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1

Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore these, we investigated the influence of music characteristics on 32 participants

Zwaag van der Marjolein D; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Broek van den Egon L; Jeffrey Cohn; Anton Nijholt; Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

2

Factors affecting the tightening characteristics of bolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the tightening characteristics of bolt-nut-washer assemblies was undertaken after a preliminary literature survey showed different opinions to exist on the effect of several commonly encountered factors on the torque-tension relationship.The test program included tightening bolts up to the yield point under a planned series of combination of factors, and recording nut-tightening torque, bolt torque and tension.The main

A. Bray; R. Levi

1966-01-01

3

Motivation and Learner Characteristics Affecting Online Learning and Learning Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been conducted to verify the effect of learner characteristics and motivation in traditional classrooms, but very few are found in online learning research. This study sought to identify what learner characteristics and motivation types affected a group of undergraduate students' learning and application of learning for a course…

Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Hyunjoong

2003-01-01

4

Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

5

Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin ... of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware ...

6

Infinite experiences, affects and the characteristics of the unconscious.  

PubMed

The work of Matte-Blanco is little understood by psychoanalysts largely because he used mathematical logic as an essential method to elucidate psychoanalytic theory. His findings, however, seem to be important and warrant this simple introductory paper explaining key ideas. Two fundamentally distinct processes, defined as asymmetrical and symmetrical logics are introduced and illustrated. Asymmetrical logic is analogous to secondary process while symmetrical logic has affinity with primary process. Both logic seem to interweave in any thought processes but with asymmetry predominating in scientific thought while symmetrical logic is most evident in psychosis and dreams. It is furthermore argued that the various characteristics of the unconscious, as described by Freud, can be seen as different mental outcomes with symmetrical logic at the base of all of them. A parallel is discovered by Matte-Blanco between the characteristics of symmetrical logic and those of infinite sets as defined mathematically. This leads to an investigation of the concept of infinity and of psychological infinite experiences. These can be readily detected in omnipotence, omniscience, and idealization, but they also seem to occur in extreme emotional states such as being in love, dread and grief. If nuclei of extreme states are contained in any affect, then it is likely that all affects in their cognitive aspects contain experiences of infinity. Symmetrical logic may thus be a common background both to the characteristics of the unconscious and emotionality generally. PMID:7319692

Rayner, E

1981-01-01

7

[Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

1995-10-01

8

Affective Personality Characteristics Associated with Undergraduate Ego Identity Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics involved in ego identity formation in the areas of occupation, religion and politics, and existing gender differences were examined using 144 undergraduates (59 males) and (85 females). The Dellas Identity Status Inventory-Occupation, -Religious Beliefs, and -Political Ideology (three objective scales) assessed identity statuses, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) assessed personality characteristics. Different characteristics discriminated among the statuses

Marie Dellas; Louise P. Jemigan

1990-01-01

9

Influences affecting the soil-water characteristic curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the primary partially saturated soil information as its behavior and properties can be derived from it. Although there have been many studies of unsaturated soils and the SWCC, there is still no combined constitutive model that can simulate soil characteristics accurately. In cases when hydraulic hysteresis is dominant (e.g. under cyclic loading) it is

ZHOU Jian; YU Jian-lin

2005-01-01

10

Characteristics of Family Mealtimes Affecting Children's Vegetable Consumption and Liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented an association between family mealtimes and higher dietary quality in school-aged children and adolescents. However, there is little understanding of the specific characteristics of mealtimes that are beneficial and a lack of research with preschool-aged children. This cross-sectional study conducted in the United Kingdom in 2008 examined associations between mealtime characteristics and preschoolers' vegetable consumption and liking.

Claire Sweetman; Laura McGowan; Helen Croker; Lucy Cooke

2011-01-01

11

Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

2010-01-01

12

Personal Characteristics Affecting Agricultural Extension Workers' Job Satisfaction Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: One of the closely associated concepts with performance of an organization is job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personal characteristics and job satisfaction. Approach: A survey of 52 extension workers was conducted in Fars Province, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Bray field and Rothe Job Satisfaction Index was

Ali Asadi; Fereshteh Fadakar; Zahra Khoshnodifar; Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi; Gholamhossein Hosseinini

2008-01-01

13

Rheometric Measurement of Dough Rheological Characteristics and Factors Affecting It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread is one of the most important foods consumed all over the world. This review focuses on the use of rheometer for the measurement of dough rheological properties and factors affecting them. Rheological properties of dough are very important in bread baking quality. Knowledge of the rheological behavior of bread dough is very important to understand mechanical properties of the

HOSSEIN MIRSAEEDGHAZI; ZAHRA EMAM-DJOMEH; SAYED MOHAMMAD ALI MOUSAVI

14

Personality, behavioural and affective characteristics of hazardous drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of appetitive and aversive motivation on hazardous drinking behaviour by drawing on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). A between-groups design examined differences between hazardous drinkers and matched controls on self-report and behavioural appetitive and aversive motivation. The relationship between motivational processes and changes in affective states following behavioural task performance was

Nicolas Kambouropoulos; Petra K. Staiger

2007-01-01

15

Affective characteristics of university students about English course and their attitude and thoughts toward the course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to search affective characteristics of the students of Cyprus International University Foreign Languages School Preparatory Classes about English Course and their attitude and thoughts toward the course. The other aim of this research is to search affective characteristics of the students, their attitude and thoughts toward the course according to their faculty, gender, socio-economic

Nerguz Bulut Serin; O?uz Serin; Ali Ceylan

2010-01-01

16

Characteristics of family mealtimes affecting children's vegetable consumption and liking.  

PubMed

Research has documented an association between family mealtimes and higher dietary quality in school-aged children and adolescents. However, there is little understanding of the specific characteristics of mealtimes that are beneficial and a lack of research with preschool-aged children. This cross-sectional study conducted in the United Kingdom in 2008 examined associations between mealtime characteristics and preschoolers' vegetable consumption and liking. Four hundred and thirty-four primary caregivers of children aged 2 to 5 years reported on children's vegetable intake and liking and completed a questionnaire on frequency of family meals, food preparation, and the social and environmental context of family mealtimes. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses assessed mealtime variables and children's vegetable intake and liking. Multiple regression analysis revealed children's vegetable consumption was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (?=.14; P ? 0.01), using ready-made sauces (?=-.12; P ? 0.05), and cooking from scratch (?=.11; P ? 0.05), accounting for 21% of the variance (with covariates). Children's liking for vegetables was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (?=.15; P ? 0.01) and use of preprepared dishes (?=-.15; P ? 0.01), accounting for 8% of the variance (with covariates). Frequency of family mealtimes was unrelated to children's vegetable consumption or liking in this sample. This contrasts with findings in older children and adolescents, where frequency of family mealtimes is related to dietary quality and intake. In preschool-aged children, it seems emphasis should be placed on encouraging parents to provide home-cooked meals that mirror those eaten by the adults in the family to improve vegetable intake. PMID:21272701

Sweetman, Claire; McGowan, Laura; Croker, Helen; Cooke, Lucy

2011-02-01

17

Analysis of terahertz generation characteristic affected by injured photoconductive antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we deployed a home-made THz time-domain system and experimentally investigated the influence of impairment on photoconductive antenna. The low temperature grown GaAs photoconductive antenna (PCA) was used as THz emitter and a <110< ZnTe crystal modulating the probe beam to detect the THz field based on electro-optic sampling. By adjusting the position of laser spot on PCA gap, we found that the generated THz signal was quite different as the laser beam irradiating on different position of the antenna's gap. Moreover, we found that the small burned holes on the edge of both metal electrodes may affect the electric field of the antenna. Furthermore, we simulated the electric field of the PCA with a DC biased voltage applied across the electrodes, and found that the simulation results agreed with the experimental phenomenon, which can well demonstrated that the impairments on the antenna electrodes have a great influence on THz generation.

Li, Hui; Fan, Wen-hui; Liu, Jia

2013-08-01

18

Reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls as affected by sediment characteristics.  

PubMed

The effect of sediment sources on the selection of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinating competence was investigated using sediments from two different locations, the Grasse River and Owasco Lake. These two sediments had a similar organic carbon content but different particle size distribution. The two PCB-free sediments were spiked with Aroclor 1248 and inoculated with microorganisms from the Reynolds and General Motors sites in the St. Lawrence River, which exhibited different dechlorination patterns. When each inoculum was serially transferred into fresh sediments four times (every 8-10 weeks), they still maintained the initial dechlorination patterns regardless, the source of sediments and the number of transfers, and dechlorination patterns of the two inocula in the same sediments did not converge. In a parallel approach, when the acclimated microorganisms from the Reynolds site were inoculated into fresh sediments from both sources as well as sediments enriched with organic carbon (2%, w/v), the dechlorination pattern remained unchanged after a 40-week incubation. These results suggest that the sediment characteristics or organic carbon content did not play a role in the selection of dechlorinating populations. PMID:11513120

Kim, J; Rhee, G Y

2001-09-01

19

Organizational identification and the communication of identity: effects of message characteristics on cognitive and affective identification.  

PubMed

This paper reports an experimental study (N= 321) that tests how the cognitive and affective component of organizational identification (OI) can be affected by peripheral characteristics of organizational communication. Results show that adding cues in emails that signal organizational identity, such as the company logo, font, and colour of text, positively affect the cognitive component of OI, but not the affective component. In contrast, a personal focus in the message had a positive effect on the affective, but not on the cognitive component of OI. This study supports the idea that OI is a multi-faceted construct comprising a cognitive and affective component, and that these different components can be affected by different characteristics of organizational email messages. PMID:21749414

Tanis, Martin; Beukeboom, Camiel J

2011-07-12

20

Does trait affectivity predict work-to-family conflict and enrichment beyond job characteristics?  

PubMed

The present study examines whether negative and positive affectivity (NA and PA, respectively) predict different forms of work-to-family conflict (WFC-time, WFC-strain, WFC-behavior) and enrichment (WFE-development, WFE-affect, WFE-capital) beyond job characteristics (workload, autonomy, variety, workplace support). Furthermore, interactions between job characteristics and trait affectivity while predicting WFC and WFE were examined. Using a large sample of Slovenian employees (N = 738), NA and PA were found to explain variance in WFC as well as in WFE above and beyond job characteristics. More precisely, NA significantly predicted WFC, whereas PA significantly predicted WFE. In addition, several interactive effects were found to predict forms of WFC and WFE. These results highlight the importance of trait affectivity in work-family research. They provide further support for the crucial impact of job characteristics as well. PMID:23469478

Tement, Sara; Korunka, Christian

21

Analysis of the factors affecting the magnetic characteristics of nano-Fe 3 O 4 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles using chemical coprecipitation and studied the factors affecting the magnetic characteristics of nano-Fe3O4 particles. We identified four factors and three levels of an orthogonal experiment and investigated these four factors that\\u000a affect the magnetic characteristics of the Fe3O4 particles. We obtained important information from this investigation. The Fe3+ to Fe2+ molar ratio, the iron precursor salt,

JianLing Li; DeCai Li; ShaoLan Zhang; HongChao Cui; Cui Wang

2011-01-01

22

The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

2007-01-01

23

Demand characteristics underlying differential ratings of sensory versus affective components of pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several investigations, differential ratings of sensory and affective components of pain can be explained by the expectations conveyed to subjects to provide different ratings for each pain component under conditions where they could readily recall their ratings. In Experiment I, such demand characteristics were controlled in one group by having subjects rate each pain component in a separate session

Ephrem Fernandez; Dennis C. Turk

1994-01-01

24

Characteristics of White Pan Bread as Affected by Tempering of the Fat Ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 73(4):462-465 This study investigated the effect of tempering of four shortening for- ening. Texture of the shortenings was profoundly affected by increasing mulations on the baking characteristics of white pan bread. The fats used the level of POS. Tempering at 23°C of all formulations resulted in a were palm oil and blends of palm oil (PO) and palm

I. NOR

25

Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [ Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host range specificity ofAgrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree ofAgrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf\\u000a surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 andKangra jat showed higher rate (75%) ofAgrobacterium infection compared to

Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

2004-01-01

26

Factors affecting the characteristics of melamine resin microcapsules containing fragrant oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcapsules containing fragrant oils as a core material were prepared byin situ polymerization, using melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer as the wall material. The several parameters, such as stirring times,\\u000a stirring rates, emulsifier types, emulsifier concentrations, and the viscosity of the core materials, affect the characteristics\\u000a of the microcapsules. These parameters were investigated by the analyses of microcapsule size, particle size distribution,\\u000a and

Jun-Seok Hwang; Jin-Nam Kim; Young-Jung Wee; Hong-Gi Jang; Sun-Ho Kim; Hwa-Won Ryu

2006-01-01

27

Tubal sterilization : Characteristics of women most affected by the option of reversibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the types of women whose sterilization decisions would be most affected by the option of reversibility, responses from 1074 randomly selected ob-gyn patients, concerning eventual intention to undergo permanent and hypothetically reversible procedures, were analyzed. Cross-tabulation of the dependent variables with a wide array of socio-demographic and attitudinal characteristics was followed by discriminant function analysis in

Rochelle N. Shain; Harold D. Dickson

1982-01-01

28

Individual physical characteristics of neonatal piglets affect preweaning survival of piglets born in a noncrated system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual physical characteristics on preweaning survival and growth of piglets born in a noncrate system. Data were collected from 3,402 neonatal piglets from 203 Landrace × Yorkshire sows housed in noncrate pens in a commercial Danish sow herd. Piglets were categorized into groups according to their survivability: surviving to weaning (SURV), stillborn (STILL), or dead between birth and weaning (DBW), which was subdivided into dead d 0 to 1 after farrowing (DEAD1) or dead d 2 to 26 after farrowing (DEAD26). Linear models were used to determine which physical characteristics affected survivability and growth of piglets. Results showed that characteristics related to the individual piglets had a greater degree of explanatory power in relation to survival than variables related to the sow. Survival of piglets increased if piglets were females (P < 0.001), had a greater body mass index (P < 0.001), and were born to sows of parity 3 or more (P = 0.017). Piglets with a greater birth weight were more likely to survive (P < 0.001), but birth weight was inferior to body mass index in explaining differences between SURV and DBW. Piglets that died 2 to 26 d after birth had a lower birth weight (P < 0.001), were born to sows of parity 1 or 2 (P = 0.014), and were born after a shorter gestation (P = 0.011) compared with SURV. Piglets that died on d 0 to 1 after birth had a lower body mass index (P < 0.001), displayed a greater degree of growth restriction (P = 0.004), and were born in large litters (P = 0.005). The gender of the piglets affected survivability at both d 0 to 1 (P < 0.001) and d 2 to 26 (P < 0.001). Piglets in DEAD1 differed from STILL by having a shorter crown to rump length (P < 0.001), a birth weight that deviated more from the mean weight of the litter (P = 0.001), and being more likely to be born before d 116 of gestation (P = 0.008). The only physical characteristic that was important for growth performance in the suckling period was birth weight (P < 0.001), yet using only birth weight as an indicator for survivability was too simplistic. The results of this study emphasize that individual characteristics of neonatal piglets could serve as indicators of survivability of piglets born in noncrate systems; however, the results suggest that the importance of characteristics differed in different periods of the preweaning period. PMID:24078619

Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

2013-10-01

29

Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants.  

PubMed

Even under the intensive concentrate feeding systems of ruminant animal production in the United States, forages continue to represent the single most important feed resource. Cell-wall concentration and digestibility limit the intake potential and energy availability of forage crops in beef and dairy production. Identification of cell-wall characteristics that should be targets of genetic modification is required if plant breeders and molecular biologists are to successfully improve forages for livestock feeding. As the forage plant cell develops, phenolic acids and lignin are deposited in the maturing cell wall in specific structural conformations, and in a strict developmental sequence. Lignin is the key element that limits cell-wall digestibility, but cross-linkage of lignin and wall polysaccharides by ferulic acid bridges may be a prerequisite for lignin to exert its affect. Lignin composition and p-coumaric acid in the wall are less likely to affect digestibility. Voluntary intake of forages is a critical determinant of animal performance and cell-wall concentration is negatively related to intake of ruminants consuming high-forage diets. Cell walls affect intake by contributing to ruminal fill. A simple model of cell-wall digestion and passage in which ruminal fill is a function of rates of digestion and passage, as well as the indigestible fraction of the cell-wall indicates that cell-wall concentration and rate of passage are the most critical parameters determining ruminal fill. Plant factors that affect rate of passage include those that affect particle size reduction by chewing and those that affect particle buoyancy in the rumen. The latter is primarily affected by 1) the ability of the particulate matter to retain gases, which is probably related to plant anatomy and rate of digestion of the plant tissue, and 2) the rate at which the gas is produced, which is affected by the potentially digestible fraction of the particulate matter and the rate of digestion of this fraction. Increasing rate of digestion should increase rate of passage by diminishing the gas produced and increasing density over time. A reduction in the indigestible cell-wall fraction is beneficial because this will decrease fill and increase digestibility. Animal production and economic benefits from reduced cell-wall concentration and increased digestibility are significant. Because of the high cell-wall concentration and large digestible cell-wall fraction of grasses, reduction in cell-wall concentration would probably be of greater value than improving digestibility in these species. Legumes represent the opposite situation and may benefit more from improvements in the digestibility of their cell walls. PMID:8582870

Jung, H G; Allen, M S

1995-09-01

30

Relations of Job Characteristics From Multiple Data Sources With Employee Affect, Absence, Turnover Intentions, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the evidence in support of job characteristics theory is limited to incumbent reports of job characteristics. In this study, job characteristics data from three independent sources—incumbents, ratings from job descriptions, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles—were used. Convergent validities of incumbent reports with other sources were quite modest. Although incumbent reports of job characteristics correlated significantly with several

Paul E. Spector; Steve M. Jex

1991-01-01

31

Do negative affect characteristics and subjective memory concerns increase risk for late life anxiety?  

