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1

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. 1 Introduction

Cook, Di

2

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield  

E-print Network

Data Mining Soil Characteristics Affecting Corn Yield William F. Christensen and Di Cook Department and corn yield were measured in a field located in southeastern Boone County, Iowa. Measurements were made an understanding of the relationship between the soil characteristics and corn yield. Finally, spatial factor

Cook, Di

3

Multiple Sclerosis Affects Skeletal Muscle Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. Methods In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19) patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC). Hereafter a muscle biopsy (m.vastus lateralis) was taken. Results Compared to HC, mean muscle fiber CSA of all fibers, as well as CSA of type I, II and IIa fibers were smaller and muscle strength of the quadriceps was lower in MS patients. Whole body composition was comparable between groups. However, compared to HC, the biopsied leg tended to have a higher fat percentage (p?=?0.1) and a lower lean mass (p?=?0.06) in MS patients. Conclusion MS seems to negatively influence skeletal muscle fiber CSA, muscle strength and muscle mass of the lower limbs of mildly affected MS patients. This emphasises the need for rehabilitation programs focusing on muscle preservation of the lower limb. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:25264868

Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank; Krekels, Maartje; Grevendonk, Lotte; Eijnde, Bert O.

2014-01-01

4

Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation  

PubMed Central

The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

2014-01-01

5

Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation.  

PubMed

The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated. The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics. PMID:24725891

Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Park, Margriet V D Z; Gosens, Ilse; De Jong, Wim H; Cassee, Flemming R

2014-01-01

6

Do Entry Characteristics of Online Learners Affect Their Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed learner characteristics that affect satisfaction in an online certificate program under two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine relationships among selected variables (age, gender, educational level, and online course experience), learners' initial perceptions (online technology self-efficacy, online learning…

Yukselturk, Erman

2009-01-01

7

Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: Linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.  

PubMed

Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly. PMID:25592917

Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

2015-03-01

8

Factors affecting motion characteristics of frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Five experiments were conducted to evaluate damage incurred in each processing step for cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was centrifuged for 9 centrifugation times and the percentage of spermatozoa recovered after each treatment was calculated and spermatozoal motion characteristics analysed. Recovery of spermatozoa was > or = 80% when spermatozoa were centrifuged for > or = 10 min. Experiment 2 evaluated spermatozoa cryopreserved at 5 different concentrations in each of 2 extenders (skim milk-egg yolk-glycerol, SM-EYG; and lactose-EDTA, LAC). In SM-EYG, TMOT and PMOT were higher at spermatozoal concentrations of 20, 200 and 400 x 10(6)/ml (51%/41%, 52%/44%, 50%/43%, respectively) than for samples frozen at > or = 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml (41%/35%, 32%/27%; P < 0.05). Spermatozoa frozen in LAC at a concentration of 20 x 10(6)/ml resulted in the highest TMOT and PMOT (43% and 30%, respectively, P < 0.05). The effect of freezing rate on motion characteristics of spermatozoa was evaluated in Experiment 3. The VCL of spermatozoa frozen in SM-EYG was the only parameter affected by freezing rate (P < 0.05). Experiment 4 evaluated motion characteristics after cryopreservation of spermatozoa in different sized straws (0.5 or 2.5 ml) in each of 2 extenders (SM-EYG and LAC). In SM-EYG, PMOT (38%) and VCL (109 microns/s) were highest when spermatozoa were frozen in 0.5 ml straws (P < 0.05). In Experiment 5, spermatozoa thawed immediately after cryopreservation or thawed after storage in liquid nitrogen for 24-48 h were evaluated. There was no effect of length of storage in liquid nitrogen on spermatozoal motion characteristics (P < 0.05). Experiment 6 evaluated the effects of cooling time to 5 degrees C (0, 2.5 and 5 h) on motion characteristics of spermatozoa cryopreserved in 2 extenders (SM-EYG and LAC). TMOT and PMOT were effected by cooling time, and there was a cooling-time-by-extender interaction (P < 0.05). In SM-EYG, TMOT and PMOT were higher if spermatozoa were cooled to 5 degrees C prior to initiation of freezing than if freezing was initiated at 20 degrees C (P < 0.05). A suggested protocol for cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa would include: 1) centrifugation at 400 g for 14 to 16 min; 2) extension at 23 degrees C with SM-EYG to 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml; 3) cool to 5 degrees C for 2.5 h; 4) package in 0.5 ml straws at 5 degrees C; 5) freeze in liquid nitrogen vapour at -160 degrees C; and 6) thaw for 30 s in 37 degrees C water. PMID:8565953

Heitland, A V; Jasko, D J; Squires, E L; Graham, J K; Pickett, B W; Hamilton, C

1996-01-01

9

Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

2014-01-01

10

Characteristics of Nursing Homes that Affect Resident Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been increased interest in using outcomes as measures of quality, few studies have shown a link between structure or process and outcomes. In this analysis, based on approximately 2,500 residents in 80 nursing homes in Rhode Island, multivariate models estimate which aspects of care are associated with resident outcomes after controlling for resident characteristics. Outcomes, measured over

William D. Spector; Hitomi Adrianna Takada

1991-01-01

11

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence

Alan M Friedlander; James D Parrish

1998-01-01

12

Cognitive characteristics of seasonal affective disorder: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light therapy, the current treatment for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), does not help everyone suffering from SAD. This paper examines whether patients with SAD potentially might benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy by investigating whether they show a similar cognitive profile to those with non-seasonal depression for whom cognitive therapy has been shown to be effective. Ten subjects with SAD were

Sally Hodges; Melanie Marks

1998-01-01

13

Characteristics affecting fibrinolytic activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study to determine the extent to which the haemostatic system is implicated in the onset of clinically manifest ischaemic heart disease, characteristics influencing fibrinolytic activity (FA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were examined in 1601 men aged 18-64 and 707 women aged 18-59 in several occupational groups in North-west London. In men FA noticeably decreased till the

T W Meade; R Chakrabarti; A P Haines; W R North; Y Stirling

1979-01-01

14

Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence affecting transportation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on transportation structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically affected by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.

2009-01-01

15

Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence analysis, and associated with six major habitat types. Statistical differences were shown between a number of these habitat types for various ensemble variables of the fish assemblages. Overall, both for complete assemblages and for component major trophic and mobility guilds, these variables tended to have higher values where reef substratum was more structurally or topographically complex, and closer to reef edges. When study sites were separately divided into five depth strata, the deeper strata tended to have statistically higher values of ensemble variables for the fish assemblages. Patterns with depth varied among the various trophic and mobility guilds. Multiple linear regression models indicated that for the complete assemblages and for most trophic and mobility guilds, a large part of the variability for most ensemble variables was explained by measures of holes in the substratum, with important contributions from measured substratum rugosity and depth. A strong linear relationship found by regression of mean fish length on mean volume of holes in the reef surface emphasized the importance of shelter for fish assemblages. Results of this study may have practical applications in designing reserve areas as well as theoretical value in helping to explain the organization of reef fish assemblages.

Friedlander, A.M.; Parrish, J.D.

1998-01-01

16

Spectral reflectance characteristics of salt-affected arid soils of Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral reflectance characteristics of different types of natural and anthropogenic salt-affected soils have been studied\\u000a under field conditions. The spectral reflectance value for non-saline and all types of salt-affected soils was maximum in\\u000a near infra red region (800–1000 nm). The natural salt-affected soils having surface salt encrustation showed highest reflectance\\u000a value followed by the sodic soils (formed due to

N. K. Kalra; D. C. Joshi

1994-01-01

17

Metal contents in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) as affected by soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake by plants is a potential pathway of metal transfer to the human food-chain. A correct quantification critically affects the outcome of environmental risk assessment. Using data of soils and plants ( Urtica dioica L.) from 382 locations north-east of Ghent, the relation between soil characteristics (clay content, organic carbon content, CEC, soil pH and total metal content) and plant

F. M. Tack; M. G. Verloo

1996-01-01

18

Short communication Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and affective disorders with relation to some specific demographical and clinical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographical and clinical characteristics have been reported to modulate the risk for suicide. This study analysed demographical and clinical characteristics with respect to lifetime suicide attempts in 500 individuals affected with schizophrenic or affective disorders. Suicide attempts were associated with poor premorbid social adjustment, low age at onset, low scores on the \\

Daniel J. Müller; Katrin Barkow; Svetlana Kovalenko; Stephanie Ohlraun; Heiner Fangerau; Heike Kölsch; Matthias R. Lemke; Tilo Held; Markus M. Nöthen; Wofgang Maier; Reinhard Heun; Marcella Rietschel

19

The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1  

PubMed Central

Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

20

Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.  

PubMed

Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

2010-07-01

21

The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

2014-01-10

22

Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-11-01

23

Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.  

PubMed

The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other. PMID:24885468

Davis-Delano, Laurel R

2014-01-01

24

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) are a common bird native to  

E-print Network

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens in the urban environment. A characteristic behavior of Cactus Wrens is they build and maintain roost nests. This was a preliminary investigation to determine if Cactus Wren roost nests serve to maintain an internal microclimate

Hall, Sharon J.

25

The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community  

PubMed Central

Gene exchange between species occurs in areas of secondary contact, where two species have the opportunity to hybridize. If heterospecific males are more common than conspecific males, females will experience more encounters with males of other species. These encounters might increase the likelihood of heterospecific matings, and lead to the production of hybrid progeny. I studied the mating behavior of two pairs of sibling species endemic to Africa: Drosophila yakuba/Drosophila santomea and Drosophila simulans/Drosophila sechellia. Drosophila yakuba and D. simulans are cosmopolitan species widely distributed in the African continent, while D. santomea and D. sechellia are island endemics. These pairs of species hybridize in nature and have the potential to exchange genes in natural conditions. I used these two pairs of Drosophila species, and constructed mating communities of different size and different heterospecific:conspecific composition. I found that both the total number of potential mates and the relative frequency of conspecific versus heterospecific males affect female mating decisions in the cosmopolitan species but not in the island endemics. These results suggest that the population characteristics, in which mating occurs, may affect the magnitude of premating isolation. Community composition might thus facilitate, or impair, gene flow between species. PMID:25165530

Matute, Daniel R

2014-01-01

26

Relations of Job Characteristics From Multiple Data Sources With Employee Affect, Absence, Turnover Intentions, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the evidence in support of job characteristics theory is limited to incumbent reports of job characteristics. In this study, job characteristics data from three independent sources—incumbents, ratings from job descriptions, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles—were used. Convergent validities of incumbent reports with other sources were quite modest. Although incumbent reports of job characteristics correlated significantly with several

Paul E. Spector; Steve M. Jex

1991-01-01

27

Heating method and final temperature affect processing characteristics of beef semimembranosus muscle.  

PubMed

The effect of thawing and cooking regimes on the processing characteristics and colour of cooked roast beef made from frozen beef cap-on inside round (semimembranosus, adductor and gracilus muscle) was investigated. After thawing in air or water, the cap was removed and the insides were pumped (110%), tumbled (30 min continuously) and then cooked in either constant-temperature water baths or baths where a 10 °C difference was maintained between the roast and the water to an internal temperature of 63 or 80 °C. Purge was higher for insides thawed in air. Insides that were cooked at a constant temperature had higher cook yields the same was seen for lower end-point temperatures. Colour of raw insides thawed in water was slightly redder than insides thawed in air. Thawing and cooking regime did not affect the colour of cooked slices but the higher the end temperature, the higher the Hunter L and the lower the Hunter a and b values. Data from this research suggests that roast beef manufacturers should evaluate thawing and cooking procedures to ensure they optimize their process. PMID:22061198

Boles, J A; Swan, J E

2002-09-01

28

Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.  

PubMed

Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis. PMID:15194428

de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

2004-07-01

29

Characteristics of GTA fusion zones and heat affected zones in superalloy 713C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of ( ?- gg')-M x C y type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction ?-?' can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the M x C y carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)- ?' phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the ? and ?' particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved ?' precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.

Lachowicz, M. B.; Dudzi?ski, W.

2012-09-01

30

Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

2014-01-01

31

Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation  

PubMed Central

Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0.001), suggested imprinted genes and miRNA interference as mechanisms for differential effects of maternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle. PMID:23341941

Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

2013-01-01

32

Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were

David S Janowsky; Shirley Morter; Liyi Hong

2002-01-01

33

Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

2006-01-01

34

Operating Ratios and Institutional Characteristics Affecting the Responsiveness of Black Colleges and Universities to Professional Allied Health Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that affect the implementation of professional allied health education programs were studied at 64 four-year black colleges and universities that had no such programs before 1975-76. By 1980, six of the institutions had implemented these programs. Twenty-seven operating ratios and seven institutional characteristics were analyzed, based on…

Holmes, Everlena M.; Andrew, Loyd D.

35

Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

36

Factors Affecting Track Registration Characteristics of CR-39 Polymer when Used as a Fast Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain factors affecting track registration characteristics of CR-39 were investigated for Cf-252 fission neutrons. The etching conditions used for all experiments were 6.25N NaOH at 70(DEGREES)C for 4 hours. Track densities were determined with an optical microscope. To determine the effect of polyethylene thickness on track density, groups of CR-39 detectors (1 x .05 x 0.025 in.) covered with different thicknesses of polyethylene (0-5.2 mm) were exposed to a known neutron fluence and etched. The net track density increased with polyethylene thickness up to 4.45 mm. The neutron fluence response was determined by exposing groups of detectors overlaid with 0.77 mm of polyethylene to different neutron fluences (2.87 x 10('7) to 2.87 x 10('8) n/cm('2)). Net track density increased linearly with neutron fluence with a sensitivity of 5.5 x 10('-4) tracks/n. The effect of pre-gamma irradiation on track density and bulk etch rate was determined by irradiating groups of polyethylene covered detectors with different gamma doses (0-24 Mrads) and exposing them to a known neutron fluence. Net track density decreased and bulk etch rate increased non-linearly with gamma dose. The effect of pre-gamma irradiation and pre-annealing on track density and bulk etch rate was determined by exposing groups of polyethylene covered detectors to a fixed gamma dose, annealing them at various temperatures (20(DEGREES)C -170(DEGREES)C) for 30 minutes and irradiating them with a fixed neutron fluence. Net track density and bulk etch rate increased non-linearly with temperature. To determine the effect of pre-annealing on track density and bulk etch rate groups of detectors were annealed at different temperatures (20(DEGREES)C-170(DEGREES)C) for 30 minutes and then exposed to a known neutron fluence. The net track density initially decreased with increasing temperature up to 60(DEGREES)C, increased between 60(DEGREES)C and 120(DEGREES)C, then sharply decreased between 120(DEGREES)C and 130(DEGREES)C, remaining constant thereafter. The bulk etch rate initially decreased with increasing temperature to 60(DEGREES)C, increased between 60(DEGREES)C and 80(DEGREES)C, remained constant to 130(DEGREES)C after which it sharply increased. UV spectrophotometry measurements showed significant changes in light absorbance for gamma irradiated and for annealed CR-39.

Ipe, Nisy Elizabeth Philip

1984-01-01

37

Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective

Van Rooy, David L.

2006-01-01

38

Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life  

PubMed Central

Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3?±?1.7?years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2?h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15?min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions considering the relation between affect and PA might not be suitable for this target group. PMID:23580167

von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

2013-01-01

39

Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.  

PubMed

Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants' habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3?±?1.7?years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2?h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15?min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions considering the relation between affect and PA might not be suitable for this target group. PMID:23580167

von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

2013-01-01

40

Canopy Characteristics Affecting Avian Reproductive Success: The Golden-cheeked Warbler  

E-print Network

for this species are known to include mature juniper-oak (Juniperus-Quercus) woodlands; however, relationships between habitat characteristics and golden-cheeked warbler reproductive success remain unclear. Whereas the majority of golden-cheeked warbler research...

Klassen, Jessica Anne

2012-07-16

41

Identification of key water quality characteristics affecting the filterability of biologically treated effluent in low-pressure membrane filtration.  

PubMed

There are many water quality characteristics which could influence the filterability of biologically treated effluent from Melbourne's Western Treatment Plant (WTP). Statistical correlation was used to identify the key water characteristics affecting the microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) filterability in terms of permeate volume of the treated effluent. The models developed showed that turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) were the key factors which influenced the MF and UF filterability. Turbidity was the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the model for MF filterability while DOC was the major factor affecting the accuracy of the model for UF filterability. A prediction accuracy of 85% was obtained for MF and 86% for UF filterability of the WTP effluent. The characteristics of the organic components of the wastewater were demonstrated by EEM spectra to have seasonal variation which would have reduced the prediction accuracy. As turbidity, DOC and TSS can be determined on-line, the models would be useful for rapid prediction of the filterability of WTP effluent and this may assist the control of low-pressure membrane filtration processes. PMID:20962408

Nguyen, T; Fan, L; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

2010-01-01

42

Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity.  

PubMed

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of impulsivity were seen in SMS, AS, CdCS, FXS and adults with CdLS. Negative affect was prominent in adults with CdLS, while positive affect was prominent in adults with AS and FXS. Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes. PMID:21080217

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-08-01

43

Willingness to Use Microbicides Is Affected by the Importance of Product Characteristics, Use Parameters, and Protective Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Along with efficacy, a microbicide’s acceptability will be integral to its impact on the pandemic. Understanding Product Characteristics that users find most acceptable and determining who will use which type of product are key to optimizing use effectiveness. Objectives To evaluate psychometrically the Important Microbicide Characteristics (IMC) instrument and examine its relationship to willingness to use microbicides. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 2 IMC subscales (Cronbach’s coefficient ?: Product Characteristics subscale (? = 0.84) and Protective Properties subscale (? = 0.89)). Significant differences on Product Characteristics subscale scores were found for history of douching (P = 0.002) and employment status (P = 0.001). Whether a woman used a method to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the last 3 months (P < 0.001) and whether she used a condom during the last vaginal sex episode (P < 0.001) were significantly related to her rating of the importance of microbicides being contraceptive. Product Characteristics (r = 0.21) and Protective Properties (r = 0.27) subscale scores and whether a microbicide had contraceptive properties (r = 0.24) were all significantly associated (P < 0.001) with willingness to use microbicides. Conclusions Formulation and use characteristics and product function(s) affect willingness to use microbicides and should continue to be addressed in product development. The IMC instrument serves as a template for future studies of candidate microbicides. PMID:17325607

Morrow, Kathleen M.; Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria; Christensen, Anna L.; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence

2008-01-01

44

Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

1986-06-01

45

Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.  

PubMed

Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. PMID:22857852

Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

2012-12-01

46

Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary

Marlene M. Hurley

1999-01-01

47

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-01-01

48

Neutron-physics characteristics of the VVÉR core which affect the operability of the fuel elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 621.039.5 When one calculates the thermophysical features of a fuel element, one must know: the distribution of the energy liberation over the radius of the fuel core, since the distribution affects the temperature field in the fuel element [1]; the burnup at a \\

V. D. Sidorenko; A. S. Shcheglov

1993-01-01

49

Mechanical Harvesting of Cotton as Affected by Varietal Characteristics and Other Factors.  

E-print Network

for either mechanical stripping or picking of cotton. Figure 6 shows a type selected in August 1939, which has some of the characteristics of plant No. 2. %ure 6. A desirable type of Ducona plant selected in 1939 for increase. This plant resembles plant... the bolls when harvested with moved by the Texas Station Harvester. the Texas Station Harvester. MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF COTTON 17 Type of boll: Large bolls are more suitable than small bolls for both mechanical stripping and picking. In stripping...

Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1939-01-01

50

Evaluation of Geometric and Traffic Characteristics Affecting the Safety of Six-Lane Divided Roadways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of traffic crashes that occurred in Florida in 2002 has shown that six-lane divided highways had higher crash rates than two-lane and four-lane highways. Variation of roadway geometrics and traffic characteristics on six-lane highways compared to four and two-lane highways are suspected to be the source of the difference. The goal of this study was to make a

Deo Chimba

2004-01-01

51

Biochemical and physical factors affecting color characteristics of selected bovine muscles  

E-print Network

in determining color stability characteristics of muscles. Two methods have prevailed as the means for measuring metmyoglobin reducing ability of meat. An assay for metmyoglobin reductase activity was developed by Stewart, Hutchins, Zisper, and Watts (1965... between meat discoloration and lipid oxidation. Faustman et al. (1989b) noted an increase in lipid oxidation is usually related to a similar increase in myoglobin oxidation and vice versa. Hutchins, Liu, and Watts (1967) reported metmyoglobin...

McKenna, David Richard

2004-09-30

52

Changes in Liver Cell DNA Methylation Status in Diabetic Mice Affect Its FT-IR Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Lower levels of cytosine methylation have been found in the liver cell DNA from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice under hyperglycemic conditions. Because the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) profiles of dry DNA samples are differently affected by DNA base composition, single-stranded form and histone binding, it is expected that the methylation status in the DNA could also affect its FT-IR profile. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA FT-IR signatures obtained from the liver cell nuclei of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice of the same age were compared. Dried DNA samples were examined in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an all-reflecting objective (ARO) and adequate software. Conclusions/Significance Changes in DNA cytosine methylation levels induced by hyperglycemia in mouse liver cells produced changes in the respective DNA FT-IR profiles, revealing modifications to the vibrational intensities and frequencies of several chemical markers, including ?as –CH3 stretching vibrations in the 5-methylcytosine methyl group. A smaller band area reflecting lower energy absorbed in the DNA was found in the hyperglycemic mice and assumed to be related to the lower levels of –CH3 groups. Other spectral differences were found at 1700–1500 cm?1 and in the fingerprint region, and a slight change in the DNA conformation at the lower DNA methylation levels was suggested for the hyperglycemic mice. The changes that affect cytosine methylation levels certainly affect the DNA-protein interactions and, consequently, gene expression in liver cells from the hyperglycemic NOD mice. PMID:25019512

Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Ghiraldini, Flávia Gerelli; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

2014-01-01

53

Privatization, Competition, and Corruption: How Characteristics of Bribe Takers and Payers Affect Bribe Payments to Utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many recent studies have looked at the macroeconomic, cultural and institutional determinants of corruption at the cross-national level. This study complements these existing cross-country studies by focusing on firm-level evidence of microeconomic factors affecting bribes paid in a single sector of the economy. Using enterprise-level data on bribes paid to utilities in 21 transition economies in Eastern Europe and

George R. G. Clarke; Lixin Colin Xu

2002-01-01

54

Experimental and analytical determination of characteristics affecting light aircraft landing-gear dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine which characteristics of a light aircraft landing gear influence gear dynamic behavior significantly. The investigation focused particularly on possible modification for load control. Pseudostatic tests were conducted to determine the gear fore-and-aft spring constant, axial friction as a function of drag load, brake pressure-torque characteristics, and tire force-deflection characteristics. To study dynamic tire response, vertical drops were conducted at impact velocities of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 m/s onto a level surface; to determine axial-friction effects, a second series of vertical drops were made at 1.5 m/s onto surfaces inclined 5 deg and 10 deg to the horizontal. An average dynamic axial-friction coefficient of 0.15 was obtained by comparing analytical data with inclined surface drop test data. Dynamic strut bending and associated axial friction were found to be severe for the drop tests on the 10 deg surface.

Fasanella, E. L.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Pappas, M. S.

