) and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police) completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA), high affective (high PA, high NA), low affective (high PA, low NA), and self-destructive (low PA, high NA). Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70%) than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%). UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05) and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after certification. PMID:25374553

Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Åkerman, Jeanette; Eerikäinen, Peter; Ambjörnsson, Annika; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Mihailovic, Marko; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

2014-01-01

34

Airfoil Section Characteristics as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.

Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

1937-01-01

35

The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1  

PubMed Central

Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

36

Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.  

PubMed

Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

2010-07-01

37

Context matters: Community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics—social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth—in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Methods 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Results Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively co-varied with youths’ externalizing and internalizing scores—indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p<0.05). The relationship between collective efficacy and mental health outcomes was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the post-conflict social context plays in shaping mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a four-year period of follow up. These results underscore the importance of the post-conflict social environment and the need to develop post-conflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs of the individual. PMID:24102324

Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Brennan, Robert T.

2013-01-01

38

The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

2014-01-10

39

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) are a common bird native to  

E-print Network

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens in the urban environment. A characteristic behavior of Cactus Wrens is they build and maintain roost nests. This was a preliminary investigation to determine if Cactus Wren roost nests serve to maintain an internal microclimate

Hall, Sharon J.

40

THE RENAL TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT AFFECT SURGICAL PLANNING FOR LAPAROSCOPIC OR OPEN PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological characteristics of renal tumors which affect the surgeons’ decision-making for the selection of open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. We included 147 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal masses with elective indications in this study. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and open partial nephrectomy (OPN) were performed in 72 and 75 patients, respectively. Preoperative trans-sectional images were used to assess tumor characteristics such as tumor size, endophyticity, distance from the sinus, distance from the kidney equator, hilar designation, inside designation, and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that tumor size, endophyticity, distance from the sinus, hilar designation, inside designation, and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score were associated with decision of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Among these factors, multiple regression analyses showed that endophyticity (odds ratio = 0.92, p = 0.007) and distance from the sinus (odds ratio = 1.201, p < 0.001) had statistically significant associations with the type of operation performed. ROC analyses demonstrated cut-off values of 16 mm for endophyticity (sensitivity 69%, specificity 77%) and of 4 mm for distance from the sinus (sensitivity 79%, specificity 65%) for predicting the selection of laparoscopic surgery. In conclusion, this study revealed that endophyticity and distance from the sinus were important for the surgical planning of partial nephrectomy. PMID:25797988

FUNAHASHI, YASUHITO; MUROTANI, KENTA; YOSHINO, YASUSHI; SASSA, NAOTO; ISHIDA, SHOHEI; GOTOH, MOMOKAZU

2015-01-01

41

A forced desynchrony study of circadian pacemaker characteristics in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

The circadian pacemaker is an endogenous clock that regulates oscillations in most physiological and psychological processes with a near 24-h period. In many species, this pacemaker triggers seasonal changes in behavior. The seasonality of symptoms and the efficacy of light therapy suggest involvement of the circadian pacemaker in seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type. In this study, circadian pacemaker characteristics of SAD patients were compared with those of controls. Seven SAD patients and matched controls were subjected to a 120-h forced desynchrony protocol, in which core body temperature and melatonin secretion profiles were measured for the characterization of circadian pacemaker parameters. During this protocol, which enables the study of unmasked circadian pacemaker characteristics, subjects were exposed to six 20-h days in time isolation. Patients participated twice in winter (while depressed and while remitted after light therapy) and once in summer. Controls participated once in winter and once in summer. Between the SAD patients and controls, no significant differences were observed in the melatonin-derived period or in the phase of the endogenous circadian temperature rhythm. The amplitude of this rhythm was significantly smaller in depressed and remitted SAD patients than in controls. No abnormalities of the circadian pacemaker were observed in SAD patients. A disturbance in thermoregulatory processes might explain the smaller circadian temperature amplitude in SAD patients during winter. PMID:12375622

Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Beersma, Domien G M; den Boer, Johan A; van den Hoofdakker, Rutger H

2002-10-01

42

The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community  

PubMed Central

Gene exchange between species occurs in areas of secondary contact, where two species have the opportunity to hybridize. If heterospecific males are more common than conspecific males, females will experience more encounters with males of other species. These encounters might increase the likelihood of heterospecific matings, and lead to the production of hybrid progeny. I studied the mating behavior of two pairs of sibling species endemic to Africa: Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila santomea and Drosophila simulans/Drosophila sechellia. Drosophila yakuba and D. simulans are cosmopolitan species widely distributed in the African continent, while D. santomea and D. sechellia are island endemics. These pairs of species hybridize in nature and have the potential to exchange genes in natural conditions. I used these two pairs of Drosophila species, and constructed mating communities of different size and different heterospecific:conspecific composition. I found that both the total number of potential mates and the relative frequency of conspecific versus heterospecific males affect female mating decisions in the cosmopolitan species but not in the island endemics. These results suggest that the population characteristics, in which mating occurs, may affect the magnitude of premating isolation. Community composition might thus facilitate, or impair, gene flow between species. PMID:25165530

Matute, Daniel R

2014-01-01

43

Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake. During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As(aqua regia), pH, grain size fractions, total C, plant available P(CAL), poorly crystalline Fe(oxal.) and plant available Si(Na-acetate) content that potentially affect As content of rice were determined. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive influence of the total As(aqua regia) and plant available P(CAL) content and a negative influence of the poorly crystalline Fe(oxal.) content of the soil on the As content in polished rice and rice straw. Si concentration in rice straw varied widely and was negatively related to As content in straw and polished rice. PMID:19482396

Bogdan, Katja; Schenk, Manfred K

2009-10-01

44

Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

1991-01-01

45

Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of ( ?- gg')-M x C y type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction ?-?' can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the M x C y carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)- ?' phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the ? and ?' particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved ?' precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

Lachowicz, M. B.; Dudzi?ski, W.

2012-09-01

46

Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

2014-01-01

47

Analysis of the characteristics of slot design affecting resistance to sliding during active archwire configurations  

PubMed Central

Background During orthodontic treatment, a low resistance to slide (RS) is desirable when sliding mechanics are used. Many studies showed that several variables affect the RS at the bracket-wire interface; among these, the design of the bracket slot has not been deeply investigated yet. This study aimed to clarify the effect of different slot designs on the RS expressed by five types of low-friction brackets in vertical and horizontal active configurations of the wire. Methods Five low-friction brackets (Damon SL II, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA; In-Ovation, GAC International, Bohemia, NY, USA; Quick, Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany; Time 2, AO, Sheboygan, WI, USA; Synergy, RMO, Denver, CO, USA) coupled with an 0.014-in NiTi thermal wire (Therma-Lite, AO) were tested in two three-bracket experimental models simulating vertical and horizontal bracket displacements. A custom-made machine was used to measure frictional resistance with tests repeated on ten occasions for each bracket-wire combination. Design characteristics such as the mesio-distal slot width, slot depth, and presence of chamfered edges at the extremities of the slot were evaluated on SEM images (SUPRA, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) and analyzed in relation to the data of RS recorded. Results Time 2 was found to show the higher frictional forces (1.50 and 1.35 N) in both experimental models (p < 0.05), while Quick and Synergy brackets showed the lower frictional values in the vertical (0.66 N) and in the horizontal (0.68 N) bracket displacements, respectively. With vertically displaced brackets, the increased mesio-distal slot width and the presence of clear angle at mesial and distal slot edges increase the values of RS. With brackets horizontally displaced, the RS expressed by the wire is influenced simultaneously by the depth of the slot, the mesio-distal slot width, and the presence of clear angle at the extremities of the slot base, the clip, or the slide. Conclusion In order to select the proper low-friction bracket system, clinicians should consider specific characteristics of slot design apart from the wire engaging method. PMID:24325837

2013-01-01

48

Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation  

PubMed Central

Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0.001), suggested imprinted genes and miRNA interference as mechanisms for differential effects of maternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle. PMID:23341941

Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

2013-01-01

49

Investigating changes of electrical characteristics of the saturated zone affected by hazardous organic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Picillo Farm, EPA Superfund Site, in western Rhode Island was an unauthorized disposal site of hazardous organic chemicals. Predominantly organic contaminants have entered an aquifer comprised of layered glacial deposits and fractured bedrock and spread past the site boundaries with groundwater flow. Hydraulic conductivities in the glacial deposits range over two orders of magnitude and fractures and faults in the granitic bedrock further complicate the spreading of contaminants. Monitoring wells delineate two plumes that extend towards a fault-controlled valley with lakes and wetlands; one to the northwest and the other to the southwest. In this investigation we studied the electrical characteristics of both plumes. One dimensional Schlumberger depth soundings were conducted along several profile lines over the plumes and compared to those over non-contaminated sections of the site. With regard to the southwestern plume, high formation factors (ratio of bulk layer to pore water resistivity) between 12 and 45 were observed compared to values between 2.5 and 7.7 measured over the non-contaminated sections. Also, high values (> 5) of vertical electrical anisotropy (ratio of geoelectrically determined depth to high resistivity bedrock to drilled depth to bedrock) were measured over the contaminated part of the site. These values are extremely high compared to other non-contaminated sites (range: 2 to 3) in glacial stream channels of southern Rhode Island. Geoelectric measurements were affected by lateral effects. However, the consistency of high formation factors (11 to 35) and high vertical anisotropies (3 to 5) over the southwestern plume in comparison to low formation factors (3 to 8) and vertical anisotropies (1 to 1.5) over non-contaminated sites represents a marked difference between both sites. Overall, the Schlumberger depth soundings are less susceptible to near-surface lateral inhomogeneities than expected from other geoelectrical methods. Also, the disadvantage of a 1D interpretation was compensated by estimating resistivity and thickness ranges within the concept of non-uniqueness using the Dar Zarrouk parameters (Maillet, R., 1947. The fundamental equations of electrical prospecting. Geophysics, 12(4): 529-556.). The results over the northwestern plume, i.e. an area with higher contaminant concentration than the southwestern plume, were mixed and showed no consistent trends. Predominantly reducing conditions, as indicated by the presence of soluble ferric (FeII) iron hydroxides in ground water samples, increased the electrical conductivity. This is believed to have compensated the effect of high formation factors on the bulk saturated layer resistivity within the affected area.

Frohlich, Reinhard K.; Barosh, Patrick J.; Boving, Thomas

2008-03-01

50

Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

2006-01-01

51

Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

52

PUFFING AND JET-COOKING AFFECT SOLUBILITY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF BARLEY A-GLUCANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foods containing barley or oats are often marketed as healthy because of the dietary fiber, (1-3) (1-4)-Beta-D-glucan. Processing conditions can affect the molecular structure of these dietary fibers, which in turn, affect quality and properties of the products. In this study, the effect of puffing ...

53

The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n?=?223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal experience, and least with systemic characteristics. A14-item inventory identifies critical incident characteristics associated with emotional sequelae. This may be helpful in tailoring recovery support to individual provider needs. PMID:22862821

2012-01-01

54

Canopy Characteristics Affecting Avian Reproductive Success: The Golden-cheeked Warbler  

E-print Network

western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica) (Table 4). Table 4. Nest success, vegetative characteristics, and camera placement of nests located during the 2009?2010 field seasons. Nest Substrate Height (m) Nest Height (m) % Canopy Closure Camera...

Klassen, Jessica Anne

2012-07-16

55

Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity.  

PubMed

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of impulsivity were seen in SMS, AS, CdCS, FXS and adults with CdLS. Negative affect was prominent in adults with CdLS, while positive affect was prominent in adults with AS and FXS. Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes. PMID:21080217

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-08-01

56

Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

1986-06-01

57

Special Needs Characteristics of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders that Affect Inclusion in Regular Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD…

Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M.; Swaab, Hanna

2012-01-01

58

How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the…

Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

2013-01-01

59

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-01-01

60

Experimental and analytical determination of characteristics affecting light aircraft landing-gear dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine which characteristics of a light aircraft landing gear influence gear dynamic behavior significantly. The investigation focused particularly on possible modification for load control. Pseudostatic tests were conducted to determine the gear fore-and-aft spring constant, axial friction as a function of drag load, brake pressure-torque characteristics, and tire force-deflection characteristics. To study dynamic tire response, vertical drops were conducted at impact velocities of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 m/s onto a level surface; to determine axial-friction effects, a second series of vertical drops were made at 1.5 m/s onto surfaces inclined 5 deg and 10 deg to the horizontal. An average dynamic axial-friction coefficient of 0.15 was obtained by comparing analytical data with inclined surface drop test data. Dynamic strut bending and associated axial friction were found to be severe for the drop tests on the 10 deg surface.

Fasanella, E. L.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Pappas, M. S.

1977-01-01

61

How a Married Woman`s Characteristics Affect her Contraceptive Behavior?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Pakistan, population growth rate is 2.2% and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is as high as 5.4. It is the result of low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of only 28%. Due to low CPR, women have high rate of unwanted births in Pakistan. In this study using probit estimation on primary data, we have analyzed the woman=s characteristics responsible for low contraceptive prevalence among married women in urban areas of Punjab (Pakistan). For the purpose one thousand married women in the age group of 15-49 years, who were not currently pregnant were interviewed from urban areas of Bahawalpur and Lahore. The individual characteristics of married women were focused, although household characteristics, socio-economic conditions of the community where woman is living, religious and cultural factors are also important. It is found that age of woman, education of woman, woman`s status, her economic activity, income level and age at marriage were found major determinants of contraceptive prevalence in women. The policies towards the education of women, status of women, labor force participation of women and legal interventions towards the increase in marriage age are stressed to increase the CPR.

Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Khan, Tasnim

62

Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

2002-01-01

63

Demand characteristics of music affect performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test Of Intelligence.  

PubMed

This study examined whether demand characteristics concerning music can change subjects' performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test of intelligence. Participants (N= 60) were randomly assigned and informed either that Mozart's music typically enhances cognitive performance or diminishes it. They then completed the Wonderlic Personnel Test while listening to a Mozart piano sonata. The subjects with a positive set answered significantly more items correctly on the test (14%) than those with a negative set (p = .03). This result may hold implications for the study of the 'Mozart effect'. PMID:17450975

Verpaelst, Celissa C; Standing, Lionel G

2007-02-01

64

The surface characteristics of activated carbon as affected by ozone and alkaline treatment.  

PubMed

The surface chemical characteristics of activated carbon treated by ozone and alkaline are determined in terms of surface functional groups and surface acidity. Surface functional groups are analyzed by the IR spectroscopic method and Boehm's titration technique. The surface acidity of activated carbon is determined by electrophoretic mobility measurements. The oxygen concentration of activated carbon increases upon ozone and NaOH treatment. Surface functional groups increase mostly in the hydroxyl and carboxyl categories rather than the carbonyl category upon ozone and NaOH treatment. PMID:11996146

Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, C P; Chiang, P C

2002-04-01

65

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman\\u000a (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis\\u000a (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4–51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of\\u000a impulsivity were seen in

Chris Oliver; Katy Berg; Jo Moss; Kate Arron; Cheryl Burbidge

66

The incidence of thyroid cancer is affected by the characteristics of a healthcare system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the incidence of thyroid cancer and the characteristics of healthcare systems in OECD countries and to demonstrate that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is mainly due to overdiagnosis. We used a random effects panel model to regress the incidence of thyroid cancer on the characteristics of healthcare systems (i.e., share of public expenditure on health, mode of health financing, existence of referral system to secondary care, mode of payment to primary care physicians), controlling for macro context variables (i.e., GDP per capita, educational level) on a country level. Data were derived from 34 OECD countries for 2002 and 2008. The share of public expenditure on health was negatively associated with the incidence of thyroid cancer. However, it had no statistically significant effect on the mortality of thyroid cancer and on the incidence of stomach and lung cancer. In the case of colorectal cancer, it had a positive effect on the incidence rate. The upward trend of the incidence of thyroid cancer is closely related to the healthcare system that permits overdiagnosis. Increases in the proportion of public financing may help reduce the overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:23255848

Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun; Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Jae-Ho

2012-12-01

67

Eutrophication of Typical Chinese Shallow Lakes as affected by Hydrologic Characteristics and Lake-Basin Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region below midstream of the Yangtze River is one of the areas in China that have a highest density of lakes, in particular shallow lakes. It has five nationally well-known freshwater lakes with largest sizes, namely the Poyang Lake, Doingting Lake, Taihu Lake, Chaohu Lake, and Hongze Lake. This region has 138 lakes with a water surface area of 10 km2 or larger. However, approximately 70% of the large- to medium-sized lakes in the eastern plains of China have been altered from pristine into reservoir-like conditions. Previous studies indicate that hydrologic characteristics and lake-basin morphology likely have important effects on the water quality (or eutrophication) of shallow lakes. However, little is known about quantitative relations among lake water quality, lake-basin morphology, and hydrologic characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine such quantitative relations using data on water quality, water ecology, hydrology, and basin morphology. The data were collected from 2008 to 2011 for ninety shallow lakes in the eastern plains of China. The results indicate that total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations decreased with increase of water depth. TN and TP concentrations in the lakes with a water depth of greater than 2m were less than those in the lakes with a water depth less than 2m. In addition, Chl-a concentration in the lakes with a surface area less than 25 km2 increased with the increase of relative water depth (Zr), whereas Chl-a concentration in the lakes with a surface area greater than 25 km2 decreased with the increase of Zr. Further, as influenced by hydrologic characteristics, the lakes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River tended to have a better water quality than the lakes in the lower reaches, while the lakes that are hydraulically connected with the Yangtze River tended to have a better water quality than the lakes that are hydraulically disconnected from the river.

Huang, J.; Xu, Q.; Xi, B.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Ji, D.; Jiang, T.

2013-12-01

68

Field experimental approach to bromide leaching as affected by scale-specific rainfall characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although inherent soil spatial and temporal variabilities complicate analysis of solute leaching, impacts of specific processes associated with rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency on solute leaching under field conditions require investigation. The objective of this study was to introduce (1) a new experimental approach to quantify bromide (Br-) leaching under field conditions as influenced by rainfall characteristics and (2) analytical opportunities applicable to scale-specific spatial treatment distribution. The quantitative range of treatments was established in nonrandom periodically oscillating patterns. The characteristic length of a period over which a treatment fluctuates was considered the specific treatment scale. A Br- tracer study was established in the field with treatments applied at two different spatial scales. The tracer was applied with a sprayer in a transect of 32 plots, each 2 m long, followed by a site-specific sprinkler irrigation, and 128 soil cores subsequently taken at 0.5 m intervals and divided into 10-cm depth increments. The scale-specific associations between treatments and Br- center of mass (COM) were addressed. Treatments can be periodically imposed over specific scales and their spatial relationships quantified with semivariance and power spectral analysis. An additive state-space model was applied to separate the long- and short-wave components of Br- COM. Subsequently, the large-scale process was described in an autoregressive state-space model. The proposed experimental approach and the separation of small- and large-scale variability components support studying soil ecosystem processes that vary at different scales even in the presence of underlying large-scale trends that are currently considered obstacles in field research.

Wendroth, Ole; Vasquez, Vicente; Matocha, Christopher J.

2011-06-01

69

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

2006-01-01

70

Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the Overthrust Belt of Southwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Jurassic-Triassic age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming Overthrust Belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic directional properties which have been inherited from the depositional environment, modified by diagenesis, and finally overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly eolian processes deposited crossbedded and horizontally-bedded, very fine-grained to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdunes and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and precipitation of hydrocarbon resins. Low-permeability, gougefilled and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and affect producibility; whereas discontinuous, open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in permeability between dune and interdune intervals ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune deposits are locally correlatable with the aid of core, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations can then be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

Lindquist, S.J.

1982-09-01

71

Dust-storm dynamics over Sistan region, Iran: Seasonality, transport characteristics and affected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work examines the seasonality, dust-plume altitudinal variation and affected areas for dust storms originated from the Sistan region, southeastern Iran during the summer (June-September) months of the period 2001-2012 synthesizing local meteorological records, satellite observations (TOMS, OMI, METEOSAT, MODIS) and HYSPLIT forward trajectories. Dust-storm days (356 in total) are associated with visibility below 1 km at Zabol, Iran meteorological station with higher frequency and intensity in June and July. Monthly-mean composite maps of TOMS and OMI AI show high (>3-3.5) values over Sistan and nearby downwind areas. HYSPLIT forward-trajectory analysis at 500 m for air masses originated from Sistan on the dust-storm days shows that they usually follow an anti-clockwise transport direction at elevations usually below 2 km, initially moving southwards and then shifting to east-northeast when they are approaching the Arabian Sea coast. This is the result of the influence of the local topography and formation of thermal low-pressure systems over the arid lands. It is found that in few cases the dust storms from Sistan affect central/south Arabian Sea and India, while they control the aerosol loading over northernmost Arabian Sea. The Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) images, which represent brightness temperature reduction due to dust presence over land, are used at specific periods of persistent dust storms over Sistan, confirming the main pathways of the dust plumes and illustrating the importance of the region as one of the most active dust sources in southwest Asia.

Rashki, A.; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Francois, P.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Legrand, M.

2015-03-01

72

[Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].  

PubMed

In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level. PMID:24830259

Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

2014-02-01

73

Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

Bradfield, A.D.

1986-01-01

74

Characteristics of low-slope streams that affect O2 transfer rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple-regression techniques were used to derive the reaeration coefficients estimating equation for low sloped streams: K2 = 3.83 MBAS-0.41 SL0.20 H-0.76, where K2 is the reaeration coefficient in base e units per day; MBAS is the methylene blue active substances concentration in milligrams per liter; SL is the water-surface slope in foot per foot; and H is the mean-flow depth in feet. Fourteen hydraulic, physical, and water-quality characteristics were regressed against 29 measured-reaeration coefficients for low-sloped (water surface slopes less than 0.002 foot per foot) streams in Massachusetts and New York. Reaeration coefficients measured from May 1985 to October 1988 ranged from 0.2 to 11.0 base e units per day for 29 low-sloped tracer studies. Concentration of methylene blue active substances is significant because it is thought to be an indicator of concentration of surfactants which could change the surface tension at the air-water interface.