PubMed

To better understand the development and exacerbation of late-life anxiety, we tested a risk model positing that trait negative affect (NA) characteristics would interact with cognitive functioning, thereby increasing some older adults' risk for increased anxiety symptoms. The moderator-mediator model consisted of measures of NA, cognitive functioning, and their interaction, as predictors of later Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores (HARS) via a mediational process, subjective memory concerns (SMCs). Older adults (aged 65-years and over; Mage=76.7 years, SD=6.90 years) completed evaluations four times over approximately 18 months. A latent growth curve model including Anxiety Sensitivity Index total score (ASI), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS) total raw score, the ASI×DRS interaction, a SMC measure as mediator, HARS intercept (scores at times 3 and 4), and HARS slope provided good fit. The ASI×DRS-2 interaction at Time 1 predicted HARS slope score (?=-.34, p<.05). When ASI score was high, stronger cognitive functioning was associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. The indirect effect of ASI score predicting HARS score 18-months later through the SMC mediator was statistically significant (?=.08, p<.05). Results suggest that the cognitive functioning changes associated with aging might contribute to the development of anxiety symptoms in older adults with specific NA traits. Implications for predicting and preventing late life anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:23623610

Wilkes, Chelsey M; Wilson, Helen W; Woodard, John L; Calamari, John E

2013-04-03

32

Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation  

PubMed Central

Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0.001), suggested imprinted genes and miRNA interference as mechanisms for differential effects of maternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.

Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

2013-01-01

33

Change in the characteristics of ferritin induces iron imbalance in prion disease affected brains  

PubMed Central

Prion disease associated neurotoxicity is mainly attributed to PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), the disease associated isoform of a normal protein, the prion protein (PrPC). Participation of other proteins and processes is suspected, but their identity and contribution to the pathogenic process is unclear. Emerging evidence implicates imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant cause of prion disease-associated neurotoxicity. The underlying cause of this change, however, remains unclear. We demonstrate that iron is sequestered in heat and SDS-stable protein complexes in sporadic-Creutzfeldt-Jakob- disease (sCJD) brains, creating a phenotype of iron deficiency. The underlying cause is change in the characteristics of ferritin, an iron storage protein that becomes aggregated, detergent-insoluble, and partitions with denatured ferritin using conventional methods of ferritin purification. A similar phenotype of iron deficiency is noted in the lumbar spinal cord (SC) tissue of scrapie infected hamsters, a site unlikely to be affected by massive neuronal death and non-specific iron deposition. As a result, the iron uptake protein transferrin (Tf) is upregulated in scrapie infected SC tissue, and increases with disease progression. A direct correlation between Tf and PrPSc suggests sequestration of iron in dysfunctional ferritin that either co-aggregates with PrPSc or is rendered dysfunctional by PrPSc through an indirect process. Surprisingly, amplification of PrPSc in vitro by the protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification (PMCA) reaction using normal brain homogenate as substrate does not increase the heat and SDS-stable pool of iron even though both PrPSc and ferritin aggregate by this procedure. These observations highlight important differences between PrPSc-protein complexes generated in vivo during disease progression and in vitro by the PMCA reaction, and the significance of these complexes in PrPSc-associated neurotoxicity.

Singh, Ajay; Qing, Liuting; Kong, Qingzhong; Singh, Neena

2012-01-01

34

Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by

Liangyun Lan; Chunlin Qiu; Dewen Zhao; Xiuhua Gao; Linxiu Du

2011-01-01

35

Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.  

PubMed

The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses. PMID:11755459

Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

36

Document Text Characteristics Affect the Ranking of the Most Relevant Documents by Expanded Structured Queries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new concept-based method to analyze the text characteristics of documents at varying relevance levels. Applies the results of the document analysis in an experiment on query expansion in a probabilistic information retrieval system and investigates statistical differences in textual characteristics of highly relevant and less relevant…

Sormunen, Eero; Kekalainen, Jaana; Koivisto, Jussi; Jarvelin, Kalervo

2001-01-01

37

Park Location Affects Forest Protection: Land Characteristics Cause Differences in Park Impacts across Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support conservation planning, we ask whether a park's impact on deforestation rates varies with observable land characteristics that planners could use to prioritize sites. Using matching methods to address bias from non-random location, we find deforestation impacts vary greatly due to park lands' characteristics. Avoided deforestation is greater if parks are closer to the capital city, in sites closer

Alexander Pfaff; Juan Robalino; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Kwaw S. Andam; Paul J. Ferraro

2009-01-01

38

The ups and downs of cognitive bias: Dissociating the attentional characteristics of positive and negative affectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable past interest in distinguishing the patterns of attentional bias that characterise vulnerability to anxiety and to depression, little research has yet sought to delineate the attentional correlates of two affective dimensions that differentially contribute to these alternative forms of emotional vulnerability—negative and positive affectivity. In the present study, we employ a novel variant of the attentional probe task

Ben Grafton; Ed Watkins; Colin MacLeod

2012-01-01

39

Platelet (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Platelet (3H)imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders.

Baron, M.; Barkai, A.; Gruen, R.; Peselow, E.; Fieve, R.R.; Quitkin, F.

1986-06-01

40

Special Needs Characteristics of Children With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders That Affect Inclusion in Regular Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the discriminating special needs characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that predict restrictiveness of placement in special education. The focus is on dynamic factors instead of static factors. To this end, 235 children with EBD in special schools and 111 children with EBD in regular education were compared in

Regina Stoutjesdijk; Evert M. Scholte; Hanna Swaab

2012-01-01

41

How Student Characteristics Affect Girls' and Boys' Verbal Engagement in Physics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated how student characteristics predict the nature of girls' and boys' verbal interactions with their teachers in physics classes. The sample included (N = 1378) students from 81 randomly selected high-school physics classrooms in Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. At the beginning of the school year, the…

Jurik, Verena; Groschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina

2013-01-01

42

Characteristics of Plant Cell Walls Affecting Intake and Digestibility of Forages by Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even under the intensive concentrate feeding systems of ruminant animal production in the United States, forages continue to represent the single most important feed resource. Cell-wall concentration and digestibility limit the intake potential and energy availability of forage crops in beef and dairy produc- tion. Identification of cell-wall characteristics that should be targets of genetic modification is required if plant

H. G. Jung; M. S. Allen

1995-01-01

43

Temperature affects color and quality characteristics of ‘Pink’ wax apple fruit discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red color plays a very important role when wax apple fruits are purchased. Temperature is one of the key factors among those influencing red color development. We evaluated the effects of temperature on color formation and other quality characteristics of ‘Pink’ wax apple fruit discs by using constant, slow-increase, fast-increase, transient shifting to high temperature, shifting to high temperature for

Hsiao-hua Pan; Zen-hong Shü

2007-01-01

44

Quality characteristics of broiler blood meal as affected by yeast, glucose oxidase, and antioxidant treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of deglucosing and antioxidant treatments on quality characteristics of broiler blood meal were studied. Broiler blood was dried and ground with deglucosing and antioxidant addition. The non-deglucosed blood powder was darker, less red and yellow in color than those of the deglucosed. Yeast deglucosed blood meal had the lowest lysine availability as measured by the fluorodinitrobenzene method. Glucose oxidase

G. W Lu; T. C Chen

2000-01-01

45

Load Resistance Value Changes Affect on the Plane Log-periodic Dipole Printed Antenna Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper mainly use Ansoft HFSS electromagnetic field simulation software for the simulation of simple plane log-periodic dipole printed antennas, focused on whether the changes of the far-end loading resistor value impact on such antenna radiation characteristics, using wires patches ~ a feature theoretical calculations of a few approximate phase center equivalent methods. The certification of the accuracy of the

Kong Rong; Su Donglin

2006-01-01

46

Nutrient Digestion by Ileal Cannulated Dogs as Affected by Dietary Fibers with Various Fermentation Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of dietary fibers with various fermentation characteristics on nutrient digestion at the distal ileum and in the total tract of dogs. The following high-protein (34%), high- fat ( 23%) diets were fed: 1 ) a control treatment (CON) with 0% supplemental fiber; 2 ) beet pulp (BP), 7.5%; 3 ) low-cellulose mixture (LCM), 2.5% cellulose +

H. E. Muir; S. M. Murray; N. R. Merchen; G. A. Reinhart

2010-01-01

47

Affect and non-uniform characteristics of predictive processing in musical behaviour.  

PubMed

The important roles of prediction and prior experience are well established in music research and fit well with Clark's concept of unified perception, cognition, and action arising from hierarchical, bidirectional predictive processing. However, in order to fully account for human musical intelligence, Clark needs to further consider the powerful and variable role of affect in relation to prediction error. PMID:23663552

Schaefer, Rebecca S; Overy, Katie; Nelson, Peter

2013-05-10

48

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-01-01

49

Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. FINDINGS: We present 26 tetanus patients

Agung Budi Sutiono; Andri Qiantori; Hirohiko Suwa; Toshizumi Ohta

2009-01-01

50

Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. (California State Univ. Chico (United States)); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

51

Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N),

David L. Lee; Po-Ling Kuo; Devin L. Jindrich; Jack T. Dennerlein

2008-01-01

52

Computer keyswitch force–displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force–displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31N vs. 0.59N; 0.55N vs. 0.93N), (2) key travel (2.5mm

David L. Lee; Po-Ling Kuo; Devin L. Jindrich; Jack T. Dennerlein

2009-01-01

53

Role-Play in MMOs: How avatar characteristics affect the game play experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games (MMO), specifically at the role-play experience within them with an intended focus on avatar characteristics and their impact on the role-play experience. While there are many existing academic research works on both the subject of role-play and on MMOs, there is certainly plenty of room for more research, as role-play is

Katherine Rector

54

Browning characteristics of fresh-cut ‘Tsugaru’ apples as affected by pre-slicing storage atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in browning characteristics of the slices processed from ‘Tsugaru’ apples stored at 0°C for 5 months under controlled atmosphere (CA, 1kPa O2+1kPa CO2, 3kPa O2+3kPa CO2) or air has been investigated for 5 days at 20°C. Respiration and ethylene production of the slices from apples stored in CA were retarded. Electrolyte leakage and browning index were lower in

Hun-Sik Chung; Kwang-Deog Moon

2009-01-01

55

Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies

Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee; Yih-Feng Chang; Kai-Chung Shih

2007-01-01

56

How a Married Woman`s Characteristics Affect her Contraceptive Behavior?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Pakistan, population growth rate is 2.2% and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is as high as 5.4. It is the result of low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of only 28%. Due to low CPR, women have high rate of unwanted births in Pakistan. In this study using probit estimation on primary data, we have analyzed the woman=s characteristics responsible for low contraceptive prevalence among married women in urban areas of Punjab (Pakistan). For the purpose one thousand married women in the age group of 15-49 years, who were not currently pregnant were interviewed from urban areas of Bahawalpur and Lahore. The individual characteristics of married women were focused, although household characteristics, socio-economic conditions of the community where woman is living, religious and cultural factors are also important. It is found that age of woman, education of woman, woman`s status, her economic activity, income level and age at marriage were found major determinants of contraceptive prevalence in women. The policies towards the education of women, status of women, labor force participation of women and legal interventions towards the increase in marriage age are stressed to increase the CPR.

Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Khan, Tasnim

57

Light environment and leaf characteristics affect distribution of Corythuca arcuata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).  

PubMed

Insect herbivore abundances on host plants are influenced by both plant traits and the physical environment in which that plant grows. This study examined the role of the physical light environment and foliage characteristics in determining abundance of the lacebug Corythuca arcuata Say (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on Quercus alba L. I censused adult C. arcuata across a growing season, quantified leaf characteristics, and measured canopy cover over understory branches of mature Q. alba. Using an information-theoretic approach, a priori hypotheses of the relationship between light, plant traits, and C. arcuata abundance was evaluated. Abundance was best predicted by light environment and carbon content. Adult C. arcuata prefer trees growing under an open canopy and trees with low carbon content; abundance also positively correlated with leaf water content. Although carbon and water did not vary with light in this study, low carbon and high water content are often associated with shadier conditions, suggesting that C. arcuata faces a trade-off between preferences for physical habitat conditions and host plant characteristics. PMID:20388279

Barber, Nicholas A

2010-04-01

58

Proteomics analysis of date palm leaves affected at three characteristic stages of brittle leaf disease.  

PubMed

Proteomics analysis has been performed in leaf tissue from field date palm trees showing the brittle leaf disease (BLD) or maladie des feuilles cassantes, the main causal agent of the date palm decline in south Tunisia. To study the evolution of the disease, proteins from healthy and affected leaves taken at three disease stages (S1, S2 and S3) were trichloroacetic acid acetone extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (5-8 pH range). Statistical analysis showed that the protein abundance profile is different enough to differentiate the affected leaves from the healthy ones. Fifty-eight variable spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight, 60 % of which corresponded to chloroplastic ones being involved in the photosynthesis electronic chain and ATP synthesis, metabolic pathways implicated in the balance of the energy, and proteases. Changes in the proteome start at early disease stage (S1), and are greatest at S2. In addition to the degradation of the ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase in affected leaflets, proteins belonging to the photosynthesis electronic chain and ATP synthesis decreased following the disease, reinforcing the relationship between BLD and manganese deficiency. The manganese-stabilizing proteins 33 kDa, identified in the present work, can be considered as protein biomarkers of the disease, especially at early disease step. PMID:22843243

Sghaier-Hammami, Besma; Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Castillejo, María Angeles; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

2012-07-29

59

Cognitive-affective characteristics of smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and panic psychopathology.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated differences among daily smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), panic attacks (PA), and no axis I psychopathology (past 6 months) in terms of several cognitive-affective variables implicated in both the onset and maintenance of anxiety psychopathology and cigarette smoking. The sample consisted of 123 daily smokers (62% women: M(age)=29.7, SD=11.9). Compared to the PA and no psychopathology groups, the PTSD group reported significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, discomfort intolerance, negative affectivity, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression; and, the PTSD group reported significantly lower levels of perceived control over anxiety-related events than the PA group. The PD group, compared to those in the PA and no psychopathology groups, reported significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, and anxious arousal; and significantly lower levels of perceived control over anxiety-related events. No significant differences were evident between the PTSD and PD groups. Theoretical and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed in terms of smoking and emotional vulnerability. PMID:20060228

Vujanovic, Anka A; Marshall, Erin C; Gibson, Laura E; Zvolensky, Michael J

2009-12-16

60

Cognitive-Affective Characteristics of Smokers with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Panic Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated differences among daily smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), panic attacks (PA), and no axis I psychopathology (past 6 months) in terms of several cognitive-affective variables implicated in both the onset and maintenance of anxiety psychopathology and cigarette smoking. The sample consisted of 123 daily smokers (62% women: Mage = 29.7, SD = 11.9). Compared to the PA and no psychopathology groups, the PTSD group reported significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, discomfort intolerance, negative affectivity, anxious arousal, and anhedonic depression; and, the PTSD group reported significantly lower levels of perceived control over anxiety-related events than the PA group. The PD group, compared to those in the PA and no psychopathology groups, reported significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, and anxious arousal; and significantly lower levels of perceived control over anxiety-related events. No significant differences were evident between the PTSD and PD groups. Theoretical and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed in terms of smoking and emotional vulnerability.

Vujanovic, Anka A.; Marshall, Erin C.; Gibson, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

2009-01-01

61

Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different. Wilt symptoms were not observed in field inoculations of koa saplings after 8 months. Investigation of the dieback stand structure determined that the larger size classes (i.e., DBH > 3 cm) were all affected equally, with the smallest size class (i.e., 0-3 cm DBH) having the lowest percentage of dieback at each site. Soil from dieback stands had higher water content and was more acidic than that from neighboring unaffected stands. Phyllodes on epicormic shoots of dieback trees had a reduced area, mass, and mass to area ratio. Phyllodes on dieback trees also had reduced stomatal conductance and higher (less negative) leaf water potential. Results from the greenhouse inoculations demonstrated that F. oxysporum f. sp. koae is pathogenic to koa, but the pathogen's activity in the field may be influenced by predisposing factors such as temperature fluctuations, water availability, soil type, and interactions with other soil organisms. F. oxysporum f. sp. koae appears to play an important role in regulating koa stand dynamics, growth, and physiology under environmental and edaphic conditions favorable for disease development. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Anderson, R. C.; Gardner, D. E.; Daehler, C. C.; Meinzer, F. C.

2002-01-01

62

Growth performance and carcass characteristics of female turkeys as affected by feeding programs.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different feeding programs on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nicholas Large White female turkeys. Three different feeding programs were considered for a 12-wk period: 1) 3 diets fed for 4 wk each (starter 24% CP, grower 20% CP, and finisher diet 16% CP), 2) 2 diets fed for 6 wk each (starter-grower 22% CP and grower-finisher diet 18% CP), and 3) no change of diet for 12 wk (starter-grower-finisher diet 20% CP). From 0 to 4 wk of age, birds were fed an ad libitum common starter diet. Each dietary treatment was replicated 3 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight and feed consumption were measured every 2 wk, whereas carcass characteristics were evaluated at 16 wk of age. Feed intake increased as the frequency of dietary changes decreased, and feed conversion was not different between programs 1 and 3. There were no significant differences in final BW among experimental groups. For a single feeding program, the proportion of neck, bone, and feet decreased, and a greater percentage of edible meat was registered as compared with the other 2 groups. Mean carcass, breast, and thigh weights of turkeys reared under multiple diets were not different compared with other groups. Positive correlations were noted between live weight and weight of carcass, breast, thigh, drumstick, wing, and abdominal fat of turkeys. Thus, a single cycle feeding regimen in Nicholas Large White female turkeys results in similar growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with other conventional feeding programs considered in the present study. PMID:19276424

Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V; Dario, M; D'Emilio, F P; Vicenti, A

2009-04-01

63

Demand characteristics of music affect performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test Of Intelligence.  