1977-01-01

55

Characteristics of Alcoholic Smokers, Nonsmokers, and Former Smokers: Personality, Negative Affect, Alcohol Involvement, and Treatment Participation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Previous research has indicated that smoking behavior in the general population is linked to personality traits such as behavioral undercontrol and negative emotionality, but it is unknown whether these traits pertain to alcoholic smokers. Further, prior research has not established whether alcoholic smokers differ from their nonsmoking counterparts in terms of alcohol involvement severity and treatment participation. Exploration of these associations is important, given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among alcoholics. Methods: Treatment-seeking alcoholics were categorized into daily cigarette smokers (n = 76), nonsmokers (n = 34), and former smokers (n = 33). These groups were compared on personality traits, negative affect, alcohol involvement, and alcohol outpatient treatment participation. Results: All three groups scored similarly on a variety of personality traits (e.g., extraversion and neuroticism), and on most aspects of negative affect, with the exception of anxiety (smokers scored higher than nonsmokers and former smokers). In terms of alcohol involvement, alcoholic smokers reported greater negative drinking consequences and alcohol physical dependence relative to former smokers, even considering that alcoholic smokers had relatively more abstinent days. Finally, alcoholic smokers attended considerably fewer alcohol outpatient treatment sessions relative to both nonsmokers and former smokers. Conclusions: Common risk factors for both alcoholism and smoking behavior, such as personality traits and negative affect, may obscure personality differences between smokers and nonsmokers in an alcohol treatment sample. Furthermore, findings suggest that current nicotine use among alcoholics is associated with greater anxiety and severity of alcoholism than among their former-smoking counterparts. PMID:22573729

Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dearing, Ronda L.

2013-01-01

56

Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

2002-01-01

57

Demand characteristics of music affect performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test Of Intelligence.  

PubMed

This study examined whether demand characteristics concerning music can change subjects' performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test of intelligence. Participants (N= 60) were randomly assigned and informed either that Mozart's music typically enhances cognitive performance or diminishes it. They then completed the Wonderlic Personnel Test while listening to a Mozart piano sonata. The subjects with a positive set answered significantly more items correctly on the test (14%) than those with a negative set (p = .03). This result may hold implications for the study of the 'Mozart effect'. PMID:17450975

Verpaelst, Celissa C; Standing, Lionel G

2007-02-01

58

Analysis of mutations in cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus which affect cyclization characteristics and thermostability.  

PubMed Central

Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase; EC 2.4.1.19) produces cyclodextrin from starch. The CGTase molecule is composed of four globular domains, A, B, C, and D. In order to gain better understanding of the amylolytic and cyclization mechanisms of CGTase, mutant CGTases were constructed from a CGTase gene (cgt1) of Bacillus stearothermophilus NO2. Cgt1-F191Y (Phe at position 191 was replaced by Tyr), Cgt1-F191Y-F255Y, Cgt1-W254V-F255I, Cgt1-W254V, and Cgt1-F255I were constructed for the analysis of the NH2-terminal region. It was revealed that amino acids surrounding a spiral amylose are important for cyclization characteristics and that hydrophobic amino acids just after the Glu catalytic site play an important role in the hydrolysis characteristics of the enzyme. Mutant CGTases Cgt1-T591F and Cgt1-W629F were also constructed to study the role of a second substrate-binding site in domain D, and it was suggested that substrate binding at both domains A and D stabilized the enzyme and optimized cyclodextrin production. PMID:1429471

Fujiwara, S; Kakihara, H; Sakaguchi, K; Imanaka, T

1992-01-01

59

The influence of color and demand characteristics on muscle strength and affective ratings of the environment.  

PubMed

Demand characteristics may influence claims that the color pink inhibits muscle strength whereas blue increases muscle strength. In Experiment 1, undergraduates (N = 59; 30 women, 29 men) were told either that the experimenters thought pink would increase and blue decrease strength or that blue would increase muscle strength and pink decrease muscle strength. A hand dynamometer assessed grip strength as subjects stared at each of 8 differently colored panels. Results indicated that men viewing the pink or orange panels had higher grip strength under pink-strengthen than under pink-weaken instructions. The reverse relationship was found for men viewing a green panel. For women, the pink-weaken instructions resulted in a higher grip strength than did the pink-strengthen instructions, regardless of actual color present. In Experiment 2, women in a no-instruction control condition had lower grip strength than women given the pink-weaken instructions. For men, the control (no-instruction) condition resulted in higher grip strength than the pink-weaken condition. Results of both studies suggest that men followed overt demand characteristics but that women reacted with increased intensity to any suggestion that a stereotypically feminine pink is associated with weakness. PMID:3760846

Smith, J M; Bell, P A; Fusco, M E

1986-07-01

60

Physical characteristics and gas composition of nasal air affect nasal nitric oxide release.  

PubMed

We studied modulation of release of nitric oxide (NO) into nasal passages by physical characteristics (airflow, temperature, humidity) or gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) in nasal air of humans. Each characteristic or gas in nasal air was changed during voluntary soft palate elevation (to isolate nasal passages). Increasing airflow through the nose caused incremental increases in NO release from 211+/-23 nl/(min x m(-2)) at 1 L/min to 312+/-40 nl/(min x m(-2)) at 22 L/min (P<0.001, n = 6). Decreased humidity (dry airflow, 1-22 L/min) reduced NO release only at the highest airflow rate. Changing temperature (range 46 to 0 degrees C) had no effect on NO release. Hypoxia (below 4% O2) rapidly and reversibly decreased NO release (200+/-40 nl/(min x m(-2)) at 21% O2 versus 99+/-17 nl/(min x m(-2)) at 0% O2 for 3 min, (P<0.001, n = 5). Carbon dioxide (5%) reduced NO release slightly. We conclude that airflow, reduced humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and oxygen concentration modulate NO release into nasal passages. PMID:9926992

Giraud, G D; Nejadnik, B; Kimberly, B; Holden, W E

1998-12-01

61

Eutrophication of Typical Chinese Shallow Lakes as affected by Hydrologic Characteristics and Lake-Basin Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region below midstream of the Yangtze River is one of the areas in China that have a highest density of lakes, in particular shallow lakes. It has five nationally well-known freshwater lakes with largest sizes, namely the Poyang Lake, Doingting Lake, Taihu Lake, Chaohu Lake, and Hongze Lake. This region has 138 lakes with a water surface area of 10 km2 or larger. However, approximately 70% of the large- to medium-sized lakes in the eastern plains of China have been altered from pristine into reservoir-like conditions. Previous studies indicate that hydrologic characteristics and lake-basin morphology likely have important effects on the water quality (or eutrophication) of shallow lakes. However, little is known about quantitative relations among lake water quality, lake-basin morphology, and hydrologic characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine such quantitative relations using data on water quality, water ecology, hydrology, and basin morphology. The data were collected from 2008 to 2011 for ninety shallow lakes in the eastern plains of China. The results indicate that total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations decreased with increase of water depth. TN and TP concentrations in the lakes with a water depth of greater than 2m were less than those in the lakes with a water depth less than 2m. In addition, Chl-a concentration in the lakes with a surface area less than 25 km2 increased with the increase of relative water depth (Zr), whereas Chl-a concentration in the lakes with a surface area greater than 25 km2 decreased with the increase of Zr. Further, as influenced by hydrologic characteristics, the lakes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River tended to have a better water quality than the lakes in the lower reaches, while the lakes that are hydraulically connected with the Yangtze River tended to have a better water quality than the lakes that are hydraulically disconnected from the river.

Huang, J.; Xu, Q.; Xi, B.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Ji, D.; Jiang, T.

2013-12-01

62

Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the Overthrust Belt of Southwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Jurassic-Triassic age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming Overthrust Belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic directional properties which have been inherited from the depositional environment, modified by diagenesis, and finally overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly eolian processes deposited crossbedded and horizontally-bedded, very fine-grained to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdunes and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and precipitation of hydrocarbon resins. Low-permeability, gougefilled and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and affect producibility; whereas discontinuous, open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in permeability between dune and interdune intervals ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune deposits are locally correlatable with the aid of core, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations can then be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

Lindquist, S.J.

1982-09-01

63

An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.  

PubMed

Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its ecosystem services. PMID:21930336

Yang, Xiaojun

2012-02-01

64

Field experimental approach to bromide leaching as affected by scale-specific rainfall characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although inherent soil spatial and temporal variabilities complicate analysis of solute leaching, impacts of specific processes associated with rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency on solute leaching under field conditions require investigation. The objective of this study was to introduce (1) a new experimental approach to quantify bromide (Br-) leaching under field conditions as influenced by rainfall characteristics and (2) analytical opportunities applicable to scale-specific spatial treatment distribution. The quantitative range of treatments was established in nonrandom periodically oscillating patterns. The characteristic length of a period over which a treatment fluctuates was considered the specific treatment scale. A Br- tracer study was established in the field with treatments applied at two different spatial scales. The tracer was applied with a sprayer in a transect of 32 plots, each 2 m long, followed by a site-specific sprinkler irrigation, and 128 soil cores subsequently taken at 0.5 m intervals and divided into 10-cm depth increments. The scale-specific associations between treatments and Br- center of mass (COM) were addressed. Treatments can be periodically imposed over specific scales and their spatial relationships quantified with semivariance and power spectral analysis. An additive state-space model was applied to separate the long- and short-wave components of Br- COM. Subsequently, the large-scale process was described in an autoregressive state-space model. The proposed experimental approach and the separation of small- and large-scale variability components support studying soil ecosystem processes that vary at different scales even in the presence of underlying large-scale trends that are currently considered obstacles in field research.

Wendroth, Ole; Vasquez, Vicente; Matocha, Christopher J.

2011-06-01

65

Does Spatial Variation in Soil Characteristics Affect Tree Transpiration Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) both depends on and influences the local and regional atmospheric conditions. Because soil is the source of water for Ec, the soil's chemical and physical properties are also likely to be drivers of transpiration. The objective of this study is to spatially quantify the relationship between the soil's chemical and physical characteristics and Ec across environmental gradients. The two study sites are in northern Wisconsin, in mixed hardwood forest. In one site, the environmental gradient runs from a dry upland dominated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) to a wetland dominated by alders (Alnus rugosa). The second site has little elevational variation, is well-drained, and is dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bisected by a swath of red pine (Pinus resinosa). Ec data have been collected over three summers on the same set of trees using Granier sensors, while the soil samples were collected in 2006 from the same plots as the measured trees. Both of the approximately 120 m x 120 m plots have been sampled in 10 m x 10 m subplots based on a 3/7 cyclic sampling scheme to maximize spatially explicit information with a minimum number of sampled points. Roughly 150 trees were measured in each plot. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between the spatial autocorrelation of Ec and vapor pressure deficit (D). We thus hypothesize that a significant amount of this relationship can be explained by soil properties. Preliminary analysis of soil data from a representative transect in the aspen site show that soil texture, carbon (C) content, and nitrogen (N) content change along the gradient. From the upland through the wetland, Ec declined significantly, and, while all the soils were a sandy loam, the sand content showed a decreasing trend, while the silt content increased nearly two-fold. Across the same (upland to wetland) gradient, the C:N ratio showed a slightly increasing trend, but the total percentage values of the two elements increased nearly 25 fold: from C of 0.884 and N of 0.060 to C of 22.34 and N of 1.283. We hypothesize that the maple site will show less variability in Ec because of its more uniform soil characteristics. Ongoing work of soil moisture release curves, bulk density, and root biomass will provide additional explanations of the spatial relationships between Ec and D. Our analytical approach, then, provides a first step in explaining the processes behind spatial patterns in transpiration.

Traver, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Loranty, M.; Mackay, D. S.

2006-12-01

66

Building a Successful Communications Program Based on the Needs and Characteristics of the Affected Communities - 13152  

SciTech Connect

Over 200 local residents streamed through the doors of the Port Hope Lions Centre to see the detailed plans for the historic low-level radioactive waste clean-up project about to take place in their community. The event had a congenial atmosphere as people walked through the hall taking in rows of display panels that explained each element of the project, asked questions of project staff stationed around the room and chatted with friends and neighbours over light refreshments. Later that year, the results of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) 10. annual public attitude survey revealed an all-time high in community awareness of the project (94%) and the highest levels of confidence (84%) recorded since surveying began. Today, as the PHAI transitions from a decade of scientific and technical studies to implementation, the success of its communications program - as evidenced by the above examples - offers room for cautious encouragement. The PHAI has spent the past 10 years developing relationships with the southern Ontario communities of Port Hope and Port Granby in preparation for Canada's largest low-level radioactive waste environmental restoration project. These relationships have been built around a strong understanding of the communities' individual needs and characteristics and on the PHAI's efforts to consider and respond to these needs. The successes of the past, as well as the lessons learned, will inform the next stage of communications as the projects move into waste excavation and transportation and building of the long-term waste management facilities. (authors)

Herod, Judy; Mahabir, Alexandra; Holmes, Sandy [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON, L1A 3S4 (Canada)

2013-07-01

67

Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

Bradfield, A.D.

1986-01-01

68

[Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].  

PubMed

In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level. PMID:24830259

Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

2014-02-01

69

Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.  

PubMed

Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:22912476

Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

2012-09-01

70

Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. Findings We present 26 tetanus patients who were admitted to eight hospitals following the earthquakes that occurred on May, 27, 2006, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The independent variables were age, gender, distance, admission, hospitalization, and type of hospital with the dependent variable surviving or perishing. Data were analyzed by logistic regression methods on SPSS 17.0. The distance from the patient's place of residence to the hospital were obtained and analyzed by using geospatial tools MapInfo 7.8 SCP and Global Mapper 7. Eight of the 26 patients were dead (30.8%) and statistical results showed that the distance (OR = 1.740, 95% CI = 1.068–2.835) and type of hospital (OR = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.001–3.520) were significant predictors of death. Conclusion Our findings show that in order to reduce the mortality rates, performing triage systems based on the distance and type of hospital priority for internally displaced persons could be proposed as well as making provisions for the generally old population in order to prevent an outbreak of tetanus following earthquakes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PMID:19284531

Sutiono, Agung Budi; Qiantori, Andri; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

2009-01-01

71

Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the overthrust belt of southwestern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Jurassic/Triassic Age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming overthrust belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic properties that have been inherited primarily from the depositional environment but also have been modified by diagenesis and overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly Eolian processes deposited crossbedded, low-angle to horizontally bedded and rippled, very-fine- to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdune areas, and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and the precipitation or emplacement of hydrocarbon asphaltenes or residues. Low-permeability gouge- and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and negatively affect producibility, whereas discontinuous open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in air permeability between dune and interdune deposits ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune intervals are correlatable locally with the aid of core log, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations then can be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

Lindquist, S.J.

1983-07-01

72

Gold- and Silver Nanoparticles Affect the Growth Characteristics of Human Embryonic Neural Precursor Cells  

PubMed Central

Rapid development of nanotechnologies and their applications in clinical research have raised concerns about the adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health and environment. NPs can be directly taken up by organs exposed, but also translocated to secondary organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS) after systemic- or subcutaneous administration, or via the olfactory system. The CNS is particularly vulnerable during development and recent reports describe transport of NPs across the placenta and even into brain tissue using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Here, we investigated whether well-characterized commercial 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs have an effect on human embryonic neural precursor cell (HNPC) growth. After two weeks of NP exposure, uptake of NPs, morphological features and the amount of viable and dead cells, proliferative cells (Ki67 immunostaining) and apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay), respectively, were studied. We demonstrate uptake of both 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs respectively, by HNPCs during proliferation. A significant effect on the sphere size- and morphology was found for all cultures exposed to Au- and AgNPs. AgNPs of both sizes caused a significant increase in numbers of proliferating and apoptotic HNPCs. In contrast, only the highest dose of 20 nm AuNPs significantly affected proliferation, whereas no effect was seen on apoptotic cell death. Our data demonstrates that both Au- and AgNPs interfere with the growth profile of HNPCs, indicating the need of further detailed studies on the adverse effects of NPs on the developing CNS. PMID:23505470

Söderstjerna, Erika; Johansson, Fredrik; Klefbohm, Birgitta; Englund Johansson, Ulrica

2013-01-01

73

Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.  

PubMed

Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol). PMID:20449528

Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

2010-01-01

74

Barrier Island Morphology and Sediment Characteristics Affect the Recovery of Dune Building Grasses following Storm-Induced Overwash  

PubMed Central

Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

Brantley, Steven T.; Bissett, Spencer N.; Young, Donald R.; Wolner, Catherine W. V.; Moore, Laura J.

2014-01-01

75

Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.  

PubMed

Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p?=?0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community composition. Thus, factors driving the abundance of dune-building grasses and subsequent recovery of dunes varied between the two geomorphically distinct islands. PMID:25148028

Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

2014-01-01

76

Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder. PMID:22905861

Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

2013-02-01

77

Myostatin allelic status interacts with level of nutrition to affect growth, composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine if growth, carcass composition, and myofiber characteristics of lambs were affected by heterozygosity for a myostatin mutation (g+6723G>A) when offered differing allowances of feed administered with or without ractopamine. Heterozygote [MSTN A/G (n = 40)] and homozygote wildtype [MSTN G/G (n = 39)] castrate male lambs were individually fed ad libitum (HI; 1.8 × estimated ME(m)) or a restricted allowance (LO; 1.1 × estimated ME(m)) of a diet (191 g of CP/kg of DM and 12 MJ of ME/kg of DM), supplemented with (0.4 mg/kg of BW) or without the ?-adrenergic agonist ractopamine (RAC or NO RAC) for 47 d. The lambs were scanned by computed tomography at the beginning and completion of the feeding experiment to calculate composition of lean, fat, and bone in the carcass component of the body. The MSTN A/G HI intake lambs had significantly greater total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045) and loin eye depth (P = 0.022) and tended to have a greater daily growth of lean (P = 0.09) in the carcass, compared with MSTN G/G HI intake lambs. Conversely, MSTN A/G LO intake lambs tended to have less daily lean deposition (P = 0.09), significantly less total daily carcass growth (P = 0.045), and had a greater percentage of type IIX myofibers (P < 0.01) and total myofiber area (relative area) of type IIX myofibers (P = 0.013). The inclusion of RAC increased final BW (P = 0.03) and ADG (P = 0.02), percentage of type IIC (P < 0.001) and IIA (P = 0.012) myofibers, cross-sectional area of types I (P = 0.04) and IIAX (P = 0.04) fibers, and the relative area of type IIC (P = 0.003) and IIA (P = 0.01) myofibers in the LM. The experiment demonstrated that including RAC in the diet of lambs increased final BW and ADG, but not HCW, and increased proportion of type IIC and IIA myofibers and cross-sectional area of type I and IIAX myofibers. Our data suggest that RAC and the heterozygous myostatin mutation act together to increase growth of muscle on a high plane of nutrition. The experiment also demonstrated that poor nutritional background of lambs heterozygous for the myostatin mutation may negatively influence their growth rates and myofiber characteristics. PMID:21926323

Haynes, F E M; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B; Oddy, V H

2012-02-01

78

Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics  

PubMed Central

Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:24204144

Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

2013-01-01

79

Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

Laschke, Christin

2013-01-01

80

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

81

The Use of the Internet as a Research Tool: The Nature and Characteristics of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) amongst a Population of Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a cyclical syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of autumn or winter depression and atypical depressive symptoms. This paper describes the characteristics of an international sample of 425 Internet users who responded to newsgroup advertisements seeking people who experienced seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, and completed a modified version of the Seasonal Patterns Assessment Questionnaire.

Erin E. Michalak

1998-01-01

82

How patients' sociodemographic characteristics affect comparisons of competing health plans in California on HEDIS(R) quality measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate effects of patient sociodemographic characteristics on differential performance within and between plans in a single market area on the HEDIS® quality of care measures, widely used for purchasing and accreditation decisions in the United States. Design. Using logistic regression, we modeled associations of age, sex, and zip-code-linked sociodemographic characteristics of health plan members with HEDIS measures of

ALAN M. ZASLAVSKY; ARNOLD M. EPSTEIN

2005-01-01

83

Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow affected by land use and cover in the Chickahominy River basin, Virginia, 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chickahominy River is the principal source of raw-water supply managed by the Department of Public Utilities, City of Newport News. Selected characteristics of stormflow and base flow, and major land use and cover factors that affect the distribution, movement, and quality of water of the nontidal Chickahominy River were monitored at three continuous-record stations and two partial-record stations. The stations are located in areas that drain urban, residential, and rural land uses.

Focazio, M.J.; Cooper, R.E.

1995-01-01

84

PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITS AND PITS OF SOME DATE PALM CULTIVARS AS AFFECTED BY CULTIVARS AND SEASONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out on four Egyptian date palm cultivars in order to study the changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit during the growing season. The results of the present study showed that Samany cultivar has the highest fruit yield. It was noticed that fruit fresh weight increased rapidly throughout the growing season. The average

A. M. Attalla; Amal M. El-Kobbia; Laila Y. Mostaffa

85

Activated sludge characteristics affecting sludge filterability in municipal and industrial MBRs: Unraveling correlations using multi-component regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) many membrane fouling related questions still remain unanswered. The goal of this research is to unveil some of the black-box features of activated sludge filterability by correlating the results from activated sludge filterability measurements following the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm) with a large set of activated sludge characteristics. Ten different MBRs in

R. Van den Broeck; P. Krzeminski; J. Van Dierdonck; G. Gins; M. Lousada-Ferreira; J. F. M. Van Impe; J. H. J. M. van der Graaf; I. Y. Smets; J. B. van Lier

2011-01-01

86

Selected Gelling Agents in Canned Dog Food Affect Nutrient Digestibilities and Fecal Characteristics of Ileal Cannulated Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum\\/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)\\/ carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of

Lisa Karr-Lilienthal; N. R. Merchen; Christine Grieshop; Marianne Smeets-Peeters; G. C. Fahey Jr.

2002-01-01

87

Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ?4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

2015-01-16

88

Child and setting characteristics affecting the adult talk directed at preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder in the inclusive classroom.  

PubMed

Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Research on typically developing children and children with disabilities, in general, suggests the adult talk received in the classroom is related to their social development. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the types and amounts of adult talk children with autism spectrum disorder are exposed to in the preschool classroom and (2) the associations between child characteristics (e.g. language), activity area, and adult talk. Kontos' Teacher Talk classification was used to code videos approximately 30 min in length of 73 children with autism spectrum disorder (ages 3-5) in inclusive classrooms (n = 33) during center time. The results indicated practical/personal assistance was the most common type of adult talk coded, and behavior management talk least often coded. Child characteristics (i.e. age and autism severity) and activity area were found to be related to specific types of adult talk. Given the findings, implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24463432

Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Odom, Samuel L

2015-02-01

89

How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when associations between WebChoice use and each user characteristic were analyzed separately. High use of all components was associated with low levels of social support among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. High use of e-messages, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of depression among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. For men with prostate cancer (but not women with breast cancer), high use of symptom assessments, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of symptom distress. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be attributed to differences related to diagnosis, gender, or both. Conclusions This study provides evidence that different user characteristics are associated with different use patterns. Such information is crucial to target Web-based support systems to different patient groups. LCA is a useful technique to identify subgroups of users. In our study, e-messages and self-management advice were highly used components for patients who had low levels of social support and high illness burden, suggesting that patients with these characteristics may find such tools particularly useful. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00710658; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00710658 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6EmEWZiwz) PMID:23454601

Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

2013-01-01

90

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.  

PubMed

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P?

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2013-12-01

91

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p?0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

92

Aerating recycled water on mushroom composting sites affects its chemical analysis and the characteristics of odor emissions.  