Parker, Gene W.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

1991-01-01

75

Building a Successful Communications Program Based on the Needs and Characteristics of the Affected Communities - 13152  

SciTech Connect

Over 200 local residents streamed through the doors of the Port Hope Lions Centre to see the detailed plans for the historic low-level radioactive waste clean-up project about to take place in their community. The event had a congenial atmosphere as people walked through the hall taking in rows of display panels that explained each element of the project, asked questions of project staff stationed around the room and chatted with friends and neighbours over light refreshments. Later that year, the results of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) 10. annual public attitude survey revealed an all-time high in community awareness of the project (94%) and the highest levels of confidence (84%) recorded since surveying began. Today, as the PHAI transitions from a decade of scientific and technical studies to implementation, the success of its communications program - as evidenced by the above examples - offers room for cautious encouragement. The PHAI has spent the past 10 years developing relationships with the southern Ontario communities of Port Hope and Port Granby in preparation for Canada's largest low-level radioactive waste environmental restoration project. These relationships have been built around a strong understanding of the communities' individual needs and characteristics and on the PHAI's efforts to consider and respond to these needs. The successes of the past, as well as the lessons learned, will inform the next stage of communications as the projects move into waste excavation and transportation and building of the long-term waste management facilities. (authors)

Herod, Judy; Mahabir, Alexandra; Holmes, Sandy [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)

2013-07-01

76

Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

2007-03-01

77

Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the overthrust belt of southwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Jurassic/Triassic Age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming overthrust belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic properties that have been inherited primarily from the depositional environment but also have been modified by diagenesis and overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly Eolian processes deposited crossbedded, low-angle to horizontally bedded and rippled, very-fine- to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdune areas, and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and the precipitation or emplacement of hydrocarbon asphaltenes or residues. Low-permeability gouge- and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and negatively affect producibility, whereas discontinuous open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in air permeability between dune and interdune deposits ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune intervals are correlatable locally with the aid of core log, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations then can be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

Lindquist, S.J.

1983-07-01

78

Adjunct starter properties affect characteristic features of Swiss-type cheeses.  

PubMed

A large number of microorganisms, both starter microorganisms and non-starter lactic acid bacteria originating from the base milk, or from various contamination sources during cheese manufacture, is associated with cheese ripening and the formation of flavour, texture and aroma. Under controlled conditions, Emmental and Bergkäse, a Gruyère-type cheese variety, were produced from pasteurised milk with standard starters and defined strains of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli (FHL), and partly with addition of a defined mixture of enterococci. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and L. rhamnosus (two strains each) were selected with respect to their potential for the utilisation of citric acid and ribose as sole energy source. The FHL developed up to 10(8) cfu/g within the first weeks of ripening, and viable counts in mature cheeses were 10(7) cfu/g, independent of the cheese variety. Bergkäse made with addition of L. rhamnosus strains showed a more pronounced proteolysis, resulting in reduced firmness and elasticity values of the cheese body, and FHL strains able to utilise citric acid improved the appearance of the cheeses by increasing the number of small eyes to the desired level. In Emmental cheese, the citric acid (+) strains reduced the intensity of propionic acid formation as the FHL apparently competed with the propionibacteria, and enterococci disappeared completely during maturation. Although further work is needed the study shows that, depending on the cheese variety, particular properties of FHL adjunct starters significantly affect important quality attributes of the resulting cheeses. PMID:15053357

Weinrichter, Brigitte; Sollberger, Heinz; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

2004-02-01

79

Floral characteristics affect susceptibility of hybrid tea roses, Rosa x hybrida, to Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeds on the flowers and foliage of roses. Rosa x hybrida. Beetles attracted to roses land almost exclusively on the flowers. This study evaluated characteristics of rose flowers including color, size, petal count and fragrance, as well as height of plants and blooms within plant as factors in attractiveness to Japanese beetles. Artificial flowers that had been painted to match the spectral reflectance of real blooms were attached to potted nonflowering rose plants in the field and the number of beetles that landed on each model was recorded. More beetles landed on the yellow- and white-colored flower models than on the five other bloom colors that were tested. Large (15 cm diameter) yellow flower models attracted more beetles than did smaller (8 cm diameter) yellow models. There was no difference in beetle response to yellow flower models of the same size that differed in bloom complexity (i.e., number of petals). Experiments in which blooming rose plants were elevated above controls, or in which flower models were placed at different heights within plant canopies, failed to support the hypothesis that height per se accounts for beetles' attraction to flowers over leaves. Attractiveness of selected rose cultivars that varied in fragrance and flower color also was evaluated in the field. Yellow-flowered cultivars were more susceptible than those with red flowers, regardless of fragrance intensity as rated by breeders. Growing cultivars of roses that have relatively dark and small-sized blooms may have some benefit in reducing Japanese beetles' attraction to roses. PMID:15154455

Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

2004-04-01

80

Barrier Island Morphology and Sediment Characteristics Affect the Recovery of Dune Building Grasses following Storm-Induced Overwash  

PubMed Central

Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

Brantley, Steven T.; Bissett, Spencer N.; Young, Donald R.; Wolner, Catherine W. V.; Moore, Laura J.

2014-01-01

81

Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.  

PubMed

Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

2014-01-01

82

Thermal treatments prior to and during the beginning of incubation affect phenotypic characteristics of broiler chickens posthatching.  

PubMed

The significance and importance of the preincubation and incubation temperatures for broiler chickens has been elucidated by altering normal incubation conditions to study the effects on embryo development. Furthermore, only recently has convincing evidence that temperature could influence the sex ratio of avian offspring become available. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of temperature before or during (or both) the sex determination period of incubation on hatchability, apparent sex ratio, growth and development posthatching, and secondary sexual phenotypic characteristics. Two experiments were conducted in winter and summer using Cobb 500 fertile eggs that had been stored for 4 and 9 d, respectively. Four treatments of 180 eggs each were applied: control, preheating (Pre) 30.2°C for 12 h before incubation, heating (38.1°C) the embryos between embryonic d 0 (E0) and E5 (M) of incubation, and a combination of both (Pre+M). All 3 thermal treatments increased early embryonic deaths, but improved hatchability in both experiments. The point of 50% hatchability was achieved more rapidly in the treated eggs. The BW of males and females at 35 d of age in both experiments was numerically or significantly greater in the broilers that had been exposed to thermal treatments, which was coincident with a similar trend for increased relative breast muscle weight. Secondary sexual characteristics (comb, wattles, testes in males) were also affected by thermal treatments, being heavier in most cases, which may be attributed to the finding that the 3 thermal treatments resulted in numerically or significantly increased plasma testosterone concentration in both sexes and experiments. Differences in the level of significance between the experiments probably related to the length of storage period and the season in which each experiment took place. It was concluded that thermal treatments preincubation or during the sex determination period of incubation had, in general, a positive effect on hatchability, growth performance, and secondary sexual characteristics of broiler males and females, probably caused by the increase of plasma testosterone concentration in both sexes. PMID:23472010

Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

2013-04-01

83

[Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].  

PubMed

Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin. PMID:25796880

Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

2014-10-01

84

Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics  

PubMed Central

Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

2013-01-01

85

Immigration rates and species niche characteristics affect the relationship between species richness and habitat heterogeneity in modeled meta-communities  

PubMed Central

The positive relationship between habitat heterogeneity and species richness is a cornerstone of ecology. Recently, it was suggested that this relationship should be unimodal rather than linear due to a tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and population sizes. Increased environmental heterogeneity will decrease effective habitat sizes, which in turn will increase the rate of local species extinctions. The occurrence of the unimodal richness–heterogeneity relationship at the habitat scale was confirmed in both empirical and theoretical studies. However, it is unclear whether it can occur at broader spatial scales, for meta-communities in diverse and patchy landscapes. Here, I used a spatially explicit meta-community model to quantify the roles of two species-level characteristics, niche width and immigration rates, on the type of the richness–heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale. I found that both positive and unimodal richness–heterogeneity relationships can occur in meta-communities in patchy landscapes. The type of the relationship was affected by the interactions between inter-patch immigration rates and species’ niche widths. Unimodal relationships were prominent in meta-communities comprising species with wide niches but low inter-patch immigration rates. In contrast, meta-communities consisting of species with narrow niches and high immigration rates exhibited positive relationships. Meta-communities comprising generalist species are therefore likely to exhibit unimodal richness-heterogeneity relationships as long as low immigration rates prevent rescue effects and patches are small. The richness-heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale is dictated by species’ niche widths and inter-patch immigration rates. These immigration rates, in turn, depend on the interaction between species dispersal capabilities and habitat connectivity, highlighting the roles of both species traits and landscape structure in generating the richness–heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale. PMID:25780779

2015-01-01

86

Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?  

PubMed

Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms. PMID:21110493

Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

2006-01-01

87

Tau/PTL-1 associates with kinesin-3 KIF1A/UNC-104 and affects the motor's motility characteristics in C. elegans neurons  

E-print Network

Tau/PTL-1 associates with kinesin-3 KIF1A/UNC-104 and affects the motor's motility characteristics Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases based on pathological tau-aggregation including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Pick's disease. In general, cargo (e.g., -amyloid precursor protein, tau

Wagner, Oliver

88

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

89

Peer Review at the American Journal of Roentgenology : How Reviewer and Manuscript Characteristics Affected Editorial Decisions on 196 Major Papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to examine the relative influence of manu- script characteristics and peer-reviewer attributes in the assessment of manuscripts. MATERIALS AND METHODS . Over a 6-month period, all major papers submitted to the American Journal of Roentgenology ( AJR ) were entered into a database that recorded manuscript characteristics, demographic profiles of reviewers, and the

Mark A. Kliewer; David M. DeLong; Kelly Freed; Charles B. Jenkins; Erik K. Paulson; James M. Provenzale

90

Hydrology and geochemistry of a slag-affected aquifer and chemical characteristics of slag-affected ground water, northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slag is a by-product of steel manufacturing and a ubiquitous fill material in northwestern Indiana. Ground water associated with slag deposits generally is characterized by high pH and elevated concentrations of many inorganic water-quality constituents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, conducted a study in northwestern Indiana from June 1995 to September 1996 to improve understanding of the effects of slag deposits on the water quality of a glacial-outwash aquifer. The Bairstow Landfill, a slag-fill deposit overlying the Calumet aquifer near Hammond, Indiana, was studied to represent conditions in slag-deposit settings that are common in northwestern Indiana. Ground water from 10 observation wells, located in four nests at the site, and surface water from the adjacent Lake George were analyzed for values of field-measured parameters and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and bulk properties. Solid-phase samples of slag and aquifer sediment collected during drilling were examined with X-ray diffraction and geochemical digestion and analysis. Concentrations of calcium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate were highest in wells screened partly or fully in slag. Potassium concentrations in ground water ranged from 2.9 to 120 milligrams per liter (mg/L), were highest in water from slag deposits, and decreased with depth. The highest concentrations for aluminum, barium, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium were in water from the slag. Silica concentrations were highest in wells screened directly beneath the slag?aquifer interface, and magnesium concentrations were highest in intermediate and deep aquifer wells. Silica concentrations in shallow and intermediate aquifer wells ranged from 27 to 41 mg/L and were about 10 times greater than those in water from slag deposits. The highest concentrations for chromium, lead, and zinc were in ground water from immediately below the slag?aquifer interface. The solid-phase analyses indicated that calcite, dolomite, and quartz generally were present throughout the slag?aquifer system; barian celestite, cristobalite, manganese-bearing calcite, and minrecordite were present in fewer samples. Trace elements that are liberated from the slag may be incorporated as impurities during precipitation of major minerals, sorbed onto clays and other grainsize fractions not analyzed as part of this study, or present in low-abundance minerals that were not detected by the X-ray analysis. Mass-balance and speciation programs were used to identify geochemical processes that may be occurring as water infiltrates through the slag, flows into the aquifer, and discharges into Lake George. The geochemical models indicate that precipitation of calcite may be occurring where slag-affected water enters the aquifer. Models also indicate that dolomite precipitation and clay-mineral dissolution may be occurring at the slag?aquifer interface; however, dolomite precipitation is generally believed to require geologically long time periods. Silica may be dissolving where slag-affected ground water enters the aquifer and may be precipitating where slag-affected ground water discharges to the lakebed of Lake George. In addition to the site-specific study, a statistical analysis of regional water quality was done to compare ground water in wells affected and unaffected by slag. When com-pared to wells in background locations in the Calumet aquifer, wells screened in slag across northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois generally had relatively higher pH and specific-conductance values and relatively higher concentrations of alkalinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, total organic carbon, calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, aluminum, barium, and possibly magnesium, sulfate, chromium, cobalt, copper, cyanide, manganese, mercury, nickel, and vanadium. When compared to wells in slag and wells in background locations, ground water from immediat

Bayless, E. Randall; Greeman, T.K.; Harvey, C.C.

1998-01-01

91

Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

2010-01-01

92

Composition of Irrigation Water Salinity Affects Growth Characteristics and Uptake of Selenium and Salt Ions by Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation, and distribution in plant components of the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar “Manokin.” Plants were grown in sand cultures and irrigated with isoosmotic solutions containing (1) Cl as the dominant anion, or (2) a

D. Wang; C. M. Grieve; D. L. Suarez

2005-01-01

93

Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech  

PubMed Central

Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

94

High Carbohydrate and High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Diets Similarly Affect LDL Electrophoretic Characteristics in Men Who Are Losing Weight1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effects of ad libitum consumption of a defined high complex carbohydrate (CHO) diet (% of energy: CHO, 58.3; fat, 25.8) vs. a defined high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet (% of energy: CHO, 44.7; fat, 40.1; MUFA, 22.5) on LDL electrophoretic characteristics. Healthy men (n 65; age, 37.5 11.2 (mean SD) y; BMI, 29.2 4.9 kg\\/m2) were

W. Roodly Archer; Benoit Lamarche; Annie C. St-Pierre; Jean-Francois Mauger; Olivier Deriaz; Nancy Landry; Louise Corneau; Jean-Pierre Despres; Jean Bergeron; Patrick Couture; Nathalie Bergeron

95

Affect or information? Labeling policy and consumer valuation of rBST free and organic characteristics of milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a labeling policy framework, we answer the question of whether attitude has an impact on consumers’ valuation of rBST-free and organic characteristics of milk. We utilize 2 years of consumer survey data and a hedonic model to estimate marginal effects of attitude on consumer valuation of rBST-free and organic milk. Findings indicate that in 2001 milk value was impacted

Jane Kolodinsky

2008-01-01

96

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

97

Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

2015-01-16

98

Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: a comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of personality and emotional experience to self-reported eating attitudes in a group of patients with clinically diagnosed eating disorders, a weight-reduction training group (Weight Watchers), and a control group without body weight problems. Participants in this study (N = 114) completed Estonian versions of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2; Garner, 1991), NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1989), and Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, Expanded Form (Watson & Clark, 1994). Data demonstrated validity of the Estonian version of EDI-2 in its ability to identify problems on a continuum of disordered eating behavior. Among the Big Five personality dimensions, Neuroticism made the largest contribution to EDI-2 subscales. Two other dimensions, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, also predispose individuals to eating problems. Personality traits made a larger contribution to the self-reported eating pathology than the self-rated effects experienced during the last few weeks. It was argued that personality dispositions have a larger relevancy in the etiology of eating disorders than emotional state. PMID:10497805

Podar, I; Hannus, A; Allik, J

1999-08-01

99

Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs. PMID:24670354

Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah

2014-03-01

100

Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)/carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of the diet on a wet weight basis). Six dogs were fed each diet in a 6 x 7 Youden square design. Dogs fed diets containing gelling agents had higher ileal digestibilities of OM (P = 0.05), fat (P < 0.01), GE (P = 0.02), and total amino acids (P = 0.04) and lower (P < 0.01) total tract DM digestibilities when compared to dogs fed the control diet. Fecal output by dogs fed the control diet, expressed on both an as-is (73.4 g/d) and DM (45.6 g/d) basis, was lower (P < 0.01) than for dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets (mean 102.3 g/d as-is and 57.6 g/d DM). Dogs fed the control diet also had lower (P < 0.01) fecal DM percentages and higher (P = 0.02) fecal scores than dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets. PMID:12389228

Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Merchen, N R; Grieshop, Christine M; Smeets-Peeters, Marianne J E; Fahey, G C

2002-04-01

101

Factors Affecting the Temporal and Spatial Variability and Characteristics of Marine Hydrocarbon Seepage, Coal Oil Point, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coal Oil Point (COP) natural marine hydrocarbon (HC) seep field of the Santa Barbara Channel is one of the largest and most intensively studied marine HC seepage regions. Daily oil emissions were estimated at ˜100 barrels, while total gas emissions reach ˜100,000 m3day-1. The COP seep field consists of several intense areas of seepage that are each made up of dozens to hundreds or thousands of individual vents. Observations show that COP seepage varies spatially (cm-km), temporally (second - decade), and in magnitude (from trace to 104 m3day-1). The primary seepage trends (scale of 100s-1000s meters) lie above major WNW-ESE faults cutting the Coal Oil Point and South Ellwood anticlines. There is significant variation in seepage along these trends with the most intense emissions at intersections with NE-SW cross-cutting faults. Spatial variations on shorter scales (10s of meters) are related to fractures, exposed shale beds, and seabed characteristics (pebbles, sand, tar, etc.). Individual vent distribution varies on sub-meter scales. Seabed characteristics, seepage spatial distribution, and gas and oil emissions relate to seabed and subsurface geologic features. For example, bubble sizes are correlated with the substrate from which they are emitted. Small-sized bubbles (<0.1 cm diameter) emerge directly from fractures in the exposed shale. Larger-sized bubbles (0.1 < 1.0 cm) tend to escape after passing through a sediment overburden, with the size of the bubbles increasing with the sediment coarseness. Giant bubbles (>1.0 cm) are associated with a tar-sand overburden. The bubble size is an important factor with regards to bubble-mediated transport of seep gas and oil to the sea surface. A network of small conical tents was developed and deployed in active seep areas to gather high time resolution (0.2 s) gas emission rates that also had high spatial resolution (1 m). The tents ( ˜1-m tall, ˜2-m diameter) sit directly on the seabed over areas of seepage, typically spanning several vents. Rising bubbles generate an upwelling flow of water that spins a turbine with an optical encoder on its axis. The encoders are connected to a multi-channel datalogger. Measurements are recorded in revolutions per second and converted to gas volume flux based on laboratory calibration. Spectra of the seepage time series showed the effect of external forcings, including swell and tides. Responses to external forcing factors, such as a 1% swell variation, differ between multiple tents. Seeps with a higher flux exhibit a smaller response than seeps with a lower flux. Flux variations between tents demonstrate the complexity of the underlying processes of gas, oil, and tar migration through an inter-connected subsurface fracture network.

del Sontro, T. S.; Leifer, I.; Luyendyk, B.

2004-12-01

102

Aerating recycled water on mushroom composting sites affects its chemical analysis and the characteristics of odor emissions.  

PubMed

Recycled water (RW) containing compost leachate can be a potent source of foul odor on mushroom composting sites. Samples of RW were repeatedly collected from storage tanks and pits of 14 mushroom composting sites in England and Ireland. Relationships between the effects of submerged aeration of the RW, the chemical and microbial characteristics of the RW, and the odors emitted were investigated. Recycled water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential, and dissolved oxygen concentration after 7 to 14 d cold storage. Freeze-dried material from the RW samples was chemically profiled by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the content of odor precursor compounds was determined by the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The headspace air of containerized RW samples was analyzed by thermal desorption GC-MS and with gas detection tubes and assessed for odor intensity (OI) and concentration by panelists and serial dilution olfactometry. The predominant odorants in the headspace and freeze-dried residues of RW samples were volatile sulfur-containing compounds and carboxylic acids. The headspace OI, EC, dry matter content, and redox potential of RW were interrelated. The headspace OI and combined concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) + dimethyl sulfide of RW were correlated (R(2) = 0.635; P < 0.001). Prediction of the OI of RW by measuring RW EC and the concentration of headspace sulfides using gas detector tubes enables rapid and low-cost monitoring of RW from mushroom composting sites. Submerged aeration of RW in storage tanks or pits reduced the RW headspace air OI and the combined H(2)S + dimethyl sulfide concentration by 88%. PMID:19465725

Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Wright, Carole; Hobbs, Philip J; Williams, Jon

2009-01-01

103

Does preoperative gabapentin affects the characteristics of post-dural puncture headache in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia?  