PubMed

This study examined whether demand characteristics concerning music can change subjects' performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test of intelligence. Participants (N= 60) were randomly assigned and informed either that Mozart's music typically enhances cognitive performance or diminishes it. They then completed the Wonderlic Personnel Test while listening to a Mozart piano sonata. The subjects with a positive set answered significantly more items correctly on the test (14%) than those with a negative set (p = .03). This result may hold implications for the study of the 'Mozart effect'. PMID:17450975

Verpaelst, Celissa C; Standing, Lionel G

2007-02-01

64

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman\\u000a (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis\\u000a (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4–51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of\\u000a impulsivity were seen in

Chris Oliver; Katy Berg; Jo Moss; Kate Arron; Cheryl Burbidge

65

The incidence of thyroid cancer is affected by the characteristics of a healthcare system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the incidence of thyroid cancer and the characteristics of healthcare systems in OECD countries and to demonstrate that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is mainly due to overdiagnosis. We used a random effects panel model to regress the incidence of thyroid cancer on the characteristics of healthcare systems (i.e., share of public expenditure on health, mode of health financing, existence of referral system to secondary care, mode of payment to primary care physicians), controlling for macro context variables (i.e., GDP per capita, educational level) on a country level. Data were derived from 34 OECD countries for 2002 and 2008. The share of public expenditure on health was negatively associated with the incidence of thyroid cancer. However, it had no statistically significant effect on the mortality of thyroid cancer and on the incidence of stomach and lung cancer. In the case of colorectal cancer, it had a positive effect on the incidence rate. The upward trend of the incidence of thyroid cancer is closely related to the healthcare system that permits overdiagnosis. Increases in the proportion of public financing may help reduce the overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:23255848

Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun; Cho, Hong-Jun; Lee, Jae-Ho

2012-12-07

66

The Incidence of Thyroid Cancer Is Affected by the Characteristics of a Healthcare System  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the incidence of thyroid cancer and the characteristics of healthcare systems in OECD countries and to demonstrate that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is mainly due to overdiagnosis. We used a random effects panel model to regress the incidence of thyroid cancer on the characteristics of healthcare systems (i.e., share of public expenditure on health, mode of health financing, existence of referral system to secondary care, mode of payment to primary care physicians), controlling for macro context variables (i.e., GDP per capita, educational level) on a country level. Data were derived from 34 OECD countries for 2002 and 2008. The share of public expenditure on health was negatively associated with the incidence of thyroid cancer. However, it had no statistically significant effect on the mortality of thyroid cancer and on the incidence of stomach and lung cancer. In the case of colorectal cancer, it had a positive effect on the incidence rate. The upward trend of the incidence of thyroid cancer is closely related to the healthcare system that permits overdiagnosis. Increases in the proportion of public financing may help reduce the overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sun; Cho, Hong-Jun

2012-01-01

67

Field experimental approach to bromide leaching as affected by scale-specific rainfall characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although inherent soil spatial and temporal variabilities complicate analysis of solute leaching, impacts of specific processes associated with rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency on solute leaching under field conditions require investigation. The objective of this study was to introduce (1) a new experimental approach to quantify bromide (Br-) leaching under field conditions as influenced by rainfall characteristics and (2) analytical opportunities applicable to scale-specific spatial treatment distribution. The quantitative range of treatments was established in nonrandom periodically oscillating patterns. The characteristic length of a period over which a treatment fluctuates was considered the specific treatment scale. A Br- tracer study was established in the field with treatments applied at two different spatial scales. The tracer was applied with a sprayer in a transect of 32 plots, each 2 m long, followed by a site-specific sprinkler irrigation, and 128 soil cores subsequently taken at 0.5 m intervals and divided into 10-cm depth increments. The scale-specific associations between treatments and Br- center of mass (COM) were addressed. Treatments can be periodically imposed over specific scales and their spatial relationships quantified with semivariance and power spectral analysis. An additive state-space model was applied to separate the long- and short-wave components of Br- COM. Subsequently, the large-scale process was described in an autoregressive state-space model. The proposed experimental approach and the separation of small- and large-scale variability components support studying soil ecosystem processes that vary at different scales even in the presence of underlying large-scale trends that are currently considered obstacles in field research.

Wendroth, Ole; Vasquez, Vicente; Matocha, Christopher J.

2011-06-01

68

Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N), (2) key travel (2.5mm vs. 3.5mm), and (3) shape of the force-displacement curve as realized through buckling-spring vs. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces, and intramuscular fine wire EMG electrodes measured muscle activity patterns of two intrinsic (first lumbricalis, first dorsal interossei) and three extrinsic (flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and extensor digitorum communis) index finger muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first dorsal interossei increased 25.9% with larger activation forces, but not for the extrinsic muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first lumbricalis and the duration of muscle activities for the first dorsal interossei and both extrinsic flexor muscles decreased up to 40.4% with longer key travel. The amplitude of muscle activity in the first dorsal interossei increased 36.6% and the duration of muscle activity for all muscles, except flexor digitorum profundus, decreased up to 49.1% with the buckling-spring design relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force-displacement characteristics of a keyswitch changes the dynamic loading of the muscles, especially in the intrinsic muscles, during keyboard work. PMID:18515146

Lee, David L; Kuo, Po-Ling; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

2008-06-02

69

An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.  

PubMed

Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its ecosystem services. PMID:21930336

Yang, Xiaojun

2011-09-17

70

Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total instructional integration and proved to also be significantly related to student achievement. Qualitative methodologies revealed student improvements in "thinking skills" and "dynamic factors" and the importance of teachers, administrators, and teacher education to the success of the interdisciplinary program. Claims and criticisms of interdisciplinary education in general, and integrated mathematics and science education specifically, were examined through both methodologies. Discussed are the pedagogical considerations necessary for a school district to institute a program of integrated mathematics and science.

Hurley, Marlene M.

1999-12-01

71

Does Spatial Variation in Soil Characteristics Affect Tree Transpiration Responses to Vapor Pressure Deficit?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest canopy transpiration (Ec) both depends on and influences the local and regional atmospheric conditions. Because soil is the source of water for Ec, the soil's chemical and physical properties are also likely to be drivers of transpiration. The objective of this study is to spatially quantify the relationship between the soil's chemical and physical characteristics and Ec across environmental gradients. The two study sites are in northern Wisconsin, in mixed hardwood forest. In one site, the environmental gradient runs from a dry upland dominated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) to a wetland dominated by alders (Alnus rugosa). The second site has little elevational variation, is well-drained, and is dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bisected by a swath of red pine (Pinus resinosa). Ec data have been collected over three summers on the same set of trees using Granier sensors, while the soil samples were collected in 2006 from the same plots as the measured trees. Both of the approximately 120 m x 120 m plots have been sampled in 10 m x 10 m subplots based on a 3/7 cyclic sampling scheme to maximize spatially explicit information with a minimum number of sampled points. Roughly 150 trees were measured in each plot. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between the spatial autocorrelation of Ec and vapor pressure deficit (D). We thus hypothesize that a significant amount of this relationship can be explained by soil properties. Preliminary analysis of soil data from a representative transect in the aspen site show that soil texture, carbon (C) content, and nitrogen (N) content change along the gradient. From the upland through the wetland, Ec declined significantly, and, while all the soils were a sandy loam, the sand content showed a decreasing trend, while the silt content increased nearly two-fold. Across the same (upland to wetland) gradient, the C:N ratio showed a slightly increasing trend, but the total percentage values of the two elements increased nearly 25 fold: from C of 0.884 and N of 0.060 to C of 22.34 and N of 1.283. We hypothesize that the maple site will show less variability in Ec because of its more uniform soil characteristics. Ongoing work of soil moisture release curves, bulk density, and root biomass will provide additional explanations of the spatial relationships between Ec and D. Our analytical approach, then, provides a first step in explaining the processes behind spatial patterns in transpiration.

Traver, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Loranty, M.; Mackay, D. S.

2006-12-01

72

Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

Bradfield, A. D.

1986-01-01

73

Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations. Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH. These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality, and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. 44 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Bradfield, A.D.

1986-01-01

74

Source population characteristics affect heterosis following genetic rescue of fragmented plant populations.  

PubMed

Understanding the relative importance of heterosis and outbreeding depression over multiple generations is a key question in evolutionary biology and is essential for identifying appropriate genetic sources for population and ecosystem restoration. Here we use 2455 experimental crosses between 12 population pairs of the rare perennial plant Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae) to investigate the multi-generational (F(1), F(2), F(3)) fitness outcomes of inter-population hybridization. We detected no evidence of outbreeding depression, with inter-population hybrids and backcrosses showing either similar fitness or significant heterosis for fitness components across the three generations. Variation in heterosis among population pairs was best explained by characteristics of the foreign source or home population, and was greatest when the source population was large, with high genetic diversity and low inbreeding, and the home population was small and inbred. Our results indicate that the primary consideration for maximizing progeny fitness following population augmentation or restoration is the use of seed from large, genetically diverse populations. PMID:23173202

Pickup, M; Field, D L; Rowell, D M; Young, A G

2013-01-01

75

Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain.  

PubMed

Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages of the broiler supply chain. Three different sampling points were considered: departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, and the end of the slaughterline. Strong associations were found between Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence at a particular sampling point and their prevalence at the preceding point of the chain. Statistical analyses showed that the country of origin of the broiler farm had a significant effect on the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter at slaughterhouse arrival. The feeding company delivering to the farm also showed a significant effect on the occurrence of both pathogens at departure from the broiler farm. The prevalence of Campylobacter decreased with an increasing number of birds per flock, whereas the prevalence of Salmonella increased with an increasing number of birds per flock. The number of flocks processed within a specific slaughterhouse was not associated with an increased or decreased prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. The results provide more insight into factors related to the occurrence of both pathogens and in understanding their epidemiology. The results can be supportive in decision making on measures to reduce the contamination of broiler products with Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:22912476

Franz, E; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Thissen, J; van Asselt, E D

2012-09-01

76

Characteristics of low-slope streams that affect O2 transfer rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple-regression techniques were used to derive the reaeration coefficients estimating equation for low sloped streams: K2 = 3.83 MBAS-0.41 SL0.20 H-0.76, where K2 is the reaeration coefficient in base e units per day; MBAS is the methylene blue active substances concentration in milligrams per liter; SL is the water-surface slope in foot per foot; and H is the mean-flow depth in feet. Fourteen hydraulic, physical, and water-quality characteristics were regressed against 29 measured-reaeration coefficients for low-sloped (water surface slopes less than 0.002 foot per foot) streams in Massachusetts and New York. Reaeration coefficients measured from May 1985 to October 1988 ranged from 0.2 to 11.0 base e units per day for 29 low-sloped tracer studies. Concentration of methylene blue active substances is significant because it is thought to be an indicator of concentration of surfactants which could change the surface tension at the air-water interface.

Parker, Gene, W.; DeSimone, Leslie, A.

1991-01-01

77

Season affects characteristics of the pre-ovulatory LH surge and embryo viability in superovulated ewes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether there are seasonal shifts in ovulatory response, and in the viability of ova recovered from superovulated ewes. Fifty mature ewes underwent a standard oestrous synchronisation (CIDR), superovulation (oFSH) and artificial insemination procedure during October (peak breeding season) and April (transition to anoestrus). In each month peripheral LH and progesterone concentrations were measured around the time of ovulation and embryos were recovered, graded and cryopreserved on day 6 after insemination. During the subsequent breeding season, grade 1 and 2 morulae and unexpanded blastocysts were thawed and transferred singly to synchronous recipients (October, n = 40; April, n = 40) or cultured in vitro for 18-20 h (October, n = 107; April, n = 98). Following culture, viable embryos were stained to count cell nuclei or assayed to measure their capacity for glucose metabolism ([3H]glucose) and protein synthesis ([35S]methionine). Peak LH concentrations were higher in October than in April (38.2 +/- 3.26 ng ml(-1) versus 25.7 +/- 1.99 ng ml(-1), respectively; P < 0.01) and the pre-ovulatory LH surge was advanced by approximately 3 h (P < 0.05). Progesterone concentrations at CIDR withdrawal were lower in October than in April (3.1 +/- 0.16 ng ml(-1) versus 4.3 +/- 0.19 ng ml(-1), respectively; P < 0.001) but were not different at embryo recovery. Season did not affect the numbers of corpora lutea per ewe or the numbers of ova recovered but the proportion of recovered ova that was unfertilised/degenerate was lower in October than in April (0.43 versus 0.58, respectively; P < 0.001). For embryos containing more than 16 cells, there was no effect of season on the median stage of development or morphological grade. The proportions of October and April embryos that established pregnancy following transfer to recipient ewes were 0.78 and 0.70 (not significantly different), and that were viable after in vitro culture were 0.66 and 0.37 (P < 0.05), respectively. Season did not affect the number of nuclei per viable embryo or the capacity for protein synthesis but the glucose uptake of October embryos was approximately double that of April embryos (3163+/-293.4 dpm versus 1550+/-358.9 dpm, respectively; P < 0.05). Results indicate that during the late compared to peak breeding season, there is an increased incidence of fertilisation failure as a possible consequence of seasonal shifts in LH secretion and (or) associated effects on follicular function. Frozen-thawed embryos produced at contrasting stages of the breeding season are equally viable in vivo but those produced during the late, as opposed to the peak breeding season have lower viability following in vitro culture. PMID:12417118

Mitchell, L M; Dingwall, W S; Mylne, M J A; Hunton, J; Matthews, K; Gebbie, F E; McCallum, G J; McEvoy, T G

2002-12-16

78

Gold- and Silver Nanoparticles Affect the Growth Characteristics of Human Embryonic Neural Precursor Cells  

PubMed Central

Rapid development of nanotechnologies and their applications in clinical research have raised concerns about the adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health and environment. NPs can be directly taken up by organs exposed, but also translocated to secondary organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS) after systemic- or subcutaneous administration, or via the olfactory system. The CNS is particularly vulnerable during development and recent reports describe transport of NPs across the placenta and even into brain tissue using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Here, we investigated whether well-characterized commercial 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs have an effect on human embryonic neural precursor cell (HNPC) growth. After two weeks of NP exposure, uptake of NPs, morphological features and the amount of viable and dead cells, proliferative cells (Ki67 immunostaining) and apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay), respectively, were studied. We demonstrate uptake of both 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs respectively, by HNPCs during proliferation. A significant effect on the sphere size- and morphology was found for all cultures exposed to Au- and AgNPs. AgNPs of both sizes caused a significant increase in numbers of proliferating and apoptotic HNPCs. In contrast, only the highest dose of 20 nm AuNPs significantly affected proliferation, whereas no effect was seen on apoptotic cell death. Our data demonstrates that both Au- and AgNPs interfere with the growth profile of HNPCs, indicating the need of further detailed studies on the adverse effects of NPs on the developing CNS.

Soderstjerna, Erika; Johansson, Fredrik; Klefbohm, Birgitta; Englund Johansson, Ulrica

2013-01-01

79

Biochemical characteristics and gelling capacity of pectin from yellow passion fruit rind as affected by acid extractant nature.  

PubMed

The effects of acid extractant type on the yield and characteristics of pectin from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) rind was investigated by using citric, nitric, or sulfuric acids at different concentrations (10 mM and 30 mM) and pH (1.8 and 2.5). The results showed that not only concentration, but also acid type influenced the extracted pectin yields (3-14%, w/w). The yield of pectin extracted with citric acid was the lowest. Acid type and concentration affected the molecular characteristics of pectin, notably, the degree of esterification (29-73), galacturonic acid to rhamnose ratio (14-35), weight average-molecular weight (100-250 kDa), gel strength (127-179), and setting time (841-1236 s). Citric acid-extracted pectin had a higher degree of esterification and weight average-molecular weight and better gelling properties. At 30 mM concentration, nitric and sulfuric acids solubilize pectins having a degree of esterification <50, contrary to citric acid. The results indicate that the latter acid exerts the least deesterifying action on pectin solubilization from the cell wall material. Citric acid-extracted pectin was closer to lemon pectin of similar degree of esterification in terms of gelling properties. PMID:19199593

Yapo, Beda M

2009-02-25

80

Performance, gut morphology and carcass characteristics of fattening rabbits as affected by particle size of pelleted diets.  