PubMed

Recycled water (RW) containing compost leachate can be a potent source of foul odor on mushroom composting sites. Samples of RW were repeatedly collected from storage tanks and pits of 14 mushroom composting sites in England and Ireland. Relationships between the effects of submerged aeration of the RW, the chemical and microbial characteristics of the RW, and the odors emitted were investigated. Recycled water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential, and dissolved oxygen concentration after 7 to 14 d cold storage. Freeze-dried material from the RW samples was chemically profiled by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the content of odor precursor compounds was determined by the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The headspace air of containerized RW samples was analyzed by thermal desorption GC-MS and with gas detection tubes and assessed for odor intensity (OI) and concentration by panelists and serial dilution olfactometry. The predominant odorants in the headspace and freeze-dried residues of RW samples were volatile sulfur-containing compounds and carboxylic acids. The headspace OI, EC, dry matter content, and redox potential of RW were interrelated. The headspace OI and combined concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) + dimethyl sulfide of RW were correlated (R(2) = 0.635; P < 0.001). Prediction of the OI of RW by measuring RW EC and the concentration of headspace sulfides using gas detector tubes enables rapid and low-cost monitoring of RW from mushroom composting sites. Submerged aeration of RW in storage tanks or pits reduced the RW headspace air OI and the combined H(2)S + dimethyl sulfide concentration by 88%. PMID:19465725

Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Wright, Carole; Hobbs, Philip J; Williams, Jon

2009-01-01

93

Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved-solids loads increased from 1986 to 1988 at nine streamflow water-quality stations on the upper Colorado River and its tributaries between Lake J.B. Thomas and O.H. Ivie Reservoir. About 51 percent of the dissolved-solids load to E.V. Spence Reservoir resulted from saline-water outflow from Natural Dam Salt Lake on Beals Creek. The concen- tration of dissolved solids in streamflow generally decreased in the downstream direction as flows increased in all reaches of the river and its tributaries. The estimated disolved-solids concen- tration exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter for water from about 233 of 386 wells and springs for which specific conductance was measured in 1986. The mean concentration for all wells was about 1,750 milligrams per liter. Mixing with brine associated with oil and gas producton is a major process affecting the salinity of streamflow and shallow-aquifer water. Dissolution of gypsum and pyrite contributed to salinity of water in shallow aquifers because of the presence of these minerals in most formations. Some salinity in streamflow and shallow-aquifer water was attributed to evapotranspiration in areas where water was close to land surface, in irrigated areas, and along streams. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in water samples from shallow aquifers as classified using salt-norm analysis. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinatoins.

Slade, R.M., Jr.; Buszka, P.M.

1994-01-01

94

Characteristics affecting oral anticoagulant therapy choice among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a retrospective claims analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Dabigatran is one of the three newer oral anticoagulants (OACs) recently approved in the United States for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. The objective of this study was to identify patient, healthcare provider, and health plan factors associated with dabigatran versus warfarin use among NVAF patients. Methods Administrative claims data from patients with ?2 NVAF medical claims in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database between 10/1/2009 and 10/31/2011 were analyzed. During the study intake period (10/1/2010 - 10/31/2011), dabigatran patients had ?2 dabigatran prescriptions, warfarin patients had ?2 warfarin and no dabigatran prescriptions, and the first oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription date was the index date. Continuous enrollment for 12 months preceding (“pre-index”) and???6 months following the index date was required. Patients without pre-index warfarin use were assigned to the ‘OAC-naïve’ subgroup. Separate analyses were performed for ‘all-patient’ and ‘OAC-naïve’ cohorts. Multivariable logistic regression (LR) identified factors associated with dabigatran versus warfarin use. Results Of 20,320 patients (3,019 dabigatran and 17,301 warfarin) who met study criteria, 27% of dabigatran and 13% of warfarin patients were OAC-naïve. Among all-patients, dabigatran patients were younger (mean 67 versus 73 years, p?characteristics, cardiology specialty of the prescribing physician and health plan type were the strongest factors associated with dabigatran use. PMID:25034699

2014-01-01

95

Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

2011-05-01

96

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

2010-01-01

97

Assessment of tumor characteristics and factors affecting survival in patients with primary metastatic breast carcinoma: a Multicenter Study of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology.  

PubMed

Primary metastatic breast cancer (PMBC) comprises 3-10% of all BCs. PMBC is a heterogeneous disease. To date, little is known about the tumor characteristics, treatment results, and overall survival (OS) of patients with PMBC. Patients were considered to have PMBC if distant metastasis was evident within 3 months of the initial diagnosis of BC. Between September 2007 and April 2013, 466 PMBC patients were included in this study and analyzed retrospectively. The median age of the patients was 50 (18-90) years. Bone/soft tissue metastases were more frequent in the hormone receptor (HR)(+) human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2(-) group compared with the HR(-)HER2(-) and HR(-)HER2(+) groups (p < 0.001), whereas visceral organ metastasis was more frequent in the HR(-)HER2(-) and HR(-)HER2(+) groups (p < 0.001). The OS was affected by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, tumor histology, receptor status, and the site of metastasis (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.011, respectively). According to the first-line systemic treatment choices of the patients, the longest median OS was observed in the HR(+)HER2(+) group who received hormonotherapy combined with trastuzumab after chemotherapy (86 months, 95% CI 23.8-148.1) and the shortest median OS was observed in the HR(-)HER2(-) group who received chemotherapy only (24 months, 95% CI 17.9-30.0) (p < 0.001). Bisphosphonate therapy or radiotherapy had no significant effect on OS (p = 0.733, 0.603). In multivariate analysis, hormonotherapy, chemotherapy + trastuzumab, trastuzumab + hormonotherapy following chemotherapy, and surgery were the most important prognostic factors for OS, respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.025, p = 0.027, p = 0.029). The general characteristics of the primary tumor are important for the prognosis and survival of patients with PMBC. Interestingly, patients who underwent primary breast tumor surgery, even those at the metastatic stage upon admission, had the longest survival. PMID:24659267

Uyeturk, Ummugul; Oksuzoglu, Berna; Akman, Tulay; Turker, Ibrahim; Sener, Nur; Tastekin, Didem; Bal, Oznur; Berk, Veli; Arslan, Ulku Yalcintas; Urakci, Zuhat; Bilir, Cemil; Yilmaz, Ugur; Yazilitas, Dogan; Ulas, Arife; Sonmez, Ozlem Uysal; Budakoglu, Burcin; Cihan, Sener; Uysal, Mukremin

2014-04-01

98

Keratin23 (KRT23) Knockdown Decreases Proliferation and Affects the DNA Damage Response of Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Keratin 23 (KRT23) is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed that KRT23 depletion affected molecules of the cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination and repair. In vitro analyses confirmed that KRT23 depletion significantly decreased the cellular proliferation of SW948 and LS1034 cells and markedly decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA damage response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced proliferation of the KRT23 depleted cells compared to irradiated control cells. PMID:24039993

Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mansilla, Francisco; Thorsen, Kasper; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Christensen, Rikke; Øster, Bodil; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

2013-01-01

99

Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

100

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011 (NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%), individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%), metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black (61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%), brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle (1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%), 2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%), 1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%) were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises, 0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/flank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identification (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition, there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011 = 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities. PMID:22952370

McKeith, R O; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

2012-12-01

101

Affective Technology, Affective Management, towards Affective Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the term affective is defined as “being capable to evoke affects in people’s mind” or “being capable to deliberate affects to be evoked in people’s\\u000a mind”. This paper discusses potential impact of concept of affectiveness on development of technological products and services, management, and value systems of societies.

Hiroyuki Umemuro

2009-01-01

102

Characteristics of Creative Expression Activities: The Links Between Creativity, Failure-Free, and Group Process With Levels of Staff-Participant Engagement and Participant Affect in an Adult Day Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between three characteristics identified as central to creative expression (CE) activities: creativity, failure-free, and group process with staff-participant engagement and participant affect. An observational study was conducted in an adult day center. Staff-participant interactions (n = 241) were recorded as they participated in sculpture, which is a type of CE

Jeannine M. Rowe; Marie Y. Savundranayagam; Joshua Lang; Rhonda J. V. Montgomery

2011-01-01

103

Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection by Chum Salmon and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at separate locations in a side channel near Ives Island, Washington, in the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity would not sufficiently explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of

David R. Geist; Timothy P. Hanrahan; Evan V. Arntzen; Geoffrey A. McMichael; Christopher J. Murray; Yi-Ju Chien

2002-01-01

104

Retention and rainfastness of mancozeb as affected by physicochemical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surface after enhanced UV-B radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not clear so far whether alteration of leaf micromorphology and surface wax chemistry due to the impact of environmental factors, such as UV-B radiation, affects retention and rainfastness of applied pesticide solutions. In this study; UV-B treated and untreated adaxial leaf surfaces of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were characterized in terms of chemical composition, micromorphological fine structure,

Katja Bringe; Mauricio Hunsche; Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger; Georg Noga

2007-01-01

105

Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naïve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524

Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

2012-09-01

106

Theoretical supersonic lift and drag characteristics of symmetrical wedge-shape-airfoil sections as affected by sweepback outside the Mach cone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical supersonic section lift and drag characteristics of thin wedge-shape, untapered airfoils with sweepback are presented. The results apply to those parts of the wing in two dimensional flow and are not applicable to wings swept back within the Mach cone of the center section. The results may also be applied to swept-forward wings if the angle of sweep is not enough to put the wing within the Mach cone from the tips.

Ivey, H Reese; Bowen, Edward N , Jr

1947-01-01

107

Retention and rainfastness of mancozeb as affected by physicochemical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surface after enhanced UV-B radiation.  

PubMed

It is not clear so far whether alteration of leaf micromorphology and surface wax chemistry due to the impact of environmental factors, such as UV-B radiation, affects retention and rainfastness of applied pesticide solutions. In this study; UV-B treated and untreated adaxial leaf surfaces of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were characterized in terms of chemical composition, micromorphological fine structure, hydrophobicity, and wettability. Furthermore, the retention and rainfastness of applied fungicide mancozeb were studied. The samples were examined 0, 24 and 48 h after ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (0.022 kW m(-2) for 150 min) The total wax mass, recovered from the adaxial leaf surface, amounted from 0.38 microg cm(-2) (control) up to 0.49 microg cm(-2) (24 h). Chemical composition of surface wax altered, whereas the contact angle of applied water droplets on leaf surface of UV-B treated plants did not change significantly compared to the control. The alteration of surface wax quantity and quality significantly affected retention of a.i.; it increased at a sampling time of 24 h after UV-B irradiation, whereas rainfastness of the fungicide spray solution was not significantly influenced. PMID:17365327

Bringe, Katja; Hunsche, Mauricio; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Noga, Georg

2007-02-01

108

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

109

Sociodemographic characteristics and health-related factors affecting the use of Pap smear screening among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study examined the use of the Pap cervical cancer screening test among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan and analyzed factors related thereto. Data were obtained from three national databases in Taiwan: the 2008 database of physically and mentally disabled persons from the Ministry of the Interior, 2007-2008 Pap smear test data from the Health Promotion Administration, and claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study subjects included 49,642 Taiwanese women aged ?30 years with mental disabilities. Besides descriptive and bivariate analyses, logistic regression analysis was also performed to examine factors affecting Pap smear use. In 2007-2008, Taiwanese women with mental disabilities had a Pap screening rate of 11.05%. Age, income, education, marital status, catastrophic illness/injury, relevant chronic illnesses, and severity of disability were identified as factors affecting their Pap smear use. Age and severity of disability were negatively correlated with Pap screening, with the odds of screening being 0.37 times as high in ?70-year-olds as in 30-39-year-olds and 0.49 times as high for very severe disability as for mild disability. Income was positively correlated with Pap screening. Being married (OR=2.55) or divorced or widowed (OR=2.40) relative to being unmarried, and having a catastrophic illness/injury (OR=1.13), cancer (OR=1.47), or diabetes (OR=1.25), were associated with greater odds of screening. In Taiwan, women with mental disabilities receive Pap smears at a far lower rate than women in general. PMID:25462509

Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

2014-11-13

110

Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.  

PubMed

This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. PMID:20374797

Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

2010-03-01

111

Morphology and enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 are affected by the physical and structural characteristics of cellulosic substrates.  

PubMed

The industrial production of cellulolytic enzymes is dominated by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina). In order to develop optimal enzymatic cocktail, it is of importance to understand the natural regulation of the enzyme profile as response to the growth substrate. The influence of the complexity of cellulose on enzyme production by the microorganisms is not understood. In the present study we attempted to understand how different physical and structural properties of cellulose-rich substrates affected the levels and profiles of extracellular enzymes produced by T. reesei. Enzyme production by T. reesei Rut C-30 was studied in submerged cultures on five different cellulose-rich substrates, namely, commercial cellulose Avicel® and industrial-like cellulosic pulp substrates which consist mainly of cellulose, but also contain residual hemicellulose and lignin. In order to evaluate the hydrolysis of the substrates by the fungal enzymes, the spatial polymer distributions were characterised by cross-polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR) in combination with spectral fitting. Proteins in culture supernatants at early and late stages of enzyme production were labeled by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and protein profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001304. In total 124 proteins were identified and quantified in the culture supernatants, including cellulases, hemicellulases, other glycoside hydrolases, lignin-degrading enzymes, auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) family (formerly GH61), supporting activities of proteins and enzymes acting on cellulose, proteases, intracellular proteins and several hypothetical proteins. Surprisingly, substantial differences in the enzyme profiles were found even though there were minor differences in the chemical composition between the cellulose-rich substrates. PMID:25093270

Peciulyte, Ausra; Anasontzis, George E; Karlström, Katarina; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

2014-11-01

112

Intake restriction strategies and sources of energy and protein during the growing period affect nutrient disappearance, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of crossbred heifers.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70% of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P < or = 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P < or = 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P < or = 0.01) and less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80% of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate. PMID:11424699

Wertz, A E; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Nash, T G

2001-06-01

113

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic climate (ARCPAC) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in Southern Russia and Southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 2 and 7 km and a~slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in fresh wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2010-11-01

114

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in southern Russia and southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 3 and 7 km and a slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2011-03-01

115

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

116

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

117

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

118

Seasonal Affective Disorder and Phototherapy: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder and phototherapy have had little exposure to clinicians and researchers in the field of psychology. Past research is critically reviewed, the prevalence of seasonal affective disorders is discussed, and the characteristics of 2 types of seasonal affective disorders—winter depression and summer depression—are described. The effectiveness of phototherapy as well as research on a number of important characteristics

Toru Sato

1997-01-01

119

Does sediment resuspension by storms affect the fate of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in the benthic food chain? Interactions between changes in POM characteristics, adsorption and absorption by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental parameters and gross sedimentation rates (GSR) were monitored at a fixed site located in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (NW Mediterranean), between March 1997 and April 1998, together with the main biochemical characteristics of both sedimenting and sedimented particulate organic matter (POM). Three storms which occurred during this time period resulted in natural sediment resuspension. This is indicated by the corresponding increase in GSR and a decrease in the enzymatically hydrolysable amino acids/totally hydrolysable amino acids ratio (EHAA/THAA), within the sedimenting POM. Only the strongest storm resulted in (1) a transitory increase in fine-grained particles, (2) concomitant increases in organic carbon, carbohydrates, lipids and THAA, and (3) a decrease in the EHAA/THAA ratio in surficial sediments. For most of the assayed parameters, the values recorded after the December 1997 storm corresponded to extremes for the whole period under study. This emphasises the role of storms in controlling the characteristics of sedimented and sedimenting POM. Ten sediment types, with contrasting biochemical characteristics, were selected for experiments; these were based on the results of the monitoring survey and were used during adsorption and absorption experiments involving 14C tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB). Adsorption rates differed significantly between the sediment types, but did not correlate with any of the assayed biochemical parameters. Absorption efficiency by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis also differed between the sediment types; it correlated positively with all the assayed biochemical parameters, except lipids. Comparison between the magnitudes of the increase in GSR, together with the decrease in absorption efficiency during resuspension events, suggests that resuspension tends to enhance the transfer of organic pollutants in the benthic food chain.

Charles, François; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Grémare, Antoine; Michel Amouroux, Jean; Desmalades, Martin; Vétion, Gilles; Escoubeyrou, Karine

2005-12-01

120

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

1 23 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience ISSN 1530-7026 Volume 13 Number 1 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci (2013) 13:46-59 DOI 10.3758/s13415-012-0128-4 Affective value and associative processing

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

121

WATER CONDITIONS AFFECTING AQUATIC LIFE IN ELEPHANT BUTTE RESERVOIRl  

E-print Network

WATER CONDITIONS AFFECTING AQUATIC LIFE IN ELEPHANT BUTTE RESERVOIRl .;1. By M. M. ELLlB, PH. D______________________________________________________________________ 257 Field operations ._______________ 258 Water characteristics, Elephant Butte Reservoi

122

[Affective disorders and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

2014-12-01

123

Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977–2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies. PMID:21918222

Piernas, Carmen

2011-01-01

124

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

1 23 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience ISSN 1530-7026 Volume 13 Number 4 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci (2013) 13:757-770 DOI 10.3758/s13415-013-0172-8 The interplay of attention and emotion

Larson, Christine L.

125

Seasonal affective disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually ... American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Byrne B, Brainard GC. Seasonal affective disorder and light therapy. Sleep Med Clin . 2008;3: ...

126

Quantification of Affective Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need for measurement exists not only in academic events but also in the affective domain. The author presents a procedure for quantification of affective behavior. The procedure contains three stages. One is the conceptualization stage in which personal meanings of elements in the affective domain are examined. Another is the crucial…

Radocy, Rudolf E.

127

Affective Learning — A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

128

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

129

Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation  

PubMed Central

Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed. PMID:23029499

Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

130

Factors affecting the characteristics and utilization of sorghum silage  

E-print Network

'l fbr Kn O. 5 fat, (5) "alt 5-O"-62. 'O. OO 1-. 25 Rocl phosphate, ?-md, re& O. 5 F, (5) Limestone, . md, mn 33 Ca, (6) 6-O 3-946 6-02-632 ~ 5 ~ 75 Reference number and ingredient name obtained from Crampton and Harris, lpo~9. 7...-t Sor hum variet All head 3:1 2:1 1 ~ 1 All stover 53. 54 54. 20 61. 63 59. 55 41. 71 35 ~ 40 '2. 78 66. 92 54. 71 63. 59 44. 33 52. 40 39. 9C 3'. S4 6 O. 23 54. 46 62 51. 94 47. 36 37 ~ 73 22 ' 3' 5O. 54 42 TABLE 17. EFFECT...

Tolbert, Ronnie Edwin

2012-06-07

131

Display Characteristics Affect Users' Emotional Arousal in 3D Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large computer screens are becoming more and more popular among users, and field of view and physical screen size are important\\u000a considerations for users and manufacturers. In this study, we investigated the impacts of visual angles and physical screen\\u000a size on users’ emotional arousal using subjective and physiological measures. The results suggest that larger visual angles\\u000a cause greater galvanic skin

Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata

2006-01-01

132

Water characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on water characteristics is cited in this review article. Acid precipitation has been noted as one of the major environmental problems of the current decade. It poses a serious challenge to national and international bodies to protect water quality. Considerable interest was voiced in 1980 over the causes and effects, prevention and control of acid rain. One study

1981-01-01

133

Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

Jagger, Suzy

2013-01-01

134

Personal and Situational Characteristics in Age Bias: Signs or Samples?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers must evaluate the performance, promotability and potential of workers with very different personal characteristics such as age, sex, or race. The research literature indicates that these personal characteristics affect decisions. Furthermore, these characteristics appear to be more salient and to affect decisions in some situations more…

Cleveland, Jeanette N.; Murphy, Kevin R.

135

Mesoscale characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial length, time, and propagation characteristics of the ocean mesoscale variability are examined throughout the globe. Sea surface height (SSH) variations from a combination of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission, ERS-1, ERS-2, and TOPEX\\/Poseidon altimeter satellites are used to compute the observed covariance of the mesoscale. The mesoscale is defined as the residual SSH after removing a filtered large-scale

G. A. Jacobs; C. N. Barron; R. C. Rhodes

2001-01-01

136

Seasonal Characteristics of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to the seasonal characteristics of light and its effects on Earth and living systems. It consists of a set of lessons in which they conduct direct hands-on field and laboratory investigations using graphing calculators and other scientific equipment. The activities are grouped by topic: life sciences, physical sciences, and mathematics. Students will use spreadsheet and modeling software to investigate how Earth's rotation around the sun affects light intensity, angle, and the Earth-Sun distance; and its effects on plants and animals, by collecting, modeling, and analyzing data.

137

Changes Affecting Human Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary changes in population patterns, power structures, civil rights, and role adaptations, are affecting human interactions and self-concepts. These social changes call for a re-vamped educational system capable of contributing to a genuine community education. (JH)

Dodson, Dan W.

1970-01-01

138

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and winter, when there is less exposure to sunlight during the day. Depression symptoms can be mild ... by shorter daylight hours and a lack of sunlight in winter. Just as sunlight affects the seasonal ...

139

Hormone-induced and DNA Demethylation-induced Relief of a Tissue-specific and Developmentally Regulated Block in Transcriptional Elongation.  

PubMed

Genome-wide studies have revealed that genes commonly have a high density of RNA polymerase II just downstream of the transcription start site. This has raised the possibility that genes are commonly regulated by transcriptional elongation, but this remains largely untested in vivo, particularly in vertebrates. Here, we show that the proximal promoter from the Rhox5 homeobox gene recruits polymerase II and begins elongating in all tissues and cell lines that we tested, but it only completes elongation in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Relief of the elongation block is associated with recruitment of the elongation factor P-TEFb, the co-activator GRIP1, the chromatin remodeling factor BRG1, and specific histone modifications. We provide evidence that two mechanisms relieve the elongation block at the proximal promoter: demethylation and recruitment of androgen receptor. Together, our findings support a model in which promoter proximal pausing helps confer tissue-specific and developmental gene expression through a mechanism regulated by DNA demethylation-dependent nuclear hormone receptor recruitment. PMID:25331959

Rao, Manjeet K; Matsumoto, Yuiko; Richardson, Marcy E; Panneerdoss, Subbarayalu; Bhardwaj, Anjana; Ward, Jacqueline M; Shanker, Sreenath; Bettegowda, Anilkumar; Wilkinson, Miles F

2014-12-19

140

Weather affects us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

Kimmy

2009-11-09

141

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

1990-01-01

142

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

Haviland, Jeannette

143

Elements affecting runway traction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1974-01-01

144

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

145

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

146

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

147

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder is a depressive disorder that afflicts millions worldwide. Although the etiology is unknown, current treatments, including alternative and complementary therapies, provide relief for those suffering from the disorder. As clinical investigation continues, the Internet can be a valuable resource for health care providers and consumers.

Nancy K. Mann

2004-01-01

148

Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a 146 women and 44 men (out- and inpatients; treatment sample) with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD; winter type) were tested\\u000a for gender differences in demographic, clinical and seasonal characteristics. Sex ratio in prevalence was (women : men) 3.6\\u000a : 1 in unipolar depressives and 2.4 : 1 in bipolars (I and II). Sex ratios varied also between different birth cohorts

M. J. Lucht; S. Kasper

1999-01-01

149

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling\\u000a fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained\\u000a the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on\\u000a the static

Lihong Wang; Yingzi Jin; Baoling Cui; Yuzhen Jin; Jin Lin; Yanping Wang; Chuanyu Wu

2010-01-01

150

Factors affecting water coning  

E-print Network

(December 1977) Randy Keith Parker, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Richard A. Morse The production of oil that is underlain by water, through a partially penetrating well at a production rate greater than a certain... of well, reservoir, and fluid parameters, it was found that equivalent systems could be determined that had the same water and oil production characteristics. Most of the we' ll, reservoir, and fluid relationships are based on two equations which were...

Parker, Randy Keith

2012-06-07

151

Neuroanatomy of pseudobulbar affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined as episodes of involuntary crying, laughing, or both in the absence of a matching subjective\\u000a mood state. This neuropsychiatric syndrome can be found in a number of neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis\\u000a (MS). The aim of this study was to identify neuroanatomical correlates of PBA in multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control\\u000a 1.5T MRI study.