PubMed Central

Background: Gabapentin is effective for treating different types of headache including post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), also used for prophylaxis against migraine. We studied the effect of pre-operative administration of gabapentin on the characteristics of PDPH in parturients undergoing cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive preoperative gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 ?g fentanyl. Babies were followed up by Apgar scores, umbilical artery blood gases, breastfeeding difficulties, and need for NICU admission. The mothers were followed up for any side-effects of gabapentin for 24 h. Patients with PDPH were re-admitted and onset and duration of the headache were reported and severity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 days from diagnosis. Paracetamol with caffeine and diclofenac were given for treatment, and the doses were adjusted according to VAS; also number of doses given for each group was recorded. Results: Eighty eight patients were randomized, and 2 were excluded. The incidence of headache and co-existing symptoms were similar in both groups. The onset of headache was significantly delayed in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). Also, severity and duration of headache were significantly less in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). The incidence of sedation was more in gabapentin group 11 (26.19%) versus placebo group 3 (6.81%). Neonatal outcomes were statistically insignificant between both groups. Conclusion: Pre-operative administration of gabapentin has no effect on incidence of (PDPH) but delays its onset and reduces its severity and duration in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia without significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby. PMID:25191187

Nofal, Walid Hamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

2014-01-01

104

Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved-solids loads increased from 1986 to 1988 at nine streamflow water-quality stations on the upper Colorado River and its tributaries between Lake J.B. Thomas and O.H. Ivie Reservoir. About 51 percent of the dissolved-solids load to E.V. Spence Reservoir resulted from saline-water outflow from Natural Dam Salt Lake on Beals Creek. The concen- tration of dissolved solids in streamflow generally decreased in the downstream direction as flows increased in all reaches of the river and its tributaries. The estimated disolved-solids concen- tration exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter for water from about 233 of 386 wells and springs for which specific conductance was measured in 1986. The mean concentration for all wells was about 1,750 milligrams per liter. Mixing with brine associated with oil and gas producton is a major process affecting the salinity of streamflow and shallow-aquifer water. Dissolution of gypsum and pyrite contributed to salinity of water in shallow aquifers because of the presence of these minerals in most formations. Some salinity in streamflow and shallow-aquifer water was attributed to evapotranspiration in areas where water was close to land surface, in irrigated areas, and along streams. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in water samples from shallow aquifers as classified using salt-norm analysis. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinatoins.

Slade, R.M., Jr.; Buszka, P.M.

1994-01-01

105

Investigation of planarization characteristics and novel defects in metal CMP affected by physical, chemical and mechanical factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has emerged as a widely used technology in the present day fabrication of Integrated Circuit (IC) chips in microelectronics. With the device size shrinking every year, the need for smaller and faster chips is also increasing. The use of novel materials and methods of fabrication are becoming inevitable. The replacement of aluminum with copper, low-k dielectrics in place of SiO2 in the Back End Of the Line processing (BEOL), multi-level metallization are some of the recent developments which the industry has witnessed. The patterning of features with smaller critical dimensions requires the Depth Of Focus (DOF) to be as low as possible. The requirement on the DOF hence increases with the reduction in the critical dimensions hence increasing the planarity requirements. Three different factors that impact the planarity in metal CMP have been investigated in detail in the thesis. The first topic of the thesis deals with a novel defect in Cu patterned wafer polishing where the feature experiences extra erosion at the edge of the feature in comparison to the center. Various first-step Cu slurries with different passivation chemistries were employed in the study supported by CFD modeling of slurry flow over patterned features. The relative roles of slurry passivation and fluid flow on the inception of the defect were investigated. The second topic deals with the impact of process temperature in CMP. Different factors such as process variables, slurry components and its effect on process temperature were investigated. The effect of process temperature on slurry physical properties in turn affecting the slurry performance was investigated in detail with different first-step Cu slurries. The final topic of the thesis deals with some important factors that determine the planarization efficiency in metal CMP. The impact of slurry physical properties, pad and wafer specifications and slurry abrasive content were studied in detail.

Cheemalapati, Krishnayya

106

Characteristics affecting oral anticoagulant therapy choice among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a retrospective claims analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Dabigatran is one of the three newer oral anticoagulants (OACs) recently approved in the United States for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. The objective of this study was to identify patient, healthcare provider, and health plan factors associated with dabigatran versus warfarin use among NVAF patients. Methods Administrative claims data from patients with ?2 NVAF medical claims in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database between 10/1/2009 and 10/31/2011 were analyzed. During the study intake period (10/1/2010 - 10/31/2011), dabigatran patients had ?2 dabigatran prescriptions, warfarin patients had ?2 warfarin and no dabigatran prescriptions, and the first oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription date was the index date. Continuous enrollment for 12 months preceding (“pre-index”) and???6 months following the index date was required. Patients without pre-index warfarin use were assigned to the ‘OAC-naïve’ subgroup. Separate analyses were performed for ‘all-patient’ and ‘OAC-naïve’ cohorts. Multivariable logistic regression (LR) identified factors associated with dabigatran versus warfarin use. Results Of 20,320 patients (3,019 dabigatran and 17,301 warfarin) who met study criteria, 27% of dabigatran and 13% of warfarin patients were OAC-naïve. Among all-patients, dabigatran patients were younger (mean 67 versus 73 years, p?characteristics, cardiology specialty of the prescribing physician and health plan type were the strongest factors associated with dabigatran use. PMID:25034699

2014-01-01

107

Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal constitutes a large proportion of total energy supply in the world. Coalbed Methane (CBM) composes the greenhouse gases, which has attracted more and more scientists' concern and attention. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM on high-rank deformed coals are in favor of enhancing gas recovery, reducing coal mining accidents and carbon emission. Although the influence factors of CBM adsorption/desorption on different coals have been intensively studied, the combined action of metamorphism and deformation on high-rank coals have been rarely researched. Nevertheless. Metamorphism and deformation are the most fundamental driving forces that cause the changes of inner structures and compositions in coal strata, and then alter the adsorption/desorption capacities of CBM on different coalbeds. South of Qinshui Basin in Shanxi province developed with abundant high-rank coals is the first demonstrate area of CBM development in China. Meanwhile Southwest of Fujian province represents high metamorphic-deformed coals region due to the intense volcanic activities. Therefore samples were taken in both areas to elaborate the adsorption/desorption characteristics and mechanism of CBM. Based on hand specimens description, coal macerals testing, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and vitrinite reflectance testing, the physical properties and composition characteristics of high-rank deformed coals have been studied. Combined with liquid nitrogen adsorption experiments, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, the results show that nano-pores increase and become homogenization with metamorphic-deformation enhancement, stacking of the macromolecular basic structural units (BSU) enhances, aromatic compound increases while aliphatic chain compound and oxygen-containing function groups decrease. Comparing to coal adsorption/desorption isotherm experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

2013-12-01

108

Characteristics of Debris Flow-inducing Factors in Typhoon Morakot Affected Area- An Examination of the Topographic factors, rainfall intensity and Landslide Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan during Aug. 7 to 9, 2009. It dumped heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan, especially around the Central Mountain Range in Pingtung, Chia-Yi, and Kaohsiung County. In view of this, Comprehensive field investigation was carried out by government and private organizations after Typhoon Morakot, useful information of debris flow was gathered. Besides, after Typhoon Morakot, the debris flow-inducing factors become more challenging in Taiwan, many aspects had to be considered. The scope of this study was mainly discussed in debris flow-inducing factors in serious damaged areas which including Nantou, Chia-Yi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Taitung County. Totally 218 torrents were included. Field investigation data and disaster records of Typhoon Morakot were utilized to analyze debris flow-inducing factors in three aspects: terrain, rainfall and sediment source. First, by using Principle Component Analysis(PCA) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis(CA) to select significant factors, 101 factors were reduced to the most important 18 factors. Then through descriptive statistics and scatter diagram were selected to discuss the correlation among "Average slope gradient of watershed", "Landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone" as well as the "rainfall intensity during Typhoon Morakot". The above charts of characteristics analysis were used to summarize the range of factor value which tend to occur phenomenon of debris flow in Typhoon Morakot. Besides, Random Forest Algorithm (RF) was utilized to research the relationship toward multi-variables. The significant factors which tend to affect the debris flow-inducing factor were "effective accumulated rainfall", "hourly rainfall", "landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone", "average elevation value of effective watershed which higher than 10 degree", sequentially. By the results, the most significant factor is the rainfall factor during Typhoon Morakot. The results can be utilized in improving debris flow hazard management in the future. Key Words: Typhoon Morakot, Debris Flow-inducing Factors, Characteristics Analysis, Random Forest Algorithm

Shen, C.-W.; Lo, W.-C.; Hsiao, C.-Y.; Ku, B.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

2012-04-01

109

Hydrologic characterization of a permafrost-affected headwaters catchment using a coupled groundwater-surface water model and field measurements of active layer characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost degradation is expected to change the quantity and quality of solute fluxes from northern watersheds. In particular, fluxes of organic carbon (OC) and mercury (Hg) are of great concern for aquatic and marine ecosystems in this area. The total export of OC and Hg depends upon hydrology of permafrost-affected catchments; in particular, the magnitude and extent of groundwater-surface water flows. Hydrologic processes in these catchments are complex and poorly understood; furthermore, understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction is greatly complicated by permafrost degradation. Hydrologic modeling and field studies at West Twin Creek - a permafrost-affected, experimental headwaters catchment in interior Alaska - have been undertaken to identify the dominant controls upon catchment hydrology, groundwater-surface water interaction, and export of OC and Hg. A coupled groundwater-surface water model was developed using the code GSFLOW, calibrated to several years of streamflow data. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater-surface water flows are predominantly controlled by physical characteristics of the soil active layer in the catchment. A suite of measurements was designed to better constrain the properties of the soil active layer at West Twin Creek during a period of maximum thaw depth. Gridded permafrost probing and soil coring were undertaken along several transects through hillslope and riparian areas. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted to complement these point measurements, providing spatially continuous information on active layer thickness along survey lines. Soil coring and GPR surveys revealed distinct soil profiles and frost table depths at several hillslope locations. Soils varied from fine eolian silts to coarse schist cobbles, and differences corresponded to moisture, surface vegetation, and thaw depth. These differences may have large effects on moisture storage, hillslope hydraulic conductivity, and subsequently runoff potential. Artificial rainfall experiments were then performed to quantify surface runoff and interflow through organic and mineral horizons at control plots representative of each soil profile type. These experiments showed that water flow occurs predominantly at the interface between organic and mineral horizons in hillslope soils. The targeted measurements undertaken during this field campaign were used to revise the hydrologic model for the catchment, providing more accurate estimates of groundwater-surface water fluxes for the purposes of forecasting OC and Hg exports.

Kikuchi, C.; Koch, J.; Steelman, C. M.; Schuster, P. F.

2012-12-01

110

Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

111

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011 (NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%), individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%), metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black (61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%), brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle (1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%), 2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%), 1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%) were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises, 0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/flank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identification (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition, there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011 = 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities. PMID:22952370

McKeith, R O; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

2012-12-01

112

The Interplay of Teacher and Student Characteristics that Affect Student Learning, Attitudes, and Coping Skills. Final Report of the Teaching-Learning Interaction Study. Volumes I-III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching-Learning Interaction Study tested the separate and interactive effects of teacher and student entry characteristics on their subsequent classroom behavior, and the effect of that behavior on students' regressed gain, over a school year, in achievement, attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and coping skills. Fifty-three tri-ethnic…

Peck, Robert F.; And Others

113

Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

Geist, David R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Hanrahan, Timothy P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Arntzen, Evan V.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); McMichael, Geoffrey A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Murray, Christopher J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Chien, Yi-Ju (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

2002-11-01

114

Social characteristics of seasonal affective disorder patients: comparison with suicide attempters with non-seasonal major depression and other mood disorder patients.  

PubMed

Although it is evident from numerous studies that patients with mood disorders generally have a deficient social functioning and a weak social network, little is known about these aspects of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients. We studied the social situation, the social network and the social functioning of SAD (n = 20) patients in comparison with matched suicide attempters (SA) with non-seasonal major depression, and with findings from other major depressive disorder (MDD) studies and community samples. The social situation and the clinical background of both the SAD and the SA groups were almost similar and the social networks were equally disadvantageous and weaker than those observed in some community/healthy populations. Furthermore, the data on global functioning and social adjustment of the SAD group were well comparable to those of other MDD patients and significantly worse than that of a community sample. Thus, the results indicate a considerable social impairment in SAD. PMID:12648896

Pendse, B P G; Ojehagen, A; Engström, G; Träskman-Bendz, L

2003-02-01

115

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

116

Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic low-wave-drag elliptical body-tail combinations as affected by changes in stabilizer configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 to determine systematically the effects of the addition and position of outboard stabilizers and vertical- and vee-tail configurations on the performance and stability characteristics of a low-wave-drag elliptical body. The basic body shape was a zero-lift hypersonic minimum-wave-drag body as determined for the geometric constraints of length and volume. The elliptical cross section had an axis ratio of 2 (major axis horizontal) and an equivalent fineness ratio of 6.14. Base-mounted outboard stabilizers were at various dihedral angles from 90 deg to minus 90 deg with and without a single center-line vertical tail or a vee-tail. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 6 to 27 deg at sideslip angles of 0 and 5 deg and a constant Reynolds number of 4.58 x one million (based on body length).

Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

1973-01-01

117

Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.  

PubMed

This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. PMID:20374797

Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

2010-03-01

118

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic climate (ARCPAC) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in Southern Russia and Southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 2 and 7 km and a~slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in fresh wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2010-11-01

119

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in southern Russia and southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 3 and 7 km and a slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2011-03-01

120

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

121

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

122

[Affective dependency].  

PubMed

Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

2013-01-01

123

Personality, Affect, and Behavior in Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building from an attraction–selection–attrition framework (Schneider, 1987) and the socialization literature, this study views personality, affect, and behavior as group-level phenomena. Among a sample of 26 work groups, it was found that individual affect was consistent within groups, suggesting that the affective tone of a group is a meaningful construct. Characteristic levels of the personality traits positive affectivity and negative

Jennifer M. George

1990-01-01

124

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

125

Wastewater characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of plant influent, effluent, and internal process streams provides plant operations personnel with the information they need to properly control treatment processes. To obtain that information, the operator should determine the characteristics of the raw wastewater and stream by collecting and analyzing representative samples throughout the plant. This paper gives a basic understanding of wastewater characteristics and sampling necessary

Samorn Muttamara

1996-01-01

126

Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging  

PubMed Central

Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect. PMID:18540748

Nielsen, Lisbeth; Knutson, Brian; Carstensen, Laura L.

2008-01-01

127

Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

2009-01-01

128

Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation  

PubMed Central

Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

129

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

130

Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong

2006-01-01

131

Affective Learning — A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

132

Factors affecting molecular characteristics of whey protein gelation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, protein concentration, NaCl, heating temperature and time on the gelation of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and the associated changes in the molecular conformation of the individual whey proteins were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Heat denaturation was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained showed

Joyce I. Boye; Inteaz Alli; Ashraf A. Ismail; Bernard F. Gibbs; Yasuo Konishi

1995-01-01

133

Spray characteristics affected by physical properties of adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four drift adjuvants, Array, In-Place, Vector and Control, were tested and physical properties and spray spectrum parameters measured. Array had the highest conductivity, indicating a good potential for the electrostatic charging, and the highest shear viscosity. All adjuvants had very similar neut...

134

Factors affecting the characteristics and utilization of sorghum silage  

E-print Network

grain, but produced only 675, 000 tons of sorghum sila=e jU. . D. A. , 1976). This tends to indicate that each year an enor . ous quantity of sor "hum vegetation, a poten- tial" y valuable feedsource, is not utilized to any great extent. Grain... of additive introduced, and the variety and Erain content of the plant influence sor-hum sila-e quality (0;zen, " $67). Varietal Differences Very little research has been conducted to charac- t, er = the nutritional differences bet;~een the . o-ca' led...

Tolbert, Ronnie Edwin

1977-01-01

135

Factors affecting the electrical characteristics of cadmium mercury telluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of cadmium mercury telluride crystals grown by both a cast-recrystallise and a normal freeze melt growth process have been investigated. Material equilibrated at high temperatures is found to be p-type and the carrier concentration is believed to be determined by native defects. Two models have been considered to explain the carrier concentrations found after low temperature heat treatment of slices in the presence of mercury vapour. These are based on native defects and on residual impurities respectively. It is concluded that for material grown by both growth processes the level of residual impurities is the dominant factor controlling carrier concentration.

Bartlett, B. E.; Capper, P.; Harris, J. E.; Quelch, M. J. T.

1980-08-01

136

Landscape characteristics affect animal control by urban residents  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological patterns exist within urban landscapes. Among urban patterns of biodiversity, species occurrences may coincide with interactions between humans and wildlife. However, research focused on consequences of human reaction to interactions with wildlife is limited. We evalua...

137

Forage characteristics affecting meat goat preferences for forage chicory cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concentration of bitter sesquiterpene lactones (SL), lactucin, lactucopicrin, and 8-deoxylactucin, has been associated with low soil phosphorus fertility and reduced livestock preference for forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). We evaluated the effect of cultivar and available soil P (ASP) on mea...

138

Display Characteristics Affect Users' Emotional Arousal in 3D Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large computer screens are becoming more and more popular among users, and field of view and physical screen size are important\\u000a considerations for users and manufacturers. In this study, we investigated the impacts of visual angles and physical screen\\u000a size on users’ emotional arousal using subjective and physiological measures. The results suggest that larger visual angles\\u000a cause greater galvanic skin

Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata

2006-01-01

139

Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

Jagger, Suzy

2013-01-01

140

Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing  

E-print Network

such as stuffed animals often play important roles in children's games. Children treat nonliving toysMotivation & Emotion Affective Computing A Note of Paper Survey Edward Shen Student ID: R91922007 skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver

Ouhyoung, Ming

141

Litter quality, stream characteristics and litter diversity influence decomposition rates and macroinvertebrates  

E-print Network

Litter quality, stream characteristics and litter diversity influence decomposition rates importance of litter quality and stream characteristics in determining decomposition rate whether plant species diversity affects rate. 3. Decomposition rate was affected by both litter quality

Marks, Jane

142

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice. PMID:17111890

Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

2006-11-01

143

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

144

Cancers Affecting the Retina  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy Endophthalmitis Cancers Affecting the Retina Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Retinal Disorders 4 Cancers ...

145

Does health affect portfolio choice?  

PubMed

A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories. PMID:19937612

Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

2010-12-01

146

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

1990-01-01

147

Affect and action: Towards an event-coding account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing emotion from an evolutionary perspective, researchers have argued that simple responses to affective stimuli can be triggered without mediation of cognitive processes. Indeed, findings suggest that positively and negatively valenced stimuli trigger approach and avoidance movements automatically. However, affective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena share so many central characteristics with nonaffective stimulus–response compatibility phenomena that one may doubt whether the underlying

Tristan Lavender; Bernhard Hommel

2007-01-01

148

Effects of an Affect Bridge for Age Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested tailored hypnotic inductions for age regression with an affect bridge to access meaning-laden events. They used emotional intensity, spontaneity, elaboration, and transitional-object measures to assess the genuineness of the topographic shift to primary process characteristic of hypnotic age regression. An affect bridge was used to access stressful events within the age range of 3 to 6 years.

Ciara Christensen; Arreed Barabasz; Marianne Barabasz

2009-01-01

149

Using Literature & Poetry Affectively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to present methods designed to develop a greater awareness of the affective domain and to examine the way children's literature and poetry is used at school and at home. The 12 articles provide information about the following topics: developing an awareness of attitudes, examining approach-avoidance behaviors in…

Shapiro, Jon E., Ed.

150

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

151

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup Michaelis-Menten versus PE curves! Photosynthesis and nutrient kinetics curves look similar because they are governed by the same process: Initial slope is dependent on amount of pigments (light) or cell

Kudela, Raphael M.

152

Factors affecting soil cohesion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

153

Predicting affective choice.  

PubMed

Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PMID:22924884

Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

2013-08-01

154

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

155

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

156

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

157

Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a 146 women and 44 men (out- and inpatients; treatment sample) with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD; winter type) were tested\\u000a for gender differences in demographic, clinical and seasonal characteristics. Sex ratio in prevalence was (women : men) 3.6\\u000a : 1 in unipolar depressives and 2.4 : 1 in bipolars (I and II). Sex ratios varied also between different birth cohorts

M. J. Lucht; S. Kasper

1999-01-01

158

Individual Differences in Core Affect Variability and Their Relationship to Personality and Psychological Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

How people's feelings change across time can be represented as trajectories in a core affect space defined by the dimensions of valence and activation. In this article, the authors analyzed individual differences in within-person affective variability defined as characteristics of core affect trajectories, introducing new ways to conceptualize affective variability. In 2 studies, participants provided multiple reports across time describing

Peter Kuppens; Iven Van Mechelen; John B. Nezlek; Dorien Dossche; Tinneke Timmermans

2007-01-01

159

Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation... products produce I butter having what is known as a gummy or melt-resistant body. The availability and nutritive qualities of cottonseed products make them highly desirable as dairy feeds, especially in the South. This study shows that the gummy...

Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.

1952-01-01

160

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference. PMID:23198671

Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

2012-12-01

161

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

162

Affective disorder and hyperandrogenism.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old female patient with bipolar disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder did not present any physical evidence of virilization, treated with quetiapine and lithium carbonate. Laboratory testing showed evidence of hyperandrogenism (Testosterone levels 88.5ng/dL). After control, testosterone levels were normal (free testosterone 0.20 pg/ml, total testosterone 27.90ng/dl), as free thyroxine levels decreased (T4 0.83ng/dl) and increased progesterone levels (progesterone 3.80ng/ml). We consider an association between increased androgenic hormone levels in women, quetiapine and lithium carbonate treatment as well as the presence of an affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this review. PMID:23198704

Zerouni, Celen; Kummerow, Elaine; Martinez, Mariflor; Diaz, Ana; Ezequiel, Uribe; Wix-Ramos, Richard

2013-01-01

163

Cholesterol and Affective Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake. Participants were predominantly inpatients at index visit and were followed for a median of 20 and up to 25 years. Cholesterol was modeled with age, gender, and index use of a mood stabilizer in linear regression to assess its influence on subsequent depressive symptom burden in participants with unipolar disorder as well as depressive and manic symptom burden in participants with bipolar disorder. Among bipolar participants (N=65), low cholesterol predicted a higher proportion of follow-up weeks with manic, but not depressive symptoms. Cholesterol did not appear to predict depressive symptom burden among participants with unipolar depression (N=66). Lower cholesterol levels may predispose individuals with bipolar disorder to a greater burden of manic symptomatology and may provide some insight into the underlying neurobiology. PMID:19969372

Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Palagummi, Narasimha M.; Behrendtsen, Ole; Coryell, William H.