PubMed

A review of past literature revealed inconsistencies in recommended feed particle size for optimal growth and productive performance of rabbits. Changing diet formulation and subsequent processing conditions may improve pellet texture and potentially affect rabbit performance. In the current study, two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous pelleted diets were formulated, which varied in the particle size of the concentrates (2 and 8 mm, respectively). The objective was to evaluate the effect of different particle sizes of compound diets on performance, nutrient utilisation, gut morphology, and carcass characteristics of fattening Italian White breed rabbits. The finely ground diet led to a significant improvement in feed efficiency and apparent digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and NDF, without any negative effect on gut morphology. Furthermore, a smaller particle size of concentrates in pelleted diets improved carcass traits. Meat colour parameters showed significant differences in longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris due to dietary treatments, but in both muscles pH values 1 h and 24 h after slaughter remained unchanged. It is concluded that a finely ground pelleted diet can be used to improve growth performance of rabbits without affecting carcass parameters. PMID:21114233

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Desantis, Salvatore; Zizza, Sara; Laudadio, Vito

2010-10-01

81

Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of…

Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim

2007-01-01

82

Molecular Characterization of Chinese Hamster Cells Mutants Affected in Adenosine Kinase and Showing Novel Genetic and Biochemical Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Two isoforms of the enzyme adenosine kinase (AdK), which differ at their N-terminal ends, are found in mammalian cells. However, there is no information available regarding the unique functional aspects or regulation of these isoforms. Results We show that the two AdK isoforms differ only in their first exons and the promoter regions; hence they arise via differential splicing of their first exons with the other exons common to both isoforms. The expression of these isoforms also varied greatly in different rat tissues and cell lines with some tissues expressing both isoforms and others expressing only one of the isoforms. To gain insights into cellular functions of these isoforms, mutants resistant to toxic adenosine analogs formycin A and tubercidin were selected from Chinese hamster (CH) cell lines expressing either one or both isoforms. The AdK activity in most of these mutants was reduced to <5% of wild-type cells and they also showed large differences in the expression of the two isoforms. Thus, the genetic alterations in these mutants likely affected both regulatory and structural regions of AdK. We have characterized the molecular alterations in a number of these mutants. One of these mutants lacking AdK activity was affected in the conserved NxxE motif thereby providing evidence that this motif involved in the binding of Mg2+ and phosphate ions is essential for AdK function. Another mutant, FomR-4, exhibiting increased resistance to only C-adenosine analogs and whose resistance was expressed dominantly in cell-hybrids contained a single mutation leading to Ser191Phe alteration in AdK. We demonstrate that this mutation in AdK is sufficient to confer the novel genetic and biochemical characteristics of this mutant. The unusual genetic and biochemical characteristics of the FomR-4 mutant suggest that AdK in this mutant might be complexed with the enzyme AMP-kinase. Several other AdK mutants were altered in surface residues that likely affect its binding to the adenosine analogs and its interaction with other cellular proteins. Conclusions These AdK mutants provide important insights as well as novel tools for understanding the cellular functions of the two isoforms and their regulation in mammalian cells.

2011-01-01

83

Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp?+?P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr?+?P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp?+?P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr?+?P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated.

2012-01-01

84

High glycemic and insulinemic responses to meals affect plasma growth hormone secretory characteristics in Quarter Horse weanlings.  

PubMed

Growth hormone is a key component of the somatotropic axis and is critical for the interplay between nutrition, regulation of metabolic functions, and subsequent processes of growth. The objective of this study was to investigate potential relations between meal feeding concentrates differing in the glycemic responses they elicit and GH secretory patterns in young growing horses. Twelve Quarter Horse weanlings (5.4 ± 0.4 mo of age) were used in a crossover design, consisting of two 21-d periods and two treatments, a high-glycemic (HG) or low-glycemic (LG) concentrate meal, fed twice daily. Horses were individually housed and fed hay ad libitum. On the final day of each period, quarter-hourly blood samples were drawn for 24 h to measure plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and GH. Growth hormone secretory characteristics were estimated with deconvolution analysis. After a meal, HG-fed horses exhibited a longer inhibition until the first pulse of GH secretion (P = 0.012). During late night hours (1:00 AM to 6:45 AM), HG horses secreted a greater amount of pulsatile GH than LG horses (P = 0.002). These differences highlight the potential relations between glycemic and insulinemic responses to meals and GH secretion. Dietary energy source and metabolic perturbations associated with feeding HG meals to young, growing horses have the potential to alter GH secretory patterns compared with LG meals. This may potentially affect the developmental pattern of various tissues in the young growing horse. PMID:23433709

Gray, S M; Bartell, P A; Staniar, W B

2013-02-10

85

The Use of the Internet as a Research Tool: The Nature and Characteristics of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) amongst a Population of Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a cyclical syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of autumn or winter depression and atypical depressive symptoms. This paper describes the characteristics of an international sample of 425 Internet users who responded to newsgroup advertisements seeking people who experienced seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, and completed a modified version of the Seasonal Patterns Assessment Questionnaire.

Erin E. Michalak

1998-01-01

86

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

87

Personal and Institutional Characteristics Affecting Teacher Mobility: Schools Do Make a Difference. Research and Development Memorandum No. 136.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined teacher mobility between 1969-70 and 1971-72 in 36 elementary schools within one school district. Its purpose was to determine the influence of school characteristics on mobility, taking into account the influence of teaching-staff composition. This report describes the (a) relations between school characteristics and the…

Harnischfeger, Annegret

88

1\\/ f p Characteristics of the Fourier power spectrum affects ERP correlates of face learning and recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of Fourier power spectrum (1\\/fp) characteristics on face learning while recording ERPs that are associated with the representation of faces. Two image sets with an altered 1\\/fp characteristics were created. The first set consisted of stimuli with a STEEP SLOPE (1\\/f3.5) and therefore enhanced low spatial frequencies (LSF) and attenuated high spatial frequencies (HSF). The second

M. Blickhan; J. M. Kaufmann; J. Denzler; S. R. Schweinberger; C. Redies

2011-01-01

89

The role of gender differences and other client characteristics in the prevalence of DSM-IV affective disorders among a European therapeutic community population.  

PubMed

There is a lack of research illustrating the extent of psychiatric problems in European TCs. Furthermore, there is a need to obtain more insight into gender differences concerning comorbidity in the TC population. In an attempt to respond to previous shortcomings, three specific goals were formulated for the current study. The primary aim was to explore the lifetime prevalence of affective disorders in European TC clients. The second aim was to focus on related gender differences. And finally, client characteristics measured by the EuropASI were related to mood and anxiety disorders measured by the SCID-I. Nine out of ten substance abusers treated in a European TC program have an affective disorder. Gender differences are noted for two anxiety disorders: men have more obsessive-compulsive disorders; women have more post-traumatic stress disorders. The study illustrates that not only gender but also other client characteristics should be taken into account when organizing treatment. PMID:17106642

De Wilde, Joke; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves; Delespaul, Philippe; Soyez, Veerle

2007-03-01

90

Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ?Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on biodiversity and soil characteristics was studied in ancient forests on decalcified marl, a parent material sensitive

A. M. Kooijman; E. Cammeraat

2010-01-01

91

Composition of Irrigation Water Salinity Affects Growth Characteristics and Uptake of Selenium and Salt Ions by Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation, and distribution in plant components of the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar “Manokin.” Plants were grown in sand cultures and irrigated with isoosmotic solutions containing (1) Cl as the dominant anion, or (2) a

D. Wang; C. M. Grieve; D. L. Suarez

2005-01-01

92

COMPOSITION OF IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY AFFECTS GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND UPTAKE OF SELENIUM AND SALT IONS BY SOYBEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation waters differing in salt composition on growth characteristics, salt ion and selenium (Se) accumulation and distribution in plant components of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivar 'Manokin'. Plants were grown in sand culture...

93

Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dyads). A mixed-method approach was adopted…

Zwart, Rosanne C.; Wubbels, Theo; Bergen, Theo; Bolhuis, Sanneke

2009-01-01

94

Stress-strain characteristics of the heat-affected zone in an HY-100 weldment as determined by microindentation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microindentation hardness tests were carried out on HY-100 weldments. The true stresstrue strain data obtained by “automated ball indentation” on these weldments provided useful information for the various regions of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), where traditional mechanical testing is difficult. Detailed microstructural analyses were performed in an effort to correlate microstructural features with mechanical properties established for different regions of

Joseph F. Zarzour; Paul J. Konkol; Hao Dong

1996-01-01

95

Identifying Undergraduate and Post-College Characteristics that May Affect Alumni Giving. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identified undergraduate and post-college activities/experiences that may affect alumni giving. The Input-Environment-Output model, developed by Alexander Astin, along with multivariate statistical analysis served as the framework to analyze various input, environmental, and outcome variables. A review of the literature covers…

Young, P. Scott; Fischer, Norman M.

96

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

97

Affect or information? Labeling policy and consumer valuation of rBST free and organic characteristics of milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a labeling policy framework, we answer the question of whether attitude has an impact on consumers’ valuation of rBST-free and organic characteristics of milk. We utilize 2 years of consumer survey data and a hedonic model to estimate marginal effects of attitude on consumer valuation of rBST-free and organic milk. Findings indicate that in 2001 milk value was impacted

Jane Kolodinsky

2008-01-01

98

How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when associations between WebChoice use and each user characteristic were analyzed separately. High use of all components was associated with low levels of social support among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. High use of e-messages, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of depression among women with breast cancer, but not among men with prostate cancer. For men with prostate cancer (but not women with breast cancer), high use of symptom assessments, advice, and the discussion forum were associated with high levels of symptom distress. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be attributed to differences related to diagnosis, gender, or both. Conclusions This study provides evidence that different user characteristics are associated with different use patterns. Such information is crucial to target Web-based support systems to different patient groups. LCA is a useful technique to identify subgroups of users. In our study, e-messages and self-management advice were highly used components for patients who had low levels of social support and high illness burden, suggesting that patients with these characteristics may find such tools particularly useful. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00710658; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00710658 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6EmEWZiwz)

Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

2013-01-01

99

Nonsynonymous natural genetic polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene affect biochemical and biological characteristics of the mature hormone.  

PubMed

Leptin (LEP) is a cytokine-like hormone proven to be involved in diverse biological processes. In livestock, it regulates feed intake, BW homeostasis, and energy balance, among other traits. Natural nonsynonymous genetic polymorphisms in the ovine leptin (oLEP) alter the biochemical and physiological characteristics of its gene products. Here we studied in vitro and in vivo the biochemical and physiological characteristics of recombinant hormones representing the oLEP and bovine leptin (bLEP) reference sequences of wild-type (WT) leptins (GenBank accession No. U84247 and U50365, respectively), oLEP and bLEP recombinant muteins carrying the R4C mutation, and oLEP recombinant hormones carrying the A59V and Q62R mutations, which were detected in bLEP. All proteins were purified to homogeneity as monomers and formed 1:1 molar ratio complexes with the chicken leptin-binding domain (LBD). Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that all protein variants exhibit reduced (P < 0.05) affinity to chicken (ch) and human (h) LBD compared with the WT oLEP and bLEP recombinant proteins. The ovine and bovine R4C muteins exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) greater induction of cell proliferation in a Baf/3 cell line bioassay, despite lower affinity toward both hLBD and chLBD. Intra-third cerebral ventricle infusion of oLEP and its 3 muteins in sheep resulted in reduced feed intake. However, the 3 tested muteins had a decreased (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect than the WT LEP. It was concluded that natural genetic polymorphisms in the bLEP are associated with variation in the biochemical and physiological properties of the protein. PMID:21926317

Reicher, S; Ramos-Nieves, J M; Hileman, S M; Boisclair, Y R; Gootwine, E; Gertler, A

2011-09-16

100

The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type. PMID:23313671

Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2012-12-12

101

Phosphorylation of serine residue 89 of human adenovirus E1A proteins is responsible for their characteristic electrophoretic mobility shifts, and its mutation affects biological function.  

PubMed Central

The shift in mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that is characteristic of the adenovirus E1A proteins is the result of posttranslational modification. In the present study, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of bacterially produced E1A in higher cell extracts occurs on serine and is responsible for the mobility shift. E1A protein expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae also undergoes the mobility shift due to serine phosphorylation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify the serine residue responsible for the mobility shift. Six serine residues were altered to glycine within E1A. Substitution at serine residue 89 was shown to selectively prevent the mobility shift of both the 289R and 243R E1A proteins. We conclude that phosphorylation at serine 89 is the specific modification responsible for the mobility shift of E1A. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Ser-89-to-Gly mutation has no effect on trans activation or complementation of an E1A-deficient adenovirus. In contrast, the mutant protein does significantly reduce both the repression and transformation efficiency of E1A. The five other Ser-to-Gly mutation were also examined for functional effects. None affected trans activation, whereas repression and transformation functions were affected. One mutant affected transformation without affecting repression, suggesting that these functions are to some degree also separable. The relevance of phosphorylation to structure and activity of E1A and other nuclear oncogene proteins is discussed. Images

Smith, C L; Debouck, C; Rosenberg, M; Culp, J S

1989-01-01

102

Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)/carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of the diet on a wet weight basis). Six dogs were fed each diet in a 6 x 7 Youden square design. Dogs fed diets containing gelling agents had higher ileal digestibilities of OM (P = 0.05), fat (P < 0.01), GE (P = 0.02), and total amino acids (P = 0.04) and lower (P < 0.01) total tract DM digestibilities when compared to dogs fed the control diet. Fecal output by dogs fed the control diet, expressed on both an as-is (73.4 g/d) and DM (45.6 g/d) basis, was lower (P < 0.01) than for dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets (mean 102.3 g/d as-is and 57.6 g/d DM). Dogs fed the control diet also had lower (P < 0.01) fecal DM percentages and higher (P = 0.02) fecal scores than dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets. PMID:12389228

Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Merchen, N R; Grieshop, Christine M; Smeets-Peeters, Marianne J E; Fahey, G C

2002-04-01

103

Survey of the characteristics of cats owned by households in the UK and factors affecting their neutered status.  

PubMed

Data were collected on 1260 cats owned by a random sample of UK households in 2007, by means of telephone questionnaires, which were completed by 33 per cent of the households contacted. Cats were owned by 26 per cent of these households, 42 per cent of which owned more than one cat. The owners of 622 female cats reported a total of 110 unplanned litters of kittens. Excluding cats with an unknown neutered status 92 per cent of the cats aged six months or more were neutered, but only 66 per cent of the cats aged six to 12 months were neutered. Multivariable logistic regression, based on data collected for one randomly selected cat aged four months or more in each cat-owning household, was used to identify factors affecting the cats' neutered status. Analysis of 48 sexually entire cats and 501 neutered cats showed that cats aged 10 months or more, with indoor access, that had been vaccinated within the last year or were currently registered with a veterinary practice, were more likely to be neutered than cats aged less than 10 months, without indoor access, that had been vaccinated more than one year ago or were not registered with a veterinary practice. PMID:19188344

Murray, J K; Roberts, M A; Whitmarsh, A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

2009-01-31

104

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in ``minimally processed foods'' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (/p<=0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

105

Characteristics of streams and aquifers and processes affecting the salinity of water in the upper Colorado River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved-solids loads increased from 1986 to 1988 at nine streamflow water-quality stations on the upper Colorado River and its tributaries between Lake J.B. Thomas and O.H. Ivie Reservoir. About 51 percent of the dissolved-solids load to E.V. Spence Reservoir resulted from saline-water outflow from Natural Dam Salt Lake on Beals Creek. The concen- tration of dissolved solids in streamflow generally decreased in the downstream direction as flows increased in all reaches of the river and its tributaries. The estimated disolved-solids concen- tration exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter for water from about 233 of 386 wells and springs for which specific conductance was measured in 1986. The mean concentration for all wells was about 1,750 milligrams per liter. Mixing with brine associated with oil and gas producton is a major process affecting the salinity of streamflow and shallow-aquifer water. Dissolution of gypsum and pyrite contributed to salinity of water in shallow aquifers because of the presence of these minerals in most formations. Some salinity in streamflow and shallow-aquifer water was attributed to evapotranspiration in areas where water was close to land surface, in irrigated areas, and along streams. Dissolution of halite or mixing with deep-aquifer water was the most common cause of increased salinity in water samples from shallow aquifers as classified using salt-norm analysis. Mixing with water from soil-mineral dissolution was classified as the principal source of chloride in water samples from shallow aquifers with nitrate determinations. Trace species/chloride ratios indicated that mixing with water from deep aquifers in rocks of the Pennsylvanian System was the principal source of chloride in 24.4 percent of 45 shallow-aquifer samples lacking nitrate determinatoins.

Slade, R. M., Jr.; Buszka, P. M.

1994-01-01

106

Manure-amended soil characteristics affecting the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in 36 Dutch soils.  

PubMed

The recent increase in foodborne disease associated with the consumption of fresh vegetables stresses the importance of the development of intervention strategies that minimize the risk of preharvest contamination. To identify risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 persistence in soil, we studied the survival of a Shiga-toxin-deficient mutant in a set of 36 Dutch arable manure-amended soils (organic/conventional, sand/loam) and measured an array of biotic and abiotic manure-amended soil characteristics. The Weibull model, which is the cumulative form of the underlying distribution of individual inactivation kinetics, proved to be a suitable model for describing the decline of E. coli O157:H7. The survival curves generally showed a concave curvature, indicating changes in biological stress over time. The calculated time to reach the detection limit ttd ranged from 54 to 105 days, and the variability followed a logistic distribution. Due to large variation among soils of each management type, no differences were observed between organic and conventional soils. Although the initial decline was faster in sandy soils, no significant differences were observed in ttd between both sandy and loamy soils. With sandy, loamy and conventional soils, the variation in ttd was best explained by the level of dissolved organic carbon per unit biomass carbon DOC/biomC, with prolonged survival at increasing DOC/biomC. With organic soils, the variation in ttd was best explained by the level of dissolved organic nitrogen (positive relation) and the microbial species diversity as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (negative relation). Survival increased with a field history of low-quality manure (artificial fertilizer and slurry) compared with high-quality manure application (farmyard manure and compost). We conclude that E. coli O157:H7 populations decline faster under more oligotrophic soil conditions, which can be achieved by the use of organic fertilizer with a relatively high C/N ratio and consequently a relatively low rate of nutrient release. PMID:18199123

Franz, Eelco; Semenov, Alexander V; Termorshuizen, Aad J; de Vos, O J; Bokhorst, Jan G; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2008-02-01

107

Severity of injuries associated with falls in the community dwelling elderly are not affected by fall characteristics and physical function level.  