Omar Ghaffar; Laury Chamelian; Anthony Feinstein

2008-01-01

152

On the Relation Between Job Characteristics and Depression: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study assumes that workers actively influence the characteristics of their work environment. Not only will one's work environment (job characteristics) affect personal characteristics, such as feelings of depression; depression in turn is expected to affect the characteristics of one's work environment as well. Using a sample of 593 young Dutch workers, a longitudinal model relating feelings of depression

Toon W. Taris; Inge A. Bok; Denise G. Caljé

1998-01-01

153

Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

1987-01-01

154

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

Rohan, Kelly J.

2005-01-01

155

Pseudobulbar affect: prevalence and management  

PubMed Central

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) may occur in association with a variety of neurological diseases, and so may be encountered in the setting of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and brain tumors. The psychological consequences and the impact on social interactions may be substantial. Although it is most commonly misidentified as a mood disorder, particularly depression or a bipolar disorder, there are characteristic features that can be recognized clinically or assessed by validated scales, resulting in accurate identification of PBA, and thus permitting proper management and treatment. Mechanistically, PBA is a disinhibition syndrome in which pathways involving serotonin and glutamate are disrupted. This knowledge has permitted effective treatment for many years with antidepressants, particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A recent therapeutic breakthrough occurred with the approval by the Food and Drug Administration of a dextromethorphan/quinidine combination as being safe and effective for treatment of PBA. Side effect profiles and contraindications differ for the various treatment options, and the clinician must be familiar with these when choosing the best therapy for an individual, particularly elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications. PMID:24348042

Ahmed, Aiesha; Simmons, Zachary

2013-01-01

156

Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

2014-05-01

157

A computational model of affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and feelings (i.e. affects) are a central fea- ture of human behavior. Due to complexity and interdisciplinarity of affective phenomena, attempts to define them have often be en unsatisfactory. This article provides a simple logical str ucture, in which affective concepts can be defined. The set of affects de fined is similar to the set of emotions covered in

Mika Turkia

2008-01-01

158

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference. PMID:23198671

Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

2012-12-01

159

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

160

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder, with episodes that vary in severity. Seasonal patterns of depressive episodes are common, but SAD seems to be less common than such patterns suggest. SAD was at first believed to be related to abnormal melatonin metabolism, but later findings did not support this hypothesis. Studies of brain serotonin function support the hypothesis of disturbed activity. The short-allele polymorphism for serotonin transporter is more common in patients with SAD than in healthy people. Atypical depressive symptoms commonly precede impaired functioning, and somatic symptoms are frequently the presenting complaint at visits to family physicians. The best treatment regimens include 2500 Ix of artificial light exposure in the morning. When patients seem to have no response or to prefer another treatment, antidepressants should be considered. PMID:9802288

Partonen, T; Lönnqvist, J

1998-10-24

161

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

162

The biological affects: a typology.  

PubMed

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects. PMID:10378015

Buck, R

1999-04-01

163

Community structure affects behavior.  

PubMed

AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected. PMID:12316890

Jaenson, C

1991-06-01

164

Parameters affecting radiographic contrast.  

PubMed

Kilovoltage, in most cases a variable readily controlled by the operator, and half-value layer have come to be regarded as factors defining image contrast. This has led to the assumption that comparable levels of image contrast may be obtained using X-ray units operated at the same kilovoltage and with the same half-value layer. To ascertain the validity of this view X-ray beams generated by seven X-ray units were compared with each other and with those from a Gendex Model 1000 operated at the same kilovoltage. The basis for comparison was the level of image contrast the X-ray beams were capable of producing after passage through selected thicknesses of aluminium absorber. While results showed no correlation between the nominal (stated) operating kilovoltage of any X-ray generator studied and the level of image contrast produced, a correlation (-0.98) was found between the measured half-value layer and image contrast when the units tested were compared with the Model 1000. This information should significantly affect the criteria used for the selection and/or operation of X-ray generators. PMID:2097228

Frederiksen, N L; Goaz, P W

1990-11-01

165

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

166

Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

2012-01-01

167

Drugs affecting the eye.  

PubMed

This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of cataract suspected to be induced by allopurinol; numerous additional cases have been reported to the registry since. Phenothiazine, with an estimated 3% incidence of side effects, appears to be safer than other antipsychotic drugs, but the rate of ocular effects increases with the duration of therapy. Thioridazine and chlorpromazine are known to cause lens deposits and pigmentary retinopathy. There is a significantly high prevalence of thrombophlebitis and pseudotumor cerebri among women who use OCs and thrombotic retinal vascular disease, such as retinal vein occulsion, might be linked with them. It also is probable that, because of altered hydration of the cornea, there is a decreased tolerance to contact lenses. PMID:2864912

Taylor, F

1985-08-01

168

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

169

Expanding the link between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differentiated relationship between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes. In previous research, job characteristics were proposed to mediate this relationship. However, the facets of the job characteristics model have not yet been assessed separately. In the present study we tested which job characteristics (i.e., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) mediate the

Thorsten Stumpp; Ute R. Hülsheger; Peter M. Muck; Günter W. Maier

2009-01-01

170

Affective priming in schizophrenia with and without affective negative symptoms.  

PubMed

In the present study automatic perceptual sensitivity to facial affect information was examined in chronic schizophrenic patients. An affective priming task including subliminal and supraliminal presentations of sad and happy facial affect was administered to schizophrenia patients with a flat affect expression (n = 30), schizophrenia patients suffering from anhedonia (n = 30), schizophrenia patients not suffering from anhedonia or flat affect (n = 28), and a group of healthy controls (n = 30). Subjects had to judge valence of neutral Chinese ideographs. Anhedonic and flat affect patients but not patients without affect symptoms were found to be sensitive to negative facial affect on an automatic processing level. None of the schizophrenic patient groups but healthy controls showed a subliminal valence-congruent priming effect based on positive facial affect. Anhedonia as assessed by standardised psychiatric rating was related to a subliminal sensitivity to negative facial expression and a valence-inverted perception of positive facial expression. This pattern of results is largely consistent with predictions derived from Meehl's model of anhedonia. The aversive automatic perception of positive facial expression primarily found in anhedonic patients but also in schizophrenic control patients could lie in structural disturbances concerning the regulation of intimacy and distance. PMID:14714118

Suslow, Thomas; Roestel, Cornelia; Arolt, Volker

2003-12-01

171

Characteristics of potential repository wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

1992-10-01

172

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: imaging characteristics.  

PubMed

The accurate diagnosis of adult pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma necessitates a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical history, biochemical testing, and multimodality imaging such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine studies. This review illustrates the different imaging characteristics of primary adult pheochromocytomas as well as both sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas. The review also describes known genetic associations and shows common metastatic patterns. Knowledge of the diverse appearance of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas can result in early initial diagnosis or detection of disease recurrence thereby affecting patient management and prognosis. PMID:22571874

Baez, Juan C; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Krajewski, Katherine; O'Regan, Kevin; Zukotynski, Katherine; Kulke, Matthew; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

2012-01-01

173

Assortative mating and affective disorders.  

PubMed

Seventy-two spouses of subjects with recurrent primary affective disorders (PAD), were investigated for the presence of psychiatric disorders in their lives and in those of their first degree relatives, and compared with 71 spouses of non-psychiatrically ill control subjects. No difference was found in the risk for PAD; on the other hand spouses of affective patients manifested a greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders belonging to the affective spectrum, as did their respective first-degree relatives. PMID:162486

Negri, F; Melica, A M; Zuliani, R; Smeraldi, E

1979-12-01

174

Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between

David B. Centerbar; Simone Schnall; Gerald L. Clore; Erika D. Garvin

2008-01-01

175

Phentermine, Sibutramine and Affective Disorders  

PubMed Central

A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders. PMID:23678348

An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo

2013-01-01

176

Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.  

PubMed

Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:415-426, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220389

Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

177

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

178

Characteristics of Disaster Associated with Chronic Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, most investigations of the social and psychological effects of disaster have focused on describing the impact of single traumatic events rather than on developing an understanding of how disasters or particular characteristics of disasters affect various groups of victims. This study investigated the hypothesis that stress caused by…

Fleming, India; Baum, Andrew

179

Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing  

PubMed Central

The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

180

Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

Holmqvist, Rolf

2008-01-01

181

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

182

Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

183

Predictors of response to phototherapy in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

We examined data from 44 women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) to determine whether any demographic, diagnostic, or symptomatic characteristics would be predictive of a favorable response to phototherapy. Preexistent hypersomnia was particularly associated with lessening of depression after phototherapy. In contrast to a report elsewhere, both "typical" and "atypical" depressive symptoms correlated with improvement after phototherapy. PMID:1544295

Oren, D A; Jacobsen, F M; Wehr, T A; Cameron, C L; Rosenthal, N E

1992-01-01

184

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

185

Affect and Graphing Calculator Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

McCulloch, Allison W.

2011-01-01

186

Affect and Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

2006-01-01

187

Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs  

PubMed Central

Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

2012-01-01

188

Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)

Fricker, H. S.

1987-01-01

189

Wetland Characteristics and Denitrification  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...

190

Theory of Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.

Tollmien, W.

1949-01-01

191

Pharmacological characteristics of metamizole.  

PubMed

Metamizole (dipyrone) is a popular analgetic, non-opioid drug, commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. In some cases, this agent is still incorrectly classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Metamizole is a pro-drug, which spontaneously breaks down after oral administration to structurally related pyrazolone compounds. Apart from its analgesic effect, the medication is an antipyretic and spasmolytic agent. The mechanism responsible for the analgesic effect is a complex one, and most probably rests on the inhibition of a central cyclooxygenase-3 and activation of the opioidergic system and cannabinoid system. Metamizole can block both PG-dependent and PG-independent pathways of fever induced by LPS, which suggests that this drug has a profile of antipyretic action distinctly different from that of NSAIDs. The mechanism responsible for the spasmolytic effect of metamizole is associated with the inhibited release of intracellular Ca2+ as a result of the reduced synthesis of inositol phosphate. Metamizole is predominantly applied in the therapy of pain of different etiology, of spastic conditions, especially affecting the digestive tract, and of fever refractory to other treatments. Co-administration of morphine and metamizole produces superadditive, antinociceptive effects. Metamizole is a relatively safe pharmaceutical preparation although it is not completely free from undesirable effects. Among these side-effects, the most serious one that raises most controversy is the myelotoxic effect. It seems that in the past the risk of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis was exaggerated. Despite the evidence showing no risk of teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, the drug must not be administered to pregnant women, although it is allowed to be given to pregnant and lactating animals. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of metamizole in the light of current knowledge. PMID:24724493

Jasiecka, A; Ma?lanka, T; Jaroszewski, J J

2014-01-01

192

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to current 3D black codes that simulate binary black holes. A prime application of characteristic evolution is Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

J. Winicour

2001-02-20

193

Globally mapping baseflow characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing baseflow, the slowly varying portion of streamflow, is important for water resources management, hydropower generation, tracking contaminant transport, and other applications. Most previous studies of baseflow have analyzed small groups of catchments with similar characteristics. Now, to develop globally applicable models of baseflow characteristics, Beck et al. studied observations from 3394 catchments around the world with a variety of climatic, hydrological, and physiographic characteristics. Their novel approach investigates the relationship between catchment characteristics and baseflow characteristics, showing how baseflow is related to annual potential evaporation, mean snow water equivalent depth, abundance of surface water bodies, and other landscape characteristics. Their global maps of baseflow characteristics—which could be useful for benchmarking and calibrating hydrological models and for a variety of other hydrological applications—are freely available at http://www.hydrology-amsterdam.nl.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-12-01

194

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

195

How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic cancer patients to maintain weight for several reasons. Many ...

196

Insight in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of

S. Nassir Ghaemi; Gary S Sachs; Claudia F Baldassano; Christine J Truman

1997-01-01

197

Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

Vaslilyeva, V. P.

1980-01-01

198

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2005-12-08

199

Family Intimacy and Affection: A Sociology of Positive Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with aspects of positive family affect in intimate family relationships such as: (1) the nuclear family of orientation, including the child-parent subgroup and the sibling subgroup; (2) the nuclear family of procreation, including the marital subgroup and parent-child subgroup; and (3) the dating relationship. Interpersonal…

Martinson, Floyd M.

200

Compressor and fan wake characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

1978-01-01

201

Educators' professional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced to collect the various characteristics for diverse academic oriented goals. A set of ten

R. Krishnaveni; J. Anitha

2007-01-01

202

Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

203

Do Unions Affect Faculty Salaries?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculates the union relative wage effect for a large sample of college faculty in the United States. The data used are from "The 1977 Survey of the American Professoriate" and cover 4,250 faculty members at 158 institutions of higher education. Faculty characteristics are found to be more important in influencing salaries in nonunion schools than…

Ashraf, Javed

1992-01-01

204

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

205

Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

Randall Young; Lingling Zhang

2005-01-01

206

Do Killer Electrons Affect You?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This full color tri-fold brochure answers questions about high energy particles in space and how they are produced, when and where they occur, and how they can affect us. It also includes lists of web and print resources for further study.

2007-01-01

207

Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

208

Psychological Factors Affecting Cardiologic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are substantial data supporting a strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases and psychological conditions. However, the criteria for scientific validation of the entities currently subsumed under the DSM-IV category of ’Psychological factors affecting a medical condition’ have never been clearly enumerated and the terms ’psychological symptoms’ and ’personality traits’ that do not satisfy traditional psychiatric criteria are not well defined;

C. Rafanelli; R. Roncuzzi; F. Ottolini; M. Rigatelli

2007-01-01

209

Factors Affecting Survival and Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists of four parts. First, the authors review the literature on factors that affect job satisfaction and longevity among various professional groups. Second, they report the results of a pilot survey of 27 master's level oncology social workers in Michigan designed to explore the perceived impact of variables identified in the literature-personal history, patient-related factors, organizational dynamics, social

Linda Supple-Diaz; Debbie Mattison

1992-01-01

210

Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS.

Michael Terman; Susan M. Levine; Jiuan S. Terman; Sean Doherty

1998-01-01

211

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs  

E-print Network

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

Hoeinghaus, David J.

212

Earthworm species composition affects the soil bacterial community and net nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the effects of species diversity within taxonomic groups on nutrient cycling is important for understanding the role of soil biota in sustainable agriculture. We hypothesized that earthworm species specifically affect nitrogen mineralization, characteristically for their ecological group classifications, and that earthworm species interactions would affect mineralization through competition and facilitation effects. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate

Maria B. Postma-Blaauw; Jaap Bloem; Jack H. Faber; Jan Willem van Groenigen; Ron G. M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard

2006-01-01

213

Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

2008-01-01

214

Delineation of salt-affected soils through digital analysis of Landsat MSS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat MSS digital data over parts of Uttar Pradesh (Northern India) covering an area of 60243 km were analysed on an interactive multispectral data analysis system (MDAS) to delineate salt-affected soils. Based on the spectral response of these soils and subsequent correlation in the field by studying terrain characteristics and soil profiles, two categories of salt-affected soils that require different

A. N. SINGH; R. S. DWIVEDI

1989-01-01

215

Age Differences in Temporal Discounting: The Role of Dispositional Affect and Anticipated Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined age differences in temporal discounting, the tendency to devalue delayed outcomes relative to immediate ones, with particular emphasis on the role of affective responses. A life-span sample completed an incentive-compatible temporal discounting task involving both monetary gains and losses. Covariates included demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, personality traits, affective responses, and subjective health. Advanced age was associated with a

Corinna E. Löckenhoff; Ted ODonoghue; David Dunning

2011-01-01

216

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

217

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-print Network

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

Jeffrey Winicour

2012-01-12

218

Pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder is a common variant of recurrent major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Treatment with bright artificial light has been found to be effective in this condition. However, for patients who do not respond to light therapy or those who lack compliance, conventional drug treatment with antidepressants also has been proposed. Substances with selective serotonergic or noradrenergic mechanisms should be preferred over older antidepressants. Although there are a number of open and controlled studies evaluating different compounds, these studies were often limited by relatively small sample sizes. Furthermore, there are no studies specifically addressing bipolar seasonal depression. This article will review the published literature on pharmacotherapy of seasonal affective disorder. PMID:16041297

Pjrek, Edda; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried

2005-08-01

219

Mitochondrial dysfunction affecting visual pathways.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to cellular energetic impairment, which may affect the visual pathways, from the retina to retrochiasmal structures. The most common mitochondrial optic neuropathies include Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy, but the optic nerve can be affected in other syndromic conditions, such as Wolfram syndrome and Friedreich's ataxia. These disorders may result from mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA or in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Despite the inconstant genotype-phenotype correlations, a clinical classification of mitochondrial disorders may be made on the basis of distinct neuro-ophthalmic presentations such as optic neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy and retrochiasmal visual loss. Although no curative treatments are available at present, recent advances throw new light on the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders. Current research raises hopes for novel treatment of hereditary optic neuropathies, particularly through the use of new drugs and mitochondrial gene therapy. PMID:24798923

Leruez, S; Amati-Bonneau, P; Verny, C; Reynier, P; Procaccio, V; Bonneau, D; Milea, D

2014-05-01

220

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions  

PubMed Central

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes. PMID:22101346

Busi, Maria V.; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E.; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

2011-01-01

221

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions.  

PubMed

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes. PMID:22101346

Busi, Maria V; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

2011-12-01

222

[Affective disorders and biological rhythms].  

PubMed

Disruptions of circadian rhythms are described in affective disorders, including unipolar and bipolar disorder, but also seasonal affective disorder. Sleep-wake and hormone circadian rhythms are among the most quoted examples. Depression could be conceptualized as a desynchronization between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the exogenous stimuli, such as sunlight and social rhythms. Accordingly, Clock genes have been studied and the literature suggests that variants in these genes confer a higher risk of relapse, more sleep disturbances associated with depression, as well as incomplete treatment response. Most of therapeutic interventions in depression have an impact on biological rhythms. Some of them exclusively act via a biological pathway, such as sleep deprivation or light therapy. Some psychosocial interventions are specifically focusing on social rhythms, particularly in bipolar disorder, in which the promotion of stabilization is emphasized. Finally, all antidepressant medications could improve biological rhythms, but some new agents are now totally focusing this novel approach for the treatment of depression. PMID:18706345

Le Strat, Y; Ramoz, N; Gorwood, P

2008-06-01

223

DEPRESSION: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Depression is a disorder of the representation and regulation of mood and emotion. The circuitry underlying the representation and regulation of normal,emo- tion and mood is reviewed, including studies at the animal level, human lesion studies, and human,brain imaging,studies. This corpus of data is used to construct a model,of the ways,in which,affect can become,disordered in depression. Research on

Richard J. Davidson; Diego Pizzagalli; Jack B. Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

2002-01-01

224

Affective e-Learning: Using \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using emotion detection technologies from biophysical signals, this study explored how emotion evolves during learning process and how emotion feedback could be used to improve learning experiences. This article also described a cutting-edge pervasive e-Learning platform used in a Shanghai online college and proposed an affective e-Learning model, which combined learners' emotions with the Shanghai e-Learning platform. The study was

Liping Shen; Minjuan Wang; Ruimin Shen

2007-01-01

225

What Variables Affect Crystal Growth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate variables that may influence the growth of crystals which they have learned to make. There are two options for implementing this activity. The first is open-ended, with the students deciding what variables affect crystal growth and then deciding on the manipulating variables they would like to study. The second is prescriptive and explains to students how to test three variables in making crystals: temperature, method of mixing (such as shaking or stirring), and concentration.

226

Affective cycling in thyroid disease  

SciTech Connect

Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

Tapp, A.

1988-05-01

227

[Affective disorders and personality disorders].  

PubMed

Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. PMID:25550233

Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

2014-12-01

228

Pharmacotherapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current first-line treatment for patients with winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is bright-light therapy, that\\u000a is exposure to strong artificial light visible to the eye. Patients at risk of light-induced eye damage, such as those using\\u000a photosensitizing medication, need to consult an ophthalmologist before the bright-light therapy is started, and eventually\\u000a at regular intervals thereafter. Antidepressant drugs have not

Timo Partonen

229

Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities. PMID:14727793

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

2003-01-01

230

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

231

Identifying plant family characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed for students to discover how making observations of the environment is the key to making sound predictions. Students will also learn how both positive and negative outcomes of these predictions can affect and shape future decisions.

Kate Olson Riverway Learning Community Minnesota City, Mn

232

[Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].  

PubMed

The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. PMID:25550242

Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

2014-12-01

233

A Characteristic Particle Length  

E-print Network

It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

Mark D. Roberts

2014-06-14

234

Management of seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Low mood associated with a certain season (usually winter) is very common. For example, in the UK, up to 6% of adults have "recurrent major depressive episodes with seasonal pattern", commonly known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). People with SAD consult in primary care more often than age- and gender-matched control groups; patients also receive more prescriptions and are referred more often to secondary care. Around 6-35% of patients require hospitalisation for SAD at some point.5 Here we discuss the management of adults with SAD, and in particular light therapy. PMID:19887687

2009-11-01

235

Cognitive aging affects motor performance and learning.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence indicates that declines in cognitive and motor functioning are often observed when we age. The interdependence of cognition and behavior has been reported in a wide range of studies. However, research on the cognitive-motor associations in aging has been lacking. We review behavioral and neural characteristics of cognitive aging in relation to motor aging and aim to elucidate their interrelationships in an aging context. From a developmental view, we propose an integrative concept focusing on the dynamics of cognitive functioning, motor performance and skill acquisition. In the framework, representations and motor learning potential are closely related. and supported by distributed neural systems, which are less susceptible to functional declines in the aging process. Mostly supported by high-level areas, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are closely related. As high-level areas are more vulnerable during aging, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are substantially affected when one approaches late adulthood. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22817645

Ren, Jie; Wu, Yan D; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

2013-01-01

236

Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

Gorti, Sridhar

2013-01-01

237

Affect Intensity Analysis of Dark Web Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affects play an important role in influencing people's perceptions and decision making. Affect analysis is useful for measuring the presence of hate, violence, and the resulting propaganda dissemination across extremist groups. In this study we performed affect analysis of U.S. and Middle Eastern extremist group forum postings. We constructed an affect lexicon using a probabilistic disambiguation technique to measure the

Ahmed Abbasi; Hsinchun Chen

2007-01-01

238

NUTRIENT BIOAVAILABILITY IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt affected soils limit crop yields around the world. Knowledge of how nutrient availability is affected in plants growing on salt affected soils is important in adopting appropriate management practices to satisfy plants’ nutritional requirements and improve yields to meet food demands of increasing world populations. In the salt affected environment plants required to absorb essential nutrients from a dilute

N. K. Fageria; H. R. Gheyi; A. Moreira

2011-01-01

239

Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))

1993-06-01

240

Seasonal affective disorder: an overview.  

PubMed

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a condition of regularly occurring depressions in winter with a remission the following spring or summer. In addition to depressed mood, the patients tend to experience increased appetite and an increased duration of sleep during the winter. SAD is a relatively common condition, affecting 1-3% of adults in temperate climates, and it is more prevalent in women. The pathological mechanisms underlying SAD are incompletely understood. Certain neurotransmitters have been implicated; a dysfunction in the serotonin system in particular has been demonstrated by a variety of approaches. The role of circadian rhythms in SAD needs to be clarified. The phase-delay hypothesis holds that SAD patients' circadian rhythms are delayed relative to the sleep/wake or rest/activity cycle. This hypothesis predicts that the symptoms of SAD will improve if the circadian rhythms can be phase-advanced. There is some experimental support for this. SAD can be treated successfully with light therapy. In classical light therapy, the SAD sufferer sits in front of a light box, exposed to 2000-10,000 lux for 30-120 min daily during the winter. Other forms of light treatments, pharmacotherapy, and other therapies are currently being tested for SAD. PMID:12723880

Magnusson, Andres; Boivin, Diane

2003-03-01

241

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

242

Study of radiation characteristic of airborne sensor based on tarps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation characteristic of aerial sensor directly affects the quantitative application level of sensor data. In order to study the radiation characteristic, we carried out the radiation characteristic test based on ground tarps laid onto the calibration field of image quality in Anyang, Henan. The airborne sensor was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. 8 gray-scale tarps and 4 tarps of high reflectance were laid onto the calibration field and they were all with better Lambert radiation characteristic and spectral performance uniformity. Preliminary results show that the bias is larger and the effective dynamic range is smaller and the SNR is lower but the linearity and repeatability are better which can be used to test the response performance of the sensor. Overall, the radiation characteristic tarps laid on the calibration field are suitable for the study of in-flight radiation characteristic of the aerial digital sensor.