2009-01-01

164

The Biological Affects: A Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental–interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects—subjectively experienced feelings and desires—involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational–emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal,

Ross Buck

1999-01-01

165

Affect: from information to interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

While affective computing explicitly challenges the primacy of rationality in cognitivist accounts of human activity, at a deeper level it relies on and reproduces the same information-processing model of cognition. In affective computing, affect is often seen as another kind of information - discrete units or states internal to an individual that can be transmitted in a loss-free manner from

Kirsten Boehner; Rogério DePaula; Paul Dourish; Phoebe Sengers

2005-01-01

166

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

167

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

168

Influence of die material on pasta characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasta dough, that is formed in the kneading machine and then driven by the extrusion screw towards the head of the press, is forced through a die whose characteristics strongly affect the appearance of the pasta surface. Traditional dies made entirely of bronze make the pasta surface rough, which helps to capture the sauce, whereas the Teflon insert gives the

Mara Lucisano; Maria Ambrogina Pagani; Manuela Mariotti; Daria Patrizia Locatelli

2008-01-01

169

INCIPIENT MOTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESIVE SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an experimental study on incipient motion characteristics of cohesive sediments are presented. Cohesive sediments used consisted of medium sand mixed with Illite clay in different proportions. Incipient motion condition of thus formed cohesive sediment bed was identified through visual observations. Antecedent moisture content, clay content, plasticity index and void ratio\\/dry density are found to be significant parameters affecting

S. A. Ansari; U. C. Kothyari; K. G. Ranga Raju

2007-01-01

170

Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

171

Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

Fricker, H. S.

1987-01-01

172

Pharmacological characteristics of metamizole.  

PubMed

Metamizole (dipyrone) is a popular analgetic, non-opioid drug, commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Metamizole is a pro-drug, which spontaneously breaks down after oral administration to structurally related pyrazolone compounds. Apart from its analgesic effect, the medication is an antipyretic and spasmolytic agent. The mechanism responsible for the analgesic effect is a complex one, and most probably rests on the inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase-3 and activation of the opioidergic system and cannabinoid system. Metamizole can block both PG-dependent and PG-independent pathways of fever induced by LPS, which suggests that this drug has a profile of antipyretic action distinctly different from that of NSAIDs. The mechanism responsible for the spasmolytic effect of metamizole is associated with the inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ as a result of the reduced synthesis of inositol phosphate. Metamizole is predominantly applied in the therapy of pain of different etiology, of spastic conditions, especially affecting the digestive tract, and of fever refractory to other treatments. Co-administration of morphine and metamizole produces superadditive, antinociceptive effects. Metamizole is a relatively safe pharmaceutical preparation although it is not completely free from undesirable effects. Among these side-effects, the most serious one that raises most controversy is the myelotoxic effect. It seems that in the past the risk of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis was exaggerated. Despite the evidence showing no risk of teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, the drug must not be administered to pregnant women, although it is allowed to be given to pregnant and lactating animals. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of metamizole in the light of current knowledge. PMID:24724493

Jasiecka, A; Ma?lanka, T; Jaroszewski, J J

2014-01-01

173

Uncommon epiloptogenic lesions affecting the temporal lobe.  

PubMed

There are several processes implicated as uncommon causes of temporal lobe epilepsy. Trauma is the leading cause of epilepsy in young adults, intracerebral blood collection being the most consistent risk factor of seizures, especially subdural hematomas and brain contusions. Infarction is the entity most commonly related to epilepsy in the elderly population. Seizures usually present as complex seizures with high recurrence between 6 months and 2 years after stroke. There are some radiological characteristics of the affectation associated with high risk of early and late seizures. Noninfectious limbic encephalitis is a syndrome characterized by seizures, memory loss, and confusion. It includes paraneoplasic and non-paraneoplasic limbic encephalitis, both presenting as hyperintense lesion affecting temporobasal regions more evident with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Paraneoplasic limbic encephalitis is associated with several types of tumor-induced autoimmunity against the nervous system. The tumors most frequently implicated are the lungs, testis, and breast, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, teratoma, and thymoma in young patients. Once a tumor is excluded, non-paraneoplasic limbic encephalitis has to be considered by investigating the presence of antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels. It is associated with hyponatremia and responds to regimens of steroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulins. Finally, herpetic limbic encephalitis is also associated with seizures, accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. It presents characteristic findings and distribution on magnetic resonance imaging, which shows abnormalities in more than 90% of patients with proven Herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:18383907

Ramos, Ana; Ballenilla, Federico; Martin, Patricia

2008-02-01

174

Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

175

Influence of Geomorphological Variability in Channel Characteristics on Sediment Denitrification in Agricultural Streams  

E-print Network

Influence of Geomorphological Variability in Channel Characteristics on Sediment Denitrification, the spatial variability of geomorphological characteristics of stream channels and associated streambed, it is not known how geomorphological vari- ability affects sediment denitrification rates, a potentially important

David, Mark B.

176

Perfectionism Affects Change in Psychological Symptoms.  

PubMed

The primary goal of this study was to examine how perfectionism affects psychological symptoms during the course of treatment. We examined session-by-session symptom changes in a sample of 105 adult clients who presented for counseling at a psychology training clinic housed at a large Midwestern university in the United States. Using a recently developed measure of perfectionism (Short Almost Perfect Scale [SAPS]) that possesses good psychometric features, we were able to investigate effects of both maladaptive (high self-criticism) and adaptive (high standards with low self-criticism) perfectionistic characteristics on indicators of personal and interpersonal psychological distress across time. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that both symptomatic distress and interpersonal problems improved over the course of therapy. Maladaptive perfectionism was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems and distress at the outset of therapy, and related differentially to change patterns in symptom distress and interpersonal problems over the course of treatment. Maladaptive perfectionism, however, was not related to level of symptoms at the end of therapy. Adaptive perfectionistic characteristics were associated with fewer interpersonal problems at the beginning and end of therapy. Results suggest the value of assessing perfectionistic characteristics at the onset of treatment, even for clients not presenting with obvious concerns linked to such individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24866970

Rice, Kenneth G; Sauer, Eric M; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Roberts, Kristin E; Garrison, Angela M

2014-05-26

177

Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

178

Multivariate Analysis of Factors Affecting Pulmonary Function in Bronchiectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired pulmonary function is of prognostic importance in bronchiectasis. To assess the factors affecting pulmonary function in bronchiectasis, we studied the clinical features, atopic status, bronchial responsiveness, systemic inflammatory indices, and sputum characteristics including volume, purulence, leucocyte count, neutrophil chemotactic activity, elastolytic activity (EA) and bacteriology in 82 Chinese patients. The majority of patients had impaired spirometry with airflow obstruction

Mary Ip; I. J. Lauder; W. Y. Wong; W. K. Lam; S. Y. So

1993-01-01

179

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

180

Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

2007-01-01

181

Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing  

PubMed Central

The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

182

Comparing the Incidence and Persistence of Learners’ Affect During Interactions with Different Educational Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the increasing number of studies investigating patterns of learner affective states, it is not yet clear to what degree\\u000a student affective states vary among learning systems, and whether specific learning systems are associated with characteristic\\u000a patterns of learner affect. In this chapter, we attempt to shed light on this question by discussing the incidence and persistence\\u000a of affective states

Ma. Mercedes T. Rodrigo; Ryan S. J. d. Baker

183

Measurement of experimentally induced affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a Multiple Affect Adjective Check List designed to measure day to day changes in three affects: anxiety, depression, and hostility. Empirical criteria were used to select items and the scales were validated in several types of experimental situations. A stressful film resulted in significant increases in the Anxiety and Depression scales in females, but

Marvin Zuckerman; Bernard Lubin; Lawrence Vogel; Elizabeth Valerius

1964-01-01

184

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

185

Flow, affect and visual creativity.  

PubMed

Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement. PMID:24820517

Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

2015-01-01

186

Estimating Near-Infrared Leaf Reflectance from Leaf Structural Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR) from leaves and characteristics of leaf structure known to affect photosynthesis was investigated in 48 species of alpine angiosperms. This wavelength was selected to discriminate the effects of leaf structure vs. chemical or water content on leaf reflectance. A quantitative model was first constructed correlating NIRR with leaf structural characteristics for

Michele R. Slaton; E. Raymond Hunt; William K. Smith

2001-01-01

187

EFFECT OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS ON FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS ON FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER Satish G. Kandlikar and Paul H ABSTRACT It is well known that the surface structure affects the pool boiling heat transfer from a heater characteristics. This fact is utilized in developing structured and sintered surfaces for enhanced boiling

Kandlikar, Satish

188

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2005-12-08

189

Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

McClelland, David C.

1987-01-01

190

Startle modulation by affective faces  

PubMed Central

Startle reflex modulation by affective pictures is a well-established effect in human emotion research. However, much less is known about startle modulation by affective faces, despite the growing evidence that facial expressions robustly activate emotion-related brain circuits. In this study, acoustic startle probes were administered to 33 young adult participants (16 women) during the viewing of slides from the Pictures of Facial Affect set including neutral, happy, angry, and fearful faces. The effect of expression valence (happy, neutral, negative) on startle magnitude was highly significant (p<.001). Startle reflex was strongly potentiated by negative expressions (fearful and angry), however, no attenuation by happy faces was observed. A significant valence by gender interaction suggests stronger startle potentiation effects in females. These results demonstrate that affective facial expressions can produce significant modulation of the startle reflex. PMID:19833169

Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon

2009-01-01

191

Affective Learning Companions Winslow Burleson  

E-print Network

Affective Learning Companions Winslow Burleson MIT Media Lab, 20 Ames St. Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA win@media.mit.edu Abstract. Developing learning experiences that facilitate self generosity and social responsibility; self-efficacy; motivation toward accomplishment; openness and flexible

192

How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic cancer patients to maintain weight for several reasons. Many ...

193

On Patterns in Affective Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

194

How intimacy affects resource conceptualization  

E-print Network

or particularistic, that will be exchanged. While they concluded that more intimate partners exchanged more particularistic resources, they never examined how the intimacy level of the relationship affects how people label the resources they exchange... six separate resource classes: Love, Status, Services, Information, Goods and Money. Love is defined as an expression of affection regard, warmth, or comfort; Status is an expression of evaluative judgment which conveys high or low prestige, regard...

Dunn, Allison L

2001-01-01

195

Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

Vaslilyeva, V. P.

1980-01-01

196

Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.  

PubMed

Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders. PMID:25750963

Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

2015-02-01

197

Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-03-01

198

Walking in (affective) circles: can short walks enhance affect?  

PubMed

Recent physical activity recommendations call for activities that are of moderate intensity and can be performed intermittently during the day, such as walking. These proclamations were based partly on the assumption that moderate activities are generally more enjoyable than physically demanding ones, and they are, therefore, also more likely to be continued over the long haul. However, little is actually known about the affective outcomes of short bouts of walking and extant findings are equivocal. Four experimental studies examined the affective responses associated with short (10- to 15-min) bouts of walking using a dimensional conceptual model of affect, namely, the circumplex. Results consistently showed that walking was associated with shifts toward increased activation and more positive affective valence. Recovery from walking for 10-15 min was associated with a return toward calmness and relaxation. This pattern, was robust across different self-report measures of the circumplex affective dimensions, across ecological settings (field and laboratory), across time, and across samples. PMID:10863677

Ekkekakis, P; Hall, E E; VanLanduyt, L M; Petruzzello, S J

2000-06-01

199

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2012-01-12

200

Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

201

Aircraft compass characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

1937-01-01

202

[Staging of unipolar affective illness].  

PubMed

In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression) is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1) staging of unipolar affective illness; 2) staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3) conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis), immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year. PMID:25717483

Ferensztajn, Ewa; Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Janusz

2014-01-01

203

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

204

3D Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contributions to the Method of Characteristics in Three Dimensions, which previously received incomplete recognition, are reviewed. They mostly follow from a fundamental paper by Rusanov which led to several developments in Russia, described by Chushkin.

Holt, Maurice

1998-01-01

205

Ionospheric characteristics: a review  

SciTech Connect

The ionosphere is important to spacecraft charging because the thermal ions and electrons provide a significant current to a spacecraft surface. Low, mid, and high altitude ionospheric characteristics are discussed.

Rich, F.J.

1983-01-01

206

Patient characteristics and fairness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the fairness concept of health care professionals, and asks whether they are willing to use a patient’s\\u000a age and other potential fairness characteristics rather than health benefits as relevant arguments in the allocation of health\\u000a care resources? The patient characteristics in the health care professionals’ survey encompass age, productivity and lifestyle.\\u000a The study is a replication of

Hannu Valtonen

2009-01-01

207

A Characteristic Particle Length  

E-print Network

It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

Mark D. Roberts

2014-06-14

208

Housing characteristics 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

NONE

1995-06-01

209

Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

1979-01-01

210

Identifying plant family characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed for students to discover how making observations of the environment is the key to making sound predictions. Students will also learn how both positive and negative outcomes of these predictions can affect and shape future decisions.

Kate Olson Riverway Learning Community Minnesota City, MN

211

Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

2003-01-01

212

Addressing Affective Performance. Implementing Competency Based Education in Community Colleges, 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series on implementing competency-based education, this monograph provides guidelines for developing and using affective performance objectives. After the characteristics of affective, cognitive, and psychomotor objectives are summarized, a discussion is presented of the skepticism many instructors feel toward the evaluation of areas…

Dewald, Margaret R.; And Others

213

Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

2008-01-01

214

Mothers' amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one's own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valen...

215

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces  

E-print Network

Manipulation of Infant-Like Traits Affects Perceived Cuteness of Infant, Adult and Cat Faces that are characteristic of human infants are referred to as baby-schema, and the notion that these affect perception of cuteness and elicit care giving from adults has a long history. In this study, infant- similarity

Little, Tony

216

Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

2005-01-01

217

Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.

Love, Eugene S.

1958-01-01

218

Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

2011-01-01

219

Affective forecasting in problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective forecasting refers to the process of predicting emotional reactions to future events. It plays an important role in decision making, but is also prone to errors, such as the ‘impact bias’: a tendency to overestimate the intensity of future reactions. The impact bias has been considered evolutionarily adaptive, as it performs a protective function in motivating people to avoid

Jessica Willner-Reid; Neil Smith; Henrietta Bowden Jones; Andrew K. MacLeod

2012-01-01

220

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

221

How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

222

Do Killer Electrons Affect You?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This full color tri-fold brochure answers questions about high energy particles in space and how they are produced, when and where they occur, and how they can affect us. It also includes lists of web and print resources for further study.

2007-01-01

223

Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

Means, Alex

2011-01-01

224

Poor Facial Affect Recognition Among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria\\u000a for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine\\u000a whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a matching-to-sample test with\\u000a four types of visual recognition (Object, Face,

V. J. Hinton; R. J. Fee; D. C. De Vivo; E. Goldstein

2007-01-01

225

Understanding Structural and Cultural School Characteristics in Relation to Educational Change: The Case of ICT Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds on the idea that school characteristics affect educational change, such as ICT integration. The goal of this inquiry is to explore both structural school characteristics (i.e. infrastructure, planning and support) and cultural school characteristics (i.e. leadership, goal orientedness and innovativeness) and how they contribute…

Tondeur, Jo; Devos, Geert; van Houtte, Mieke; van Braak, Johan; Valcke, Martin

2009-01-01

226

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

227

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions  

PubMed Central

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes. PMID:22101346

Busi, Maria V.; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E.; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

2011-01-01

228

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

2012-01-01

229

Treatment of seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is characterized by the regular annual onset of major depressive episodes during fall or winter, followed by spontaneous remission and sometimes hypomanic or manic episodes during spring and summer. SAD is clinically important, since approximately 2-5% of the general population in temperate climates are affected. Since the first description of the syndrome, researchers have made attempts to elucidate the pathophysiological background of SAD. Bright light therapy has been proposed as the treatment of choice for this disorder. However, numerous studies have also investigated suitable psychopharmacological treatments for SAD. This report is aimed to provide an overview on the clinical management and current therapeutic options for SAD. PMID:16831117

Winkler, Dietmar; Pjrek, Edda; Iwaki, Rie; Kasper, Siegfried

2006-07-01

230

Mitochondrial dysfunction affecting visual pathways.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to cellular energetic impairment, which may affect the visual pathways, from the retina to retrochiasmal structures. The most common mitochondrial optic neuropathies include Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy, but the optic nerve can be affected in other syndromic conditions, such as Wolfram syndrome and Friedreich's ataxia. These disorders may result from mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA or in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Despite the inconstant genotype-phenotype correlations, a clinical classification of mitochondrial disorders may be made on the basis of distinct neuro-ophthalmic presentations such as optic neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy and retrochiasmal visual loss. Although no curative treatments are available at present, recent advances throw new light on the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders. Current research raises hopes for novel treatment of hereditary optic neuropathies, particularly through the use of new drugs and mitochondrial gene therapy. PMID:24798923

Leruez, S; Amati-Bonneau, P; Verny, C; Reynier, P; Procaccio, V; Bonneau, D; Milea, D

2014-05-01

231

[Affective disorders and personality disorders].  

PubMed

Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. PMID:25550233

Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

2014-12-01

232

Do Cities Affect the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore clouds and how they form. Learners compare the cloud formation in two bottles, one with air freshener and one without, to examine the importance of condensation nuclei. Learners will discover that pollution and dust in cities increase the number of condensation nuclei in the atmosphere, which can affect the local weather. This activity is written as a demonstration for a whole group, but can be conducted by individual learners.

2012-11-15

233

DEPRESSION: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Depression is a disorder of the representation and regulation of mood and emotion. The circuitry underlying the representation and regulation of normal,emo- tion and mood is reviewed, including studies at the animal level, human lesion studies, and human,brain imaging,studies. This corpus of data is used to construct a model,of the ways,in which,affect can become,disordered in depression. Research on

Richard J. Davidson; Diego Pizzagalli; Jack B. Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

2002-01-01

234

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

235

Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric comorbidity and impaired emotional functioning have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but have\\u000a been less well documented in adolescents. Thus, we investigated mental health problems and emotion regulation abilities in\\u000a adolescents and young adults with cannabis dependence. Moreover, we explored the relationships between consumption modalities\\u000a and affective style. Therefore, 32 cannabis abusers (CA) and 30 healthy controls

Géraldine Dorard; Sylvie Berthoz; Olivier Phan; Maurice Corcos; Catherine Bungener

2008-01-01

236

Affective cycling in thyroid disease  

SciTech Connect

Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

Tapp, A.

1988-05-01

237

Food consumption as affect modulation in borderline personality.  

PubMed

The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessment and questionnaires assessing personality and eating attitudes/behaviors. Women reporting more borderline personality features exhibited greater negative affect across time and were more reactive to the sad film. Food presentation appeared to have a small ameliorative effect on sadness and general negative affect. However, quantity of food consumption was associated with improvements in mood only for women reporting higher levels of borderline personality features. These data suggest that women with borderline personality characteristics may be at elevated risk for developing problems with binge eating, because consuming larger quantities of food appeared to have a tempering effect on their negative mood and feelings of sadness. PMID:23445477

Ambwani, Suman; Morey, Leslie C

2015-04-01

238

Musical affect regulation in infancy.  

PubMed

Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications. PMID:25773634

Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

2015-03-01

239

Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. (The Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-08-01

240

Personal Characteristics. Career Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to direct the attention of the senior high school student to five types of personal characteristics to facilitate a more realistic career exploration: abilities, interests, values, physical traits, and personal and social behavior. The two- to three-hour unit contains self-instruction,…

Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

241

Malting Barley Characteristics  

E-print Network

Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving.S. brewing industry is currently undergoing profound and lasting structural change. Craft brewers for a growing brewing Industry. Nonetheless, prior to the advent of craft brewery companies in the late 1970s

242

Characteristic Curves of PEMFC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise will allow students hands-on experience working with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, or PEMFC. The class will examine the characteristic curve of one of these fuel cells and measure the voltage and current output of the cell. Step by step instructions are provided for the experiment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

243

Life Mode Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise provides a standardized format that can be used to describe the life mode and its characteristics for most any organism or group of organisms. This format is used (reinforced) in many other exercises as the context for comparing and contrasting clades within and among systematic groups. The classification also provides a context for discussing patterns and trends in evolution and ecology.

Steve Hageman

244

Employment Characteristics of Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

245

Roles of Cognitive Characteristics in Tinnitus Patients  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cognitive characteristics that affect the emotional and functional distress caused by tinnitus and to decide and test the model to explain their relations, 167 patients with tinnitus, who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between March 2001 and May 2002 were recruited. To examine their features related to tinnitus, the following scales were administered; Tinnitus-related basic questionnaire including dysfunctional beliefs, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxious Thought and Tendencies, Self-Consciousness Scale, and modified 'catastrophic thought' from Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results showed that the duration of experiencing tinnitus was 4.7±7.1 yr, those who com-plained of hearing one sound were the most common (45.5%), and hearing sounds similarly described to whistling were the most common (22.5%). Also, there were significant correlations among tinnitus features, cognitive characteristics, and distresses from tinnitus. As a result of testing the model, Normed fit index, Incremental fit index, Tucker-Lewis index, and Comparative fit index were over .90, indicating that it is a good model, and Root mean square error of approximation showed a reasonable fit. Also, the direct effects of the trait or severity of tinnitus on distress did not appear to be significant, thus it appeared to be affecting indirectly through the cognitive characteristics. This result shows that cognitive interventions can be important for the psychological adaptations of tinnitus patients. PMID:15608399

Lee, So-Young; Hong, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Soo

2004-01-01

246

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

247

Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

1980-07-01

248

Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

Gorti, Sridhar

2013-01-01

249

Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

Staas, Steven K.