PubMed

Many elderly people experience difficulty with independent living after injuries associated with falls. This study aimed to examine the influence of fall characteristics and physical function level on the severity of fall related injuries. The surveys were conducted in 1955 community dwelling elderly. The questions regarded the following: fall experience within the past year, fall direction, fall cause, injured parts and degree of injury, and an activity of daily living (ADL) questionnaire from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japan. Data of 1850 subjects with available and complete responses were used for analysis. Three hundred and eighty-six (20.9%) elderly people experienced a fall within the past year and 257 (66.7%) were injured. ADL score was significantly higher in the elderly without fall experience than the elderly with fall experience. No significant difference was found in frequency of fall cause and fall direction between the elderly with and without injuries caused by falling. Significant correlations were found between fall direction and fall cause and injured parts (?=0.49 and 0.32). ADL score of the elderly who fell by leg backlash was significantly lower than that of the elderly who fell by tripping, slipping and staggering. A decrease of ADL affects the rate of falls in the elderly, but not the degree of injury. Fall characteristics may not be related to the extent of fall injury. PMID:21794930

Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Kasuga, Kosho

2011-07-27

108

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health.

2010-01-01

109

Experiencing affective interactive art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for\\u000aaffective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Broek van den Egon L

2010-01-01

110

Blood characteristics Effect on Pulsed Wave Velocity (PWV); Are only the vascular atherosclerosis-related risk factors affects to value of PWV?  

PubMed

PWV, a surrogate marker for vascular stiffness, can be also expressed by the Bramwell-Hill equation. The effect of blood density to PWV has been ignored, because variation of blood density is assumed to be negligible. In some clinical situation, blood density could be changed, and blood density as a mechanical property of blood flow might affect to PWV. While the elastic property plays an important role in determining the wave propagation in an elastic tube, our assumption is that there might be some relation between blood flow and vascular wall, and that the characteristics of blood flow might influence PWV. This study was objected to investigate the role of mechanical and hemorheologic parameters on PWV in subjects with cardiovascular disease. We have measured and analyzed the PWV, hemorheologic parameters, and other clinical parameters in 814 patients with coronary arterial disease scheduled for coronary angiography. There is no commercial method for measuring whole blood density. So, we defined the density score, which is sum of hemoglobin and total protein. And the hemorheologic parameters were measured within 4 hours after sampling by automated microfluidic hemorheometer. And the effect of all the clinical and hemorheologic parameter on PWV was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Many clinical parameters including age and blood pressure, high shear WBV and ESR as hemorheologic parameters, and density score were correlated well with ba-PWV. However, many clinical variables, high shear WBV and ESR lost the independent significance on multivariable regression analysis. Only age, SBP, and density score were independent variables (p < 0.001). In conclusion, density score as a mechanical property of blood might be suggested as an independent variable influencing PWV in addition to age and blood pressure, but hemorheologic parameters, such as RBC deformability, aggregation, and whole blood viscosity do not affect PWV independently. PMID:23445636

Kim, Jongyoun; Yoon, Jihyun; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Karimi, Ali; Shin, Sehyun

2013-02-27

111

Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.  

PubMed

Optimization of ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) is strongly driven by the needs of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The rapidly growing use of genomic selection in cattle has increased the interest in using OPU-IVP technology to increase the number of embryos and offspring per donor, thus allowing enhanced selection intensity for the next generation. The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes. The effects on embryo production and on embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryo survival, and calf characteristics, including gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex ratio were studied. In study 1, immature slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine, fertilized and cultured for 7 days in 0.5 ml SOFaaBSA. In study 2, cysteamine was present during both IVM (0.1 mM) and IVC (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mM) from Days 1 to 4. In study 3, OPU-derived COCs were matured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine in a 2 × 2 factorial design (OPU week and cysteamine treatment). Embryos were evaluated for stage and grade on Day 7 and, depending on the number of transferable embryos and recipients available, the embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen-thawed at a later date. The presence of cysteamine during IVM significantly increased the embryo production rate with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (24.0% vs. 19.4%). The higher number of embryos at Day 7 was due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas the distribution of embryos among different quality grades and cryotolerance was not affected. Embryo production rate was negatively affected when cysteamine was present during both the processes of IVM and IVC during Days 1 to 4 of culture (13.2%-19.3% vs. 26.4%). The presence of cysteamine during IVM of OPU-derived COCs also significantly increased the embryo production rate (34.4% vs. 23.4%). The higher number of embryos was again totally due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas cryotolerance was not affected. The relative increase in embryo production rate was higher with OPU-derived oocytes compared with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (47% vs. 24%). This improvement resulted in a mean of 1.73 transferable embryos per OPU session compared with 1.06 in the absence of cysteamine. The presence of cysteamine did not affect pregnancy rate, gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex of calves born from either fresh or frozen-thawed embryos. This study reported that cysteamine supplementation during IVM greatly improved the efficiency and affectivity of an OPU-IVP program. PMID:23746876

Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

2013-06-07

112

[Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

By the soil respiration system, the characteristics of soil respiration were investigated to explore the correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil water and soil nutrient under different land use patterns in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the seasonal changing characteristics of soil respiration were distinguished significantly among different vegetations, and soil water content and temperature were the main influencing factors. Soil respiration seasonal changing ranges, such as bare land, crop land, Medicago sativa land, Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned wild grass land, Stipa bungeana land, wild grass land, degraded Medicago sativa land, sloping Medicago sativa land, sloping abandoned wild grass land, sloping crop land and terraced crop land, were 0.32-0.82, 0.41-2.83, 0.74-2.81, 0.76-3.07, 0.67-2.79, 0.51-2.12, 0.56-2.05, 0.59-1.66, 0.42-2.09, 0.31-1.86, 0.32-1.93 and 0.41-3.17 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Comparing seasonal changing magnitudes of soil respiration, crop land was the biggest (167% - 203%), abandoned wild grass land (117% -154%), Caragana korshinskii land (134%), Stipa bungeana land (129%), Medicago sativa land (119%-120%) and bare land (94%) followed crop land. The smallest was degraded Medicago sativa land (92%). Bare land and degraded Medicago sativa land had small seasonal variation during the study period. Monthly average values of soil carbon flux (soil respiration) of Medicago sativa land and Caragana korshinskii land were maximal, but the maximum values under crop land were observed in July and August. Besides Q10 of crop land was also maximal, which reached 1.86. There were significant correlations between soil respiration and soil organic matter and available K. Moreover, soil respiration was affected by soil organic matter and total nitrogen in July and August when the water and heat condition were plentiful, but soil ammonium nitrogen had negative impact on soil respiration in the seasons when water and heat were not optimal. PMID:21360891

Xie, Hui-Hui; Fan, Jun; Qi, Li-Bin; Hao, Ming-De

2010-12-01

113

Promoting Positive Learning Attitudes: Adult Learning Provisions, Demographic Characteristics and Previous Learning Experiences as Predictors of Positive Affective Development by External Students. A Study of the Learning Experiences of Fifty Weipa (Far North Queensland) Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study attempted to identify the adult learning provisions, demographic characteristics, and previous learning experiences that are predictive of positive affective development by external (distance education) students. The study population consisted of 50 adult students who were currently enrolled in 10 tertiary institutions as external students…

Inglis, Paul

114

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts.  

PubMed

The National Beef Quality Audit-2011 (NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processing facilities. Cattle identification methods were lot visual tags (85.7%), individual visual tags (50.6%), electronic tags (20.1%), metal-clip tags (15.7%), other (5.3%), none (2.5%), and wattles (0.5%). Hide colors or breed types were black (61.1%), red (12.8%), yellow (8.7%), Holstein (5.5%), brown (5.0%), gray (5.0%), white (1.4%), and brindle (1.0%). Brand frequencies were none (55.2%), 1 (40.4%), 2 (4.4%), and 3 or more (0.04%) brands, and brands were located on the butt (35.2%), side (9.0%), and shoulder (2.5%). Hide locations of mud or manure were no mud/manure (49.2%), legs (36.8%), belly (23.7%), side (14.9%), top-line (11.0%), and tail region (13.7%). There were 76.2% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (71.6%) were between 0 cm and 12.7 cm in length. Permanent incisor numbers were zero (87.3%), 1 (1.4%), 2 (8.0%), 3 (0.9%), 4 (1.9%), 5 (0.3%), 6 (0.2%), 7 (0.1%), and 8 (0.02%). Most carcasses (77.0%) were not bruised, 18.7% had 1 bruise, 3.4% had 2 bruises, 0.6% had 3 bruises, and 0.3% had more than 3 bruises. Bruise locations were loin (50.1%), rib (21.3%), chuck (13.8%), round (7.3%), and brisket/flank/plate (7.5%). Condemnation item and incidence were whole carcass (none recorded), liver (20.9%), lungs (17.3%), tongue (10.0%), viscera (9.3%), and head (7.2%). Compared with the NBQA-2005, the NBQA-2011 had an increased percentage of black-hided cattle (56.3 vs. 61.1%), more cattle with brands (38.7 vs. 44.8%), and more cattle with some form of identification (93.3 vs. 97.5%). In addition, there was a lesser percentage of carcasses with bruising in 2011 (23.0%) than in 2005 (35.2%), as well as a smaller percentage of carcasses with more than 1 bruise (2005 = 9.4% vs. 2011 = 4.2%). Compared with the 2005 audit, a similar percentage of the cattle were deemed 30 mo of age or older using dentition (2005 = 2.7% vs. 2011 = 3.3%). The information from NBQA-2011 helps the beef industry measure progress against previous NBQA assessments and provides a benchmark for future educational and research activities. PMID:22952370

McKeith, R O; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

2012-09-05

115

Keratin23 (KRT23) Knockdown Decreases Proliferation and Affects the DNA Damage Response of Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Keratin 23 (KRT23) is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed that KRT23 depletion affected molecules of the cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination and repair. In vitro analyses confirmed that KRT23 depletion significantly decreased the cellular proliferation of SW948 and LS1034 cells and markedly decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA damage response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced proliferation of the KRT23 depleted cells compared to irradiated control cells.

Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mansilla, Francisco; Thorsen, Kasper; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Christensen, Rikke; ?ster, Bodil; ?rntoft, Torben Falck

2013-01-01

116

Cognitive and Affective Characteristics of Good Language Learners. Proceedings of the Los Angeles Second Language Research Forum (1st, Los Angeles, California, February 11-13, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field independence, empathy, perceived social distance, and self-esteem are being examined in this on-going investigation of the characteristics of a good language learner. The results of various measures of these four variables are being correlated with language proficiency tests and teacher and self-evaluations. It is suggested that conflicting…

Brown, H. Douglas

117

Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

118

Multidimensional comparison of personality characteristics of the Big Five model, impulsiveness, and affect in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The phenomenological resemblance between pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has led to suggestions that PG be categorized as an obsessive-compulsive-spectrum disorder (OCSD). This study aimed to explore whether PG resembles OCD in terms of personality and temperament. Fifteen patients with PG, 18 patients with OCD, and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The study subjects were all male and drug naďve. We analyzed data obtained from three self-report questionnaires assessing personality, impulsiveness, and affect: the short version of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Participants with PG and OCD demonstrated less conscientiousness (F = 7.089, P = .002) and less openness to experience (F = 6.268, P = .003) and less positive affect (F = 15.816, P < .001) than did healthy controls. The two diagnostic groups did not differ from each other with respect total BIS-11 scores, but those with OCD showed more neuroticism than did those with PG and healthy controls ( F = 9.556, P < .001), and those with PG obtained higher scores on the non-planning impulsiveness factor of BIS-11 than did those with OCD or healthy controls ( F = 9,835, P < .001). PG and OCD share similar profiles in terms of personality and temperament. This study provides phenomenological evidence supporting the conceptualization of PG as an OCSD. PMID:21938524

Hwang, Jae Yeon; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Park, Hye Youn; Shin, Na Young; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

2012-09-01

119

Dietary incorporation of soybean meal and exogenous enzyme cocktail can affect physical characteristics of faecal material egested by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean meal (SBM) has a relatively low digestible nutrient\\/energy density compared to other common fish feed ingredients. Feeding high levels of SBM has been shown to affect growth and has also been predicted to result in increased solid waste outputs. The effect of SBM and an enzyme cocktail (Superzyme CS) on growth and waste outputs of rainbow trout was, therefore,

Ayoleke E. Ogunkoya; Greg I. Page; Morenike A. Adewolu; Dominique P. Bureau

2005-01-01

120

Retention and rainfastness of mancozeb as affected by physicochemical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surface after enhanced UV-B radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not clear so far whether alteration of leaf micromorphology and surface wax chemistry due to the impact of environmental factors, such as UV-B radiation, affects retention and rainfastness of applied pesticide solutions. In this study; UV-B treated and untreated adaxial leaf surfaces of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were characterized in terms of chemical composition, micromorphological fine structure,

Katja Bringe; Mauricio Hunsche; Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger; Georg Noga

2007-01-01

121

Retention and rainfastness of mancozeb as affected by physicochemical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surface after enhanced UV-B radiation.  

PubMed

It is not clear so far whether alteration of leaf micromorphology and surface wax chemistry due to the impact of environmental factors, such as UV-B radiation, affects retention and rainfastness of applied pesticide solutions. In this study; UV-B treated and untreated adaxial leaf surfaces of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were characterized in terms of chemical composition, micromorphological fine structure, hydrophobicity, and wettability. Furthermore, the retention and rainfastness of applied fungicide mancozeb were studied. The samples were examined 0, 24 and 48 h after ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (0.022 kW m(-2) for 150 min) The total wax mass, recovered from the adaxial leaf surface, amounted from 0.38 microg cm(-2) (control) up to 0.49 microg cm(-2) (24 h). Chemical composition of surface wax altered, whereas the contact angle of applied water droplets on leaf surface of UV-B treated plants did not change significantly compared to the control. The alteration of surface wax quantity and quality significantly affected retention of a.i.; it increased at a sampling time of 24 h after UV-B irradiation, whereas rainfastness of the fungicide spray solution was not significantly influenced. PMID:17365327

Bringe, Katja; Hunsche, Mauricio; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Noga, Georg

2007-02-01

122

Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

Geist, David R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hanrahan, Timothy P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Arntzen, Evan V. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); McMichael, Geoffrey A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Murray, Christopher J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chien, Yi-Ju (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-11-01

123

Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, U.S.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread and increasing urbanization has resulted in the need to assess, monitor, and understand its effects on stream water quality. Identifying relations between stream ecological condition and urban intensity indicators such as impervious surface provides important, but insufficient information to effectively address planning and management needs in such areas. In this study we investigate those specific landscape metrics which are functionally linked to indicators of stream ecological condition, and in particular, identify those characteristics that exacerbate or mitigate changes in ecological condition over and above impervious surface. The approach used addresses challenges associated with redundancy of landscape metrics, and links landscape pattern and composition to an indicator of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware River Basin, and landscape data of high spatial and thematic resolution were obtained from photointerpretation of 1999 imagery. An ordination-derived 'biotic score' was positively correlated with assemblage tolerance, and with urban-related chemical characteristics such as chloride concentration and an index of potential pesticide toxicity. Impervious surface explained 56% of the variation in biotic score, but the variation explained increased to as high as 83% with the incorporation of a second land use, cover, or configuration metric at catchment or riparian scales. These include land use class-specific cover metrics such as percent of urban land with tree cover, forest fragmentation metrics such as aggregation index, riparian metrics such as percent tree cover, and metrics related to urban aggregation. Study results indicate that these metrics will be important to monitor in urbanizing areas in addition to impervious surface. ?? 2010 US Government.

Riva-Murray, K.; Riemann, R.; Murdoch, P.; Fischer, J. M.; Brightbill, R.

2010-01-01

124

Primary Caregivers of Children Affected by Disorders of Sex Development: Mental Health and Caregiver Characteristics in the Context of Genital Ambiguity and Genitoplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI), Parent Protection Scale (PPS), Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS) and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF). Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported (F(1, 40) = 5.08, p = .03). For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age (F(1, 13) = 6.16, p = 0.28); F(1, 15) = 6.70, p = .021), respectively).

Fedele, David A.; Kirk, Katherine; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M.; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L.; Chernausek, Steven D.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

2010-01-01

125

Habitat characteristics and spatial arrangement affecting the diversity of fish and decapod assemblages of seagrass (Zostera marina) beds around the coast of Jersey (English Channel)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research and management plans for seagrass habitats have called for landscape level approaches. The present study examines the spatial utilisation of subtidal seagrass beds by fish and decapods around the coast of Jersey (49°N 02° W). A hierarchical scale of landscape configuration and the plant characteristics of eight seagrass beds were measured and the contributions of these variables as predictors of the properties of the fish and decapod assemblages were evaluated using multiple linear regression models. The results indicated that total diversity had a negative relationship with transect heterogeneity and total species number had a weak negative association with increasing fragmentation. Both total diversity and total species number showed a positive relationship with depth. In fact, in all models of species number and densities, values were higher in deeper seagrass beds. Total decapod density increased with aggregation of seagrass patches within a landscape. In addition to landscape configuration, smaller-scale structural changes in both canopy height and epiphyte load appeared to influence densities of decapod crustaceans. At night, fewer patterns could be explained by the independent variables in the model.

Jackson, Emma L.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jones, Malcolm B.

2006-07-01

126

Chlorogenic acid alters the biological characteristics of basophil granulocytes by affecting the fluidity of the cell membrane and triggering pseudoallergic reactions.  