Yu, Xiujuan; Qi, Weijun; Fang, Aiping

2014-07-01

243

Hypergol engine restart characteristics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several hard restarts and two failures to restart occurred during simulated high-altitude testing of the three Apollo spacecraft primary propulsion engines. Abnormal restarts resulted from flow perturbations by trapped propellants, ignition characteristics of partially frozen propellants, and fuel nitrate retention. Engine restart characteristics are correlated with thermodynamic phenomena that occur after engine shutdown; these include desorption of dissolved pressurant gases and evaporative freezing of propellant residuals. These results are applied to conceptual space shuttle OMS hypergol engines to identify potential restart problems.

Kerkam, B. F.; Kahl, R. C.

1972-01-01

244

Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease.

Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

2015-01-01

245

Alcoholism and seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in mood and behavior (seasonality) may be closely related to alcoholism. Some patients with alcoholism have a seasonal pattern to their alcohol misuse. They may be self-medicating an underlying seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with alcohol or manifesting a seasonal pattern to alcohol-induced depression. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of alcoholism and SAD, operating, at least in part, through the brain serotonergic system. Family and molecular genetic studies suggest that there may be a genetic link between seasonality and alcoholism. Certain environmental and social factors may contribute to the development of seasonality in patients with alcoholism. The fact that SAD and alcoholism may be comorbid shows the importance of a thorough diagnostic interview. Both mental health and drug and alcohol professionals should be provided with education to assist with appropriate identification, management, and referral of patients presenting with comorbid alcoholism and SAD. PMID:14671737

Sher, Leo

2004-01-01

246

Metering Characteristics of Carburetors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

1919-01-01

247

Interrelationships of Watershed Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the principles of dimensional analysis to obtain the relationships between characteristics of the unit hydrograph and topographic and morphometric properties of a watershed is not possible unless careful consideration is given to the selection of variables. Evidence is presented which shows that, in small watersheds, drainage-area size A, length of the main stream L, and length to

Don M. Gray

1961-01-01

248

Employment Characteristics of Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

2001-01-01

249

Attractive characteristics of mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the attractive characteristics of mirror devices is presented. Recent progress in development of axisymmetric mirror devices is described. Potentialities of mirrors as a basis for D{sup 3}He fusion power generators and high-flux neutron sources for fusion material tests are discussed.

Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

1994-12-15

250

Characteristics of Cheetahs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some characteristics of cheetahs? First, go to Graphic Organizer and use this graphic organizer to organize your answers to the following questions. Second, go to Cheetah Pictures and look at these pictures of cheetahs. Write five things that describe what cheetahs look like and record your answers in your graphic organizer under "What They Look Like" Third, ...

Ms.weathers

2012-04-05

251

Characteristics of Hypermedia Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses those characteristics of effective and efficient hypermedia presentations that are important for consideration by educators in developing and/or selecting such presentations. Definitions of hypertext, hypermedia, and multimedia are provided, and the relationships among these terms are described. Four other terms useful to…

Lewis, Wiley B.; Jansen, Duane G.

252

Behavioural characteristics of rapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of past research on rapists has focused on their motives. This paper reports on two studies that investigated the behavioural characteristics of rapists. The first study gathered behavioural data from police rape files to determine the types of behaviours exhibited by 130 men charged with rape. The second study was designed to validate the behavioural clusters found

Marita P. McCabe; Michelle Wauchope

2005-01-01

253

Profiling Freshman Academic Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An academic characteristics profile database for freshmen at the Pennsylvania State University is briefly described. The database was constructed through the Freshman Testing, Counseling, and Advising Program (FTCAP), which is designed to assist new freshmen in evaluating their educational plans by providing them, prior to initial registration, a…

Kelly, James J.; White, Eric R.

254

Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles.  

PubMed

Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 ?m Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 ?m totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns. PMID:22939204

Destefano, Joseph J; Schuster, Stephanie A; Lawhorn, Jason M; Kirkland, Joseph J

2012-10-01

255

Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Inner ear symptoms like hearing loss, dizziness or tinnitus are often developed after head trauma, even in cases without inner ear destruction. This is also known as labyrinthine concussion. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical manifestations, characteristics of audiometry and prognostic factors of these patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of the 40 patients that had been diagnosed as labyrinthine concussion from 1996 to 2007. We studied the hearing levels in each frequency and classified them according to type and degree of hearing loss. Rates of hearing improvement were evaluated according to age, sex, hearing loss type, degree and presence of dizziness or tinnitus. To find out any correlation between hearing improvement and these factors, we used ?2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 22 patients, and unilateral hearing loss in 18 patients. There were 4 (6.5%) ascending, 34 (54.8%) descending, 24 (38.7%) flat type hearing loss, which indicated hearing loss was greater in high frequencies than low frequencies. Among 62 affected ears, 20 (32.3%) gained improvement, and it was achieved mainly in low frequencies. There were only 2 ears with dizziness in 20 improved ears and among 20 dizziness accompanied ears, also only 2 ears were improved. Conclusions High frequencies are more vulnerable to trauma than low frequencies. The hearing gain is obtained mainly in low frequencies, and association with dizziness serves poor prognosis. PMID:24653897

Choi, Mi Suk; Yeon, Je Yeob; Choi, Young Seok; Kim, Jisung; Park, Soo Kyoung

2013-01-01

256

Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

1994-01-01

257

Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.  

PubMed

Ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (HATCH) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. Because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (THICK), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (EWL) and HATCH of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. The effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; LP); and THICK on EWL and HATCH were assessed by categorizing the eggs as having either low, intermediate, or high LP or low, intermediate, or high THICK. Mean EWL was higher (P<0.05) in eggs of the high LP group when compared with eggs in either the low or intermediate LP groups that lost similar amounts of weight during incubation. Mean HATCH was also higher (more than 25%; P<0.10) in eggs with high LP when compared with the HATCH found in eggs having low LP. Eggs from the intermediate LP group had an intermediate HATCH response. Moreover, numbers of LP were positively correlated to both EWL (r2 = 0.64; P<0.0001) and HATCH (r2 = 0.25; P<0.03). Inverse relationships existed between THICK and EWL and between THICK and HATCH according to the order (P< 0.05): eggs of low THICK, highest mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of intermediate THICK, intermediate mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of highest THICK, lowest mean EWL and HATCH. Shell thickness was not correlated to either EWL or HATCH. The influence of egg size on mean LP, THICK, EWL, HATCH, and chick weight (CWT) was assessed. Although THICK was unaffected by egg size, higher LP (P<0.10), EWL (P<0.05), and HATCH (P<0.10) were found in medium-sized eggs when compared with either small or large eggs. The CWT was associated with egg size (P<0.05) according to the order: large eggs, highest CWT > medium eggs, intermediate CWT > small eggs, lowest CWT. Neither EWL nor HATCH was affected by length of preincubation egg storage. Collectively, our findings suggest that 1) ostrich eggs that possess low LP and increased THICK hatched poorly, 2) intermediate-sized eggs hatch best, 3) large eggs produced large chicks, and 4) ostrich eggs can be stored under conditions typically used in the poultry industry for a minimum of 10 d without negatively impacting HATCH. PMID:10515354

Gonzalez, A; Satterlee, D G; Moharer, F; Cadd, G G

1999-09-01

258

The roles of affect dysregulation and positive affect in non-suicidal self-injury.  

PubMed

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavior, yet little is known about associated affective mechanisms. Research has focused on the role of negative affect in NSSI, with positive affect receiving relatively less attention. This study examined affect dysregulation, emotional reactivity, and the experience of positive and negative affect in NSSI. Path analyses revealed that emotional reactivity predicted positive and negative affect after NSSI. Positive affect, in turn, predicted more lifetime acts of NSSI. The results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple facets of affect regulation, as well as the roles of both negative and positive affect in NSSI. PMID:22852783

Jenkins, Abigail L; Schmitz, Mark F

2012-01-01

259

Itraconazole affects Toxoplasma gondii endodyogeny.  

PubMed

The antifungal agent itraconazole is an effective drug against systemic mycoses inhibiting cytochrome P-450-mediated ergosterol synthesis, essential for fungal survival. In this work, we show the activity of this azole as a potential agent against Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Monolayers of LLC-MK2 epithelial cells infected with tachyzoites of RH strain were incubated with different concentrations of itraconazole for 24 and 48 h. The IC(50) values obtained were 114.0 and 53.6 nM for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of itraconazole-treated intracellular tachyzoites showed endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope swelling. The drug also caused rupture of the parasite's surface membrane and affected the parasite's division by endodyogeny. This observation was confirmed both by fluorescence microscopy of cells labeled with diamidino-2-phenylindole and by three-dimensional reconstruction of serial thin sections analyzed by TEM. The treatment with itraconazole led to the formation of a mass of daughter cells, suggesting the interruption of the scission process during the parasite's cell division. PMID:18371067

Martins-Duarte, Erica Dos Santos; de Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia

2008-05-01

260

Spatial layout affects speed discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

1997-01-01

261

Negative affect in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Negative affect appears frequently in rheumatic diseases, but studies about their importance and prevalence in systemic sclerosis patients are scarce, and the results are inconclusive separately. We conducted a comprehensive search on April 2013 of PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO databases to identify original research studies published. A total of 48 studies were included in this systematic review. We found negative emotions have very high levels in these patients, compared to both healthy population other chronic rheumatic patients assessed with the same instruments and cutoffs. Depression has been, of the three negative emotions that we approach to in this review, the most widely studied in systemic sclerosis, followed by anxiety. Despite the fact that anger is a common emotion in these diseases is poorly studied. Methodologic issues limited the ability to draw strong conclusions from studies of predictors. Disease-specific symptoms (swollen joints, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms and digital ulcers) and factors related to physical appearance were associated with negative emotions. Interdisciplinary care and biopsychosocial approach would have a great benefit in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:24071931

Leon, Leticia; Abasolo, Lydia; Redondo, Marta; Perez-Nieto, Miguel Angel; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Casado, Maria Isabel; Curbelo, Rafael; Jover, Juan Angel

2014-05-01

262

Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification  

PubMed Central

We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically “deaf” and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech. PMID:25374551

Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

2014-01-01

263

Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

1995-01-01

264

Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

1984-01-01

265

Characteristics of healthcare wastes  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries.

Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)], E-mail: ludiaz@calrecovery.com; Eggerth, L.L. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States); Enkhtsetseg, Sh. [Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Savage, G.M. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)

2008-07-01

266

The heterosexual affectional system in monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that the heterosexual affectional system in the rhesus monkey, like all the other affectional systems, goes through a series of developmental stages––an infantile heterosexual stage, a preadolescent stage, and an adolescent and mature heterosexual stage.\\

Harry F. Harlow

1962-01-01

267

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

Not Available

1992-07-01

268

Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as ?13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated ?13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

2012-12-01

269

Dyadic affect regulation in three caregiving environments.  

PubMed

Investigation of patterns of mother-child affect across three caregiving groups indicated that both adolescent and adult high-social-risk mothers showed less individual positive affect than did adult low-social-risk mothers. High-social-risk adolescent mothers also showed more individual negative affect and participated with their children in more dyadically misregulated affect exchanges than did adult mothers from either high- or low-social-risk environments. PMID:8037234

Hann, D M; Osofsky, J D; Barnard, K E; Leonard, G

1994-04-01

270

The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange capacity. The highest amount of mercury was adsorbed by the vermicompost from garden bio-waste. This vermicompost contained the most humic acids and the least amount of other fractions of organic matter. Acknowledgements: Financial support for these investigations was provided by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic; Project No. 503/12/0682 and Czech University of Life Science Prague; Project No. 21140/1313/3130.

Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Ji?ina

2014-05-01

271

Transport of labile carbon in runoff as affected by land use and rainfall characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobilization of organic carbon (C) by water erosion could impact the terrestrial C budget, but the magnitude and direction of that impact remain uncertain due to a lack of data regarding the fates and quality of eroded C. A study was conducted to monitor total organic C and mineralizable C (MinC) in eroded materials from watersheds under no till

P.-A. Jacinthe; R. Lal; L. B. Owens; D. L. Hothem

2004-01-01

272

Technical parameters affecting image characteristics in in vivo MR microscopy of the mouse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the effects of changing acquisition parameters used for high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy on image quality and scan time. The head or abdomen of 11 normal and 1 glioblastoma-bearing anesthetized BALB/c mice were imaged using a high-resolution 7.0-Tesla magnet. Scan parameters such as matrix size (MTX), slice thickness (ST), number of excitations (NEX), pulse sequence type including repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE), respiratory gating, and intraperitoneal contrast medium administration were altered to assess their actual effect on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as compared to calculated effects. As expected, SNR increased with increasing ST or NEX and with decreasing MTX. However, although the empirical increase in SNR was similar to that expected for increased ST, it was less than that anticipated for increasing NEX or decreasing MTX. Increasing NEX and applying respiratory gating both increased SNR and reduced the image degradation associated with respiratory motion in images of the abdomen. Intraperitoneal contrast medium administration produced a marked increase in CNR in the subject with the implanted glioblastoma, suggesting that this route is satisfactory for the enhancement of lesions disrupting the blood-brain barrier. The consequence of improving image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution is increased scan time. However, the actual increase in SNR when altering acquisition parameters may not be as much as predicted by theory. PMID:12502104

Yamada, Kazutaka; Wisner, Erik R; de Ropp, Jeff S; LeCouteur, Richard A; Tripp, Linda D

2002-01-01

273

Student Characteristics Affecting the Decision to Enroll in a Community College: Economic Rationale and Empirical Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a probit model to examine determinants of U.S. college students' choice of attendance at two-year community colleges compared to a four-year college. The empirical work was based on the latest National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The set of explanatory variables included academic performance, students' involvement in…

Joshi, Prathibha V.; Beck, Kris A.; Nsiah, Christian

2009-01-01

274

Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk  

E-print Network

1nvestigated. Both Wisconsin Mast1tis Test (WMT) positive and negative samples were used in all investi- gat1ons. Individual quarter milk samples were obtained from cows 1n the Texas A&M University herd. The samples were selected to obtain a posi.... Randolph's graduate students for their unselfish assistance, espec1ally Otto Hampton and Ronnie Erw1n. Mr. Huff at the A&M University dairy herd was of 1nvaluable help in collecting milk samples for th1s study. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...

Bollinger, Dean Herman

1972-01-01

275

Work conditions and personality characteristics affecting job satisfaction of student interns in extended health care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

58 undergraduates employed as summer interns in extended health care facilities completed the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey (AVL) Study of Values, the TAT, and at least 25 daily logs in which they recorded activities and rated them according to a satisfaction index. Significantly high AVL social and low political and economic scores were found among the intern Ss attracted to health care summer

George H. Labovitz; Charles D. Orth

1972-01-01

276

Forest Stand Characteristics Altered by Restoration Affect Western Bluebird Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest managers are setting Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- derosa) forests in the southwestern United States on a tra- jectory toward a restored ecosystem by reducing tree densities and managing with prescribed fire. The process of restoration dramatically alters forest stands, and the ef- fects of these changes on wildlife remain unclear. Our research evaluated which aspects of habitat alteration from

Catherine S. Wightman; Stephen S. Germaine

2006-01-01

277

Factors affecting the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of vowels in clear speech  

E-print Network

the environment and the listener. For example, when we talk to people with hearing loss, we slow down our speech to the listener who was hard of hearing. The main effects of word frequency and neighborhood density were also (hard of hearing vs. normal hearing) and the lexical properties of words (frequency and phonological

Edinburgh, University of

278

Teams developing business ideas: how member characteristics and conflict affect member-rated team effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team researchers have found that the diversity to effectiveness ratings are mediated by team conflict. Using a sample of 73\\u000a teams developing their business ideas, I found direct effects of diversity and conflict on member-rated team effectiveness.\\u000a Here, I explain how the circumstances under which these teams operate can lead to these findings. For these teams, task conflict\\u000a was found

Maw-Der Foo

2011-01-01

279

Physical and chemical characteristics of topographically affected airflow in an open borehole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole UZ6S, on the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, has exhaled approximately 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of gas annually during winter months for three successive years. The flow arises from thermal-topographic effects. The average composition of the exhausted gas is: N{sub 2} = 78%, O{sub 2} = 21%, Ar = 0.94%, CO{sub 2} = 0.125%, and CH{sub 4} = 0.2 ppMv. The CO{sub 2} has the following isotopic signature: {sup 14}C = 108.5 percent modern carbon (pmc), and {delta}{sup 13}C = 17.1 per mil. In the thirty-month observation period, there has been a net flux to the atmosphere of approximately 40 m{sup 3} of liquid water and 1150 kg of carbon. The gas flowing from UZ6S appears to originate in the soil and/or shallow unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain crest. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Thorstenson, D.C.; Woodward, J.C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA); Weeks, E.P. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (USA); Haas, H. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA). Radiocarbon Lab.

1989-12-31

280

Analysis of the characteristics of mouthguards that affect isokinetic muscular ability and anaerobic power  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of occlusal stability to identify action mechanisms of mouthguards, known to have a modulatory effect on limb muscle function. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 20 male subjects to perform the isokinetic muscle tests and the Wingate anaerobic power test on both knee joints under five closed-mouth conditions: without or with 4 types of mouthguards with thickness of 2 mm based on premolar area: (1) full-coverage, (2) anterior partial-coverage, (3) right posterior partial-coverage, and (4) left posterior partial-coverage. The obtained results were subjected to One-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by post hoc test of the contrast method (?=.05). RESULTS There was no significant difference between the closed position with and without a full-coverage mouthguard in all variables. However, significant differences were observed between with and without a partial-coverage mouthguard in muscular endurance during extension of the left knee, muscular power and endurance during flexion of the right knee. Additionally, significant differences were found between occlusal states with full- and partial-coverage mouthguards in muscular power and endurance during extension of the left knee. CONCLUSION These findings indicate the elevation of vertical dimension by 2 mm or the inducement of occlusal stability had little effect on isokinetic muscle strength and anaerobic performance, while uneven distribution of occlusal force might have some positive effects. PMID:24353875

Jung, Jae-Kwang; Chae, Woen-Sik

2013-01-01

281

Investigation of formulation factors affecting in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a galantamine transdermal system.  

PubMed

Because of low treatment compliance with the Alzheimer disease patients, there have been clinical needs for the alternative administration route to effective and well-tolerated approaches of galantamine (Small and Dubois, 2007). In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patches with galantamine were prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro permeation studies indicated that DT-2510 was the most suitable pressure-sensitive-adhesive and oleic acid was the most promising enhancer for galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch. The optimized galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch could be physicochemically stable for 28 days at 40 °C/75% RH. The in vivo studies of the optimized galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch showed high absolute bioavailability of around 80% and sustained effect on the drug plasma levels for 24 h. The in vitro and in vivo studies of galantamine drug-in-adhesive patches with different pressure-sensitive-adhesive functional groups showed a strong correlation between the skin permeation rate and the area under the curve. The results suggest that the transdermal application of galantamine drug-in-adhesive patches might be the alternative dosage form to have good efficacy and tolerability for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22771734

Park, Chun-Woong; Son, Dao-Danh; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Tack-Oon; Ha, Jung-Myung; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

2012-10-15

282

Nodulation Characteristics, Nodule Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Pigeon Pea as Affected by Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legume pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important rainfed crop in many areas of the world. Production can be reduced when high nitrogen is present and symbiotic activity is low. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen rate on nodulation, nodule carbon, and nitrogen fixation in 40 pigeon pea genotypes. Nitrogen was applied

Bhupinder Singh; Binod Kumar Singh

2011-01-01

283

Characteristics of brush treatments affecting habitat use patterns by cattle in South Texas  

E-print Network

, such as broomweed (Xanthoce halum spp. ) and flowered thistle (Cirsium spp. ), were characterized by visually estimating cover (4) and by measuring their height (cm) within each 0. 5 m quadrat. 2 Fistula Collections Four esophageally fistulated cows were...

Rowland, Mary Ellen

1988-01-01

284

Positive Affect and Processes of Recovery among Treatment-Seeking Methamphetamine Users  

PubMed Central

Background Revised Stress and Coping Theory proposes that positive affect serves adaptive functions, independent of negative affect. However, scant research has examined whether, how, and under what circumstances positive affect is associated with decreased substance use. Methods Eighty-eight methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) completed the baseline assessment for substance abuse treatment outcome study which included measures of positive and negative affect, cognitive-behavioral change processes (i.e., approach-oriented coping, self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, and abstinence-related action tendencies), abstinence-specific social support, and self-reported substance use. Participants also provided a urine sample for toxicology screening. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and negative affect, higher positive affect was independently associated with greater approach-oriented coping, abstinence-related action tendencies, and abstinence-specific social support. Positive affect was also independently associated with greater self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, but only at lower levels of negative affect. Through these cognitive-behavioral and social pathways, positive affect was indirectly associated with lower frequency of stimulant use in the past 30 days, lower odds of reporting stimulant use two or more days in a row, and lower odds of providing a urine sample that was reactive for stimulant metabolites. On the other hand, negative affect was not indirectly associated with any measure of stimulant use. Conclusions Clinical research is needed to examine the pathways whereby positive affect may predict better substance abuse treatment outcomes. PMID:23684632

Carrico, Adam W.; Woods, William J.; Siever, Michael D.; Discepola, Michael V.; Dilwort, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Miller, Nicole; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

2015-01-01

285

An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.  

PubMed

Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. PMID:24438316

Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

2014-03-01

286

An Affect Control Theory of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

Shank, Daniel B.

2010-01-01

287

Cyanobacterial chemical warfare affects zooplankton community composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Toxic algal blooms widely affect our use of water resources both with respect to drinking water and recreation. However, it is not only humans, but also organisms living in freshwater and marine ecosystems that may be affected by algal toxins. 2. In order to assess if cyanobacterial toxins affect the composition of natural zooplankton communities, we quantified the

LARS-ANDERS HANSSON; SUSANNE GUSTAFSSON; KARIN RENGEFORS; LINA BOMARK

2007-01-01

288

'Tis the Season for Seasonal Affective Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. 'Tis the Season for Seasonal Affective Disorder Expert explains this type of depression, including symptoms ... Preidt Monday, December 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Seasonal Affective Disorder MONDAY, Dec. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Seasonal affective ...

289

Affectivity: Regulation, Identity Formation, and Metaphorical Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding affects, and their multiple roles in all aspects of the human condition and development, has more and more become a focus of study for contemporary psychoanalysis. Psychodynamic personality theories have always regarded affective life as pivotal to developmental experiences, the evolving structures of the personality, identity formation, and clinical processes. The centrality of emotion in development and affect regulation,

Randolph Lucente

2008-01-01

290

Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.  