1991-01-01

250

Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

1994-01-01

251

Affect Intensity Analysis of Dark Web Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affects play an important role in influencing people's perceptions and decision making. Affect analysis is useful for measuring the presence of hate, violence, and the resulting propaganda dissemination across extremist groups. In this study we performed affect analysis of U.S. and Middle Eastern extremist group forum postings. We constructed an affect lexicon using a probabilistic disambiguation technique to measure the

Ahmed Abbasi; Hsinchun Chen

2007-01-01

252

The wind characteristics program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind characteristics research activities emphasize wind resource assessment, site selection and evaluation techniques, and wind characteristics for wind turbine design, performance and operations evaluation. Wind resource analysis shows the greatest area of high wind power resource is in the midsection of the U.S. High wind power is available in other sections of the country and is described in some detail on a state by state basis in twelve regional atlases. To carry the wind prospecting process to a finer scale, site selection techniques for small and large wind turbines were developed, tested, and documented. There is a broad range of sophistication and reliability in these techniques and their application must be matched with the priorities and time available for energy planning efforts. The nature of wind gustiness was evaluated statistically and modeled for calculating fatigue cycles and extreme events.

Wendell, L. L.

253

How decision reversibility affects motivation.  

PubMed

The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed. PMID:23815456

Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

2014-04-01

254

Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))

1993-06-01

255

Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.  

PubMed

While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476

Bohn, Torsten

2014-07-01

256

Treatment of seasonal affective disorders  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subform of major depressive disorder, recurrent, or bipolar disorder with a regular onset of depressive episodes at a certain time of year, usually the winter. The treatment of SAD is similar to that of other forms of affective disorder, except that bright light therapy is recommended as the first-line option. Light therapy conventionally involves exposure to visible light of at least 2500 lux intensity at eye level. The effects of light therapy are thought to be mediated exclusively by the eyes, not the skin, although this assumption has not yet been verified. Morning light therapy has proven to be superior to treatment regimens in the evening. Response rates to light therapy are about 80% in selected patient populations, with atypical depressive symptoms being the best predictor of a favorable treatment outcome. Data from randomized, controlled trials suggest that antidepressants are effective in the treatment of SAD. Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted showing promising results for the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and fluoxetine, as well as for moclobemide, a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. PMID:22033639

Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Willeit, Matthäus

2003-01-01

257

Photodetector and Receiver Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic receivers. Investigate the components of an optical receiver; how a photodetector converts an optical signal to an electrical one; and the characteristics of PIN, avalanche, and metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes.The video runs 2:07 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

258

Characteristics of healthcare wastes  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries.

Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)], E-mail: ludiaz@calrecovery.com; Eggerth, L.L. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States); Enkhtsetseg, Sh. [Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Savage, G.M. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)

2008-07-01

259

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

Not Available

1992-07-01

260

Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high subsonic and transonic characteristics of fighter aircraft and the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice are discussed. Investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing design parameters. These results emphasized the sensitivity to section and planform geometry at the selected design point. The incorporation of variable-wing-geometry devices in the form of leading-edge slats or flaps was shown in a number of flight and wind-tunnel studies to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

1972-01-01

261

Invasion of Impatiens glandulifera affects terrestrial gastropods by altering microclimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species can have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Invasive plants may be able to change habitat structure and quality. We conducted a field experiment to examine whether the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera affects native terrestrial gastropods. We also evaluated whether the invasive plant alters forest soil characteristics and microclimate which in turn may influence gastropod abundance. We sampled gastropods in plots installed in patches of I. glandulifera, in plots in which I. glandulifera was regularly removed by hand, and in control plots which were not yet colonized by the invasive plant. The three types of plots were equally distributed over three mixed deciduous forest areas that were slightly, moderately or heavily affected by a wind throw 11 years ago. A total of 33 gastropod species were recorded. Gastropod species richness was not affected by delayed effects of the wind throw, but it was significantly higher in invaded plots than in uninvaded plots. Similarly, gastropod abundance was higher in invaded plots than in the two types of control plots. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed marginally significant shifts of gastropod communities between the three types of plots and indicated that soil moisture, presence of I. glandulifera and cover of woody debris affected gastropod species composition. Field measurements showed that soil moisture was higher and daily soil temperature was more damped in patches of I. glandulifera than in the native ground vegetation. The changed microclimatic conditions may favour certain gastropod species. In particular, ubiquitous species and species with a high inundation tolerance increased in abundance in plots invaded by I. glandulifera. Our field experiment demonstrated that an invasive plant can indirectly affect native organisms by changing soil characteristics and microclimate.

Ruckli, Regina; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

2013-02-01

262

Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA. PMID:22879706

Lee, Hae-Jin

2012-01-01

263

Nucleosomes affect local transformation efficiency.  

PubMed

Genetic transformation is a natural process during which foreign DNA enters a cell and integrates into the genome. Apart from its relevance for horizontal gene transfer in nature, transformation is also the cornerstone of today's recombinant gene technology. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the factors that determine transformation efficiency. We hypothesize that differences in DNA accessibility associated with nucleosome positioning may affect local transformation efficiency. We investigated the landscape of transformation efficiency at various positions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome and correlated these measurements with nucleosome positioning. We find that transformation efficiency shows a highly significant inverse correlation with relative nucleosome density. This correlation was lost when the nucleosome pattern, but not the underlying sequence was changed. Together, our results demonstrate a novel role for nucleosomes and also allow researchers to predict transformation efficiency of a target region and select spots in the genome that are likely to yield higher transformation efficiency. PMID:22904077

Aslankoohi, Elham; Voordeckers, Karin; Sun, Hong; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; van der Zande, Elisa; Marchal, Kathleen; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2012-10-01

264

How competition affects evolutionary rescue.  

PubMed

Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

2013-01-19

265

Alcoholism and seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in mood and behavior (seasonality) may be closely related to alcoholism. Some patients with alcoholism have a seasonal pattern to their alcohol misuse. They may be self-medicating an underlying seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with alcohol or manifesting a seasonal pattern to alcohol-induced depression. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of alcoholism and SAD, operating, at least in part, through the brain serotonergic system. Family and molecular genetic studies suggest that there may be a genetic link between seasonality and alcoholism. Certain environmental and social factors may contribute to the development of seasonality in patients with alcoholism. The fact that SAD and alcoholism may be comorbid shows the importance of a thorough diagnostic interview. Both mental health and drug and alcohol professionals should be provided with education to assist with appropriate identification, management, and referral of patients presenting with comorbid alcoholism and SAD. PMID:14671737

Sher, Leo

2004-01-01

266

Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease. PMID:25684928

Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

2015-01-01

267

Medical affective computing: medical informatics meets affective computing.  

PubMed

"The need to cope with a changing and partly unpredictable world makes it very likely that any intelligent system with multiple motives and limited powers will have emotions." [1] From advisory systems that understand emotional attitudes toward medical outcomes, to wearable computers that compensate for communication disability, to computer simulations of emotions and their disorders, the research agendas of medical informatics and affective computing--how and why to create computers that detect, convey, and even have emotions--increasingly overlap. Some psychiatric and neurological researchers state their theories in terms of actual or hypothetical computer programs. Adaptive intelligent systems will increasingly rely on emotions to compensate for their own conflicting goals and limited resources--emotional reactions about which psychiatrists and neurologists have special insights. DEP2 (Depression Emulation Program 2) is a computer simulation of adaptive depression--learning from explainable patterns of failure in autobiographical memory--that simulates many depressive behaviors. In the terminology of fault-tolerant computing, adaptive depression involves fault detection (triggered by failure), fault location (strategic retreat and failure diagnosis), and fault recovery (return to on-line operation). DEP2 relies on subsystems whose structures and behaviors are based on popular hypotheses about left and right brain hemispheric function during depression and emotion. DEP2 and its predecessors, DEP and DEPlanner, are relevant to psychiatric and neurological informatics, and to the design of adaptive autonomous robots and software agents. PMID:10384652

Webster, C

1998-01-01

268

Hangman: Characteristics Of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Quintessential Instructional Archive (QUIA) Web site (last mentioned in the July 13, 2001 Scout Report) contains fun, online science-related activities. The Characteristics Of Matter hangman game was created by students to test your knowledge of matter in the universe. Users can choose individual letters to see if they're right; if not, another body part appears on the hangman illustration. Puzzles include hints such as "Changes from a liquid to a gas" and "A change in which a new substance is formed." This activity gives students a fun way to use the Internet to learn about science and spark interest on a particular subject.

269

LED and Transmitter Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from the ICT Center, learn about fiber optic transmitters. Explore the components of a fiber optic transmitter, including a source, a modulator, an electrical driving circuit, and fiber coupling mechanics. Animations illustrate how the process of spontaneous emission converts electrical information to an optical signal in a light-emitting diode, or LED. In addition, learn about characteristics that make a source suitable for fiber optic communications.The video runs 3:12 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

270

Wave Types and Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first in a series of new marine meteorology modules based on COMET’s old laser disk and CD-ROM modules on marine meteorology. This module is an introduction to waves and their associated characteristics. Several types of waves are presented, from the common wind wave to the rare tsunami wave. The basic physical, mathematical, and statistical traits of waves are discussed, along with how they change once waves become swell. This material serves as a building block to subsequent modules on wave generation, propagation, and dispersion.

2014-09-14

271

Liquidity and firm characteristics: Evidence from mergers and acquisitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore factors affecting liquidity by examining the relation between liquidity changes and changes in firm characteristics around mergers and acquisitions. We find that spreads decline as the number of analysts, number of shareholders, number of market makers, firm size, and volume increase or as volatility decreases. Increased volume and firm size, and decreased volatility, are associated with increased depth.

Marc L. Lipson; Sandra Mortal

2007-01-01

272

Stand characteristics of sericea lespedeza on the Louisiana Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sericea lespedeza has been an important forage legume in portions of the USA for decades but has recently been recognized as invasive in some ecosystems. Stand characteristics potentially affecting usefulness and invasiveness were assessed on forested and open sites of a Louisiana Coastal Plain landscape. Typical heavy weed competition, which was not overcome by increased seeding rate or extent of

W. D. Pitman

2006-01-01

273

Feasibility Studies of Teacher Core Job Characteristics. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work redesign for improving satisfaction or productivity depends partially on employee attributes because employees respond differently to work conditions. The Hackman-Oldham theory distinguishes "job" from employee responses to job. A job's motivating potential is thus linked to five core characteristics that affect three psychological states…

Charters, W. W., Jr.; And Others

274

Employee reactions to job characteristics: A constructive replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted a partial replication of J. R. Hackman and E. E. Lawler's (1971) conceptual model of the relationships between job characteristics and employee affective reactions. 104 employees occupying jobs aimed at rehabilitating inmates completed a questionnaire involving their (a) perceptions of job core dimensions, (b) internal work motivation, (c) general job satisfaction, (d) job involvement, (e) higher order need strength,

Ramon J. Aldag

1975-01-01

275

Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

2014-01-01

276

Filtering characteristics of thin, planar 3D printed element arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic arrays of metallic elements have been popular in printed antenna designs for the past two decades. For these applications the elements are individually excited and the array factor is the primary design consideration, affecting directly the radiation pattern characteristics of the array. Therefore, in these applications, the element lattice and excitation distribution is of primary importance, while the interelement

Harry Contopanagos; C. Kyriazidou; W. Merrill; Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos

1999-01-01

277

SURFACE LOADING AFFECTS INTERNAL PRESSURE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS DERIVED FROM VOLCANO DEFORMATION SIGNALS  

E-print Network

. This method is applied to observations made at the Icelandic Hekla volcano for which we estimate an inflating.g., Jull and McKenzie (1996), Pinel (2000, 2005), Pagli (2008). We show that a slow gradual viscous

Grapenthin, Ronni

278

What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

Giglio, Kate

2010-01-01

279

Student Characteristics Affecting the Decision to Enroll in a Community College: Economic Rationale and Empirical Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a probit model to examine determinants of U.S. college students' choice of attendance at two-year community colleges compared to a four-year college. The empirical work was based on the latest National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The set of explanatory variables included academic performance, students' involvement in…

Joshi, Prathibha V.; Beck, Kris A.; Nsiah, Christian

2009-01-01

280

ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

281

Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton as Affected by Varietal Characteristics and Other Factors.  

E-print Network

to permit the locks of cotton to protrude from the bolls in a fluffy condition and borne singly on peduncles (boll stems) that will snap easily under tension but withstand plant agitation. In an effort to combine these qualities into one strain, new types... .................................. 35 Grade differences attributed to mechanical harvesting of different varieties of cotton ............................................ 39 ................................. Snapping qualities of cotton bolls 39 Effect of boll spread on harvesting...

Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1939-01-01

282

Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs That Affect Their Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an analysis of teachers' ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum…

Stanišic Stojic, Svetlana M.; Dobrijevic, Gordana; Stanišic, Nemanja; Stanic, Nenad

2014-01-01

283

EFFECTS OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON PASTURE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT LOADS IN SURFACE WATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate cattle grazing effects on the potential for sediment and nutrient loading of surface waters, forage cover, sward height, and mass and manure cover were measured in pastures with different grazing management systems. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures were assigned one of three treat...

284

Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.  

PubMed

Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed. PMID:19919033

Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

2009-12-23

285

Microstructure and characteristics of high-amylose corn starch-chitosan film as affected by composition.  

PubMed

Edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch and chitosan were developed by casting method. The effects of the ratio of high-amylose corn starch to chitosan, concentration of glycerol and methyl cellulose on the oxygen and carbon dioxide permeation, water vapor transmission, tensile strength and percent elongation at break values of edible composite films were investigated. Film microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase of the ratio of chitosan and content of glycerol in the film forming suspensions both made the structure of films flexible, causing the decrease of tensile strength and increase of percent elongation of composite films, while showing poor water vapor barrier properties as the water vapor transmission values increased. The addition of methyl cellulose as to reinforce the structure of matrix improved the water vapor barrier properties of the edible films with the decrease of water vapor transmission from 1946 to 1668 g/(m(2)·24?h), as well as the mechanical properties were improved as expected, which could be attributed to the differentia of the interaction between methyl cellulose and other components in the film preparation as the concentration ranged from 2% (w/w) to 8% (w/w). Films with different compositions, resulting different microstructures, showed variance in barrier and mechanical properties. PMID:23493788

Feng, Qianqian; Hu, Fei; Qiu, Liping

2013-06-01

286

The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth…

Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

2012-01-01

287

Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions  

PubMed Central

Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, syringol, eugenol, isoeugenol, catechol, homocatechol, and vanillin were detected in all of the samples. PMID:21152318

Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

288

[Factors affecting benzene diffusion from contaminated soils to the atmosphere and flux characteristics].  

PubMed

The influencing factors of benzene diffusion fluxes from sand and black soil to atmosphere were investigated using a flux chamber (30.0 cm x 17.5 cm x 29.0 cm). In this study, the benzene diffusion fluxes were estimated by measuring the benzene concentrations both in the headspace of the chamber and in the soils of different layers. The results indicated that the soil water content played an important role in benzene diffusion fluxes. The diffusion flux showed positive correlation with the initial benzene concentration and the benzene dissolution concentration for both soil types. The changes of air flow rate from 300 to 900 mL x min(-1) and temperature from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C resulted in increases of the benzene diffusion flux. Our study of benzene diffusion fluxes from contaminated soils will be beneficial for the predicting model, and emergency management and precautions. PMID:24640900

Du, Ping; Wang, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Wu, Bin; Han, Chun-Mei; Fang, Ji-Dun; Li, Hui-Ying; Hosomi, Masaaki; Li, Fa-Sheng

2013-12-01

289

Technical parameters affecting image characteristics in in vivo MR microscopy of the mouse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the effects of changing acquisition parameters used for high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy on image quality and scan time. The head or abdomen of 11 normal and 1 glioblastoma-bearing anesthetized BALB/c mice were imaged using a high-resolution 7.0-Tesla magnet. Scan parameters such as matrix size (MTX), slice thickness (ST), number of excitations (NEX), pulse sequence type including repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE), respiratory gating, and intraperitoneal contrast medium administration were altered to assess their actual effect on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as compared to calculated effects. As expected, SNR increased with increasing ST or NEX and with decreasing MTX. However, although the empirical increase in SNR was similar to that expected for increased ST, it was less than that anticipated for increasing NEX or decreasing MTX. Increasing NEX and applying respiratory gating both increased SNR and reduced the image degradation associated with respiratory motion in images of the abdomen. Intraperitoneal contrast medium administration produced a marked increase in CNR in the subject with the implanted glioblastoma, suggesting that this route is satisfactory for the enhancement of lesions disrupting the blood-brain barrier. The consequence of improving image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution is increased scan time. However, the actual increase in SNR when altering acquisition parameters may not be as much as predicted by theory. PMID:12502104

Yamada, Kazutaka; Wisner, Erik R; de Ropp, Jeff S; LeCouteur, Richard A; Tripp, Linda D

2002-01-01

290

Program characteristics and organizational factors affecting the implementation of a school-based indicated prevention program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconnecting Youth (RY) is a school-based drug prevention program designed to address academic, substance use and mood manage- ment goals among youth at risk of dropping out of high school. This paper presents the or- ganizational factors and RY program charac- teristics that either promoted or hindered the implementation of the program during a ran- domized controlled effectiveness trial in

Samruddhi Thaker; Allan Steckler; Victoria Sanchez; Shereen Khatapoush; John Rose; Denise Dion Hallfors

2008-01-01

291

Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk  

E-print Network

effect on total count, acidification, or the Bacillus:Streptococcus ratio of yoghurt. He observed that mastitic milk yoghurt was slightly yellow in appearance, but otherwise did not differ organoleptically from the control yoghurt made from normal...

Bollinger, Dean Herman

1972-01-01

292

Forest Stand Characteristics Altered by Restoration Affect Western Bluebird Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest managers are setting Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- derosa) forests in the southwestern United States on a tra- jectory toward a restored ecosystem by reducing tree densities and managing with prescribed fire. The process of restoration dramatically alters forest stands, and the ef- fects of these changes on wildlife remain unclear. Our research evaluated which aspects of habitat alteration from

Catherine S. Wightman; Stephen S. Germaine

2006-01-01

293

Degree of Chinese ancestry affects behavioral characteristics of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Background The use of Chinese-origin macaques in biomedical research is problematic for some scientists because of the reported behavioral and physiological differences from those of Indian origin. However, few studies have examined the effects of varying degrees of Chinese ancestry (DCA) on behavior, and they were typically based on small sample sizes and unusual rearing conditions. Methods Using data from a colony-wide program, we examined whether DCA was related to behavior and temperament ratings reflecting emotionality (fearfulness, aggression and anxiety) and activity. The 249 subjects, born and reared in outdoor social environment, were separated from their groups for a 25-hr indoor testing. Their DCA (range: 0.6 to 99.4%) was determined by analyzing the frequency of short tandem repeat alleles. Results and Conclusions The major effect of DCA was on fearfulness, with the more hybridized animals scoring lowest and the more pure Indian- and Chinese-origin macaques resembling each other. PMID:23189960

Jiang, Jing; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Capitanio, John P.

2013-01-01

294

Computer keyswitch forcedisplacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping  

E-print Network

. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force fatigue (Gerard et al., 1996; Radwin and Ruffalo, 1999), and a greater risk of hand/arm muscu- loskeletal

Jindrich, Devin L.

295

Environmental characteristics affecting plant growth on deep-mine coal refuse banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains of black waste from the mining and processing of coal mar the landscape in many parts of Pennsylvania. They are not only eyesores, but major sources of air and water pollution as well. Natural colonization by plants is slow and most attempts at planting fail. The results of a study of the factors which may limit plant growth indicate

D. N. Thompson; R. J. Hutnik

1971-01-01

296

Biochemical and physical factors affecting color characteristics of selected bovine muscles  

E-print Network

of retail display (0-, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-d). Steaks were evaluated over the course of retail display for objective measures of discoloration (metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, L*-, a*-, and b*-values), reducing ability (metmyoglobin reductase activity...

McKenna, David Richard

2004-09-30

297

Characteristics of brush treatments affecting habitat use patterns by cattle in South Texas  

E-print Network

, such as broomweed (Xanthoce halum spp. ) and flowered thistle (Cirsium spp. ), were characterized by visually estimating cover (4) and by measuring their height (cm) within each 0. 5 m quadrat. 2 Fistula Collections Four esophageally fistulated cows were...

Rowland, Mary Ellen

1988-01-01

298

Health-seeking Behavior, Product Characteristics, and Social Factors Affect Dairy Product Consumption By Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national telephone survey of 495 adults aged in their 60s (n=155), 70s (n=187) and 80+ (n = 151) was conducted to assess behaviors and attitudes concerning dairy product intake. Participants were asked how frequently they consumed milk, yogurt, frozen yogurt, ice cream, cottage cheese, and cheese. Total dairy product intake was the sum of the frequencies of all dairy

J. G. Fischer; V. Burden; S. Elbon; M. A. Johnson

1995-01-01

299

Semen characteristics of the muscovy drake (Cairina moschata) as affected by seasonal variation  

E-print Network

: conditioning the Muscovy drake to give semen increased its libido and improved semen quality ; in addition. ― Semen volume was determined by collecting the semen in a test tube especially designed. The weekly fluctuation of semen volume, sperm concentration and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate

Boyer, Edmond

300

Factors affecting flight capacity and invasive characteristics of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is a highly destructive invasive pest of annual and perennial crops in the eastern United States and is an increasing threat to agriculture in the Pacific Northwest. In Oregon, this pest has become common in urban areas interspersed among high-val...