PubMed

It is not clear whether pseudoallergic reactions are caused by similar mechanisms as type I allergic reactions. 3?Caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) is an active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines used for antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cholagogic purposes. It is assumed to be the reason for the high allergic reaction rates associated with certain traditional Chinese medicine injection solutions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms through which chlorogenic acid triggers pseudoallergic reactions. The fluidity of the cell membrane was investigated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Western blot analysis was used to measure the phosphorylation levels of the Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) protein and Fluo?3/AM fluorescent probes were used to investigate the influx of calcium ions. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and phalloidin were used to determine F?actin depolymerization levels. The secretion rate of ??hexosaminidase by RBL?2H3 cells clearly increased following treatment with chlorogenic acid and the levels of cytoskeletal disintegration were also markedly increased. Furthermore, we detected an increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration along with distinct changes in Syk protein phosphorylation and cellular F?actin. These changes indicated that chlorogenic acid affected the restructuring of the cytoskeleton and played a role in cell degranulation. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may lead to the aggregation of lipid rafts on the cell membrane surface by altering RBL?2H3 cell membrane fluidity, thus triggering Syk?related signal transduction and inducing a truncated type I like allergic reaction. PMID:24064570

Li, Qin; Zhao, Yin; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Qiuhong; Zhang, Xinyue

2013-09-24

127

Evaluation of component characteristics of soil-surfactant-herbicide system that affect enhanced desorption of linuron and atrazine preadsorbed by soils.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the surfactant-enhanced desorption of atrazine and linuron preadsorbed by soils and to study the effect of different characteristics of the components of soil-surfactant-herbicide systems on the efficiency of desorption. Two soils with organic matter contents of 3.16% and 7.28% and 11 surfactants, three of them anionic (SDS, LAS, and SDOSS) and 8 of them nonionic (Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton X-100, Triton X-114, Brij 35, Brij 30, Tergitol NP-10, and Tergitol 15S12), at concentrations 1.5 and 10 times the critical micellar concentration (cmc) were used. Adsorption-desorption studies were performed using a batch system, and the Freundlich model was applied to the isotherms except for some cases in which this was not possible. The desorption isotherms of both pesticides in aqueous medium pointed to the existence of hysteresis. The values of the hysteresis coefficients of the adsorption isotherms in water decreased in some cases while in others they increased in the presence of the surfactants, depending on the structure of these and on their concentration in water, on the organic matter content of the soil, and on the K(ow) of the herbicide. Parallel to the decrease in hysteresis, the percentage of herbicide desorption and desorption efficiency coefficient (E; ratio between the percentages of herbicide desorption in the presence of surfactant and those found in aqueous medium) increased. For a 10 cmc surfactant concentration, a linear relationship was seen between the E values and the absolute values of the cmc of the surfactants. Also, for the same surfactant, a linear relationship was seen between log E and the log of the absolute concentrations of surfactant in solution. The results obtained are of practical interest for the choice of surfactants for concrete problems involved in the recovery of pesticide-polluted waters using the surfactant-enhanced desorption pumping technique. PMID:12854716

Sánchez-Camazano, María; Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Sánchez-Martín, María J

2003-06-15

128

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic climate (ARCPAC) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in Southern Russia and Southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 2 and 7 km and a~slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in fresh wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2010-11-01

129

Characteristics, sources, and transport of aerosols measured in spring 2008 during the aerosol, radiation, and cloud processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the background, scientific goals, and execution of the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) project of April 2008. We then summarize airborne measurements, made in the troposphere of the Alaskan Arctic, of aerosol particle size distributions, composition, and optical properties and discuss the sources and transport of the aerosols. The aerosol data were grouped into four categories based on gas-phase composition. First, the background troposphere contained a relatively diffuse, sulfate-rich aerosol extending from the top of the sea-ice inversion layer to 7.4 km altitude. Second, a region of depleted (relative to the background) aerosol was present within the surface inversion layer over sea-ice. Third, layers of dense, organic-rich smoke from open biomass fires in southern Russia and southeastern Siberia were frequently encountered at all altitudes from the top of the inversion layer to 7.1 km. Finally, some aerosol layers were dominated by components originating from fossil fuel combustion. Of these four categories measured during ARCPAC, the diffuse background aerosol was most similar to the average springtime aerosol properties observed at a long-term monitoring site at Barrow, Alaska. The biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel layers were present above the sea-ice inversion layer and did not reach the sea-ice surface during the course of the ARCPAC measurements. The BB aerosol layers were highly scattering and were moderately hygroscopic. On average, the layers produced a noontime net heating of ~0.1 K day-1 between 3 and 7 km and a slight cooling at the surface. The ratios of particle mass to carbon monoxide (CO) in the BB plumes, which had been transported over distances >5000 km, were comparable to the high end of literature values derived from previous measurements in wildfire smoke. These ratios suggest minimal precipitation scavenging and removal of the BB particles between the time they were emitted and the time they were observed in dense layers above the sea-ice inversion layer.

Brock, C. A.; Cozic, J.; Bahreini, R.; Froyd, K. D.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McComiskey, A.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Aikin, K. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Gao, R.-S.; Gore, W.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jefferson, A.; Lack, D. A.; Lance, S.; Moore, R. H.; Murphy, D. M.; Nenes, A.; Novelli, P. C.; Nowak, J. B.; Ogren, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Quinn, P. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Sodemann, H.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Thomson, D. S.; Thornberry, T.; Veres, P.; Watts, L. A.; Warneke, C.; Wollny, A. G.

2011-03-01

130

Affective Wearables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An "affective wearable" is a wearable systemequipped with sensors and tools which enablesrecognition of its wearer's affective patterns. Affectivepatterns include expressions of emotionsuch as a joyful smile, an angry gesture, astrained voice or a change in autonomic nervoussystem activity such as accelerated heart rateor increasing skin conductivity. This paper describesnew applications of affective wearables,and presents a prototype which gathers physiologicalsignals

Rosalind W. Picard; Jennifer Healey

1997-01-01

131

Affective Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will attempt t o d efine a new area of research: affective c ommunication through the use of affective objects. An affective object may be defined as any physical object which has the ability to sense emotional data from a person, map that information to an abstract form of expression and communicate that information expressively, either back to

Jocelyn Scheirer; Rosalind W. Picard

132

INVOKING AFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates the contemporary emergence of affect as critical object and perspective through which to understand the social world and our place within it. Emphasising the unexpected, the singular or the quirky over the generally applicable, the turn to affect builds on important work in cultural studies on the pitfalls of writing the body out of theory. More importantly

Clare Hemmings

2005-01-01

133

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

134

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

135

ALMA: a layered model of affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce ALMA - A Layered Model of Affect. It integrates three major affective characteristics: emotions, moods and personality that cover short, medium, and long term affect. The use of this model consists of two phases: In the preparation phase appraisal rules and personality profiles for characters must be specified with the help of AffectML - our

Patrick Gebhard

2005-01-01

136

Characteristics of Anchor Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate to what extent characteristics of anchor tests may affect precision of item calibration, and to estimate to what extent precision of item calibration may be affected by removal of persons whose response patterns deviate from those normally expected from the Rasch one-parameter logistic model.…

Chang, S. Tai; Bashaw, W. L.

137

Satellite 2 demethylation induced by 5-azacytidine is associated with missegregation of chromosomes 1 and 16 in human somatic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite sequences are an important part of the pericentromeric regions in mammalian genomes; they play a relevant role in chromosome stability and DNA hypomethylation of these sequences has been reported in ICF syndrome and in some cancers that are closely associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Epigenetic modifications of satellite sequences and their consequences have not been extensively studied in human cells.

Diddier Prada; Rodrigo González; Lisandro Sánchez; Clementina Castro; Eunice Fabián; Luis A. Herrera

138

Satellite 2 demethylation induced by 5-azacytidine is associated with missegregation of chromosomes 1 and 16 in human somatic cells.  

PubMed

Satellite sequences are an important part of the pericentromeric regions in mammalian genomes; they play a relevant role in chromosome stability and DNA hypomethylation of these sequences has been reported in ICF syndrome and in some cancers that are closely associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Epigenetic modifications of satellite sequences and their consequences have not been extensively studied in human cells. In the present work, we evaluated satellite 2 methylation patterns in human lymphocytes exposed to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) and assessed the relationship between these patterns and chromosome missegregation. Human lymphocytes were exposed to 10?M 5-azaC for 24, 48, and 72h. Segregation errors were evaluated in binucleate cells using FISH against pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16. DNA methylation patterns were evaluated by immunodetection, and by bisulfite plus urea conversion and sequencing. We have identified that 5-azaC induced missegregation of chromosomes 1 and 16, which have highly methylated satellite 2, after 72h of exposure. Chromosome methylation patterns showed a notable decrease in pericentromeric methylation. Bisulfite conversion and sequencing analysis demonstrated demethylation of satellite 2 associated to 5-azaC exposure, principally after 72h of treatment. This change occurred in a non-specific pattern. Our study demonstrates an association between loss of satellite 2 DNA methylation and chromosome loss in human lymphocytes. PMID:22032830

Prada, Diddier; González, Rodrigo; Sánchez, Lisandro; Castro, Clementina; Fabián, Eunice; Herrera, Luis A

2011-10-20

139

How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combination of acoustic (and also lexical) features and classifier yields best performance. Laughter and subjectivity in meetings, and

Khiet Phuong Truong

2009-01-01

140

Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger

Lisbeth Nielsen; Brian Knutson; Laura L. Carstensen

2008-01-01

141

Early Adolescents: Their Developmental Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are major developmental characteristics of 10 to 15-year olds. These characteristics are organized around the developmental, social, behavioral processes within early adolescents. It is suggested they are taking on the characteristics of older adolescents of the 1970s, involved in their own lives and in the decisions affecting them.…

Thornburg, Hershel D.

1980-01-01

142

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

143

Characteristics of initial growth of hypernodulation soybean mutants, NOD1-3, NOD2-4 and NOD3-7, affected by inoculation of bradyrhizobia and nitrate supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of plant growth of hypernodulation soybean mutant lines NOD1-3, NOD2-4 and NOD3-7 were compared with their parent cv. Williams. The plants were grown using hydroponics in an illuminated growth chamber with or without seed inoculation of bradyrhizobia, and in the absence or presence of nitrate in the culture solution. When the plants were grown without inoculation, the total

Sayuri Ito; Norikuni Ohtake; Kuni Sueyoshi; Takuji Ohyama

2007-01-01

144

Speaker Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we give a brief introduction to speech-driven applications in order to motivate why it is desirable to automatically recognize particular speaker characteristics from speech. Starting from these applications,\\u000a we derive what kind of characteristics might be useful. After categorizing relevant speaker characteristics, we describe in more detail\\u000a language, accent, dialect, idiolect, and sociolect. Next, we briefly summarize

Tanja Schultz

2007-01-01

145

Affective Social Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a theoretical model for affective social competence to include the three integrated and dynamic components of sending affective messages, receiving affective messages, and experiencing affect. Places the model within the context of previous research and theory related to affective social competence and, for each component, examines how…

Halberstadt, Amy G.; Denham, Susanne A.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2001-01-01

146

What Kind of People Are Interested in Using Affective Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study compared teachers' attitudes toward human nature (trustworthiness, altruism, independence, and strength of will) with their interest in using affective methods. "Typical" prospective user of affective methods was female, with strong negative belief in the altruistic characteristics of people. (DS)|

Warger, Cynthia L.

1979-01-01

147

Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977-2006123  

PubMed Central

Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies.

Piernas, Carmen

2011-01-01

148

The enigmatics of affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computation generally focuses on the informatics of affect: structuring, formalizing, and representing emotion as informational units. We propose instead an enigmatics of affect, a critical technical practice that respects the rich and undefinable complexities of human affective experience. Our interactive installation, the Influencing Machine, allows users to explore a dynamic landscape of emotionally expressive sound and child-like drawings, using

Phoebe Sengers; Rainer Liesendahi; Werner Magar; Christoph Seibert; Boris Müller; Thorston Joachims; Weidong Geng; Pia Mĺrtensson; Kristina Höök

2002-01-01

149

Correction. "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging".  

PubMed

Reports an error in "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging" by Lisbeth Nielsen, Brian Knutson and Laura L. Carstensen (Emotion, 2008[Jun], Vol 8[3], 318-330). The first author of the article was listed as being affiliated with both the National Institute on Aging and the Department of Psychology, Stanford University. Dr. Nielsen would like to clarify that the research for this article was conducted while she was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University; her current affiliation is only with the National Institute on Aging. The copyright notice should also have been listed as "In the Public Domain." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-06717-002.) [Correction Notice: The same erratum for this article was reported in Vol 8(5) of Emotion (see record 2008-13989-013).] Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect. PMID:19803581

Nielsen, Lisbeth; Knutson, Brain; Carstensen, Laura L

2009-10-01

150

Characteristic Curves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment designed to help students gain a better understanding of the characteristics of various electronic components by incorporating a dual-trace oscilloscope in the X-Y mode in addition to direct observations of phase shifts of various signals into a laboratory exercise. (ZWH)|

Walkiewicz, Thomas A.; Kirk, James R.

1994-01-01

151

Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong

2006-01-01

152

Affective Factors in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of affective factors in reading within the framework of the substrata factor theory is presented. The substrata factor theory and theories of the intellect are briefly discussed, and the absence of affective factors in these theories is pointed out. These affective factors are seen as influential in the individual's…

Athey, Irene

153

Affective Learning — A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

154

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

155

Affective Dimensions of Intergroup Humiliation  

PubMed Central

Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

Leidner, Bernhard; Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

156

CHARACTERISTICS OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS THAT AFFECT STUDENTS' LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS AS RELATED TO TEACHER-PUPIL INTERACTION, TO CLASSROOM CLIMATE, AND TO CREATIVE ABILITIES OF THE TEACHER WAS STUDIED. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF THE ORIGINAL 127 MATHEMATICS TEACHERS, GRADES 6-12, WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS STUDY GROUP (SMSG) EXPERIMENTAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS EVALUATION PROGRAM (1959-60). DATA…

TORRANCE, E. PAUL; AND OTHERS

157

Do Characteristics of HIPAA Consent Forms Affect the Response Rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers are required to obtain authorization from patients to gain access to protected health information for research purposes under the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Obtaining signed approval from individual patients can be difficult because: 1) the forms are idiosyncratic by hospital, 2) the forms are long, and 3) the forms are often written in legal language. We are interested in learning

Dragana Bolcic-Jankovic; Brian R. Clarridge; Floyd J. Fowler; Joel S. Weissman

2007-01-01

158

Dryline Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 'dryline' is a characteristic boundary, seen in the U.S. Southern plains, between dry air moving up from the Mexican Plateau and moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. In this activity, students will learn how to recognize a dryline by viewing animations of several atmospheric variables (air temperature, dew point, solar radiation, and wind). They will examine each animation for patterns and changes, and answer questions about what they see. Links to the animations and to viewing software are provided.

159

Affective MTV analysis based on arousal and valence features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, MTV has become an important favorite pastime to modern people because of its conciseness, convenience to play and the characteristic that can bring both audio and visual experiences to audiences. In this paper, we propose an affective MTV analysis framework, which realizes MTV affective state extraction, representation and clustering. Firstly, affective features are extracted from both audio and visual

Shiliang Zhang; Qi Tian; Shuqiang Jiang; Qingming Huang; Wen Gao

2008-01-01

160

Affective correlates of trichotillomania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective correlates of hair pulling were investigated in a sample of 44 participants diagnosed with trichotillomania (TM). Participants completed the Hair Pulling Survey on which they rated the intensity of ten different affective states across three different phases of hair pulling (before, during and after). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the change of emotional experience across

G. J Diefenbach; S Mouton-Odum; M. A Stanley

2002-01-01

161

Some Characteristics of Riboflavin Chemiluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented that describe some characteristics of riboflavin chemiluminescence in the dark in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and osmium trichloride. The reaction, in terms of the light intensity produced, is affected by type of buffer, pH, and c...

R. D. Towner H. A. Neufeld P. B. Shevlin

1969-01-01

162

[Affect and mimetic behavior].  

PubMed

The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

1998-05-01

163

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and winter, when there is less exposure to sunlight during the day. Depression symptoms can be mild ... by shorter daylight hours and a lack of sunlight in winter. Just as sunlight affects the seasonal ...

164

Affective Intensity and its Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new theory is proposed to account for the role of affect in understanding and evaluating performance under stress. There is no universal agreement on affect's conceptualization or role in performance. In Affective Skill Theory (AST), affect is conceptua...

J. Tichon

2010-01-01

165

THE MANIPULATION OF AFFECTIVE CONTENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of the affective content of imagery scripts used in an imagery paradigm designed to elicit smoking urges in a laboratoty setting. Sixty cigarette smokers were instructed to vividly imagine 10 imagery scripts that described negative affect and explicit smoking urges, positive affect and explicit smoking urges, negative affect alone, positive affect alone, and neutral affect

STEPHEN T. TIFFANY; DAVID J. DROBES

166

Induction voltage adder architectures and electrical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use three different designs for induction voltage adders to be used in radiographic X-ray sources to illustrate the differences between possible IVA architectures, and between their electrical characteristics as these affect the radiographic diodes that the IVAs drive. The architectures are chosen considering the spaces in which the FVAs must fit, and the electrical characteristics are

I. Smith; P. Corcoran; V. Carboni; V. Bailey; H. Kishi; D. L. Johnson; J. Maenchenb; I. Molinab; R. Carlson; D. Fulton; K. Hahnc; J. Smith; D. Droemerd; K. Thomas; M. Phillips; S. Croxon; R. Forgan

2003-01-01

167

Age Differences in Perceived Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Affect Balance in Middle and Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 125 studies on age differences in positive affect, negative affect, and affect balance. We found a small age-associated decline of positive affect and affect balance, and a small age-associated increase of negative affect. In addition, a quadratic age trend emerged, showing stronger declines of positive affect and stronger increases of negative affect in

Martin Pinquart

2001-01-01

168

Factors Affecting Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of literature indicates that schools with effective reading programs tend to have common characteristics, such as a strong commitment to improved reading; a competent teaching and administrative staff; clearly defined objectives; a structured, intensified program; adequate assessment techniques; a variety of materials; and parental…

Felsenthal, Helen

169

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)|

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

170

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

171

When Affect Informs Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instructional strategies that address five affective needs of middle school students: freedom of choice, appropriate peer interactions, instructional diversity, personal expression, and broadened perspectives. Suggests that when incorporated into existing curriculum and laced with relevant application, these strategies can lead to a…

Wood, Karen D.; Jones, Jeanneine P.