PubMed

Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue. PMID:15219110

Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

2004-06-01

291

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

292

Positive affective and cognitive states in borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder (BPD) by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of and discriminating for BPD. Seventeen positive states (4 affective, 10 cognitive, and 3 mixed) were found to be significantly more common among axis II comparison participants than borderline patients. Twelve of these states were common to both borderline patients and axis II comparison participants. Furthermore, four positive states, when co-occurring together, were particularly strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (three negatively and one positively): (a) Fond of myself, (b) That things around me are real, (c) That I've forgiven others, and (d) Assertive. Finally, the overall mean score on the PAS significantly distinguished patients with borderline personality disorder from axis II comparison participants. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients are far less likely to report experiencing positive states of an affective, cognitive, and mixed nature than axis II comparison participants. They also suggest that being assertive is a positive state particularly discriminating for borderline personality disorder. PMID:22217230

Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C

2011-12-01

293

Determination of living cell characteristics and behavior using biophotonic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of methods for the determination of the characteristics and the behavior of living neural cells. A technology which is used is the deep ultraviolet (DUV) modification of methylmethacrylate polymers which leads to a new surface chemistry affecting the selective absorption of proteins and the adhesion of living cells in vitro. The bi-functionality of the modified

Dominik G. Rabus; Alexander Welle; R. Adam Seger; Yasuhisa Ichihashi; Mathias Bruendel; Jeremy Hieb; Michael Isaacson

2006-01-01

294

Dynamic characteristics of automobile gearbox of simulation and experimental research  

Microsoft Academic Search

to the gearbox. This affecting the performance of a vehicle car seriously. Taking a heavy vehicle transmission as experimental object, which the finite element modal simulation analysis; According to the actual condition fault mechanism transmission and vibration characteristics, design the vibration and noise test system, for the collected vibration and noise signal PSD analysis. Modal simulation analysis points out the

Duan Nengquan; Cai Xuanming; Wang Junyuan

2011-01-01

295

Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses…

Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2005-01-01

296

Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

2014-01-01

297

Wave Types and Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first in a series of new marine meteorology modules based on COMET’s old laser disk and CD-ROM modules on marine meteorology. This module is an introduction to waves and their associated characteristics. Several types of waves are presented, from the common wind wave to the rare tsunami wave. The basic physical, mathematical, and statistical traits of waves are discussed, along with how they change once waves become swell. This material serves as a building block to subsequent modules on wave generation, propagation, and dispersion.

COMET

2003-07-31

298

Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

299

LANDSCAPE MODELING OF CHARACTERISTIC HABITAT SCALES, DISPERSAL, AND CONNECTIVITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANISM  

EPA Science Inventory

A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...

300

Affective priming using a color-naming task: a test of an affective-motivational account of affective priming effects.  

PubMed

The affective priming effect, i.e. shorter response latencies for affectively congruent as compared to affectively incongruent prime-target pairs, is now a well-documented phenomenon. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific processes that underlie the affective priming effect. Several mechanisms have been put forward by different authors, but these theoretical accounts only apply to specific types of tasks (e.g. evaluation lexical decisions) or are rather unparsimonious. Hermans, De Houwer, and Eelen (1996) recently proposed a model of the affective priming effect that is based on the idea of the activation of corresponding or conflicting affective-motivational action tendencies. According to this model, affectively incongruent prime-target pairs should not only lead to relatively longer response latencies on tasks that concern the target word itself (target-specific tasks, e.g. evaluation pronunciation), but also on tasks that are unrelated to the actual identity of the specific target word. This hypothesis was tested in a series of four experiments in which participants had to name the color in which the target word was printed. In spite of procedural variations, results showed that the congruence between the valence of prime and target did not influence the color-naming times. The present results therefore provide no direct support for the affective-motivational account of the affective priming effect. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:9677860

Hermans, D; Van den Broeck, A; Eelen, P

1998-01-01

301

Surface characteristics of thermally treated titanium surfaces  

PubMed Central

Purpose The characteristics of oxidized titanium (Ti) surfaces varied according to treatment conditions such as duration time and temperature. Thermal oxidation can change Ti surface characteristics, which affect many cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the surface characteristics and cell response of thermally treated Ti surfaces. Methods The samples were divided into 4 groups. Control: machined smooth titanium (Ti-S) was untreated. Group I: Ti-S was treated in a furnace at 300? for 30 minutes. Group II: Ti-S was treated at 500? for 30 minutes. Group III: Ti-S was treated at 750? for 30 minutes. A scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess surface characteristics and chemical composition. The water contact angle and surface energy were measured to assess physical properties. Results The titanium dioxide (TiO2) thickness increased as the treatment temperature increased. Additional peaks belonging to rutile TiO2 were only found in group III. The contact angle in group III was significantly lower than any of the other groups. The surface energy significantly increased as the treatment temperature increased, especially in group III. In the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, after 24 hours of incubation, the assessment of cell viability showed that the optical density of the control had a higher tendency than any other group, but there was no significant difference. However, the alkaline phosphatase activity increased as the temperature increased, especially in group III. Conclusions Consequently, the surface characteristics and biocompatibility increased as the temperature increased. This indicates that surface modification by thermal treatment could be another useful method for medical and dental implants. PMID:22803009

Lee, Yang-Jin; Cui, De-Zhe; Jeon, Ha-Ra; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Ok-Su

2012-01-01

302

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

303

Affect, cognition, and awareness: Affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective primacy hypothesis ( R. B. Zajonc, 1980 ) asserts that positive and negative affective reactions can be evoked with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing. The present work tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of affective and cognitive priming under extremely brief (suboptimal) and longer (optimal) exposure durations. At suboptimal exposures only affective primes produced

Sheila T. Murphy; R. B. Zajonc

1993-01-01

304

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

DOEpatents

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19

305

Growth Characteristics of Organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter a systems viewpoint is taken of the growth characteristics of normal and malignant tissue. We find that such growth is well analyzed by the concepts of Shannon and Fisher information. In Section 3.1 conventional mechanisms of information transmission via DNA, RNA, and proteins are identified, as well as unconventional structures such as lipids and ion gradients. Information storage, flow, and utilization are analyzed, both within cells and over a system of cells. In Section 3.2, malignant tissue growth is found to be accurately described by the use of Fisher information in particular. Cancer growth is seen to occur as a disease of information, in fact an information catastrophe due to the regression of cells to a minimally ordered state consistent with life. The analysis yields many predictions about the growth of healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, some of which are nonintuitive and have a strong bearing on cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Gatenby, Robert A.; Frieden, B. Roy

306

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

307

Age differences in temporal discounting: the role of dispositional affect and anticipated emotions.  

PubMed

We examined age differences in temporal discounting, the tendency to devalue delayed outcomes relative to immediate ones, with particular emphasis on the role of affective responses. A life-span sample completed an incentive-compatible temporal discounting task involving both monetary gains and losses. Covariates included demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, personality traits, affective responses, and subjective health. Advanced age was associated with a lower tendency to discount the future, but this effect reached statistical significance only for the discounting of delayed gains. An examination of covariates suggested that age effects were associated with age differences in mental health and affective responses rather than demographic or cognitive variables. PMID:21534688

Löckenhoff, Corinna E; O'Donoghue, Ted; Dunning, David

2011-06-01

308

Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major... Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee fg M ber Head f Depar tmen Mem er Member January 1969 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting...

Tallamy, Paul Thomas

1969-01-01

309

Consumer expectations, liking and willingness to pay for specialty foods: Do sensory characteristics tell the whole story?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Region of origin of food products affects consumer valuation in two different ways. First, origin can act as a quality cue hinting to other characteristics of the good. Secondly, origin can affect directly the value of food due to its symbolic or affective role. This study was carried out in order to investigate the direct effect of geographical origin

Gianluca Stefani; Donato Romano; Alessio Cavicchi

2006-01-01

310

Management Practices Affect Production and Profitability  

E-print Network

Management Practices Affect Production and Profitability Historically, the level of net returns, and a pharmaceutical company. The program was developed to improve profitability and sustainability of beef cow

311

Role of serotonin in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

This review was prepared with an aim to show role of serotonin in seasonal affective disorder. Seasonal affective disorder, which is also called as winter depression or winter blues, is mood disorder in which persons with normal mental health throughout most of the year will show depressive symptoms in the winter or, less commonly, in the summer. Serotonin is an important endogenous neurotransmitter which also acts as neuromodulator. The least invasive, natural, and researched treatment of seasonal affective disorder is natural or otherwise is light therapy. Negative air ionization, which acts by liberating charged particles on the sleep environment, has also become effective in treatment of seasonal affective disorder.   PMID:23329523

Gupta, A; Sharma, P K; Garg, V K; Singh, A K; Mondal, S C

2013-01-01

312

Author's personal copy Offspring sex, current and previous reproduction affect feeding  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Offspring sex, current and previous reproduction affect feeding behaviour. In the other, lactating females spent 4% less time feeding than nonlactating females. Day and midday activity with individual characteristics and environmental conditions. Ã? 2013 The Association for the Study of Animal

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

313

How Features of Educational Technology Applications Affect Student Reading Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review is to learn from rigorous evaluations of alternative technology applications how features of using technology programs and characteristics of their evaluations affect reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards.…

Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

2012-01-01

314

HARD WHEAT MILLING AND BREAD BAKING TRAITS AFFECTED BY THE SEED-SPECIFIC OVEREXPRESSION OF PUROINDOLINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain texture affects many milling characteristics and end-use qualities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) such as milling yield, flour particle size, and starch damage. In wheat, grain texture is controlled primarily by the two genes puroindoline a (pina) and puroindoline b (pinb) that reside at the ...

315

Determining the cooling affected volume by adding microcoolers in the steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents the calculus of the cooling affected volume by adding a quantity of microcoolers in the liquid steel when it is casted. When directing the crystal germination processes in the casted steel bar, small and uniform seeds are resulting who lead to short solidifying and homogenization times and high values of the mechanical characteristics of the blanks obtained from these bars.

Pascu, Liviu; Stoica, Diana Monica; Socalici, Ana

2012-09-01

316

DIETARY BORON, FISH OIL, AND THEIR INTERACTION AFFECT RAT BEHAVIOR AND BRAIN MINERAL COMPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both boron (B) and fish oil (FO) are thought to affect central nervous function though influencing the physicochemical characteristics of cell membranes. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether FO instead of safflower oil (SO) in the diet would modify changes in rat behavior and brai...

317

Geographic Variability in Salt Marsh Flooding Patterns may Affect Nursery Value for Fishery Species  

E-print Network

Geographic Variability in Salt Marsh Flooding Patterns may Affect Nursery Value for Fishery Species (outside the USA) 2011 Abstract Flooding of salt marshes controls access to the marsh surface for aquatic geographic variability in marsh access by measuring tidal flooding characteristics in 15 Spartina

318

Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine whether high or low levels of platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity were associated with an increased risk of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or of developing characteristic vegetative symptoms during episodes of the disorder. We also investigated the relationship between MAO activity and the Global Seasonality Scale (GSS), a measure of

Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Odd Lingjærde; Lars Oreland

1996-01-01

319

Geosynchronous platform definition study. Volume 3: Geosynchronous mission characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the study were to examine the nature of currently planned and new evolutionary geosynchronous programs, to analyze alternative ways of conducting missions, to establish concepts for new systems to support geosynchronous programs in an effective and economical manner, and to define the logistic support to carry out these programs. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to define and examine general geosynchronous mission characteristics and the potentially applicable electromagnetic spectrum characteristics. An organized compilation of these data is given with emphasis on the development and use of the data. Fundamental geosynchronous orbit time histories, mission profile characteristics, and delivery system characteristics are presented. In addition, electromagnetic spectrum utilization is discussed in terms of the usable frequency spectrum, the spectrum potentially available considering established frequency allocations, and the technology status as it affects the ability to operate within specific frequency bands.

1973-01-01

320

Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

Degner, Juliane

2011-01-01

321

Oklahoma Affective Education: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide is for elementary and secondary level educators who are interested in affective education and in formulating their own strategies for more meaningful learning experiences in their classrooms. The guide is based on the idea that affective learning is essential and that the best learning experiences are those in which the…

Oklahoma City Public School System, OK.

322

Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

2006-01-01

323

Attention to Affect in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect

Arnold, Jane

2011-01-01

324

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

325

Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

Schneider, Mark

326

Why People Vote? Rationality or Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine whether voters mainly depend on rationality or affect to make their turnout decisions. By utilizing the data of ANES 1976, 1988 and 2008, we find that in the 1976 presidential election, it is mainly affect to have an influence on people’s decision on whether to vote. However, in the 1988 and 2008

Ching-Hsing Wang

327

Subjectivist Psychology: An Affective-Constructivist Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes subjectivist psychology, discussing its use for guiding teaching and learning. Subjectivist psychology focuses on joint cognitive and affective experiences of learning. It describes the natural affective-cognitive enculturation processes that children experience in learning the skills, understandings, and values of their…

Bastick, Tony

328

EEG mapping in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that the nature of hemispheric dysfunction is different in heterogeneous disorders, in the present investigation EEG power mapping was applied to establish neurophysiological profiles that might potentially discriminate patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) among other affective disorders. The baseline resting EEG activity was recorded from 31 depressed SAD patients and 30 controls. Power in the delta, theta-1, theta-2,

Nina V Volf; Natalia R Passynkova

2002-01-01

329

Affect Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although difficulty with affect regulation is generally considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD), surprisingly little research has focused on the nature of affect regulation and dysregulation in BPD. A random national sample of 117 experienced clinicians provided data on a randomly selected patient with BPD (N 90) or dysthymic disorder (DD; N 27). Clinicians described their patients

Carolyn Zittel Conklin; Rebekah Bradley; Drew Westen

2006-01-01

330

Environmental Factors Related to the Distribution, Abundance, and Life History Characteristics of Mountain Whitefish in Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni are a broadly distributed native salmonid in western North America, but comparatively little investigation has been made regarding their population characteristics. We surveyed 2,043 study sites to assess whether physiochemical stream conditions affected mountain whitefish distribution and abundance in southern Idaho, and at 20 of these sites life history characteristics were also estimated. A total of

Kevin A. Meyer; F. Steven Elle; James A. Lamansky Jr

2009-01-01

331

Effects of local and regional landscape characteristics on wildlife distribution across managed forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impacts of local and regional landscape characteristics on spatial distributions of wildlife species is vital for achieving ecological and economic sustainability of forested landscapes. This understanding is important because wildlife species such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have the potential to affect forest dynamics differently across space. Here, we quantify the effects of local and regional landscape characteristics

James D. A. Millington; Michael B. Walters; Megan S. Matonis; Jianguo Liu

2010-01-01

332

The social value effect on individual characteristics of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine the effect of social value to individual characteristic (need for uniqueness and attitude toward luxury fashion brands). Other than that, it also aims to examine the effect of social value on the cognitive-affective model (perceived quality and emotional value) through individual characteristic of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand. The researcher will study

Amani Aqeel

2012-01-01

333

Friend Influence on Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Motivational Factors and Friendship Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined motivation (prosocial goals), individual characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and grade), and friendship characteristics (affective quality, interaction frequency, and friendship stability) in relation to middle adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N=208) attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic…

Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

2006-01-01

334

Students' Preferences Regarding Four Characteristics of Information Literacy Screencasts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information literacy screencasts were created by librarians and integrated into all of the nursing department's distance learning courses. Before creating more videos, the researcher decided to evaluate the screencasts' effectiveness based on certain video characteristics. The researcher identified four characteristics that might affect

Baker, Ariana

2014-01-01

335

Influence of top management team vision and work team characteristics on innovation : The Spanish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This work has three main objectives – to analyse whether the strategic vision of the top management team (TMT) directly affects firms' innovation performance; to shed some light on which of the intrinsic characteristics of work teams proposed in the literature influence innovation; and to analyse the joint effect that the TMT's vision and the work team's characteristics

Camelo-Ordaz Carmen; Martínez-Fierro Salustiano

2006-01-01

336

Wind-tunnel procedure for determination of critical stability and control characteristics of airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.

Goett, Harry J; Jackson, Roy P; Belsley, Steven E

1944-01-01

337

Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis

Prapatsorn Tipparat; Surapol Natakankitkul; Pipop Chamnivikaipong; Sirot Chutiwat

338

Characteristics of Eggs, Embryos, and Chicks from Broiler Breeder Hens Selected for Growth or Meat Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic selection among 3 commercial broiler crosses had affected egg, embryo, and chick quality characteristics. It was thought that different selection strategies had affected the development of the chick embryo. Eggs were obtained from 3 maternal strains mated to a common sire strain, and all were similar in flock age

N. S. Joseph; E. T. Moran

339

Wetting Characteristics of Immiscibles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early microgravity experiments with immiscible alloys were usually carried out with the intent of forming dispersed microstructures. By processing under microgravity conditions, the main mechanism leading to gross phase separation could be eliminated. However, analysis of flight samples revealed a separated structure where the minor phase was present along the outer surface, while the major phase was present in the center. The Wetting Characteristics of Immiscibles (WCI) project, which flew aboard the USMP-4 (United States Microgravity Payload) mission in November of 1997, was designed to gain insight into the mechanisms causing segregation of these alloys. This investigation utilized an immiscible transparent organic alloy system and a transparent container in order to facilitate direct observation of the separation process. A range of immiscible alloy compositions was utilized in order to obtain variations in the minor and major phases present and observe the influence on the segregation processes. A small composition range was found where the minor liquid phase perfectly wet the cell gasket. Unexplained observations were made at the extremes of the composition range.

Andrews, J. B.; Little, L. J.

1999-01-01

340

Arcjet load characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.

Hamley, John A.

1990-01-01

341

Characteristics of Pulsating Aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulsating auroral patches observed with an all-sky imager located at Poker Flat, Alaska. Pulsating aurora often covers the entire sky with intermixed large and small-scale patches that vary in intensity or disappear and reappear on different time scales and timings. The broad definition of pulsating aurora covers patches and bands from tens to several tens of km which have a quasi-periodic temporal variation from 1 s to tens of seconds. In this paper we examine >15 patches from different events. We analyze all-sky movies (557.7 nm, 3.31 Hz) with a simple, yet robust, technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability of the >15 individual patches. A spatial 2D Fourier Transform is used to separate the aurora into different horizontal scale sizes, and by correlating each patch for all image separations and available scale sizes smaller than the patch itself, we reveal what scale sizes are pulsating and their variability. The patches are found to be persistent, meaning that we can follow them for typically 5 minutes. The period of the pulsations is often remarkably variable and it seems that only certain scale sizes pulsate (typically the size of the patch). The patches drift with the background ExB plasma drift indicating that the magnetospheric source mechanism drifts with the field lines.

Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mann, I. R.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

2013-12-01

342

Neuroticism, Negative Affect, and Negative Affect Instability: Establishing Convergent and Discriminant Validity Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

Few investigations have examined the role of affective instability within a broad model of general personality functioning. The present study employed self-report and ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to examine the relations between self-reported Five-Factor Model Neuroticism, EMA average negative affect, and EMA negative affect instability. Results suggest that Neuroticism and negative affect instability are related yet distinct constructs, and that Neuroticism better represents average negative affect across time. Results also suggest that negative affect instability is related to low Agreeableness and specific externalizing facets of Neuroticism, such as Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness. The implications of these findings and potential areas for future research are discussed. PMID:20160976

Miller, Drew J.; Vachon, David D.; Lynam, Donald R.

2009-01-01

343

The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology  

PubMed Central

The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system. PMID:16262989

Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

344

Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

2014-01-01

345

Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

346

Context of Success, Affective Arousal, and Generosity: The Neglected Role of Negative Affect in Success Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary Boys' generosity toward peers following a success experience varied according to resulting positive and negative affects. Role of context of success relative to affective arousal and generosity were explored. Results indicated importance of considering the context of success and relevance of negative affects induced by a success…

Bryant, Brenda K.

1983-01-01

347

Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect

Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

2009-01-01

348

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

349

Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?  

MedlinePLUS

... affect fertility? How is a man tested for infertility? The most common test of a man’s fertility ... of abnormally shaped sperm has been associated with infertility in some studies. Usually, higher numbers of abnormally ...

350

Examining the Effectiveness of Affective Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a Hawthorne control group. The treatment consisted of participation in the Toward Affective Development Program. No treatment effects were noted, regardless of sex or class membership. (Author)

Hudgins, Edward Wren

1979-01-01

351

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with Hearing Gradual hearing loss is common ... loss. Impaired hearing has no direct effect on oral health. However, it can make it harder for patients ...

352

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Dean, Stephen O.

1999-06-01

353

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Stephen O. Dean

1999-01-01

354

28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.  

...PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected...requirements is to allow members of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of...

2014-07-01

355

28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected...requirements is to allow members of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of...

2013-07-01

356

28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected...requirements is to allow members of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of...

2012-07-01

357

An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Glenn Soltes

2012-06-28

358

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

359

Race, Ethnicity Affect Breast Cancer Survival  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Race, Ethnicity Affect Breast Cancer Survival, Study Shows New ... as surviving it, vary greatly depending on your race and ethnicity, a new study indicates. "It had ...

360

Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

361

Pesticide Properties that Affect Water Quality  

E-print Network

In order to keep our water supplies safe from pesticide contamination, we must understand which pesticide properties affect water quality, and how. The subject is complex, as properties such as pesticide class, formulation, toxicity, dose, effective...

Stevenson, Douglas; Baumann, Paul A.; Jackman, John A.

1997-06-30

362

Diabetes May Affect Kids' Brain Growth  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Diabetes May Affect Kids' Brain Growth, Study Reports But there was no effect on ... HealthDay News) -- High blood sugar may slow brain growth in young children with type 1 diabetes, a ...

363

Beyond usability -- affect in web browsing  

E-print Network

This research concentrates on the visual aesthetics of a website, investigating the web user's affective/emotional reactions to different designs of web homepage aesthetics and their influence on subsequent behaviors of web users. Drawing...

Deng, Liqiong

2009-06-02

364

How Will a Pacemaker Affect My Lifestyle?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Will a Pacemaker Affect My Lifestyle? Once you have ... are safe for you. Ongoing Care Your doctor will want to check your pacemaker regularly (about every ...

365

Research Note Radiotransmitter Mount Type Affects Burrowing  

E-print Network

Research Note Radiotransmitter Mount Type Affects Burrowing Owl Survival JENNIFER A. GERVAIS,1 cunicularia, backpack harnesses, burrowing owl, California, radiocollars, radiotagging mortality. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) typify a species whose relatively small size (ca. 150 g; Haug et al

Gervais, Jennifer

366

How Will Cancer Affect My Sex Life?  

MedlinePLUS

... for all this? How will cancer affect my sex life? Sexual feelings and attitudes vary greatly among ... you were comfortable with and enjoyed a healthy sex life before starting treatment, chances are you will ...

367

Negative affect, emotional acceptance, and smoking cessation.  

PubMed

This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention. PMID:18303707

Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A

2007-12-01

368

Mom's Obesity May Affect Newborn Survival  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mom's Obesity May Affect Newborn Survival Infant deaths are more ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Problems in Pregnancy Obesity WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity during ...

369

Allergy Meds Could Affect Your Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Allergy Meds Could Affect Your Driving Search the Consumer ... the windshield of your car, you know it’s allergy season again. When your body comes into contact ...

370

Phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder in Alaska.  

PubMed

Six patients with seasonal affective disorder showed marked improvement in depressive symptoms after following three different 2-hour schedules of bright artificial light, and they relapsed when the light was withdrawn. PMID:3728720

Hellekson, C J; Kline, J A; Rosenthal, N E

1986-08-01

371

Molecular Characteristics of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally lethal disease and despite extensive research over the last decades, this has not changed significantly. Nevertheless, much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suggesting that different therapeutic strategies based on these new insights are forthcoming. Increasing focus exists on designing the so-called targeted treatment strategies in which the genetic characteristics of a tumor guide therapy. In the past, the focus of research was on identifying the most frequently affected genes in PDAC, but with the complete sequencing of the pancreatic cancer genome the focus has shifted to defining the biological function that the altered genes play. In this paper we aimed to put the genetic alterations present in pancreatic cancer in the context of their role in signaling pathways. In addition, this paper provides an update of the recent advances made in the development of the targeted treatment approach in PDAC. PMID:21512581

Ottenhof, Niki A.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

2011-01-01

372

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics  

E-print Network

A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics in Virtual Environments Deliverable to Office of Naval This document can be found at http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/jgabbard/ve/taxonomy/ #12;#12;A Taxonomy of Usability accomplished, yielding a comprehensive multi-dimensional taxonomy of usability characteristics specifically

Gabbard, Joseph L.