301

Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Baby talk” or speech directed to prelinguistic infants is high in pitch and has exaggerated pitch contours (up\\/down patterns\\u000a of pitch change) across languages and cultures. Using an acoustic model, we predicted that the large pitch contours of infant-directed\\u000a speech should improve infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. On the other hand, the same model predicted that high pitch\\u000a would not

Laurel J. Trainor; Renée N. Desjardins

2002-01-01

302

The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange capacity. The highest amount of mercury was adsorbed by the vermicompost from garden bio-waste. This vermicompost contained the most humic acids and the least amount of other fractions of organic matter. Acknowledgements: Financial support for these investigations was provided by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic; Project No. 503/12/0682 and Czech University of Life Science Prague; Project No. 21140/1313/3130.

Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Ji?ina

2014-05-01

303

Optical characteristics of lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the optical characteristics of cloud-to-ground dischargers and how they compare with intracloud flashes was completed. Time resolved optical (7774A) and electric field-change waveforms were measured above clouds from a U2 airplane coincident with ground-based measurements of lightning. The optical pulse trains are studied for within and between flash variability. Specifically, for each flash researchers examine the 10, 50 (full width half maximum), and 90 percent pulse widths; the 10-10, 10-50, 10-90, and 10-peak percent amplitude rise times; the radiances (optical power densities); radiant energy densities; and pulse intervals. The optical pulse characteristics of first strokes, subsequent strokes, the intracloud components of cloud-to-ground flashes and intracloud flashes as viewed from above cloud are shown to exhibit very similar waveshapes, radiances and radiant energy densities. Descriptive statistics on these pulse categories were tabulated for 25 visually confirmed cloud-to-ground flashes (229 optical pulses) and 232 intracloud flashes (3126 optical pulses). A companion study of lightning observations above and below cloud in storms, storm complexes, and mesoscale convective systems has also been completed. Researchers compared the mapping of total lightning activity from above clouds with ground-based measurements and storm evolution. Although the total (IC + CG) lightning activity is the more representative indication of thunderstorm growth and decay, the ground strike data can be used to locate, diagnose, and track storm evolution in a number of instances.

Goodman, S. J.

1985-01-01

304

The Roles of Affect Dysregulation and Positive Affect in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavior, yet little is known about associated affective mechanisms. Research has focused on the role of negative affect in NSSI, with positive affect receiving relatively less attention. This study examined affect dysregulation, emotional reactivity, and the experience of positive and negative affect in NSSI. Path analyses revealed that emotional reactivity predicted positive and negative

Abigail L. Jenkins; Mark F. Schmitz

2012-01-01

305

Characteristics of Business Owners Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released the results of the 1992 Characteristics of Business Owners Survey (CBO). These results provide data for comparing the "selected economic, demographic, and sociological characteristics" of business owners.

306

Spatial layout affects speed discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

1997-01-01

307

Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.  

PubMed

We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2014-01-01

308

Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.  

PubMed

Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

1995-01-01

309

Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

1995-01-01

310

Metastatic malignant melanoma affecting stomach.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma has been reported to affect all organs of the human body with the metastasis. Stomach metastases are quite rare in cases of the most commonly reported primaries including, melanoma and breast, and lung carcinomas. This report involves, a 56-year-old man suffering from melanoma of the lower extremity that developed into gastric, pulmonary, and brain metastases. The patient who experienced epigastric pain with suspicious melanoma was referred to undergo endoscopy. A black and white ulcer with dimensions of 1 × 1.5 cm and a mass of 1 × 2 cm mass were found at D1 and lesser curvature. Physical examination revealed a 2 × 3 cm black lesion at his right heel. Pathologic examination provided multiple pieces of creamy soft-tissue measuring 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.1 cm showing pigmented tumor cells in lamina propria. Staining biopsy samples with anti-HMB-45 and Fontana demonstrated a higher degree of positivity in tumor cells. The patient was admitted to the hospital, but unfortunately his general conditions were deteriorated and he developed convulsion and deceased four days after admission. PMID:25313770

Eivazi-Ziaei, Jamal; Esmaili, Heidarali

2014-01-01

311

Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment  

E-print Network

Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics & Decision Sciences, Duke University ISDS Discussion Paper #94--02 February 1, 1994 #12; Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics and Decision

West, Mike

312

Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

2008-01-01

313

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

314

Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

Steele, Natalie A.

2010-01-01

315

Characteristics of successful employer brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Inthe last decade, employer branding has been hailed as a key strategic marketing activity. This study examines ,the perceived characteristics of successful ,and unsuccessful employer brands. Information from an expert ,panel is analysed ,to uncover ,successful\\/unsuccessful employer,brand characteristics and to establish areas of convergence ,and divergence with existing product and corporate branding ,literature. A typology ,of the ,characteristics is

Lara Moroko; Mark D Uncles

2008-01-01

316

How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?  

PubMed Central

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become “directed walkers” is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients. PMID:24131935

Han, Tianyu; Kang, De; Ji, Daokun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Weihua; Fu, Minggui; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian-Bin

2013-01-01

317

Psychopathy and affect consciousness in young criminal offenders.  

PubMed

A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize and tolerate the feeling and describe how they believe it is expressed in their posture and verbal expressions). Psychopathy is assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, and affect consciousness is assessed with a semistructured interview. Additionally, risk for criminal behavior, moral reasoning, cognitive distortions, and attachment style in the participants was assessed. The participants are 47 adolescent boys who were treated at juvenile delinquency homes. The results indicate that boys with higher ratings of psychopathy had lower consciousness of shame feelings and lower empathy scores. The results in combination with qualitative analyses of the interview answers are interpreted as indicating that consciousness of shame is specifically problematic for psychopathic adolescents. PMID:18162637

Holmqvist, Rolf

2008-02-01

318

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

319

LANDSCAPE MODELING OF CHARACTERISTIC HABITAT SCALES, DISPERSAL, AND CONNECTIVITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...

320

Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

2005-01-01

321

Affectivity: Regulation, Identity Formation, and Metaphorical Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding affects, and their multiple roles in all aspects of the human condition and development, has more and more become a focus of study for contemporary psychoanalysis. Psychodynamic personality theories have always regarded affective life as pivotal to developmental experiences, the evolving structures of the personality, identity formation, and clinical processes. The centrality of emotion in development and affect regulation,

Randolph Lucente

2008-01-01

322

Affective video content representation and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks into a new direction in video content analysis - the representation and modeling of affective video content . The affective content of a given video clip can be defined as the intensity and type of feeling or emotion (both are referred to as affect) that are expected to arise in the user while watching that clip. The

Alan Hanjalic; Li-qun Xu

2005-01-01

323

Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Toxic algal blooms widely affect our use of water resources both with respect to drinking water and recreation. However, it is not only humans, but also organisms living in freshwater and marine ecosystems that may be affected by algal toxins. 2. In order to assess if cyanobacterial toxins affect the composition of natural zooplankton communities, we quantified the

LARS-ANDERS HANSSON; SUSANNE GUSTAFSSON; KARIN RENGEFORS; LINA BOMARK

2007-01-01

324

Affective multimodal mirror: sensing and eliciting laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a component to present audiovisual affective feedback that should keep or bring the user

Willem A. Melder; David A. van Leeuwen; Khiet P. Truong; Mark A. Neerincx; Marten Den Uyl; Lodewijk R. Loos

2007-01-01

325

Affective support for the creative user  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between affect and creativity represents an intriguing opportunity for creativity support tools. A fine grain model that links affect with creativity can lead to development of feedback environments that maximize a user's effectiveness and creative output. In this paper, we present an empirical study that will lead us to formulation of such environments for affective support of the

Priyamvada Tripathi; Winslow Burleson

2009-01-01

326

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

DOEpatents

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19

327

Chapter 3 Numerical Characteristics and Characteristic Functions c # 3.3 Characteristic functions  

E-print Network

.3 Characteristic functions 3.3.1 Definitions Modulus inequality: |E| E||. yyy. P = + i. K|E| = (E)2 + (E)2, E.3 Characteristic functions 3.3.1 Definitions Modulus inequality: |E| E||. yyy. P = + i. K|E| = (E)2 + (E)2, E and Characteristic Functions c �á# 3.3 Characteristic functions 3.3.1 Definitions Modulus inequality: |E| E||. yyy

Zhang, Li-Xin

328

Interactions of Metacognition With Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The “metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning” (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task × Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like characteristics such as cognitive ability, metacognitive knowledge and skills, self-concept, perceptions of control,

Anastasia Efklides

2011-01-01

329

Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

330

Noise characteristics in IFOG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IFOG (Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope) is the most promising angular velocity sensor in the inertial guidance market due to its attractive advantages, which is often regarded as the next generation gyro that can ultimately replace the traditional mechanical gyroscope. In order to improve the performance of IFOG, especially to low down the bias drift and angle random walk (ARW) of IFOG, it is valuable to research the noise characteristics of IFOG. In this paper, the ultra low frequency random noise and the relatively high frequency random noise has been investigated respectively. The experimental data of a practical open loop IFOG is obtained by different sampling frequency, through which the different frequency scope of the noise can be researched separately. The frequency spectral analysis of the noise deduces the follow result: (1) the relative high frequency (higher than about 0.001 Hz) random noise can be approximately modeled as Gaussian white noise (GWN), and its spectral range is determined by the system bandwidth of IFOG. The angle random walk of IFOG is determined by this kind of noise. (2) The ultra low frequency (lower than about 0.001 Hz) random noise can not be Gaussian white noise, which is much more great than other noises, and with the rise of frequency, the power of the relevant frequency component is lower down sharply. The ultra low frequency noise is often regarded as the source of bias drift of IFOG.

Chang, Jianxin; Wang, Peng; Qin, BingKun; Chen, Shufen

2000-10-01

331

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01

332

Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

2014-01-01

333

Wind-tunnel procedure for determination of critical stability and control characteristics of airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.

Goett, Harry J; Jackson, Roy P; Belsley, Steven E

1944-01-01

334

Personality, Work Characteristics, and Employee Well-Being: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Moderating Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the longitudinal influence of personality (measured by the characteristics growth need strength, negative affectivity [NA], and upward striving) on 3 psychological outcomes (intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention), using a pattern of specific relationships between work characteristics and these outcomes as a framework. The study hypotheses were tested in a multioccupational sample consisting of bank

Inge Houkes; Peter P. M. Janssen; Jan de Jonge; Arnold B. Bakker

2003-01-01

335

Friend Influence on Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Motivational Factors and Friendship Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined motivation (prosocial goals), individual characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and grade), and friendship characteristics (affective quality, interaction frequency, and friendship stability) in relation to middle adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N=208) attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic…

Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

2006-01-01

336

Characteristics of a PVDF Membrane Hydrophone for Use in the Range 1-100 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrocr-The experimental determination of the frequency response, directionality, and electrical characteristics of membrane hydrophones are reported. These characteristics are interpreted in terms of theoretical models, based mainly on published values for the properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (pvdf). The frequency response was determined using both linear and nonlinear acoustic fields. The directionality is affected by the angular variation of piezoelectric sensitivity

DAVID R. BACON

1982-01-01

337

Environmental Factors Related to the Distribution, Abundance, and Life History Characteristics of Mountain Whitefish in Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni are a broadly distributed native salmonid in western North America, but comparatively little investigation has been made regarding their population characteristics. We surveyed 2,043 study sites to assess whether physiochemical stream conditions affected mountain whitefish distribution and abundance in southern Idaho, and at 20 of these sites life history characteristics were also estimated. A total of

Kevin A. Meyer; F. Steven Elle; James A. Lamansky Jr

2009-01-01

338

Impact of tangential burner firing angle on combustion characteristics of large scale coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion characteristics in large scale boilers are influenced by a number of factors such as coal properties and burner operating conditions. Burner firing angle for example, will affect the fireball size and locations of heat release which affect the formation of ash slagging in a tangentially fired furnace. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of coal combustion

N. M. Razali; M. H. Boosroh; H. Hasini; N. H. Shuaib

2009-01-01

339

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTIVE COMPUTING 1 Real-time Recognition of Affective States from  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AFFECTIVE COMPUTING 1 Real-time Recognition of Affective States from Non Abstract--This paper presents a new classification algorithm for real-time inference of affect from non simultaneously occurring affective states by recognising correlations between emotions and over 6000 functional

Robinson, Peter

340

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

341

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, popula- tion-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review fo- cuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based disposi- tions

William P. Horan; Jack J. Blanchard; L. A. Clark; M. F. Green

2008-01-01

342

Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major... Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee fg M ber Head f Depar tmen Mem er Member January 1969 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting...

Tallamy, Paul Thomas

1969-01-01

343

Affective-Centered Design for Interactive Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new paradigm for the design of interac- tive robots called affective-centered design. By drawing on the dis- ciplines of human-computer interaction (HCI), affective computing, and human-robot interaction (HRI), we suggest techniques robot de- signers can use to help ensure interactions with their robots are of high affective quality, and thus more likely to be enjoyed and ac-

Laurel D. Riek; Peter Robinson

344

Influence of User Experience on Affectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affectiveness is frequently discussed based on the first impression to the appearance of a product. However, experience in\\u000a use of that product can also influence affectiveness. In order to clarify the influence of user experience on affectiveness,\\u000a user perception of products should be investigated in several phases of using a product. In this paper, two experiments were\\u000a presented, which compared

Ryoko Fukuda

2009-01-01

345

Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

2008-03-01

346

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

347

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep  

E-print Network

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep A environmental and genetic factors influencing udder characteristics and milk production in Chios sheep. All. Seasonal effects were significant for udder circumference, test-day milk and total milk production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Factors Affecting Growth of Northern Pike in Small Northern Wisconsin Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish assemblages that include northern pike Esox lucius as a dominant predator were sampled in 19 small (<120 ha) northern Wisconsin lakes. The purpose of this sampling was to describe northern pike population characteristics and identify factors affecting growth rates. Fish assemblages in these lakes were dominated by centrarchids, primarily bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and small fusiform species such as yellow

Terry L. Margenau; Paul W. Rasmussen; Jeffrey M. Kampa

1998-01-01

349

Clinical Kinesiology 65(1); Spring, 2011 9 Control Entropy of Gait: Does Running Fitness Affect  

E-print Network

of cardiovascular fitness and endurance training in the process of surefootedness. Investigating the role of fitness Fitness Affect Complexity Of Walking? Stephen J. McGregor1 , Michael A. Busa1 , Rana Parshad3 , James A, and therefore, contrasting the gait characteristics of healthy and highly fit individuals is of value. Analysis

Bollt, Erik

350

Side Impact CrashesåFactors Affecting Incidence and Severity: Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many traffic crashes are side impact collisions resulting in significant death and injury. A review was conducted of the evidence of driver, road, and vehicle characteristics affecting either the risk of occurrence or the severity of injury in such crashes for papers published from 1996 to early 2003. For drivers, evidence was found of increased crash risk or injury severity

MARY L. CHIPMAN

2004-01-01

351

Study of Factors Affecting the Surface Quality in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an investigation of the process factors and the material factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. The process factors involve cutting conditions, tool geometry, and relative tool-work vibration which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material anisotropy, swelling, and crystallographic orientation

C. F. Cheung; W. B. Lee

2000-01-01

352

HARD WHEAT MILLING AND BREAD BAKING TRAITS AFFECTED BY THE SEED-SPECIFIC OVEREXPRESSION OF PUROINDOLINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain texture affects many milling characteristics and end-use qualities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) such as milling yield, flour particle size, and starch damage. In wheat, grain texture is controlled primarily by the two genes puroindoline a (pina) and puroindoline b (pinb) that reside at the ...

353

How Does Social Background Affect the Grades and Grade Careers of Norwegian Economics Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines how social background characteristics affect the academic achievement and grade careers of Norwegian economics students. The analyses show that the parents' social class is of great importance for the offspring's grades. Students with parents who are academics perform better than their fellow students of working-class…

Helland, Havard

2007-01-01

354

Reproductive schedule and factors affecting soldier production in the eusocial bamboo aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera, Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The reproductive characteristics of the soldier-producing aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola were studied in Kagoshima, Southern Japan, to know the factors affecting soldier production of eusocial aphids. The soldier proportion in aphid colonies was highest from October to November. In some large colonies, soldiers were observed in all seasons except in July when colony size was relatively small. Multiple regression analysis

H. Shibao

1999-01-01

355

DIETARY BORON, FISH OIL, AND THEIR INTERACTION AFFECT RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both boron (B) and fish oil (FO) are thought to affect central nervous function though influencing the physicochemical characteristics of cell membranes. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether FO instead of safflower oil (SO) in the diet would modify changes in rat behavior and brai...

356

Factors Affecting on Mechanical Properties of Soft Martensitic Stainless Steel Castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the factors affecting mechanical properties of soft martensitic stainless steel castings that have lower carbon contents and increased nickel contents of up to 6% compared with normal martensitic stainless steel castings. The effect of alloying elements and impurities on the microstructural features and tempering characteristics was considered in detail, with special reference to reverted austenite and temper

Yoshitaka Iwabuchi

2003-01-01

357

Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted…

Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

2014-01-01

358

Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.  

PubMed

Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

2015-02-01

359

Dissociation between affective sharing and emotion understanding in juvenile psychopaths.  

PubMed

Empathy dysfunction is one of the core characteristics of youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. How such a dysfunction is associated with abnormal neural processing, however, remains to be determined. This study combined assessment of Hare Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version, pressure pain threshold, and event-related brain potentials elicited by the perception of people in pain in 15 young offenders with low CU traits (LCU), 13 with high CU traits (HCU), and 15 typically developing controls. Compared to the controls, LCU and HCU had higher pain thresholds. Although only the central late positive potential (LPP) was reduced in LCU, both the frontal N120 and central LPP were diminished in HCU. When exposed to situations in which someone was harmed by another, HCU retained the LPP, and this response was significantly correlated with their psychopathic traits and pain thresholds. Both groups had no deficit in sensorimotor resonance as assessed by mu suppression. These results demonstrate that youth with HCU exhibit atypical neural dynamics of pain empathy processing in the early stage of affective arousal, which is coupled with their relative insensitivity to actual pain. Their capacity to understand intentionality, however, was not affected. Such uncoupling between affective arousal and emotion understanding may contribute to instigating aggressive behaviors in juvenile psychopaths. PMID:22559135

Cheng, Yawei; Hung, An-Yi; Decety, Jean

2012-05-01

360

The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease  

PubMed Central

The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

2011-01-01

361

Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review  

PubMed Central

Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival.

Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

2015-01-01

362

Vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power CO2 laser is widely used in various scientific, industrial and military applications. Vibration is a common phenomenon during laser working process, it will affect the working performance of high power CO2 laser, vibration must be strictly controlled in the condition where the laser pointing is required. This paper proposed a method to investigate the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser. An experiment device with vibration acceleration sensor was established to measure vibration signal of CO2 laser, the measured vibration signal was mathematically treated using space-frequency conversion, and then the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser can be obtained.

Zhang, Kuo

2015-02-01

363

Identity and environmentalism: the influence of community characteristics.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of community characteristics on self-proclaimed environmentalism. We find that the composition of a community affects the likelihood that a person claims to be a strong environmentalist even after controlling for individual political leaning, socio-economic characteristics, and pro-environment behaviors. Individuals are more likely to claim to be strong environmentalists if they live in areas where a larger share of the population has post-graduate degrees, if they live in heavily Democratic areas, or if they live in heavily Republican areas. These community effects occur only when individuals are predisposed to take on an environmental identity. PMID:21280383

Owen, Ann; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

2010-01-01

364

Does pain necessarily have an affective component? Negative evidence from blink reflex experiments  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Experimental pain research has shown that the affective component of pain is influenced strongly by situational characteristics; affective pain processing appears to be particularly pronounced in situations that provoke a feeling of uncertainty and uncontrollability. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the affective component of pain can be completely abolished if a ‘safe’, particularly predictable stimulation paradigm is applied. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers recruited at the University of Bamberg (Bamberg, Germany) were assessed in two experiments. Tonic contact heat stimuli staged in three intensities (warmth, heat and pain) relative to the individual pain threshold was applied; these were predictable with regard to intensity and course, and the subjects had easy access to control. The startle reflex was assessed as an objective measure of affective response. In addition, the subjects provided unpleasantness ratings. To compare these results to a gold standard for affective response, affective pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System were presented during temperature stimulation in the second experiment. RESULTS: Both experiments showed no potentiation of the startle reflex under painful heat stimulation compared with the two nonpainful stimulus intensities (heat and warmth), although the painful stimulation was clearly rated as more unpleasant. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that it is possible to develop a ‘safe’ noxious stimulus, which is rated as clearly unpleasant, but lacks physiological indication of negative affect. This divergence might be explained by subjective ratings being influenced by the instructions. The possibility of reducing the pain affect by suggesting ‘safety’ may be of therapeutic interest. PMID:22518363

Horn, Claudia; Blischke, Yvonne; Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2012-01-01

365

Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory  

PubMed Central

The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

2014-01-01

366

Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…

Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.

2008-01-01

367

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics  

E-print Network

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics in Virtual Environments Deliverable to Office of Naval This document can be found at http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/jgabbard/ve/taxonomy/ #12;#12;A Taxonomy of Usability accomplished, yielding a comprehensive multi-dimensional taxonomy of usability characteristics specifically

Gabbard, Joseph L.