1997-01-01

172

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

173

Affect and altruism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relationship between affect and altruism in 7- and 8-yr-old middle-class white children (N = 48 males and 24 females). Ss were asked to think of things that made them happy or sad, or they were assigned to control conditions. Ss were then given an opportunity to donate money to other children in the E's absence. In accord with

Bert S. Moore; Bill Underwood; D. L. Rosenhan

1973-01-01

174

Cholesterol and affective morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake.

Jess G. Fiedorowicz; Narasimha M. Palagummi; Ole Behrendtsen; William H. Coryell

2010-01-01

175

The nature of affective priming in music and speech.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on negativities in the N400 time-window. In Experiment 1, participants judged the valence of affective targets (affective categorization). We found that music and speech targets were evaluated faster when preceded by affectively congruent visual word primes, and vice versa. This affective priming effect was accompanied by a significantly larger N400-like effect following incongruent targets. In this experiment, both spreading of activation and response competition could underlie the affective priming effect. In Experiment 2, participants categorized the same affective targets based on nonaffective characteristics. However, as prime valence was irrelevant to the response dimension, affective priming effects could no longer be attributable to response competition. In Experiment 2, affective priming effects were observed neither at the behavioral nor electrophysiological level. The results of this study indicate that both affective music and speech prosody can prime the processing of visual words with emotional connotations, and vice versa. Affective incongruence seems to be associated with N400-like effects during evaluative categorization. The present data further suggest a role of response competition during the affective categorization of music, prosody, and words with emotional connotations. PMID:22360592

Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

2012-02-23

176

Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children's Perception of Nonlinguistic Human Affective Sounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present work, we developed a database of nonlinguistic sounds that mirror prosodic characteristics typical of language and thus carry affective information, but do not convey linguistic information. In a dichotic-listening task, we used these novel stimuli as a means of disambiguating the relative contributions of linguistic and affective

Pollak, Seth D.; Holt, Lori L.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer

2004-01-01

177

Megatrends Affecting Plastics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stephen DeHoff of Stress Engineering Services (SES) Product Development and Engineering created this presentation for the Innovative Technologies Symposium for Plastics in 2007. This presentation discusses the overall economic trends that are affecting plastic development and manufacturing. Oil supply, alternative energy sources, labor force, GDP growth, globalization, US fiscal and demographic issues are some of the topics touched upon. DeHoff ends his presentation with suggestions for molders to sustain and develop successful businesses in the current plastics environment. He advocates creativity and change in an otherwise generally pessimistic market.

Dehoff, Stephen

2010-10-20

178

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

179

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

180

Chronotype and diurnal patterns of positive affect and affective neural circuitry in primary insomnia.  

PubMed

While insomnia is a well-established risk factor for the initial onset, recurrence or relapse of affective disorders, the specific characteristics of insomnia that confer risk remain unclear. Patients with insomnia with an evening chronotype may be one particularly high-risk group, perhaps due to alterations in positive affect and its related affective circuitry. We explored this possibility by comparing diurnal patterns of positive affect and the activity of positive affect-related brain regions in morning- and evening-types with insomnia. We assessed diurnal variation in brain activity via the relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake by using [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography during morning and evening wakefulness. We focused on regions in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have been consistently linked with positive affect and reward processing. As predicted, chronotypes differed in their daily patterns in both self-reported positive affect and associated brain regions. Evening-types displayed diurnal patterns of positive affect characterized by phase delay and smaller amplitude compared with those of morning-types with insomnia. In parallel, evening-types showed a reduced degree of diurnal variation in the metabolism of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the striatum, as well as lower overall metabolism in these regions across both morning and evening wakefulness. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that alterations in the diurnal activity of positive affect-related neural structures may underlie differences in the phase and amplitude of self-reported positive affect between morning and evening chronotypes, and may constitute one mechanism for increased risk of mood disorders among evening-type insomniacs. PMID:22369504

Hasler, Brant P; Germain, Anne; Nofzinger, Eric A; Kupfer, David J; Krafty, Robert T; Rothenberger, Scott D; James, Jeffrey A; Bi, Wenzhu; Buysse, Daniel J

2012-02-27

181

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation'' and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance'' have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-01-01

182

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 ``Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation`` and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 ``Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance`` have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-12-31

183

Cholesterol and Affective Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake. Participants were predominantly inpatients at index visit and were followed for a median of 20 and up to 25 years. Cholesterol was modeled with age, gender, and index use of a mood stabilizer in linear regression to assess its influence on subsequent depressive symptom burden in participants with unipolar disorder as well as depressive and manic symptom burden in participants with bipolar disorder. Among bipolar participants (N=65), low cholesterol predicted a higher proportion of follow-up weeks with manic, but not depressive symptoms. Cholesterol did not appear to predict depressive symptom burden among participants with unipolar depression (N=66). Lower cholesterol levels may predispose individuals with bipolar disorder to a greater burden of manic symptomatology and may provide some insight into the underlying neurobiology.

Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Palagummi, Narasimha M.; Behrendtsen, Ole; Coryell, William H.

2009-01-01

184

The Development and Validation of an Index of Emotional Disposition and Mood State: The Chinese Affect Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short measure of trait and state negative and positive affect (Chinese Affect Scale) was developed for Chinese-speaking people. From indigenously derived affect markers the characteristic two-factor structure of affect was derived in both a student and an adult sample in Hong Kong. Scores from the resulting negative (NA) and positive (PA) affect scales had reasonable internal and retest reliabilities

P. Nicholas Hamid; Sheung-Tak Cheng

1996-01-01

185

The Promotion Affect Scale: Defining the Affective Dimensions of Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the psychometric properties of consumer affect that is produced by a sales promotion offer, e.g., price discount, coupon redemption, free gift, etc. Building from the existing sales promotion and emotion literature, we propose a new 28-item scale instrument, the Promotion Affect Scale (PAS), which measures affective response to promotion. Five phases of data collection are reported, which

Heather Honea; Darren W. Dahl

2005-01-01

186

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

187

Affective monitoring: a generic mechanism for affect elicitation.  

PubMed

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-03-01

188

Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect  

PubMed Central

Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied.

Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

2008-01-01

189

Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

2012-01-01

190

Affective distinctiveness: Illusory or real?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions to this special issue illustrate the value of cognitive methods and theory in the study of affect. Together, this work makes a compelling case that it is time to move beyond the question of whether human affect and cognition represent completely independent constructs, and that there is much yet to be gleaned about affect from the perspective of

John T. Cacioppo; Gary G. Berntson

2007-01-01

191

Drugs affecting the eye.  

PubMed

This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of cataract suspected to be induced by allopurinol; numerous additional cases have been reported to the registry since. Phenothiazine, with an estimated 3% incidence of side effects, appears to be safer than other antipsychotic drugs, but the rate of ocular effects increases with the duration of therapy. Thioridazine and chlorpromazine are known to cause lens deposits and pigmentary retinopathy. There is a significantly high prevalence of thrombophlebitis and pseudotumor cerebri among women who use OCs and thrombotic retinal vascular disease, such as retinal vein occulsion, might be linked with them. It also is probable that, because of altered hydration of the cornea, there is a decreased tolerance to contact lenses. PMID:2864912

Taylor, F

1985-08-01

192

Characteristics of potential repository wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

1992-10-01

193

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: imaging characteristics.  

PubMed

The accurate diagnosis of adult pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma necessitates a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical history, biochemical testing, and multimodality imaging such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine studies. This review illustrates the different imaging characteristics of primary adult pheochromocytomas as well as both sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas. The review also describes known genetic associations and shows common metastatic patterns. Knowledge of the diverse appearance of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas can result in early initial diagnosis or detection of disease recurrence thereby affecting patient management and prognosis. PMID:22571874

Baez, Juan C; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Krajewski, Katherine; O'Regan, Kevin; Zukotynski, Katherine; Kulke, Matthew; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

2012-05-07

194

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

195

Neighborhood Factors Affecting Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized\\u000a chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn\\u000a affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood\\u000a characteristics were associated with the incidence

James C. Thomas; Elizabeth A. Torrone; Christopher R. Browning

2010-01-01

196

Thermistor Characteristics and Stability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the uses of thermistors in teaching electronics and semiconductors. Describes how to experimentally measure and graph the characteristics of a thermistor. Suggests one possible approach to understand the shapes of the characteristics. (CW)|

Fricker, H. S.

1987-01-01

197

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GRIEF AND FAMILY SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS: A CROSS LAGGED LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the question of whether the grief process affects the characteristics of relationships within the family system or, alternatively, whether family characteristics affect the experience of grief symptoms. Sixty-one people who had recently experienced the death of a parent (82%) or spouse (18%) completed a questionnaire to assess their current grief symptomatology and characteristics of the relationships

ELAINE SCHOKA TRAYLOR; BERT HAYSLIP; PATRICIA L. KAMINSKI; CHRISTINA YORK

2003-01-01

198

Observed characteristics of sudden commencement absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionospheric absorption at high latitudes that occurs coincidently with storm sudden commencements (SSC) is categorised as sudden commencement absorption (SCA). Having discounted any solar activity effects on the measurement of SCA this paper describes, for the first time, the basic characteristics of SCA measured over half a solar cycle.It is revealed that the measurement of SCA is not affected by

S. E. Ritchie; F. Honary

2009-01-01

199

Driver Characteristics and Impairments at Various BACs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment was to determine (1) the magnitude of alcohol impairment of driving skills as BACs varied from zero to 0.10% and (2) whether age, gender, and drinking practice characteristics of the subjects would differentially affect alco...

H. Moskowitz M. Burns D. Fiorentino A. Smiley P. Zador

2000-01-01

200

Clinical characteristics of dural arteriovenous fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is an uncommon neurosurgical condition; in particular, it has been infrequently reported in Korea. To understand the general clinical characteristics of DAVFs, the authors reviewed 53 cases and analyzed factors affecting DAVF hemorrhage of and treatment outcome. Since 1980 we have encountered 480 pial and 53 DAVFs, a ratio of 9.1 to 1. The age

Myoung Soo Kim; Dae Hee Han; O-Ki Kwon; Chang-Wan Oh; Moon Hee Han

2002-01-01

201

Heating characteristics of convection reflow ovens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhomogeneous temperature distribution in the reflow oven can cause soldering failures. In this project, we investigate how the construction of a convection reflow oven has an affect on its heating characteristics. In the convection reflow oven itself, the heating capability is mainly dependent on the heat transfer coefficient, which in turn is mostly determined by the gas flow parameters.

Balázs Illés; Gábor Harsányi

2009-01-01

202

Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed

L. Deryder; G. M. Kelly; M. Heck

1988-01-01

203

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

204

Expanding the link between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differentiated relationship between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes. In previous research, job characteristics were proposed to mediate this relationship. However, the facets of the job characteristics model have not yet been assessed separately. In the present study we tested which job characteristics (i.e., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) mediate the

Thorsten Stumpp; Ute R. Hülsheger; Peter M. Muck; Günter W. Maier

2009-01-01

205

Auditory affective agnosia. Disturbed comprehension of affective speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hughlings Jackson noted that, although some aphasic patients were unable to use propositional speech, affective speech appeared to be spared. The purpose of this experiment was to study patients with unilateral hemispheric disease in order to ascertain if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the comprehension of affective speech. Six subjects had right temporoparietal lesions (left unilateral neglect) and six subjects

K M Heilman; R Scholes; R T Watson

1975-01-01

206

Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between

David B. Centerbar; Simone Schnall; Gerald L. Clore; Erika D. Garvin

2008-01-01

207

Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.  

PubMed

A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders. PMID:23678348

An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

2013-04-24

208

Cognitive and Affective Dimensions in Health Related Education. Proceedings of a Conference (Gainesville, Florida, January 1974).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ten papers dealing with various aspects of cognitive and affective dimensions of the allied health student are presented. They are: "A Review of Research on Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Education for the Health Related Professions" by Margaret K. Morgan, "Methodological Problems in the Study of Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of…

Morgan, Margaret K., Ed.; And Others

209

Psychophysiological Response Patterns to Affective Film Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1) whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR), skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2) the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV) and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding.

Bos, Marieke G. N.; Jentgens, Pia; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

2013-01-01

210

Influence of Model Characteristics on Psychiatric Inpatients' Interview Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to compare the utility of model characteristics of coping, mastery, and positive affect behaviors in modifying psychiatric patients' anxiety and performance in a simulated job interview. (Author)

Bruch, Monroe A.

1975-01-01

211

Basic Research on Transformer Life Characteristics. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project covers basic research of the significant parameters affecting transformer life. Project objectives included test method definition and methods for scaling data obtained on conductor and subsubassembly models to predict the life characteristic...

D. W. Allen E. J. Cham T. E. Alverson

1982-01-01

212

Affect Recognition for Interactive Companions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect sensitivity is an important requirement for artificial companions to be capable of engaging in social interaction with human users. This paper provides a general overview of some of the issues arising from the design of an affect recognition framework for artificial companions. Limitations and challenges are discussed with respect to other capabilities of companions and real world scenarios for

Ginevra Castellano; Ruth Aylett; Ana Paiva; Peter W. McOwan

213

Startle modulation by affective faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Startle reflex modulation by affective pictures is a well-established effect in human emotion research. However, much less is known about startle modulation by affective faces, despite the growing evidence that facial expressions robustly activate emotion-related brain circuits. In this study, acoustic startle probes were administered to 37 young adult participants (20 women) during the viewing of slides from the Pictures

Andrey P. Anokhin; Simon Golosheykin

2010-01-01

214

Terrorism in indirectly affected populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism continues to significantly affect people throughout the world. Research of perceptions of terrorism and the threat it poses has focused on cities where terrorism has taken place and such studies generally focus on psychological stress. A smaller domain of research has studied indirectly affected populations. This research is particularly important as very few cities in the world witness terrorism

Luke Howie

215

Affect and Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

2006-01-01

216

Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs  

PubMed Central

Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples.

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

2012-01-01

217

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

218

Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

219

Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

Holmqvist, Rolf

2008-01-01

220

Caregiver Beliefs and Dysphoric Affect Directed to Difficult Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was predicted that affective responses of caregivers occur as an interactive function of child characteristics and adult attributions. Mothers in counseling at a child-abuse agency identified one of their children as relatively difficult (and more subject to discipline) and a second child as relatively easy; objective observations revealed that difficult children were more socially unresponsive and acted more inappropriately

Daphne Blunt Bugental; Jay Blue; Jeffrey Lewis

1990-01-01

221

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

222

Factors affecting the productivity of loaders in surface mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel loaders are deployed as primary loading machines in surface mines due to their mobility and low operating cost. The productivity of wheel loaders or any other loading machine is affected by several factors. One of the most significant factors is the characteristic of the muck being loaded. A study was conducted to examine the effects of the looseness, angle

S. P. Singh; R. Narendrula

2006-01-01

223

Preliminary Development of an Affective Work Competencies Testing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The lack of communication between educators and employers concerning the characteristics of a successful worker is explored. The need for a stronger emphasis on positive affective work competencies (work values, habits, and attitudes) is demonstrated. The failure of many educators to help their students develop proper work habits and attitudes is…

Beach, David P.

224

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

225

Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

2007-01-01

226

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

227

Role of Prior Affect and Sensory Cues on Consumers’ Affective and Cognitive Responses and Overall Perceptions of Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product quality has been examined primarily by focusing on the cognitive evaluations of various intrinsic product characteristics (e.g., quality of raw materials, tolerances) or extrinsic quality signals (e.g., price, warranty). Thus, quality is considered to be an integration of assessments of such factors as reliability, durability, and workmanship. We develop and empirically test a model that integrates affective responses with

Larry D. Compeau; Dhruv Grewal; Kent B. Monroe

1998-01-01

228

Come, see and experience affective interactive art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Broek van den Egon L; Anton Nijholt; Dennis Reidsma; Hendri Hondorp

2009-01-01

229

Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Broek van den Egon L; A. Nijholt; D. Reidsma; G. H. W. Hondorp

2009-01-01

230

Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Egon L. van den Broek

2009-01-01

231

Comparing the Incidence and Persistence of Learners’ Affect During Interactions with Different Educational Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the increasing number of studies investigating patterns of learner affective states, it is not yet clear to what degree\\u000a student affective states vary among learning systems, and whether specific learning systems are associated with characteristic\\u000a patterns of learner affect. In this chapter, we attempt to shed light on this question by discussing the incidence and persistence\\u000a of affective states

Ma. Mercedes T. Rodrigo; Ryan S. J. d. Baker

232

The influence of contaminations on HVDC conductor corona characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contaminations adhering to the surface of HVDC overhead transmission line affect the conductor corona characteristics, such as radio interference, audible noise and corona loss, remarkably. The measurement of corona characteristics in a laboratory corona cage is introduced in this paper, and some experiment results are presented. The artificial pollution experiments of DC transmission line were carried out in the

Minhua Ma; Yuming Zhao; Zhicheng Guan; Liming Wang

2007-01-01

233

Estimating Near-Infrared Leaf Reflectance from Leaf Structural Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR) from leaves and characteristics of leaf structure known to affect photosynthesis was investigated in 48 species of alpine angiosperms. This wavelength was selected to discriminate the effects of leaf structure vs. chemical or water content on leaf reflectance. A quantitative model was first constructed correlating NIRR with leaf structural characteristics for

Michele R. Slaton; E. Raymond Hunt; William K. Smith

2001-01-01

234

Impact of sports’ characteristics on the labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to analyze how the characteristics of different sports affect their respective labor market characteristics. To that end, we first classified Korean sports into the following four groups according to number of spectators and playing population (participation): Popular, Non-popular, Leisure, and Media. One sport was selected for each classification, and a survey was conducted of

Junwook Hwang; Minki Hong; Seung-Yeol Yee; Sang-Min Lee

2012-01-01

235

Factors Affecting New Product Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen commercial and 13 Department of Defense (DoD) new product developments are reviewed and analyzed to understand the factors responsible for reducing development times. The major groupings of factors affecting new product developments were found to...