373

Cyanobacterial Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinity has been an important historical factor which has influenced the life span of agricultural systems. Around 10% of\\u000a the total cropped land surface is covered with different types of salt-affected soils and the Asian continent accounts for\\u000a the largest area affected by the salinity of various intensities. Cyanobacteria are capable of not only surviving, but thriving\\u000a in conditions which

Nirbhay Kumar Singh; Dolly Wattal Dhar

374

Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved,\\u000a although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or\\u000a alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current\\u000a evidence regarding the association of unipolar

Briana Mezuk

2008-01-01

375

Melatonin in Psychiatric Disorders – Subtyping Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered diurnal secretory patterns, i.e. altered phase and\\/or amplitude of melatonin have been reported in sleep and affective disorders. The alteration may depend on environmental factors which in vulnerable individuals may cause sleep and\\/or affective disorders. Early stress in conjunction with development of resistance to corticotropin-releasing hormone may be linked to the low melatonin syndrome in subgroups of depressed patients.

Björn Wahlund

1999-01-01

376

Environmental affect and participation in interpretation  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECT AND PARTICIPATION IN INTERPRETATION A Thesis by MARTHA ANN GILES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major... Subject: Recreation and Resources Development ENVIRONMENTAL AFFECT AND PARTICIPATION IN INTERPRETATION A Thesis by MARTHA ANN GILES Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committee Member Member Head of Department August 1982 ABSTRACT...

Giles, Martha Ann

2012-06-07

377

Does Early Psychosocial Stress Affect Mate Choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early psychosocial stress (e.g., parental divorce, abuse) is conjectured to place individuals on a developmental trajectory\\u000a leading to earlier initiation of sexual activity, earlier reproduction, and having more sex partners than those with less\\u000a early psychosocial stress. But does it also affect an individual’s mate choice? The present study examined whether early psychosocial\\u000a stress affects preferences and dislikes for opposite-sex

Nicole Koehler; James S. Chisholm

2009-01-01

378

Diagnosing and managing seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Mood and behavior changes that have a seasonal pattern were first called seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in 1984. SAD, which affects about 5% of Americans, is most common among reproductive-age women. Afflicted patients typically experience debilitating somatic complaints of fatigue, discomfort, lethargy and atypical depressive complaints of hypersomnia, increased appetite, carbohydrate craving, and weight gain. This article presents current issues in the clinical assessment and management of SAD. PMID:10971935

Johnson, R M

2000-08-01

379

Factors affecting the nutritive value of bermudagrasses  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by Nilliam Aylmer Rainwater Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December..., 1975 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by WILLIAM AYLMER RAINWATER Approved as to style and content by: , ~A; (' v'~ (Chairman of Committee) t-c-+ (Head of Departm t) d. ~ c . D...

Rainwater, William Aylmer

1975-01-01

380

Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste  

SciTech Connect

Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

NONE

1995-11-01

381

An analysis of parameters affecting slapdown of transportation packages  

SciTech Connect

Several parameters affecting the accelerations experienced by packages for the transport of nuclear material during eccentric impact are evaluated. Eccentric impact on one end of a cask causes rotation leading to secondary impact, referred to as slapdown, at the other end. In a slapdown event, the rotational acceleration during the primary impact can cause accelerations at the nose and tail which are greater than those during a side-on impact. Slapdown can also cause acceleration at the tail during the secondary impact to be more severe than at the nose during primary impact. Both of these effects are investigated for two casks geometries. Other parameters evaluated are the characteristics of impact limiters and friction between the impact limiter the impacted surface. Results were obtained using SLAPDOWN, a code which models the impact response of deformable bodies. 2 refs., 11 figs.

Bergmann, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1991-01-01

382

Evaluation of Visual Characteristic in Dense Fog using Landolt Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our visual characteristics are affected by various visual environments. In this experiment, we examine how things look in a dense fog. Namely, 4 subjects evaluated their eyesight in a fog of four kinds of particle diameters using colored-landolt ring. Yellow color was given the best eyesight in a dense fog. In other words, under such visual environment, yellow visibility was the best. This tendency was remarkable as the diameter of a fog particle became small.

Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Takamatsu, Mamoru; Nakashima, Yoshio

383

Habitat availability and animal community characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

1984-12-01

384

The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

385

Social Anxiety Modulates Subliminal Affective Priming  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established that there is anxiety-related variation between observers in the very earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual processing of images such as emotionally expressive faces, often leading to enhanced attention to threat in a variety of disorders and traits. Whether there is also variation in early-stage affective (i.e. valenced) responses resulting from such images, however, is not yet known. The present study used the subliminal affective priming paradigm to investigate whether people varying in trait social anxiety also differ in their affective responses to very briefly presented, emotionally expressive face images. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants (n?=?67) completed a subliminal affective priming task, in which briefly presented and smiling, neutral and angry faces were shown for 10 ms durations (below objective and subjective thresholds for visual discrimination), and immediately followed by a randomly selected Chinese character mask (2000 ms). Ratings of participants' liking for each Chinese character indicated the degree of valenced affective response made to the unseen emotive images. Participants' ratings of their liking for the Chinese characters were significantly influenced by the type of face image preceding them, with smiling faces generating more positive ratings than neutral and angry ones (F(2,128)?=?3.107, p<0.05). Self-reported social anxiety was positively correlated with ratings of smiling relative to neutral-face primed characters (Pearson's r?=?.323, p<0.01). Individual variation in self-reported mood awareness was not associated with ratings. Conclusions Trait social anxiety is associated with individual variation in affective responding, even in response to the earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual image processing. However, the fact that these priming effects are limited to smiling and not angry (i.e. threatening) images leads us to propose that the pre-attentive processes involved in generating the subliminal affective priming effect may be different from those that generate attentional biases in anxious individuals. PMID:22615873

Paul, Elizabeth S.; Pope, Stuart A. J.; Fennell, John G.; Mendl, Michael T.

2012-01-01

386

The Physical Characteristics of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

1998-01-01

387

Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  

PubMed

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-02-01

388

Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk  

PubMed Central

Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

2015-01-01

389

Habitat degradation may affect niche segregation patterns in lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lizards partition resources in three main niche dimensions: time, space and food. Activity time and microhabitat use are strongly influenced by thermal environment, and may differ between species according to thermal requirements and tolerance. As thermal characteristics are influenced by habitat structure, microhabitat use and activity of lizards can change in disturbed habitats. We compared activity and microhabitat use of two abundant lizard species of the Semi-arid Chaco of Argentina between a restored and a highly degraded Chaco forest, to determine how habitat degradation affects lizard segregation in time and space, hypothesizing that as activity and microhabitat use of lizards are related to habitat structure, activity and microhabitat use of individual species can be altered in degraded habitats, thus changing segregation patterns between them. Activity changed from an overlapped pattern in a restored forest to a segregated pattern in a degraded forest. A similar trend was observed for microhabitat use, although to a less extent. No correlation was found between air temperature and lizard activity, but lizard activity varied along the day and among sites. Contrary to what was believed, activity patterns of neotropical diurnal lizards are not fixed, but affected by multiple factors related to habitat structure and possibly to interspecific interactions. Changes in activity patterns and microhabitat use in degraded forests may have important implications when analyzing the effects of climate change on lizard species, due to synergistic effects.

Pelegrin, N.; Chani, J. M.; Echevarria, A. L.; Bucher, E. H.

2013-08-01

390

The Ipsilesional Upper Limb Can Be Affected following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective. Neurological dysfunction commonly occurs in the upper limb contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain in which stroke occurs; however, the impact of stroke on function of the ipsilesional upper limb is not well understood. This study aims to systematically review the literature relating to the function of the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke and answer the following research question: Is the ipsilesional upper limb affected by stroke? Data Source. A systematic review was carried out in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. Review Methods. All studies investigating the ipsilesional upper limb following stroke were included and analysed for important characteristics. Outcomes were extracted and summarised. Results. This review captured 27 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies provided evidence that the ipsilesional upper limb can be affected following stroke. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that clinicians should consider ipsilesional upper limb deficits in rehabilitation and address this reduced functional capacity. Furthermore, the ipsilesional upper limb should not be used as a “control” measure of recovery for the contralateral upper limb. PMID:24379748

Kitsos, Gemma H.; Hubbard, Isobel J.; Kitsos, Alex R.; Parsons, Mark W.

2013-01-01

391

EEG-based workload estimation across affective contexts  

PubMed Central

Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG) offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human–computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood), has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful) while the participant solved a task with two workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain–computer interfaces in general. PMID:24971046

Mühl, Christian; Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien

2014-01-01

392

Seasonal panic disorder: a possible variant of seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

The present communication concerns a 30 year-old female patient with panic disorder in whom panic attacks appeared to be seasonally-related. Characteristically, attacks were more frequent and severe during the months of October to May with spontaneous remissions during the months of June to September. Since 70% of patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a variant of affective illness characterized by recurrent winter depressions with remissions in summer, suffer from anxiety disorders, we propose that seasonal panic disorder may be a variant of SAD. Since SAD is associated with phase delay of circadian rhythms, some forms of panic disorder may be related to phase instability of circadian rhythms. Moreover, since administration of artificial bright light therapy is currently the most effective treatment for SAD, it is suggested that patients with panic disorder should be questioned as to whether their symptoms are seasonally related. If a positive association is established, these patients should be offered treatment with light therapy prior to or coincident with the institution of pharmacotherapy. PMID:1305610

Sandyk, R; Dann, L C

1992-02-01

393

Dynamic musical communication of core affect.  

PubMed

Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified "scene" that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

Flaig, Nicole K; Large, Edward W

2014-01-01

394

Affective coding: the emotional dimension of agency  

PubMed Central

The sense of agency (SoA) (i.e., the registration that I am the initiator and controller of my actions and relevant events) is associated with several affective dimensions. This makes it surprising that the emotion factor has been largely neglected in the field of agency research. Current empirical investigations of the SoA mainly focus on sensorimotor signals (i.e., efference copy) and cognitive cues (i.e., intentions, beliefs) and on how they are integrated. Here we argue that this picture is not sufficient to explain agency experience, since agency and emotions constantly interact in our daily life by several ways. Reviewing first recent empirical evidence, we show that self-action perception is in fact modulated by the affective valence of outcomes already at the sensorimotor level. We hypothesize that the “affective coding” between agency and action outcomes plays an essential role in agency processing, i.e., the prospective, immediate or retrospective shaping of agency representations by affective components. This affective coding of agency be differentially altered in various neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g., schizophrenia vs. depression), thus helping to explain the dysfunctions and content of agency experiences in these diseases. PMID:25161616

Gentsch, Antje; Synofzik, Matthis

2014-01-01

395

Dynamic musical communication of core affect  

PubMed Central

Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified “scene” that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

Flaig, Nicole K.; Large, Edward W.

2013-01-01

396

A genetic study of affective disorders.  

PubMed

First and second degree relatives of 99 probands with affective disorders (49 unipolar and 50 bipolar subjects) were studied. The high risk values obtained for affective disorders were shown to be compatible with those found by other authors, although the prevalence of the illness in the population of Lombardy appears to be much lower than in other countries. Very low rates of suicide and alcoholism were found in our sample. Data obtained by analysis of the affected pairs of relatives rule out the hypothesis of a dominant X-linked gene if the bipolar and the unipolar forms are considered genetically separated entities. Results compatible with a polygenic condition, partially shared by bipolar patients, were found using Slater's and Smith & Falconer's methods. Our data, however, cannot rule out the dominant hypothesis. PMID:596231

Smeraldi, E; Negri, F; Melica, A M

1977-11-01

397

[Measurement of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS) expanded].  

PubMed

An expanded Spanish version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS), was applied to episodes of anger and sadness, in a sample of 355 graduate students from Chile, Spain, and Mexico. The study examines the association between affective regulation, adaptation to episodes and dispositional coping and emotional regulation, and psychological well-being. With regard to perceived improvement of adaptive goals, the following adaptive affect regulation strategies were confirmed: Instrumental coping, seeking social support, positive reappraisal, distraction, rumination, self-comfort, self-control, and emotional expression were functional; whereas inhibition and suppression were dysfunctional. Adaptive strategies were positively associated with psychological well-being, reappraisal and humor as a coping strategy. Negative associations were found between adaptive strategies and suppression and alexithymia. Maladaptive strategies show the opposite profile. Confrontation, instrumental coping, social support as well as social isolation were more frequently found in anger, an approach emotion. PMID:22420353

Rovira, Darío Páez; Martínez Sánchez, Francisco; Sevillano Triguero, Verónica; Mendiburo Seguel, Andrés; Campos, Miriam

2012-05-01

398

[Etiopathology and therapy of seasonal affective disorder].  

PubMed

To understand the etiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) heterogeneous biological, psychological and environmental mechanisms needs to be considered. The aim of our study was to review theoretical hypotheses and therapeutic possibilities for seasonal affective disorder, which focus on alterations of circadian rhythms and monoaminergic neurotransmitter function as well as the role of vitamin D3 and possible implications of the cognitive-behavioral model. These discrepant hypotheses are insufficient alone to interpret the pathophysiology of SAD, but the integrative dual vulnerability hypothesis is an option to explain emergence of seasonal affective disorder. In addition to summarizing theoretical approaches we also review and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities derive form these hypotheses. In practice the most effective treatment for SAD is the combination of light therapy, antidepressants and psychotherapy. PMID:21220794

Molnar, Eszter; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Bagdy, Gyorgy

2010-12-01

399

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The Rediscovery of Affect in Achievement Goal Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that…

Bjornebekk, Gunnar

2008-01-01

400

Experimental research on viscoelastic characteristics of shape memory polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a class of semi-crystallized polymers, shape memory polymers (SMPs) exhibit significant viscoelastic characteristics in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature Tg, which should affect their shape storage and recovery functionality. However, until now isothermal and elastic assumptions are commonly considered when studying the thermomechanical properties of this class of functionalized materials. This papers aims to present some experimental results about the viscoelastic characteristics of SMPs. Systematic thermomechanical experiments were performed on shape-memory polyurethane under uniaxial tensile loading, which includes the frozen/recovery tests under different constraint conditions, stress-strain cycles and stress relaxation at different temperatures. Based on the testing results, the viscoelastic characteristics effect on the shape frozen and recovery responses of SMPs are discussed, which is of importance in proposing suitable thermo-viscoelastic constitutions about this type of functional materials.

Li, Z. F.; Wang, Z. D.

2009-12-01

401

Experimental research on viscoelastic characteristics of shape memory polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a class of semi-crystallized polymers, shape memory polymers (SMPs) exhibit significant viscoelastic characteristics in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature Tg, which should affect their shape storage and recovery functionality. However, until now isothermal and elastic assumptions are commonly considered when studying the thermomechanical properties of this class of functionalized materials. This papers aims to present some experimental results about the viscoelastic characteristics of SMPs. Systematic thermomechanical experiments were performed on shape-memory polyurethane under uniaxial tensile loading, which includes the frozen/recovery tests under different constraint conditions, stress-strain cycles and stress relaxation at different temperatures. Based on the testing results, the viscoelastic characteristics effect on the shape frozen and recovery responses of SMPs are discussed, which is of importance in proposing suitable thermo-viscoelastic constitutions about this type of functional materials.

Li, Z. F.; Wang, Z. D.

2010-03-01

402

Polarized light transmission characteristics in smoke indoor test scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the polarized light is used in polarization imaging and detection in complex environment, turbid atmosphere under the harsh conditions. Polarized light in the transmission process is affected by smoke composition, the uneven distribution of concentration, particle shape,particle refractive index and other aspects of the causes of polarized light transmission, and the degree of polarization and polarization parameters change. The polarized light research is single on theory study, the experiment equipment simulating environment is not conducive to the transmission characteristics of quantitative study of polarized light in smoke environment. This paper from the research and simulation of smoke device, the device uesd the temperature and humidity adjusting device to control the generation of water mist, to simulate the natural environment in the haze environment, and use of particle size instrument and concentration detection device real-time monitoring test . Polarized light transmission characteristics in the test program and its influencing factors, which can provide reference of polarized light for the transmission characteristics.

Liu, Boyu; Fu, Qiang; Duan, Jing

2014-11-01

403

Contribution of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus to Generation of the Affective Dimension of Pain  

PubMed Central

The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a core structure underlying the generation of affective behaviors to threats. The prototypical threat to an individual is exposure to a noxious stimulus and the dorsomedial division of the VMH (dmVMH) receives nociceptive input. The present study evaluated the contribution of the dmVMH to generation of the affective reaction to pain in rats. Noxious tailshock elicits from rats vocalization afterdischarges (VADs) that have distinct spectrographic characteristics and are a validated model of the affective reaction to pain. VAD-like vocalizations (vocalizations with the same spectral characteristics of VADs) were elicited by stimulation (electrical or chemical) of the dmVMH. Stimulation in the vicinity of the dmVMH was ineffective in eliciting VADs. Manipulation of GABAA neurochemistry within the dmVMH altered the threshold for elicitation of VADs by dmVMH stimulation or tailshock. Administration of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline or the GABAA agonist muscimol into the dmVMH lowered and elevated VAD thresholds, respectively. These treatments did not alter thresholds of other tailshock elicited responses (vocalizations during tailshock or spinal motor reflexes). Bicuculline and muscimol administered into the dmVMH also elevated and lowered the asymptotic level of fear conditioning supported by dmVMH stimulation or tailshock. These findings demonstrate that the dmVMH contributes to the processing of pain affect and that the affective dimension of pain belongs to a broader class of sensory experience that represents threat to the individual. PMID:16564622

Borszcz, George S.

2006-01-01

404

Perceiving an exclusive cause of affect prevents misattribution.  

PubMed

Affect misattribution occurs when affective cues color subsequent unrelated evaluations. Research suggests that affect misattribution decreases when one is aware that affective cues are unrelated to the evaluation at hand. We propose that affect misattribution may even occur when one is aware that affective cues are irrelevant, as long as the source of these cues seems ambiguous. When source ambiguity exists, affective cues may freely influence upcoming unrelated evaluations. We examined this using an adapted affect misattribution procedure where pleasant and unpleasant responses served as affective cues that could influence later evaluations of unrelated targets. These affective cues were either perceived as reflecting a single source (i.e., a subliminal affective picture in Experiment 1; one's internal affective state in Experiment 2), or as reflecting two sources (i.e., both) suggesting source ambiguity. Results show that misattribution of affect decreased when participants perceived affective cues as representing one source rather than two. PMID:22459054

Ruys, Kirsten I; Aarts, Henk; Papies, Esther K; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka

2012-06-01

405

EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

406

EFFECT OF TAXONOMIC RESOLUTION ON THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW MACROINVERTEBRATE FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR LARGE RIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance characteristics of a sampling protocol provide critical information about its utility for diverse bioassessment applications. The taxonomic resolution used to estimate performance can affect such comparisons. Specifically, identification of organisms to family l...

407

Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

2014-01-01

408

ORIGINAL PAPER Coagulation temperature affects the microstructure  

E-print Network

at 36 °C. At a higher coagulation temperature (36 °C), the size of the casein micelle aggregates hydrophobic and ionic interactions and the rearrangement of casein micelles. This characteristic and the direct effect of coagulation temperature on physical properties of the fat and the casein micelles. Our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Does street network design affect traffic safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the effect of street and street network characteristics on total crashes, severe injury crashes, and fatal crashes. Data from over 230,000 crashes taking place over 11 years in 24 California cities was analyzed at the U.S. Census Block Group level of geography. In our analysis we controlled for variables such as vehicle

Wesley Earl Marshall; Norman W. Garrick

2011-01-01

410

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

411

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability predictive methods are based solely on equipment failures neglecting the human component of man-machine systems. These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The consequences of human

D. O. Koval

1997-01-01

412

Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability prediction methods are based solely on equipment failures, neglecting the human component of man-machine systems (MMS). These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes (i.e., MMS) are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The

Don O. Koval; H. Landis Floyd

1998-01-01

413

Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

Donohew, Lewis

1981-01-01

414

Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how a faculty member's status--either tenured or tenure-track--might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices.…

Filetti, Jean; Wright, Mary; King, William M.

2010-01-01

415

Cognitive and Affective Processes Underlying Career Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Aligning social identity and career identity has become increasingly complex due to growth in the pursuit of meaningful careers that offer very long-term personal satisfaction and stability. This paper aims to explore the complex cognitive and affective thought process involved in the conscious planning of voluntary career change.…

Muja, Naser; Appelbaum, Steven H.

2012-01-01

416

Environmental Issues Affecting the North American Railroads  

E-print Network

Environmental Issues Affecting the North American Railroads By: Robert Fronczak AVP Environment and Hazmat Of: Association of American Railroads For: Railroad Environmental Conference Date: October 28 (BPA) on July 8th to tell them what a negative impact removing railroad crossties as a fuel source

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

417

Does a Professor's Reputation Affect Course Selection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether a professor's reputation affects course selection, a survey was conducted of about 280 students in a junior level marketing class required of all business students at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). The questionnaire listed 25 economics professors and asked what the students had heard about the professors in five…

Hoag, John H.; And Others

418

Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

2013-01-01

419

Affective Disorders, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The nature of the relationship between affective disorders, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone metabolism is unresolved, although there is growing evidence that many medications used to treat affective disorders are associated with low BMD or alterations in neuroendocrine systems that influence bone turnover. The objective of this review is to describe the current evidence regarding the association of unipolar and bipolar depression with BMD and indicators of bone metabolism, and to explore potential mediating and confounding influences of those relationships. The majority of studies of unipolar depression and BMD indicate that depressive symptoms are associated with low BMD. In contrast, evidence regarding the relationship between bipolar depression and BMD is inconsistent. There is limited but suggestive evidence to support an association between affective disorders and some markers of bone turnover. Many medications used to treat affective disorders have effects on physiologic systems that influence bone metabolism, and these conditions are also associated with a range of health behaviors that can influence osteoporosis risk. Future research should focus on disentangling the pathways linking psychotropic medications and their clinical indications with BMD and fracture risk. PMID:23874147

2013-01-01

420

Stability and Change in Affect among Centenarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much information is available about physical and functional health among very old adults, but little knowledge exists about the mental health and mental health changes in very late life. This study reports findings concerning positive and negative affect changes among centenarians. Nineteen centenarians from a Midwestern state participated in four…

Martin, Peter; da Rosa, Grace; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Garasky, Steven; Franke, Warren

2012-01-01

421

Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

422

Perception of Auditory Motion Affects Language Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reports have demonstrated that the comprehension of sentences describing motion in a particular direction (toward, away, up, or down) is affected by concurrently viewing a stimulus that depicts motion in the same or opposite direction. We report 3 experiments that extend our understanding of the relation between perception and language…

Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Aveyard, Mark; Yaxley, Richard H.

2006-01-01

423

Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

2011-01-01

424

Q: How Does Loud Noise Affect Hearing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an appropriate question, especially in light of the recent news that the incidence of hearing loss in teens has been increased by a third. To understand how loud noise affects hearing, you need to know the basics of how your ear works. To understand how your ear works, it will help if you do the following activities and ignore that they…

Robertson, William C.

2010-01-01

425

Infrasound From Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear works. Although the cells that provide hearing are insensitive

Alec N. Salt; James A. Kaltenbach

2011-01-01

426

GENOMIC IMPRINTING IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER  

PubMed Central

With recent advances in molecular genetics, a new mechanism proposed for the inheritance of Bipolar Disorder is Genomic Imprinting or Parent of Origin Affect. In this study of 79 consecutive first episode manic patients, predominantly male, we failed to establish the phenomenon of imprinting. With other proposed non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, it may be that bipolar disorder is genetically heterogenous. PMID:21407931

Kumar, Ratanendra; Chopra, V.K.; Parial, A.; Khess, C.R.J.