368

CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BACKWATER AREAS Manne Bio and Wildlife, John S. Gottschalk, Direct or CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH POPULATIONS IN UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER B 16 Ifercentage composition 16 Weight per acre 16 Comparison with other waters 20 Mississippi River

369

Positive affect and distressed affect over the day in older people.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52-79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = -0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, sex, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health, and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive affect and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health. PMID:21517182

Steptoe, Andrew; Leigh, Elizabeth S; Kumari, Meena

2011-12-01

370

XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft noise characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the most recent noise test of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft which, in addition to level-flight studies of airspeed and nacelle angle, includes takeoff and landing flight procedures representative of those that might be used in vertiport operations. The paper first reviews basic tiltrotor noise characteristics, defining modes of tiltrotor flight that affect the noise generated, then applies the quiet operating modes to realistic takeoff and landing operations to define their effect upon noise exposure near a vertiport. This effect is illustrated for the XV-15 in the form of day-night level contours, initially assuming 50 takeoff and landing operations per day. These XV-15 contours are then extrapolated to approximate the noise of a civil variant of the larger V-22 Osprey tiltrotor for up to 200 operations per day.

Edwards, Bryan D.

1990-05-01

371

Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research efforts in the improvement of the maneuverability of fighter aircraft in the high-subsonic and transonic speed range are reviewed with emphasis on the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice. The investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing-design parameters. These results illustrated the sensitivity of section and planform geometry to a selected design point. The incorporation of variable-geometry wing devices in the form of flaps or leading-edge slats was shown to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient, moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

1973-01-01

372

User-oriented affective video content analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article looks into a new direction in multimedia content analysis: the extraction and modeling of the affective content of an arbitrary video. The affective content is viewed as the amount of feeling\\/emotion contained in and mediated by a video toward a viewer. The ability to automatically extract video content of this nature will lead to a high level of

Alan Hanjalic; Li-Qun Xu

2001-01-01

373

Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

Schneider, Mark

374

Why People Vote? Rationality or Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine whether voters mainly depend on rationality or affect to make their turnout decisions. By utilizing the data of ANES 1976, 1988 and 2008, we find that in the 1976 presidential election, it is mainly affect to have an influence on people’s decision on whether to vote. However, in the 1988 and 2008

Ching-Hsing Wang

375

ABSTRACT Do Earnings Subsidies Affect Job Choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely acknowledged that tax and transfer policies can affect employment. This paper explores a different potential impact of transfer policy by asking whether subsidies also affect job duration and wage growth. We provide an analytical framework that identifies causal links between earnings subsidies, job turnover, and wage growth. This framework highlights the importance of the form of the

Peter Gottschalk

376

Affect Control Theory DAWN T. ROBINSON  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 8 Affect Control Theory DAWN T. ROBINSON LYNN SMITH-LOVIN ALLISON K. WISECUP When David, positing that the dynamics of affective processing underlie DAWN T. ROBINSON · Department of Sociology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 179 #12;180 Dawn T. Robinson et al. both routine role-taking behavior

DiMarco, Chrysanne

377

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

378

Affect Integration in Dreams and Dreaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes by which dreaming aids in the ongoing integration of affects into the mind are approached here from complementary psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic perspectives. One relevant notion is that the dream provides a psychological space wherein overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex affects that under waking conditions are subject to dissociation, splitting, or disavowal may be brought together for observation by

Gary Grenell

2008-01-01

379

Body image changes during guided affective imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual body experience, the sensation of his whole body expanding to four or five times its normal size, occurred spontaneously in a forty?two year old attorney after five months of psychotherapy, using the technique of Guided Affective Imagery. Having entered therapy with the complaint of the absence of feelings, the attorney was able, through guided affective imagery, to experience

Stephen J. Rojcewicz Jr

1990-01-01

380

The affective beneficence of vigorous exercise revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. High exercise intensity may be associated with reduced adherence to exercise programmes, possibly because it is perceived as aversive. However, several authors have suggested that an intensity as high as 60% or 70% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) is necessary for exercise to elicit positive affective changes. To elucidate this discrepancy, the affective responses to increasing levels of exercise

Eric E. Hall; Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Steven J. Petruzzello

2002-01-01

381

42 CFR 1008.53 - Affected parties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affected parties. 1008.53 Section 1008...GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY...OIG Advisory Opinions § 1008.53 Affected parties. An advisory opinion...

2010-10-01

382

Affecting discourse: towards an embodied discourse analytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary retheorisation of affect is impacting on an increasingly wide range of disciplines\\/inter-disciplines in the human sciences. Of particular relevance for this paper are, on the one hand, the emphasis on embodiment and, on the other, the ideas of “flow”, “intensity” and “contagion”. Together, these challenge traditional views of affect as equivalent to emotion, emanating from the self and

Cate Poynton; Alison Lee

2011-01-01

383

Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions  

PubMed Central

In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

2014-01-01

384

Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

2011-01-01

385

Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: Toward a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the author's program of research on the neural substrates of emotion and affective style and their behavioral and peripheral biological correlates. Two core dimensions along which affect is organized are approach and withdrawal. Some of the key circuitry underlying approach and withdrawal components of emotion is reviewed with an emphasis on the role played by different sectors

Richard J. Davidson

2003-01-01

386

BRIEF REPORTS Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Affect  

E-print Network

-reports of affective experience, or changes in facial electromyography, but not both. Unfortunately, when taken measures of self-reported affect together with facial electromyography, and (b) examines the use electromyography (EMG) responses as directed during negative picture presentation (Dillon & LaBar, 2005; Eippert

Ochsner, Kevin

387

Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

Boehman, Joseph

2007-01-01

388

Neuroticism, Negative Affect, and Negative Affect Instability: Establishing Convergent and Discriminant Validity Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

Few investigations have examined the role of affective instability within a broad model of general personality functioning. The present study employed self-report and ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to examine the relations between self-reported Five-Factor Model Neuroticism, EMA average negative affect, and EMA negative affect instability. Results suggest that Neuroticism and negative affect instability are related yet distinct constructs, and that Neuroticism better represents average negative affect across time. Results also suggest that negative affect instability is related to low Agreeableness and specific externalizing facets of Neuroticism, such as Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness. The implications of these findings and potential areas for future research are discussed. PMID:20160976

Miller, Drew J.; Vachon, David D.; Lynam, Donald R.

2009-01-01

389

Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations  

PubMed Central

It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

2007-01-01

390

Characteristics of pesticide pyrotechnic smoke devices.  

PubMed

Pesticide smoke generating products are widely used by amateurs and professionals but there is little published information available about their burn and deposition characteristics to enable the risks associated with using these devices to be assessed. This paper investigates their burn characteristics, deposition patterns, pesticide air concentrations and potential exposure to operators. Thirteen firings were carried out in different spaces with different ventilation conditions. Three types of devices were investigated: dicloran, permethrin and red dye. Pesticide air concentrations increased after firing, reaching a maximum determined by the room volume in approximately 10 min and decreasing exponentially as a result of ventilation and deposition. Ejected pesticide was present in the aerosol phase but there were only occasional traces of vapour. Settlement of pesticide was affected by surface orientation, height, sampling material and the pesticide-to-space volume ratio. The manufacturer's recommended treatment period for dicloran of 4 h followed by half an hour of ventilation may be insufficient to reduce pesticide to safe levels for re-entry under very calm conditions. PMID:16984945

Roff, M W; Griffiths, L K; Gobeau, N; Johnson, P D; Pickering, D; Rimmer, D A; Saunders, C J; Wheeler, J P

2006-10-01

391

Habitat availability and animal community characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

1984-12-01

392

Assessment of wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in Taiwan have been thoughtfully analyzed based on a long-term measured data source (1961–1999) of hourly mean wind speed at 25 meteorological stations across Taiwan. A two-stage procedure for estimating wind resource is proposed. The yearly wind speed distribution and wind power density for the entire Taiwan is firstly evaluated to provide annually spatial

Tsang-Jung Chang; Yu-Ting Wu; Hua-Yi Hsu; Chia-Ren Chu; Chun-Min Liao

2003-01-01

393

X-Autosome translocations: Cytogenetic characteristics and their consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define the principal characteristics of X-autosome translocations, the authors present a study of 105 cases, five of which are personal observations. The autosomal pairs 15, 21, and 22 are affected by t(X-Aut) more often than would be expected. The distribution of breakpoints on the X chromosome does not differ significantly from the expected distribution. The analysis of different patterns

M. G. Mattei; J. F. Mattei; S. Ayme; F. Giraud

1982-01-01

394

The Characteristics and Motivations Behind Female Prison Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the topic of consensual same-sex sexual activities within female prisons has been sparse in sociological and correctional literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics and motivations which affect a female inmate's decision to engage in same-sex sexual activity. The most significant and salient variables associated with the same-sex sexual activity among female inmates

Christopher Hensley; Richard Tewksbury; Mary Koscheski

2002-01-01

395

Oxidation characteristics of molybdenum-zirconium oxide cermets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxidation of molybdenum is affected by the factors of temperature, the oxygen pressure in the oxidizing atmosphere, and the time of exposure. Studies of the oxidation characteristics of Mo show that the oxidation rate increases strongly when the temperature exceeds 600 C. Investigations of the behavior of cermets with various percentages of zirconium oxide are discussed, taking into account oxidation conditions at temperatures under and above the melting point of molybdenum trioxide.

Heitzinger, B.

1984-01-01

396

Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

2014-01-01

397

The Physical Characteristics of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

398

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

399

Job characteristics, work commitments, and job satisfaction of the Thai workers in Taiwan's construction industry: Taiwan - using type A and B personalities as moderators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the variables of job characteristics, work commitments and job satisfaction. We studied 400 Thai employees in Taiwan. AB people are moderators, and that Type A people are easily irritated, highly competitive, and are always in a hurry. Job characteristics do not affect job satisfaction, but work commitments affect job satisfaction.

PeiWen Liao; FurHsing Wen; Chin-Cheh Yu

2010-01-01

400

The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

401

Mitochondrial disorders affecting the nervous system.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial diseases are multiorgan system disorders and the brain is the most commonly affected organ. The high-energy requirement of the brain leaves it vulnerable to energy failure. All components of the neuraxis including muscle, the neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, spinal cord, and brain can be affected. Genetic mitochondrial disease can be caused by nuclear gene defects and mitochondrial DNA defects. Mitochondrial medicine is rapidly expanding as exome and mtDNA sequencing is identifying new gene defects on a daily basis. This review will focus on primary genetic mitochondrial diseases that impair energy production and affect the nervous system, pathophysiology of disease, classical phenotypes, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:25192510

Haas, R H; Zolkipli, Z

2014-07-01

402

Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model of affective aggression was used to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures.Experiment 1 examined hot temperatureeffectson hostileaffect, hostilecognition,perceived arousal, and physiological arousal in the context of a study of video games. Experiment 2 examined hot temperature effects on hostile affect, perceived and physiological arousal, and general positive and negative affect in the context of briefaerobicexercise. Consistent results were

Craig A. Anderson; William E. Deuser; K. M. DeNeve

1995-01-01

403

Speech characteristics associated with three genotypes of ataxia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Advances in neurobiology are providing new opportunities to investigate the neurological systems underlying motor speech control. This study explores the perceptual characteristics of the speech of three genotypes of spino-cerebellar ataxia (SCA) as manifest in four different speech tasks. Methods Speech samples from 26 speakers with SCA were perceptually rated by experienced listeners. The genotypes were: SCA1, SCA5, or SCA6. The speech tasks were: diadochokinesis, word repetition, sentence reading, and picture description. The speech samples were rated using two sets of dimensions characterized as primary (e.g., articulation, rate, and rhythm) or secondary (e.g., imprecise consonants, excess and equal stress, and harsh voice). Results On primary dimensions, SCA6 was the most impaired generally. Articulation was the most severely affected dimension and the diadochokinesis task was most effective in revealing speech impairments. On secondary dimensions, picture description was the task most likely to produce abnormal speech. The SCA groups shared articulatory problems but differed with respect to abnormal voice features. Conclusions These results support previous characterizations of ataxic dysarthria, and provide further information about the speech characteristics of genetic subtypes. Task demands affect perceptual ratings. Voice characteristics may be key to differentiating ataxic subtypes. As the genetic disorders that affect speech become better understood, more detailed characterizations of motor control systems should emerge. PMID:21592489

Sidtis, John J.; Ahn, Ji Sook; Gomez, Christopher; Sidtis, Diana

2011-01-01

404

Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics  

E-print Network

of vulnerability #12;Substance abuse: Links " Conflict with parents and family problems " Impulsivity " StressHealth-Compromising Behaviors characteristics substance abuse and dependence ­ opponent process theory ­ incentive salience ­ frontal executive effects alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12

Meagher, Mary

405

Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics  

E-print Network

Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics substance abuse and dependence ­ opponent process Behaviors develop gradually rather than being acquired "all at once" Substance abuse of all kinds;Substance abuse: Links Conflict with parents and family problems Impulsivity Stress Seems

Meagher, Mary

406

Concrete Pavements Surface Characteristics Program  

E-print Network

.E. Structural Faulting, fatigue cracking Material ASR, D-cracking Functional (Surface Characteristics) Friction friction as a function of speed ­ ASTM E 1911 Measures wet friction on small rubber pads which slow from 50

407

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2014-07-01

409

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2011-07-01

411

40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT §...

2013-07-01

412

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

413

How Will Cancer Affect My Sex Life?  

MedlinePLUS

... all of this? How will cancer affect my sex life? Sexual feelings and attitudes vary greatly among ... Others find that they have less interest in sex because of the physical and emotional demands of ...

414

The affective domain in medical technology education.  

PubMed

Evaluation of medical technology students often deemphasizes the affective behavioral domain. The intangible dimensions of the domain and its subsequent difficulties in measurement have been offered as rationales for this lack of curricular emphasis. The work of Klopfer and others in science education constitute a resource from which to construct an affective table of specifications for medical technology students. The Krathwohl taxonomy permits quantifications of these goals. Some techniques for such measurement (open-ended approaches, checklists, Likert scales, and semantic differentials) are reviewed. Finally, the nature of the interface between the affective and cognitive domains is analyzed. The clinical laboratory sciences educator functions as a nonverbal as well as a verbal affective role model for his/her students. This paper emphasizes the responsibility of the educator in creating flexible student assessment approaches in the domain. PMID:7424956

Dietrich, M C

1980-08-01

415

Cognitive and Affective Control in Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Insomnia is a prevalent disabling chronic disorder. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (a) to review evidence suggesting that dysfunctional forms of cognitive control, such as thought suppression, worry, rumination, and imagery control, are associated with sleep disturbance; (b) to review a new budding field of scientific investigation – the role of dysfunctional affect control in sleep disturbance, such as problems with down-regulating negative and positive affective states; (c) to review evidence that sleep disturbance can impair next-day affect control; and (d) to outline, on the basis of the reviewed evidence, how the repetitive-thought literature and the affective science literature can be combined to further understanding of, and intervention for, insomnia. PMID:22162971

Schmidt, Ralph E.; Harvey, Allison G.; Van der Linden, Martial

2011-01-01

416

Beyond usability -- affect in web browsing  

E-print Network

This research concentrates on the visual aesthetics of a website, investigating the web user's affective/emotional reactions to different designs of web homepage aesthetics and their influence on subsequent behaviors of web users. Drawing...

Deng, Liqiong

2009-06-02

417

An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Glenn Soltes

2012-06-28

418

Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Does PCOS affect pregnancy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Women with PCOS are at higher risk for certain problems or ...

419

Dad's Depression Affects Toddler's Behavior, Too  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dad's Depression Affects Toddler's Behavior, Too Study found a father's ... 18, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Men's Health Postpartum Depression Toddler Development WEDNESDAY, March 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

420

Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

421

Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children  

E-print Network

) (Diamond, 1988; Goldman-Rakic, 1987). Although these findings indicate that socioeconomic disparitiesSocioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children Mark M. Kishiyama1 , W. Thomas measures of prefrontal function. However, the influence of socioeconomic disparity on direct measures

Knight, Robert T.

422

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

423

Management Practices Affect Production and Profitability  

E-print Network

, and a pharmaceutical company. The program was developed to improve profitability and sustainability of beef cowManagement Practices Affect Production and Profitability Historically, the level of net returns

424

Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Will stress during pregnancy affect my baby? Skip sharing on ... health care provider during your prenatal visits. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Pregnancy PTSD is a more ...

425

Polarized light transmission characteristics in smoke indoor test scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the polarized light is used in polarization imaging and detection in complex environment, turbid atmosphere under the harsh conditions. Polarized light in the transmission process is affected by smoke composition, the uneven distribution of concentration, particle shape,particle refractive index and other aspects of the causes of polarized light transmission, and the degree of polarization and polarization parameters change. The polarized light research is single on theory study, the experiment equipment simulating environment is not conducive to the transmission characteristics of quantitative study of polarized light in smoke environment. This paper from the research and simulation of smoke device, the device uesd the temperature and humidity adjusting device to control the generation of water mist, to simulate the natural environment in the haze environment, and use of particle size instrument and concentration detection device real-time monitoring test . Polarized light transmission characteristics in the test program and its influencing factors, which can provide reference of polarized light for the transmission characteristics.

Liu, Boyu; Fu, Qiang; Duan, Jing

2014-11-01

426

Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  

PubMed

Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G

1982-01-01

427

Cyanobacterial Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinity has been an important historical factor which has influenced the life span of agricultural systems. Around 10% of\\u000a the total cropped land surface is covered with different types of salt-affected soils and the Asian continent accounts for\\u000a the largest area affected by the salinity of various intensities. Cyanobacteria are capable of not only surviving, but thriving\\u000a in conditions which

Nirbhay Kumar Singh; Dolly Wattal Dhar

428

Does Early Psychosocial Stress Affect Mate Choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early psychosocial stress (e.g., parental divorce, abuse) is conjectured to place individuals on a developmental trajectory\\u000a leading to earlier initiation of sexual activity, earlier reproduction, and having more sex partners than those with less\\u000a early psychosocial stress. But does it also affect an individual’s mate choice? The present study examined whether early psychosocial\\u000a stress affects preferences and dislikes for opposite-sex

Nicole Koehler; James S. Chisholm

2009-01-01

429

Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self.  

PubMed

This study examines whether the cognitive and affective components of self-reflection can be dissociated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a simple paradigm in which subjects judged the personal relevance of personality characteristics that were either favorable (e.g., "honest") or unfavorable (e.g., "lazy", we found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and emotional aspects of self-reflection. The medial prefrontal cortex responded only to material that was self-descriptive, and this did not differ as a function of the valence of the trait. When material was judged to be self-relevant, the valence of the material was resolved in an adjacent region of ventral anterior cingulate. The nature of self is one of the most enduring questions in science, and researchers are now beginning to be able to decompose the neural operations that give rise to a unitary sense of self. PMID:16989558

Moran, J M; Macrae, C N; Heatherton, T F; Wyland, C L; Kelley, W M

2006-09-01

430

Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview  

SciTech Connect

In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

Not Available

1990-01-01

431

Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

2012-01-01

432

Affect is greater than, not equal to, condition: condition and person effects in affective priming paradigms.  

PubMed

Affective primes may impact ensuing behavior through condition and person effects. However, previous research has not experimentally disentangled these two sources of influence in affective priming paradigms. In the current research, we simultaneously examine the influence of condition factors, in terms of prime valence, and person factors, in terms of affect reactivity and personality. In both studies, undergraduate participants (total N?=?174) were primed with either positive or negative affective stimuli (words, Study 1; pictures, Study 2) prior to judging the likability of a neutral target (Arabic characters, Study 1; inkblots, Study 2). Although we did observe between-condition differences for positive and negative primes, person-level effects were more consistent predictors of target ratings. Affect reactivity (affect Time 2, controlling Time 1) to the primes predicted evaluative judgments, even in the absence of condition effects. In addition, the personality traits of Neuroticism (Study 1) and behavioral inhibition system sensitivity (Study 2) predicted evaluative judgments of neutral targets following negative affective primes. With effects for condition, affect reactivity, and personality, our results suggest that affective primes influence ensuing behaviors through both informational and affective means. Research using affective priming methodologies should take into account both condition and person-level effects. PMID:23253181

Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Elliot, Andrew J

2013-08-01

433

Striving to Feel Good: Ideal Affect, Actual Affect, and Their Correspondence Across Adulthood  

PubMed Central

The experience of positive affect is essential for healthy functioning and quality of life. Although there is a great deal of research on ways in which people regulate negative states, little is known about the regulation of positive states. In the present study we examined age differences in the types of positive states people strive to experience and the correspondence between their desired and actual experiences. Adults aged 18–93 years of age described their ideal positive affect states. Then, using experience-sampling over a seven-day period, they reported their actual positive affect experiences. Two types of positive affect were assessed: low-arousal (calm, peaceful, relaxed) and high-arousal (excited, proud). Young participants valued both types of positive affect equally. Older participants, however, showed increasingly clear preferences for low-arousal over high-arousal positive affect. Older adults reached both types of positive affective goals more often than younger adults (indicated by a smaller discrepancy between actual and ideal affect). Moreover, meeting ideal levels of positive low-arousal affect (though not positive high-arousal affect) was associated with individuals’ physical health, over and above levels of actual affect. Findings underscore the importance of considering age differences in emotion-regulatory goals related to positive experience. PMID:23106153

Scheibe, Susanne; English, Tammy; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Carstensen, Laura L.

2013-01-01

434

Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.  

PubMed

The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

2004-10-01

435

EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

436

Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk.  

PubMed

Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

2015-01-01

437

Habitat degradation may affect niche segregation patterns in lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lizards partition resources in three main niche dimensions: time, space and food. Activity time and microhabitat use are strongly influenced by thermal environment, and may differ between species according to thermal requirements and tolerance. As thermal characteristics are influenced by habitat structure, microhabitat use and activity of lizards can change in disturbed habitats. We compared activity and microhabitat use of two abundant lizard species of the Semi-arid Chaco of Argentina between a restored and a highly degraded Chaco forest, to determine how habitat degradation affects lizard segregation in time and space, hypothesizing that as activity and microhabitat use of lizards are related to habitat structure, activity and microhabitat use of individual species can be altered in degraded habitats, thus changing segregation patterns between them. Activity changed from an overlapped pattern in a restored forest to a segregated pattern in a degraded forest. A similar trend was observed for microhabitat use, although to a less extent. No correlation was found between air temperature and lizard activity, but lizard activity varied along the day and among sites. Contrary to what was believed, activity patterns of neotropical diurnal lizards are not fixed, but affected by multiple factors related to habitat structure and possibly to interspecific interactions. Changes in activity patterns and microhabitat use in degraded forests may have important implications when analyzing the effects of climate change on lizard species, due to synergistic effects.

Pelegrin, N.; Chani, J. M.; Echevarria, A. L.; Bucher, E. H.

2013-08-01

438

Does antiepileptogenesis affect sleep in genetic epileptic rats?  

PubMed

Recently it was established that early long lasting treatment with the anti-absence drug ethosuximide (ETX) delays the occurrence of absences and reduces depressive-like symptoms in a genetic model for absence epilepsy, rats of the WAG/Rij strain. Here it is investigated whether anti-epileptogenesis (chronic treatments with ETX for 2 and 4 months) affects REM sleep in this model. Four groups of weaned male WAG/Rij rats were treated with ETX for 4 months, two groups for 2 months (at 2-3 and 4-5 months of age), the fourth group was untreated. Next, the rats were recorded 6 days after the last day of the treatment for 22.5 h. Non-REM sleep and REM sleep parameters and delta power were analyzed in four characteristic and representative hours of the recoding period. Four months treatment with ETX reduced the amount of REM sleep and REM sleep as percentage of total sleep time. Other sleep parameters were not affected by the treatment. Clear differences between the various hours of the light-dark phase in amounts of non-REM and REM sleep and delta power were found, in line with commonly reported circadian sleep patterns. It can be concluded that the reduction of REM sleep is unique for the early and long lasting chronic treatment. The outcomes may explain our earlier finding that a reduction of REM sleep might alleviate depressive like symptoms. PMID:21946343

van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Wilde, Matthias; Citraro, Rita; Scicchitano, Francesca; van Rijn, Clementina

2012-07-01

439

Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

2011-01-01

440

Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk  

PubMed Central

Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

2015-01-01

441

EEG-based workload estimation across affective contexts  

PubMed Central

Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG) offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human–computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood), has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful) while the participant solved a task with two workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain–computer interfaces in general. PMID:24971046

Mühl, Christian; Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien

2014-01-01

442

The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective. Neurological dysfunction commonly occurs in the upper limb contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain in which stroke occurs; however, the impact of stroke on function of the ipsilesional upper limb is not well understood. This study aims to systematically review the literature relating to the function of the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke and answer the following research question: Is the ipsilesional upper limb affected by stroke? Data Source. A systematic review was carried out in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. Review Methods. All studies investigating the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke were included and analysed for important characteristics. Outcomes were extracted and summarised. Results. This review captured 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies provided evidence that the ipsilesional upper limb can be affected following stroke. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that clinicians should consider ipsilesional upper limb deficits in rehabilitation and address this reduced functional capacity. Furthermore, the ipsilesional upper limb should not be used as a “control” measure of recovery for the contralateral upper limb. PMID:24379748

Kitsos, Gemma H.; Hubbard, Isobel J.; Kitsos, Alex R.; Parsons, Mark W.

2013-01-01

443

Low-Flow Characteristics and Regionalization of Low-Flow Characteristics for Selected Streams in Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water use in Arkansas has increased dramatically in recent years. Since 1990, the use of water for all purposes except power generation has increased 53 percent (4,004 cubic feet per second in 1990 to 6,113 cubic feet per second in 2005). The biggest users are agriculture (90 percent), municipal water supply (4 percent) and industrial supply (2 percent). As the population of the State continues to grow, so does the demand for the State's water resources. The low-flow characteristics of a stream ultimately affect its utilization by humans. Specific information on the low-flow characteristics of streams is essential to State water-management agencies such as the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, and the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission when dealing with problems related to irrigation, municipal and industrial water supplies, fish and wildlife conservation, and dilution of waste. Low-flow frequency data are of particular value to management agencies responsible for the development and management of the State's water resources. This report contains the low-flow characteristics for 70 active continuous-streamflow record gaging stations, 59 inactive continuous-streamflow record stations, and 101 partial-record gaging stations. These characteristics are the annual 7-day, 10-year low flow and the annual 7-day, 2-year low flow, and the seasonal, bimonthly, and monthly 7-day, 10-year low flow for the 129 active and inactive continuous-streamflow record and 101 partial-record gaging stations. Low-flow characteristics were computed on the basis of streamflow data for the period of record through September 2005 for the continuous-streamflow record and partial-record streamflow gaging stations. The low-flow characteristics of these continuous- and partial-record streamflow gaging stations were utilized in a regional regression analysis to produce equations for estimating the annual, seasonal, bimonthly, and monthly (November through April) 7-day, 10-year low flows and the annual 7-day, 2-year low flow for ungaged streams in the western two-thirds of Arkansas.

Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken; Moix, Matthew W.

2008-01-01

444

Affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P; Blanchard, Jack J; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F

2008-09-01

445

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

446

Affective coding: the emotional dimension of agency  

PubMed Central

The sense of agency (SoA) (i.e., the registration that I am the initiator and controller of my actions and relevant events) is associated with several affective dimensions. This makes it surprising that the emotion factor has been largely neglected in the field of agency research. Current empirical investigations of the SoA mainly focus on sensorimotor signals (i.e., efference copy) and cognitive cues (i.e., intentions, beliefs) and on how they are integrated. Here we argue that this picture is not sufficient to explain agency experience, since agency and emotions constantly interact in our daily life by several ways. Reviewing first recent empirical evidence, we show that self-action perception is in fact modulated by the affective valence of outcomes already at the sensorimotor level. We hypothesize that the “affective coding” between agency and action outcomes plays an essential role in agency processing, i.e., the prospective, immediate or retrospective shaping of agency representations by affective components. This affective coding of agency be differentially altered in various neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g., schizophrenia vs. depression), thus helping to explain the dysfunctions and content of agency experiences in these diseases. PMID:25161616

Gentsch, Antje; Synofzik, Matthis

2014-01-01

447

Dynamic musical communication of core affect.  

PubMed

Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified "scene" that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

Flaig, Nicole K; Large, Edward W

2014-01-01

448

Dynamic musical communication of core affect  

PubMed Central

Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified “scene” that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

Flaig, Nicole K.; Large, Edward W.

2013-01-01

449

Are both the sensory and the affective dimensions of pain encoded in the face?  

PubMed

The facial expression of pain plays a crucial role in pain communication and pain diagnostics. Despite its importance, it has remained unknown which dimensions of pain (sensory and/or affective) are encoded in the face. To answer this question, we used a well-established cognitive strategy (suggestions) to differentially modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain and investigate the effect of this manipulation on facial responses to experimental pain. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study. Their facial expressions, pain intensity, and unpleasantness ratings as well as skin conductance responses to tonic and phasic heat pain were assessed before and after suggestions directed toward increase in affective and sensory qualities of pain, respectively, were provided. Facial expressions were analyzed with the Facial Action Coding system. As expected, suggestions designed to increase the sensory dimension produced a selective increase in pain intensity ratings, whereas suggestions designed to increase pain affect produced increased unpleasantness ratings and elevated skin conductance responses. Furthermore, suggestions for either increased pain affect or pain sensation produced selective modulations in facial response patterns, with facial movements around the eyes mostly encoding sensory aspects, whereas movements of the eyebrows and of the upper lip were closely associated with the affective pain dimension. The facial expression of pain is a multidimensional response system that differentially encodes affective and sensory pain qualities. This differential encoding might have evolved to guarantee that the specific characteristics of one's pain experience are facially communicated, thereby ensuring adequate help and support from others. PMID:22112930

Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan; LeBlanc, Nadine; Rainville, Pierre

2012-02-01

450

Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.  

PubMed

In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds. PMID:18567253

Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

2008-06-01

451

30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.99 Section... § 7.99 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected...adjustments. (h) Material and dimensions of...

2011-07-01

452

30 CFR 7.405 - Critical characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Critical characteristics. 7.405 Section...7.405 Critical characteristics. (a) A sample...b) A sample of the materials that contribute to the flame-resistant characteristic of the cable or...

2010-07-01

453

30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Critical characteristics 7.45 Section 7... § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected...resistance of insulating material. (c) Size and...

2011-07-01

454

30 CFR 7.405 - Critical characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Critical characteristics. 7.405 Section...7.405 Critical characteristics. (a) A sample...b) A sample of the materials that contribute to the flame-resistant characteristic of the cable or...

2011-07-01

455

30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics 7.45 Section 7... § 7.45 Critical characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected...resistance of insulating material. (c) Size and...

2010-07-01

456

30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.99 Section... § 7.99 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected...adjustments. (h) Material and dimensions of...

2010-07-01

457

Temperamental characteristics in childhood migraine without aura: a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background Children with migraine seem to be more anxious, sensitive, deliberate, cautious, fearful, vulnerable to frustration, tidy, and less physically enduring than comparisons. To the best our knowledge no studies about the temperamental and the characterial dimension aspects in childhood migraine was conducted. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the temperamental and character aspects in a sample of children affected by migraine without aura (MoA) and their relationship with clinical aspects of MoA such as frequency, duration, and severity of attacks. Materials and methods In our study, 486 children affected by MoA (239 male, 247 female) aged 7–12 years, (mean 10.04 ± 2.53 years) and 518 typical developing children comparable for age (P = 0.227) and sex (P = 0.892) were enrolled to assess their temperamental characteristics. The mothers of all subjects filled out the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory: Parent Version. Results Children affected by migraine show a higher prevalence of harm avoidance and persistence temperamental domains (P < 0.001) and significantly lower prevalence of the self-directedness character trait (P = 0.023) with respect to the comparisons, according to Cloninger’s model. The Spearman rank correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between migraine characteristics and temperamental domains. Conclusion The present study first identified differences in temperamental characteristics in children affected by MoA with respect to the comparisons, suggesting the need for this evaluation in order for better psychological pediatric management of children with migraine, with possible consequences and impact on the future outcomes of these subjects. PMID:23983467

Esposito, Maria; Marotta, Rosa; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Roccella, Michele; Carotenuto, Marco

2013-01-01

458

Numerical evaluation of blood viscosity affecting pulse wave propagation in a fluid-structure interaction model.  

PubMed

Abstract High blood viscosity often causes cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. It is proven that blood viscosity plays an important role in cardiovascular functions. In this paper, pulse wave characteristics with normal and high blood viscosities are presented in detail to evaluate how blood viscosity affects pulse wave propagation. A fluid-structure interaction is employed to solve for pulse wave characteristics. The results show that increased blood viscosity does not change the time delay of wave propagation. However, high viscosity reduces the velocity amplitude, while it enhances the pressure level. This study provides physical insight for evaluating blood viscosity leading potentially to pulse wave changes. PMID:25720033

He, Fan; Hua, Lu; Gao, Li-Jian

2015-02-01

459

Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

2014-01-01

460

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

Bjornebekk, Gunnar

2008-01-01

461

The analytical method of characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines applications of the analytical method of characteristics to wave propagation phenomena in fluid dynamics, with emphasis on unsteady flows. The applications include unsteady one-dimensional flows, weak shocks, one-dimensional simple waves, the propagation of plane sound waves through an elastically embedded rigid wall, one-dimensional interacting waves in gases, plane finite-amplitude waves in homogeneous elastic solids, spherical and cylindrical sound waves, transonic flows, and short waves in dissipative systems. Consideration is also given to comparison with other perturbation techniques, generalization of the method to three-dimensional flows, and combination of the analytical method of characteristics and the method of multiple scales.

Kluwick, A.

462

Satellite physical and orbital characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps sixty satellites received sufficient tracking to warrant their consideration for inclusion in the current gravity field development activities underway for TOPEX. These objects vary in size, shape, and in their orbital history -- and in the information available concerning any and all of these characteristics. An attempt to obtain initial information on the satellite physical characteristics and the overall size of nongravitational perturbations for each of the satellites under consideration. Atmospheric drag perturbations were modeled and a solution for zonal harmonics was made. Calibrated area-to-mass ratios and estimates of nonconservative force accelerations are tabulated.

Klosko, S. M.

1985-01-01

463

Acoustic metamaterial with controllable directivity and dispersion characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current acoustic metamaterials are developed only with controllable directivity characteristics of wave propagation. The wave speed usually remains unaffected. This limits considerably the potential use of acoustic metamaterials in many critical military and civilian applications. In the present work, an attempt is presented for developing a class of acoustic metamaterials that have controllable directivity and dispersion characteristics. Such metamaterials are developed using a linear coordinate transformation of the acoustic domain to achieve the directivity control capabilities. The transformation is augmented with an additional degree of freedom to simultaneously control the dispersion characteristics. With such capabilities, the proposed acoustic metamaterials will be capable of controlling the wave propagation both in the spatial and spectral domains. The proposed control approach affects the density tensor of the acoustic metamaterials. The theory governing the design of this class of acoustic metamaterials is introduced and the parameters that control the tuning of the directivity and dispersion characteristics are presented in details. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the potential capabilities of this class of metmaterials. The proposed design approach of acoustic metamaterials with tunable wave propagation characteristics can be invaluable means for the design of many critical military and civilian applications.

Akl, W.; Smoker, J.; Baz, A.

2011-03-01

464

On the affective force of "nasty love".  

PubMed

Tackling the mimetic logic of sex-gender that limits the transsexual subject's sexuality into seeming a poor representation, the author argues that trans pornography and autoethnographic accounts from trans scholars emphasize the affective dimension of trans sex, a material remainder absent from mimetic theories of sexuality. Developing concepts from Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, in tandem with Morty Diamond's film Trans Entities: The Nasty Love of Papí and Wil (2007) and a selection of trans theorists, this article elaborates on the horizon of affective potential opened by transgender, brown, kinky, and pornographic "nastiness." The event of "nasty love" solicits a differential becoming, growing the edge of self. PMID:24294885

Steinbock, Eliza

2014-01-01

465

Assessing affective variability in eating disorders: affect spins less in anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type.  

PubMed

Differences in affective variability in eating disorders are examined using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. It is hypothesized that restriction serves to pre-empt the activation of affect whereas bulimic behavior serves to cope with overwhelming affect once activated. Therefore, we expect anorexia nervosa (AN) patients of the restricting type (AN-RT) to have lower mean levels of affect and less affective variability than Bulimia Nervosa (BN) patients. Patients' successive affective states over time are represented as different positions in a two-dimensional space defined by the orthogonal dimensions of valence and activation. Affective variability is measured by the within person variance and the new concepts of pulse and spin. Results of this exploratory study suggest that the diagnostic groups have the same mean levels of affect but affect spins less in patients with AN-RT. Using an EMA protocol and measures like pulse and spin may reveal insights in eating disorders that remain hidden with more traditional assessment methods. PMID:23910763

Vansteelandt, Kristof; Probst, Michel; Pieters, Guido

2013-08-01

466

Electrophysiological characteristics of task-specific tremor in 22 instrumentalists.  

PubMed

Our aim was to address three characteristics of task-specific tremor in musicians (TSTM): First, we quantified muscular activity of flexor and extensor muscles, of coactivation as well as tremor acceleration. Second, we compared muscular activity between task-dependent and position-dependent tremor. Third, we investigated, whether there is an overflow of muscular activity to muscles adjacent to the affected muscles in TSTM. Tremor acceleration and muscular activity were measured in the affected muscles and the muscles adjacent to the affected muscles in 22 patients aged 51.5 ± 11.4 years with a task-specific tremor. We assessed power of muscular oscillatory activity and calculated the coherence between EMG activity of affected muscles and tremor acceleration as well as between adjacent muscles and tremor acceleration. This was done for task-dependent and position-dependent tremor. We found the highest power and coherence of muscular oscillatory activity in the frequency range of 3-8 Hz for affected and adjacent muscles. No difference was found between task-dependent and position-dependent tremor in neither power nor coherence measures. Our results generalize previous results of a relation between coactivation and tremor among a variety of musicians. Furthermore, we found coherence of adjacent muscles and TSTM. This indicates that overflow exists in TSTM and suggests an association of TST with dystonia. PMID:25056709

Lee, André; Tominaga, Kenta; Furuya, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Fumio; Altenmüller, Eckart

2015-03-01

467

CHARACTERISTIC POLYHEDRA OF SINGULARITIES WITHOUT COMPLETION  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISTIC POLYHEDRA OF SINGULARITIES WITHOUT COMPLETION Vincent COSSART and Olivier PILTANT POLYHEDRON OF f In this section, we briefly survey known material on F-subsets, characteristic polyhedra

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to wildfire behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during wildfires (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting wildfire research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for wildfire PyC. Here, we study relationships between wildfire behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced wildfire conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and wildfire conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared to the unburned forest floor, PyC production for this fuel component may have important implications for carbon sequestration and fluxes in boreal forest. In addition, the relationships found here between PyC quality and wildfire conditions could provide the first insights into effects of wildfire behaviour, and its potential variations with climate change, on C sequestration in the boreal ecosystem via PyC production.

Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin

2014-05-01

469

Downbeat nystagmus: characteristics and localization of lesions.  

PubMed Central

Clinical examinations and eye movement recordings of 91 consecutive patients with DBN were analyzed to describe the characteristics of DBN and to localize the lesions producing this abnormality. Horizontal and vertical eye movement recordings were made with EOG and/or magnetic search coil. The most frequent causes were infarction, cerebellar and spinocerebellar degeneration syndromes, MS and developmental anomalies affecting the pons and cerebellum. Toxicity from anticonvulsant drugs probably caused nystagmus in a few patients. Clinical examinations, excluding electronic eye movement recordings, were used to localize lesions. Localizations included the cerebellum in 88% of the patients. However, localizations to structures outside of the cerebellum were made in several patients. The effects of DBN of gaze position, convergence, blockage of fixation, and positioning of the head and body were observed. Almost all patients had DBN in some position of gaze while sitting and fixating a distant target. A few patients demonstrated DBN only with convergence, in the dark, or with positioning of the head and body. Horizontal gaze increased DBN in most patients. The nystagmus slow components usually had constant-velocity or increasing-velocity waveforms. The effects of vertical gaze on DBN were variable. In general, statistically significant differences in the frequencies of these effects among the various causes and localizations of lesions were not found. Horizontal eye movements were electronically recorded in DBN patients, in a group of normal subjects, and in a group of patients with isolated cerebellar atrophy who did not have DBN. The pattern of abnormal horizontal eye movements characteristic of damage to the midline structures of the cerebellum (impaired pursuit, impaired OKN, and inability to suppress VOR) was found in almost all DBN patients (99%), including patients with lesions localized to structures outside the cerebellum by clinical examination. DBN is usually produced by lesions in the cerebellum that also damage pathways that control horizontal tracking and visual-vestibulo-ocular interactions. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 PMID:2562537

Yee, R D

1989-01-01

470

Discharge characteristics of four highway drainage systems in Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excessive water in the subbase of high-way combined with large traffic volumes and heavy loads is a major cause of road deterioration. Prompt removal of any excess water in a subbase will decrease the road deterioration and extend the effective life of a highway. This study presents discharge characteristics of four highway subbase drainage systems. These systems consisted of shallow, longitudal trenches with geocomposite drain materials (edge drains made from a polyethylene core surrounded by a geotextile filter fabric) that underline the joint between the shoulder and the traffic lane of State Route 16, approximately 1.0 mile southeast of Granville, Ohio. For selected rainfall-runoff events the maximum discharge, discharge characteristics from April 1991 through November 1993 were computed for three geocomposite products- a post type, an oblong-pipe type, and a cusp type-and a conventional perforated pipe edge drain. In general, the discharge characteristics of the conventional edge drain and that of the oblong-pipe edge drain were similar for most of the rainfall-runoff event characteristics. Both produced most of the highest maximum discharges and largest discharge volumes among the four longitudal edge drains. The post edge drain produced smaller maximum discharge and volumes than the conventional and oblong-pipe edge drains, but it had the shortest lag times for most of the event characteristics. The cusp edge drain produced small maximum discharges and small volumes similar to those from the post edge drain, but it had the longest lag times of all the edge drains for most of the event characteristics. The cusp edge drain may have also had some problems during installation which could have affected the discharge characteristics.

Straub, D.E.

1995-01-01

471

Mothers' Involvement in Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: The Role of Maternal Characteristics and Context-Based Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of a model of maternal characteristics in explaining mothers' involvement in the early intervention of their 1- to 7-year-old children with hearing loss. The model of maternal factors affecting mothers' involvement in intervention comprised (a) four personal characteristics conceived as exogenous variables…

Ingber, Sara; Al-Yagon, Michal; Dromi, Esther

2010-01-01

472

Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

Soby, Jeanette M.

473

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

474

Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on

T. A. A. Khalifa; C. A. Rekkas; A. G. Lymberopoulos; A. Sioga; I. Dimitriadis; Th. Papanikolaou

2008-01-01