2000-01-01

427

Object Orientation Affects Spatial Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process.…

Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

2013-01-01

428

Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation  

E-print Network

Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation in microcuttings of Malus GJ De, la vitrification, la durée du cycle final de micropropagation et la concentration en acide indolebuty or by micropropagation. In the vegetative propagation of many crops, rooting of (micro)cuttings is the most crucial step

Boyer, Edmond

429

Applied Stress Affecting the Environmentally Assisted Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is affected by the mode of applied stress, i.e., tension, compression, or torsion. The cracking is measured in terms of initiation time to nucleate a crack or time to failure. In a simple uniaxial loading under tension or compression, it is observed that the initiation time can vary in orders of magnitude depending on the alloy and the environment. Fracture can be intergranular or transgranular or mixed mode. Factors that affect SCC are solubility of the metal into surrounding chemical solution, and diffusion rate (like hydrogen into a tensile region) of an aggressive element into the metal and liquid metallic elements in the grain boundaries. Strain hardening exponent that affects the local internal stresses and their gradients can affect the diffusion kinetics. We examine two environments (Ga and 3.5 pct NaCl) for the same alloy 7075-T651, under constant uniaxial tension and compression load. These two cases provide us application to two different governing mechanisms namely liquid metal embrittlement (7075-Ga) and hydrogen-assisted cracking (7075-NaCl). We note that, in spite of the differences in their mechanisms, both systems show similar behavior in the applied K vs crack initiation time plots. One common theme among them is the transport mechanism of a solute element to a tensile-stress region to initiate fracture.

Vasudevan, A. K.

2013-03-01

430

Audiovisual Affect Recognition in Spontaneous Filipino Laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laughter has been determined as an important social signal that can predict emotional information of users. This paper presents an extension of a previous study that discovers underlying affect in Filipino laughter using audio features, a posed laughter database and categorical labels. For this study, analysis of visual (facial points) and audio (voice) information from a spontaneous laughter corpus with

Christopher Galvan; David Manangan; Michael Sanchez; Jason Wong; Jocelynn Cu

2011-01-01

431

How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness  

E-print Network

-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates3 , with rougher basement of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo- spreading rates7LETTERS How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness Joanne M. Whittaker1 {, R

Müller, Dietmar

432

Neuroimaging study of affect regulation and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the mechanisms of stress-related disorders, neurobiological study of affect regulation is essential. Recent interesting studies using PET suggest that people with alexithymia process facial expressions differently from people without alexithymia. Although facial expression has been said to be universal, and has been used widely as an emotional stimuli in various neuroimaging studies, the recognition of emotional faces by

Gen Komaki; Yoshiya Moriguchi; Takashi Ohnishi; Motonari Maeda

2006-01-01

433

Children's Category-Based Inferences Affect Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn many new categories and make inferences about these categories. Much work has examined how children make inferences on the basis of category knowledge. However, inferences may also affect what is learned about a category. Four experiments examine whether category-based inferences during category learning influence category knowledge…

Ross, Brian H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Rosengren, Karl S.

2005-01-01

434

Affective Priming With Subliminally Presented Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective priming studies have demonstrated that subliminally presented prime words can exert an influence on responses towards positive or negative target stimuli. In the present series of experiments, it was investigated whether these findings can be extended to pictorial stimuli. Ideographically selected positive, neutral, and negative picture primes that were sandwich-masked immediately preceded positive or negative target pictures (Experiment 1)

Dirk Hermans; Adriaan Spruyt; Jan De Houwer; Paul Eelen

2003-01-01

435

Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... This type of high blood pressure can also affect delivery of the baby. Preterm birth . Infants are considered "preterm" if they are delivered before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Preterm infants are at risk for many health problems, both right after birth and later in ...

436

INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

437

How Cosmic Rays Affect Learning Objectives  

E-print Network

1 CRaTER: How Cosmic Rays Affect Humans Learning Objectives: · Students will be able to describe why cosmic rays are dangerous to astronauts. · Studentswilllearntodesignascientificinstrument. · Students will think critically about how to protect astronauts from cosmic rays. Preparation: None

Christian, Eric

438

Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

2010-01-01

439

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

440

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

441

Dynamics of Affective States during Complex Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose a model to explain the dynamics of affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The model predicts that learners in a state of engagement/flow will experience cognitive disequilibrium and confusion when they face contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, obstacles to goals, and other impasses. Learners revert into the…

D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Art

2012-01-01

442

Does Community Education Affect Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 2,866 fourth-seventh graders and 631 teachers were used to compare 15 St. Louis schools designated as community education centers (CEC) with 15 others. No significant differences in achievement, cognitive ability, or learning motivation were found. CECs' outreach and social services did not seem to affect achievement. (Technical data on…

Nance, Everette E.; Moore, Debra H.; Lewis, Cornelius F.

1999-01-01

443

Climate Change Affects Glacial Water Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain glaciers are an important source of fresh water for the people of Peru. In this video segment produced by ThinkTV, learn how climate change is affecting the quantity and quality of available fresh water produced by glaciers in the Andes.

2010-11-12

444

Music compositional intelligence with an affective flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consideration of human feelings in automated music generation by intelligent music systems, albeit a compelling theme, has received very little attention. This work aims to computationally specify a system's music compositional intelligence that tightly couples with the listener's affective perceptions. First, the system induces a model that describes the relationship between feelings and musical structures. The model is learned

Roberto S. Legaspi; Yuya Hashimoto; Koichi Moriyama; Satoshi Kurihara; Masayuki Numao

2007-01-01

445

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 2000 Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology  

E-print Network

and affective style and their behavioral and peripheral biological correlates. Two core dimensions along which of reactivity in different individuals. Also to be highlighted will be emerging work on the plasticity appetitive goals or to stop our ongoing stream of behavior in the face of a threat and increase our vigilance

446

Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in

Joanna L. Workman; Randy J. Nelson

2011-01-01

447

Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references.

J. E. Paramore; V. M. King

1989-01-01

448

Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder  

SciTech Connect

A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references.

Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

1989-07-01

449

Research Article Factors Affecting Detectability of River  

E-print Network

Research Article Factors Affecting Detectability of River Otters During Sign Surveys MACKENZIE R for false absences. Multiple observers surveyed for river otter (Lontra canadensis) scat and tracks along, survey lengths, and near access points. We estimated detection probabilities (p) of river otters using

Sandercock, Brett K.

450

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

451

Does an Academy Award affect Stock Return?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the affect of winning an Academy Award on the stock price of parent companies. On average, receiving an Oscar has no significant impact on the stock of parent companies during the few days surrounding the broadcast of the Academy Awards. The findings of this study introduce questions of external interference and possible limitations on this type of

Kelli M Maltsbarger

2011-01-01

452

Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies. Methods Four groups of subjects were recruited from several sources: 1) bipolar proband-parent trios or sib-pair-parent nuclear families, 2) unrelated bipolar participants who had completed the BALM morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 3) sib pairs from the GenRed Project having at least one sib with early-onset recurrent unipolar depression, and 4) a sleep clinic patient group who frequently suffered from depression. Working mainly with the SNPlex assay system, from 2 to 198 polymorphisms in genes related to circadian function were genotyped in the participant groups. Associations with affective disorders were examined with TDT statistics for within-family comparisons. Quantitative trait associations were examined within the unrelated samples. Results In NR1D1, rs2314339 was associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.0005). Among the unrelated bipolar participants, 3 SNPs in PER3 and CSNK1E were associated with the BALM score. A PPARGC1B coding SNP, rs7732671, was associated with affective disorder with nominal significance in bipolar family groups and independently in unipolar sib pairs. In TEF, rs738499 was associated with unipolar depression; in a replication study, rs738499 was also associated with the QIDS-SR depression scale in the sleep clinic patient sample. Conclusion Along with anti-manic effects of lithium and the antidepressant effects of bright light, these findings suggest that perturbations of the circadian gene network at several levels may influence mood disorders, perhaps ultimately through regulation of MAOA and its modulation of dopamine transmission. Twenty-three associations of circadian polymorphisms with affective symptoms met nominal significance criteria (P < 0.05), whereas 15 would be expected by chance, indicating that many represented false discoveries (Type II errors). Some evidence of replication has been gathered, but more studies are needed to ascertain if circadian gene polymorphisms contribute to susceptibility to affective disorders. PMID:19166596

Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R

2009-01-01

453

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

454

Intentional Affect: An Alternative Notion of Affective Interaction with a Machine  

E-print Network

.Robinson}@cl.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT Affective Computing envisages truly effective human-machine interactions as being affect/methodology; J.1. Computer Applications - Education; General Terms Measurement, Design, Experimentation, Human will be similar to that observed in human- human interaction; and (2) users will accept the same type of adaptive

Robinson, Peter

455

Low-Flow Characteristics and Regionalization of Low-Flow Characteristics for Selected Streams in Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water use in Arkansas has increased dramatically in recent years. Since 1990, the use of water for all purposes except power generation has increased 53 percent (4,004 cubic feet per second in 1990 to 6,113 cubic feet per second in 2005). The biggest users are agriculture (90 percent), municipal water supply (4 percent) and industrial supply (2 percent). As the population of the State continues to grow, so does the demand for the State's water resources. The low-flow characteristics of a stream ultimately affect its utilization by humans. Specific information on the low-flow characteristics of streams is essential to State water-management agencies such as the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, and the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission when dealing with problems related to irrigation, municipal and industrial water supplies, fish and wildlife conservation, and dilution of waste. Low-flow frequency data are of particular value to management agencies responsible for the development and management of the State's water resources. This report contains the low-flow characteristics for 70 active continuous-streamflow record gaging stations, 59 inactive continuous-streamflow record stations, and 101 partial-record gaging stations. These characteristics are the annual 7-day, 10-year low flow and the annual 7-day, 2-year low flow, and the seasonal, bimonthly, and monthly 7-day, 10-year low flow for the 129 active and inactive continuous-streamflow record and 101 partial-record gaging stations. Low-flow characteristics were computed on the basis of streamflow data for the period of record through September 2005 for the continuous-streamflow record and partial-record streamflow gaging stations. The low-flow characteristics of these continuous- and partial-record streamflow gaging stations were utilized in a regional regression analysis to produce equations for estimating the annual, seasonal, bimonthly, and monthly (November through April) 7-day, 10-year low flows and the annual 7-day, 2-year low flow for ungaged streams in the western two-thirds of Arkansas.

Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken; Moix, Matthew W.

2008-01-01

456

Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind field acting on the wind turbine. Knowledge about the wind field and its  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Structural responses and power output of a wind turbine are strongly affected by the wind affect the power output and structural responses of a wind turbine. Wind field characteristics are conventionally described by time averaged features, such as mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and power

Stanford University

457

Trauma exposure and cigarette smoking: the impact of negative affect and affect-regulatory smoking motives.  

PubMed

Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association. PMID:25299617

Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Beckham, Jean C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

2014-01-01

458

Affect is a form of cognition: A neurobiological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest that affect meets the traditional definition of “cognition” such that the affect–cognition distinction is phenomenological, rather than ontological. We review how the affect–cognition distinction is not respected in the human brain, and discuss the neural mechanisms by which affect influences sensory processing. As a result of this sensory modulation, affect performs several basic “cognitive” functions.

Seth Duncan; Lisa Feldman Barrett

2007-01-01

459

Intensity and Frequency: Dimensions Underlying Positive and Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on emotions and several happiness scales suggest that positive and negative affect are strongly inversely correlated. However, work on subjective well-being indicates that over time, positive and negative affect are independent across persons. In order to reconcile this inconsistency, two dimensions are proposed for personal affective structure: the frequency of positive versus negative affect and the intensity of affect.

Ed Diener; Randy J. Larsen; Steven Levine; Robert A. Emmons

1985-01-01

460

Some Factors Affecting the Utilization of Phosphoric Acid in Soils by Plants in Pot Experiments.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 647 APRIL, 1944 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOILS BY PLANTS IN POT EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE...] The relations between the quantities of phosphoric acid re- moved by corn and milo or kafir and the composition and other characteristics of Texas soils was ascertained from the data of 375 pot experiments. acid acid crol nhn! =---, Wit pho; tota DL...

Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1944-01-01

461

Physicochemical characteristics of microbial granules.  

PubMed

Microbial granules play an important role in the field of biological wastewater treatment due to their advantages over the conventional sludge flocs, such as a denser and stronger aggregate structure, better settleability and ensured solid-effluent separation, higher biomass concentration, and greater ability to withstand shock loadings. A better understanding of microbial granules may help in engineering biological wastewater treatment systems. Recent studies have greatly expanded our vision over the physicochemical characteristics of microbial granules. This paper provides an up-to-date review on recent work in the understanding of physicochemical characteristics of both anaerobic and aerobic granules with regard to settleability, permeability, morphology, mechanical stability, rheology, porosity, surface adsorbability, surface hydrophobicity and thermodynamics, and extracellular polymeric substances. Our growing knowledge on such characteristics might facilitate the engineering and optimization of microbial granulation as one of the most promising techniques in biological wastewater treatment. PMID:19464355

Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

2009-01-01

462

Characteristics of individuals with integrated pensions.  

PubMed

Employer pensions that integrate benefits with Social Security have been the focus of relatively little research. Since changes in Social Security benefit levels and other program characteristics can affect the benefit levels and other features of integrated pension plans, it is important to know who is covered by these plans. This article examines the characteristics of workers covered by integrated pension plans, compared to those with nonintegrated plans and those with no pension coverage. Integrated pension plans are those that explicitly adjust their benefit structure to help compensate for the employer's contributions to the Social Security program. There are two basic integration methods used by defined benefit (DB) plans. The offset method causes a reduction in employer pension benefits by up to half of the Social Security retirement benefit; the excess rate method is characterized by an accrual rate that is lower for earnings below the Social Security taxable maximum than above it. Defined contribution (DC) pension plans can be integrated along the lines of the excess rate method. To date, research on integrated pensions has focused on plan characteristics, as reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) through its Employee Benefits Survey (EBS). This research has examined the prevalence of integration among full-time, private sector workers by industry, firm size, and broad occupational categories. However, because the EBS provides virtually no data on worker characteristics, analyses of the effects of pension integration on retirement benefits have used hypothetical workers, varying according to assumed levels of earnings and job tenure. This kind of analysis is not particularly helpful in examining the potential effects of changes in the Social Security program on workers' pension benefits. However, data on pension integration at the individual level are available, most recently from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of individuals aged 51-61 in 1992. This dataset provides the basis for the analysis presented here. The following are some of the major findings from this analysis. The incidence of pension integration in the HRS sample is 32 percent of all workers with a pension (14 percent of all workers). The HRS can also identify integrated DC plans, a statistic that is not available from BLS data. The rate of integration for workers with only DC plans is 8 percent. After controlling for other variables, several socio-demographic characteristics are significantly related to the incidence of integration. The probability of having an integrated pension is 4.6 percentage points less for men compared to women. Non-Hispanic blacks are 6.4 percentage points less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have integrated pensions. Union members are 14 percentage points less likely to have integrated pensions, while workers with less than a graduate level education are at least 15 percentage points more likely to have a pension that is integrated. Some earnings and pension characteristics are also significantly correlated with pension integration. Earnings are positively related, with the probability of having an integrated pension increasing by 2 percentage points for an increase of $1,000 in annual pay. An even larger effect comes from earning at or above the Social Security taxable maximum. Workers at or above this income level are 10 percentage points more likely to have an integrated plan, but for those with more than one plan the probability of pension integration goes up by 13 percentage points. PMID:10732369

Bender, K A

1999-01-01

463

Macroscopic characteristics of hacking trauma.  

PubMed

Hacking trauma is often encountered in forensic cases, but little experimental research has been conducted that would allow for the recognition of wounds caused by specific weapon types. In this paper, we report the results of a hacking trauma caused by machete, cleaver, and axe weapons and the characteristics of each weapon type on bone. Each weapon type was employed in multiple trials on pig (Sus scrofa) bones and then the wounds were examined macroscopically for several characteristics that serve to differentiate the weapons. PMID:11305423

Humphrey, J H; Hutchinson, D L

2001-03-01

464

Natural interference phenomena affecting spaceborne receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth orbiting microwave receivers which are vulnerable to the interference from natural sources, mainly, the Sun and the Moon, are discussed. The irradiance from the Sun affects microwave receivers in two ways: (1) the infrared component of the irradiance causes nonuniform heating in metal structures and produces distortions that affect electrical performance; and (2) the graybody radiation component of the solar irradiance enters the collecting aperture of the antenna and the feed ports of the calibration circuits. The graybody radiation operates to degrade the signal to noise ratios and vitiate the internal calibration accuracy. The magnitudes of interference from the Sun and the Moon are analyzed and mathematical expressions are derived which serve to quantify the expected interference levels.

Stacey, J. M.

1984-01-01

465

Simulated Emotion in Affective Embodied Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important strand of research that is often neglected in the field of affective computing is that of how users respond to\\u000a simulated displays of emotion. We present an overview of the few studies that have explicitly investigated this space and\\u000a discuss a number of issues related to simulated emotion research. An overview of our own work in this area

Chris Creed; Russell Beale

2008-01-01

466

Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?  

E-print Network

as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by SOPHIA SHABNAM DEEN DOES DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME AFFECT TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS? Approved by: Research Advisor: Steven Puller Associate Director, Honors and Undergraduate Research: Duncan Mac...Kenzie Major: Economics May 2012 Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by SOPHIA SHABNAM DEEN...

Deen, Sophia 1988-

2012-04-20

467

MY NASA DATA: Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate one of the variables that affects Earth's albedo. The lesson includes detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. This lesson is from the MY NASA DATA project, which has created microsets from large scientific data sets, and wrapped them with tools, lesson plans, and supporting documentation so that a teacher, or anyone in the interested public, can use authentic NASA Earth system science data.

468

Bifunctional Photoacids: Remote Protonation Affecting Chemical Reactivity.  

PubMed

Reversible protonation (deprotonation) of a side-group is a useful and convenient way to affect the reactivity of large organic and biological molecules. We use bifunctional photoacids to demonstrate how the protonation state of a basic side-group (COO(-)) controls the reactivity of the main acidic group of the photoacid (OH), both in the ground and the electronic excited state of 6-carboxy derivatives of 2-naphthol. PMID:25369117

Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Pines, Dina; Huppert, Dan; Pines, Ehud

2014-11-19

469

Theoretical Perspectives on Affect and Deep Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter focuses on connections between affect and cognition that are prevalent during deep learning. Deep learning occurs\\u000a when a person attempts to comprehend difficult material, to solve a difficult problem, and to make a difficult decision. We\\u000a emphasize theoretical perspectives that highlight the importance of cognitive disequilibrium to deep learning and problem\\u000a solving. Cognitive disequilibrium occurs when there are

Art Graesser; Sidney K. D’Mello

470

Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

Gorti, Sridhar

2013-01-01

471

Factors affecting mother-child play  

E-print Network

) Jennifer Colleen Welch, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Timothy A. Cavell This study examined the effects of various maternal life stressors in relation to their effects on maternal directiveness during mother-child play...FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...

Welch, Jennifer Colleen

1993-01-01

472

Impact of Chronic Hypercortisolemia on Affective Processing  

PubMed Central

Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD.Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy controlsubjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated.CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CSgroup, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulatewas related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. PMID:21787793

Langenecker, Scott A.; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Giordani, Bruno; Briceno, Emily M.; GuidottiBreting, Leslie M.; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Leon, Hadia M.; Noll, Douglas C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Schteingart, David E.; Starkman, Monica N.

2011-01-01

473

‘Natural’ light treatment of seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were treated for 1 week either with a daily 1-h morning walk outdoors (natural light) or low-dose artificial light (0.5 h @ 2800 lux). The latter treatment (given under double-blind conditions) can be considered mainly placebo and did not improve any of the depression self-ratings, whereas natural light exposure improved all self-ratings. According to

Anna Wirz-Justice; Peter Graw; Kurt Kräuchi; Asita Sarrafzadeh; Judie English; Josephine Arendt; Lothar Sand

1996-01-01

474

Thyroid function in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morning serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (F-T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in Winter-Seasonal Affective Disorder patients in nondepressed state in summer and before and after light treatment in winter. Practically all patients had hormone levels well within the reference ranges. T3 and F-T4, but not TSH, were significantly higher in winter than in summer; this is

Odd Lingjærde; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Egil Haug

1995-01-01

475

Serum lipid levels in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has assessed the relationship between blood lipid levels and depression with contradictory results. Several\\u000a studies have linked low cholesterol levels with impulsive, aggressive and suicidal behaviours. The aim of this pilot study\\u000a was to examine serum lipids in a sample of patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). We conducted a retrospective\\u000a analysis of data on total serum

Edda Pjrek; Dietmar Winkler; David W. Abramson; Anastasios Konstantinidis; Jürgen Stastny; Matthäus Willeit; Nicole Praschak-Rieder; Siegfried Kasper

2007-01-01

476

Pathophysiological mechanism of seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the long history in medicine, the pathophysiological mechanism(s) of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) remain largely unknown. By employing a meta-analytic methodology, the authors of this study attempted to verify the validity of different pathophysiological mechanism(s) proposed for SAD. The findings showed that for phototherapy of medium light intensity, a combination of morning–evening therapy regime yielded the best therapeutic effect,

Tatia M. C Lee; Carl A Blashko; Henry L Janzen; John G Paterson; Chetwyn C. H Chan

1997-01-01

477

Hyperconjugation as it affects conformational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primer for the qualitative identification and quantitative analysis of hyperconjugative delocalization is presented. The particular focus is upon the influence of hyperconjugation as it affects conformational analysis. Computational methodologies are illustrated within the context of several diverse molecular systems: anomeric and reverse anomeric effects in 2-tetrahydropyranosylammonium, generalized anomeric effects in phosphorus-stabilized carbanions, and hyperconjugative effects in phosphorus- and silicon-based

Christopher J. Cramer

1996-01-01

478

The Relationship between Neonatal Characteristics and Three-Month Mother-Infant Interaction in High-Risk Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses three questions: (1) To what extent do risk factors of prematurity and illness affect neonatal characteristics? (2) Do these risk factors continue to account for differences in mother and infant social interactive behavior at three months? and (three) To what degree are neonatal characteristics predictive of mother and infant behavior at…

Greene, Jamie G.; And Others

1983-01-01

479

Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

Soby, Jeanette M.

480

Facility-Level Characteristics Associated with Serious Suicide Attempts and Deaths from Suicide in Juvenile Justice Residential Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about how facility-level characteristics affect the risk of suicide and suicide attempts in juvenile justice residential facilities. This leaves facility administrators and mental health providers without evidence-based guidance on how the facility itself affects risks. The current study uses data from two recently developed…

Gallagher, Catherine A.; Dobrin, Adam

2006-01-01

481

Rhizosphere Characteristics of the Arsenic Hyperaccumulator Pteris  

E-print Network

Rhizosphere Characteristics of the Arsenic Hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and Monitoring investigated changes in the rhizosphere characteristics of Pteris vittata (Chinese Brake fern) relevant for its

Ma, Lena

482

Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to wildfire behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during wildfires (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting wildfire research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for wildfire PyC. Here, we study relationships between wildfire behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced wildfire conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and wildfire conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared to the unburned forest floor, PyC production for this fuel component may have important implications for carbon sequestration and fluxes in boreal forest. In addition, the relationships found here between PyC quality and wildfire conditions could provide the first insights into effects of wildfire behaviour, and its potential variations with climate change, on C sequestration in the boreal ecosystem via PyC production.

Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin

2014-05-01

483