J. T. Shields

1994-01-01

236

On Patterns in Affective Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

237

TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revolution in the automobile industry and liberalised economy has led to tremendous increase in the vehicle ownership levels. This has resulted in changing traffic characteristics on road network. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the changing traffic composition trends, speed characteristics and travel patterns by taking few case studies. Further, the impact of changing traffic

Santosh A. JALIHAL; T. S. Reddy

238

GNSS Signals Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with second order signals characteristics for satellite navigation systems. The main goal of the paper is to simplify and clarify signals analysis task by introducing a system of signals characteristics and their mutual relations. The conception of the system is based on the fact that the structure of navigation signals is partially given since the signals should

P. Kacmarik; P. Kovar

2007-01-01

239

Phosphorus Adsorption Characteristics of the Unburned and Burned Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat fires affect many soil properties. This study was performed to determine the effect of peat fires on P sorption characteristics of the soils of the G avur Lake Peatland. The results showed that peat f ires significantly affected P sorption in peat soils. The unburned soi ls had significantly lower native adsorbed P (S o) but higher linear adsorption

Tolga TÜRKMEN; Hüseyin D

2007-01-01

240

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

2013-01-01

241

Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.  

PubMed

Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

2011-08-01

242

Factors affecting choice of health care plans.  

PubMed Central

The research reported here examined the factors which affected the decision to remain with either Blue Cross of Washington and Alaska or Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, or to change to an independent practice association (IPA) in which the primary care physicians control all care. The natural setting allowed examination of the characteristics of families with experience in structurally different plans; a decision not influenced by premium differentials; the importance of the role of usual provider; and a family-based decision using multivariate techniques. An expected utility model implied that factors affecting preferences included future need for medical care; access to care; financial resources to meet the need for care; and previous level of experience with plan and provider. Analysis of interview and medical record abstract data from 1,497 families revealed the importance of maintaining a satisfactory relationship with the usual sources of care in the decision to change plans. Adverse selection into the new IPA as measured by health status and previous utilization of medical services was not noted.

Grazier, K L; Richardson, W C; Martin, D P; Diehr, P

1986-01-01

243

Family Intimacy and Affection: A Sociology of Positive Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with aspects of positive family affect in intimate family relationships such as: (1) the nuclear family of orientation, including the child-parent subgroup and the sibling subgroup; (2) the nuclear family of procreation, including the marital subgroup and parent-child subgroup; and (3) the dating relationship. Interpersonal…

Martinson, Floyd M.

244

Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

245

[Poststroke-bipolar affective disorder].  

PubMed

A few weeks after suffering from a basal ganglia infarction (globus pallidus) with left-sided hemiplegia, a 23-year-old woman exhibited for the first time a pronounced mania with self-endangerment. The use of oral contraceptives was the only determinable risk factor. During the further course, the mother also developed a depressive disorder. Thus a certain genetic predisposition for affective disorders may be relevant, although this would not explain the outbreak by itself. An association between the right-sided basal ganglia infarction and the occurrence of a bipolar affective disorder has been described in the literature. Vascular or, respectively, inflammatory risk factors in synopsis with the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders are also discussed in depth in this case report. PMID:23939559

Bengesser, S A; Wurm, W E; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H-P; Reininghaus, E

2013-08-12

246

AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS AND VISIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes progress in measuring the optical properties of aerosols and in relating aerosol characteristics to visibility reduction made in the author's laboratory during the period 1965-1971. An instrument, the integrating nephelometer, which measures the scattering ...

247

Characteristics of Scientific Databases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of data and usage of scientific databases and to identify common characteristics among the different disciplines. Most scientific databases do not use general purpose database management systems (DBMSs). T...

A. Shoshani F. Olken H. K. T. Wong

1984-01-01

248

Housing characteristics 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

NONE

1995-06-01

249

Economic Development and Factors Affecting Industrial Location on the Texas Gulf Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the major economic characteristics of five regions within the 36-county Texas Gulf Coast Area to determine the influence of major factors which affect the location decisions of firms recently settling within the area. Also, the resourc...

A. L. Wright W. T. Matthews

1971-01-01

250

Toxicity characteristic final rule  

SciTech Connect

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Section 3001, EPA is charged with identifying characteristics of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste characteristics are mechanisms for identifying wastes as hazardous, and thus subject to regulation. The Extraction Procedure Toxicity Characteristic (EPTC) is one of four existing characteristics of hazardous waste, along with ignitability, corrosivity, and reactivity. The EPTC relates directly to the toxicity of a waste and its mobility and is intended to determine the potential for ground-water contamination through leaching of constituents from land disposed wastes. The existing EPTC identifies wastes as hazardous based on regulatory levels applied to concentrations in waste leachate extracted during the EP Toxicity Test. Eight metals and six organic compounds currently are regulated under the EPTC. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 direct EPA to improve the EP and to identify additional hazardous waste characteristics, including measures of toxicity. The Toxicity Characteristic final rule will address these mandates by development of a new leaching procedure and by adding additional constituents.

Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01

251

Physical characteristics related to bra fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper

Chin-Man Chen; Karen LaBat; Elizabeth Bye

2010-01-01

252

Demographic characteristics of depressives in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

That depressive illness is universal can not be argued, but the severity, age of onset, manifestation, and the characteristics of those affected by the illness in different parts of the world, are issues yet to be properly resolved. This retrospective study from the northern part of Nigeria shows that 42% of all first contact patients received the diagnosis of depression. Depression was diagnosed more frequently in married women than single women. PMID:6605667

Ifabumuyi, O I

1983-10-01

253

The occurrence of secondary affective disorder in an in-patient population with severe and recurrent affective disorder.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty nine consecutive in-patients with treatment-resistant affective disorder were administered the Renard Diagnostic Interview to determine whether the 45 with secondary affective disorder (SAD) differed from the 144 with primary affective disorder (PAD). The SAD group, including 15 subjects with bipolar disorder, had an earlier mean age of onset of depression and contained more unmarried individuals. The total secondary group could not usefully be differentiated by assessment of clinical symptoms or discriminating analysis of social and clinical variables. While the present study of a severely depressed population does not lend itself to generalisability, this combined sample does have characteristics of patients used in biological investigations. No significant inter-group discrimination was found to support a previous assumption that identification of a prior psychiatric disorder provides the most suitable mechanism for selecting a population for research in affective disorders. PMID:6743928

Stancer, H C; Persad, E; Jorna, T; Flood, C; Wagener, D K

1984-06-01

254

Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man.…

Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

255

Identifying plant family characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed for students to discover how making observations of the environment is the key to making sound predictions. Students will also learn how both positive and negative outcomes of these predictions can affect and shape future decisions.

Kate Olson Riverway Learning Community Minnesota City, Mn

256

Low-flow characteristics of Indiana streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of low-flow characteristics of streams is essential for management of water resources. Low-flow characteristics are presented for 229 continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations and 285 partial-record stations in Indiana. Low- flow-frequency characteristics were computed for 210 continuous-record stations that had at least 10 years of record, and flow-duration curves were computed for all continuous-record stations. Low-flow-frequency and flow-duration analyses are based on available streamflow records through September 1993. Selected low-flow-frequency curves were computed for annual low flows and seasonal low flows. The four seasons are represented by the 3-month groups of March-May, June-August, September-November, and December- February. The 7-day, 10-year and the 7-day, 2 year low flows were estimated for 285 partial-record stations, which are ungaged sites where streamflow measurements were made at base flow. The same low-flow characteristics were estimated for 19 continuous-record stations where less than 10 years of record were available. Precipitation and geology directly influence the streams in Indiana. Streams in the northern, glaciated part of the State tend to have higher sustained base flows than those in the nonglaciated southern part. Flow at several of the continuous-record gaging stations is affected by some form of regulation or diversion. Low-flow characteristics for continuous-record stations at which flow is affected by regulation are determined using the period of record affected by regulation; natural flows prior to regulation are not used.

Fowler, K. K.; Wilson, J. T.

1996-01-01

257

Cumulative effects of job characteristics on health.  

PubMed

We examine whether the job characteristics of physical demands and environmental conditions affect individual's health. Five-year cumulative measures of these job characteristics are used to reflect findings in the biological and physiological literature that indicate that cumulative exposure to hazards and stresses harms health. To create our analytic sample, we merge job characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles with the PSID data set. We control for early and also lagged health measures and a set of pre-determined characteristics to try to address concerns that individuals self-select into jobs. Our results indicate that individuals who work in jobs with the 'worst' conditions experience declines in their health, though this effect varies by demographic group. We also find some evidence that job characteristics are more detrimental to the health of females and older workers. Finally, we report suggestive evidence that earned income, a job characteristic, partially cushions the health impact of physical demands and harsh environmental conditions for workers. These results are robust to inclusion of occupation fixed effects. PMID:21433217

Fletcher, Jason M; Sindelar, Jody L; Yamaguchi, Shintaro

2011-05-01

258

Does Crime Affect Economic Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYCriminal activity acts like a tax on the entire economy: it discourages domestic and foreign direct investments, it reduces firms' competitiveness, and reallocates resources creating uncertainty and inefficiency. Although the impact of economic variables on crime has been widely investigated, there is not much concern about crime also affecting the overall economic performance. This work aims to bridge this gap

Claudio Detotto; Edoardo Otranto

2010-01-01

259

Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

2011-01-01

260

Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

Means, Alex

2011-01-01

261

Drought's Affect on Soybean Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droughts are among the most feared natural disasters. They can affect the lives of many people such as farmers, consumers, or commodity traders. Droughts have taken a year’s work and salary away from farmers, led to higher prices for consumers, and taken the life savings away from some speculators. There has been a recent push in science to better understand

PatrickCinquegani

2006-01-01

262

Does Positive Affect Influence Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review highlights consistent patterns in the literature associating positive affect (PA) and physical health. However, it also raises serious conceptual and methodological reservations. Evidence suggests an association of trait PA and lower morbidity and of state and trait PA and decreased symptoms and pain. Trait PA is also associated with…

Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon

2005-01-01

263

Affective Development of Adult Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of affective development in the adult, nonresidential students of Empire State College, the college-without-walls, indicates that students experienced significant overall development during the testing period, unlike students in traditional settings. Differentiations in the results on the basis of such factors as age and sex are noted.…

Lipsett, Laurence; Avakian, A. Nancy

1979-01-01

264

Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed…

Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

265

Counterfactual closeness and predicted affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on counterfactual thinking has found a closeness effect: people report higher negative affect if an actual outcome is close to a better counterfactual outcome. However, it remains unclear what actually is a “close” miss. In three experiments that manipulate close counterfactuals, closeness effects were found only when closeness was unambiguously defined either with respect to a contrasted alternative,

Anton Kühberger; Christa Großbichler; Angelika Wimmer

2011-01-01

266

Affective Development in University Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…

Grootenboer, Peter

2010-01-01

267

Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games,\\u000a and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes\\u000a affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color\\u000a model. This enables Mood Swings

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Egon L. Van Den Broek; Anton Nijholt; Dennis Reidsma; Hendri Hondorp

2009-01-01

268

Prey Food Quality Affects Flagellate Ingestion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flagellate feeding efficiency appears to depend on mor- phological characteristics of prey such as cell size and motility, as well as on other characteristics such as digest- ibility and cell surface characteristics. Bacteria of varying morphological characteristics (cell size) and mineral nutrient characteristics or food quality (as determined by the C:N:P ratio) were obtained by growing Pseudomonas fluorescens in chemostats

S. Paul Shannon; Thomas H. Chrzanowski; James P. Grover

2006-01-01

269

Measuring Contextual Characteristics for Community Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To conceptualize and measure community contextual influences on population health and health disparities. Data Sources We use traditional and nontraditional secondary sources of data comprising a comprehensive array of community characteristics. Study Design Using a consultative process, we identify 12 overarching dimensions of contextual characteristics that may affect community health, as well as specific subcomponents relating to each dimension. Data Collection An extensive geocoded library of data indicators relating to each dimension and subcomponent for metropolitan areas in the United States is assembled. Principal Findings We describe the development of community contextual health profiles, present the rationale supporting each of the profile dimensions, and provide examples of relevant data sources. Conclusions Our conceptual framework for community contextual characteristics, including a specified set of dimensions and components, can provide practical ways to monitor health-related aspects of the economic, social, and physical environments in which people live. We suggest several guiding principles useful for understanding how aspects of contextual characteristics can affect health and health disparities.

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lynch, John; Harper, Sam; Casper, Michele

2003-01-01

270

[The comparative characteristics of chemically and light-hardened composite materials in vitro].  

PubMed

The strength and color stability of various composites of photo- and chemical consolidation is assessed by laboratory methods. The class of a material is the most essential factor affecting the above characteristics. The macrofilled and hybrid materials showed the best adhesive and bending strength. The method of consolidation does not notably affect the studied characteristics. PMID:10067404

Dedkova, L Iu; Poiurovskaia, I Ia; Peshkina, M G; Chechina, G N

1998-01-01

271

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

272

Phenomenal characteristics of cryptomnesia.  

PubMed

Qualitative characteristics of cryptomnesia, or unintentional plagiarism were investigated. In Experiment 1 we compared accurate and inaccurate source attributions in terms of their level of confidence using instructions that did not require a fixed number of responses. Confidence was lower for plagiarised responses than for correct responses. Nevertheless, participants provided high ratings of certainty for a large proportion of their plagiarised responses. In Experiment 2 the phenomenological differences between plagiarised recall and veridical recall were compared by using an adaptation of the memory characteristics questionnaire (Johnson, Foley, Suengas, & Raye, 1988). Correct responses were associated with more experiential detail than plagiarised responses. However, a considerable number of plagiarised responses were accompanied by a confident memory of at least one qualitative characteristic. Results are discussed in terms of the source monitoring framework developed by Johnson, Hashtroudi, and Lindsay (1993). PMID:12653485

Brédart, Serge; Lampinen, James M; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine

2003-01-01

273

Characteristics of intuitive nurses.  

PubMed

A description is provided of the process used to verify characteristics of intuitive nurses that had been reported in the literature. These characteristics supplied the framework for construction of the Miller Intuitiveness Instrument (MII) reported earlier (Miller, 1993). Evidence for validity of the MII was provided in the Miller (1993) study by examining factor analyses and correlations with the intuitive component of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The following characteristics were subsequently verified: Intuitive nurses are willing to act on their intuitions, are skilled clinicians, and incorporate a spiritual component in their practices. In addition, intuitive nurses express an interest in the abstract nature of things and are risk takers. Intuitive nurses prefer intuition to sensing (as reflected by the MBTI) as a way to take in information. They are extroverted and express confidence in their intuitions. Likewise, nurses who delay making decisions until all the information is in are more intuitive than those who make decisions abruptly. PMID:7778312

Miller, V G

1995-06-01

274

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

275

Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS.

Michael Terman; Susan M. Levine; Jiuan S. Terman; Sean Doherty

1998-01-01

276

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions.  

PubMed

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes. PMID:22101346

Busi, Maria V; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

2011-12-01

277

Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions  

PubMed Central

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes.

Busi, Maria V.; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E.; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

2011-01-01

278

Psychological factors affecting equine performance.  

PubMed

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987

McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

2012-09-27

279

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

280

Evaluation of Affective Interactive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Methods are developed for different audiences and purposes. HCI researchers develop methods to shape the future through pure,\\u000a applied and blue sky research – as is still the case with most affective interactive applications. Unsurprisingly, practitioners\\u000a will be more concerned that the methods they use not only are tractable but produce better and more innovative results in\\u000a terms of the

Kia Höök; Katherine Isbister; Steve Westerman; Peter Gardner; Ed Sutherland; Asimina Vasalou; Petra Sundström; Joseph Jofish Kaye; Jarmo Laaksolahti

281

How do Visitors Affect Crime?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, which uses data on National Park visitors between 1979 and 1998 and every county in the United States, is the\\u000a most exhaustive examination to date of how visitors affect crime. After controlling for many other factors that influence\\u000a crime, the county-level regressions consistently indicate that national park visitors have no effect on either property or\\u000a violent crime. These

Earl L. GrinolsDavid; David B. Mustard; Melissa Staha

2011-01-01

282

What Variables Affect Crystal Growth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate variables that may influence the growth of crystals which they have learned to make. There are two options for implementing this activity. The first is open-ended, with the students deciding what variables affect crystal growth and then deciding on the manipulating variables they would like to study. The second is prescriptive and explains to students how to test three variables in making crystals: temperature, method of mixing (such as shaking or stirring), and concentration.

283

Rodent Empathy and Affective Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.

2011-01-01

284

Do Cities Affect the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore clouds and how they form. Learners compare the cloud formation in two bottles, one with air freshener and one without, to examine the importance of condensation nuclei. Learners will discover that pollution and dust in cities increase the number of condensation nuclei in the atmosphere, which can affect the local weather. This activity is written as a demonstration for a whole group, but can be conducted by individual learners.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

285

DEPRESSION: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Depression is a disorder of the representation and regulation of mood and emotion. The circuitry underlying the representation and regulation of normal,emo- tion and mood is reviewed, including studies at the animal level, human lesion studies, and human,brain imaging,studies. This corpus of data is used to construct a model,of the ways,in which,affect can become,disordered in depression. Research on

Richard J. Davidson; Diego Pizzagalli; Jack B. Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

2002-01-01

286

Neuroanatomical Evidence for Distinct Cognitive and Affective Components of Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether the cognitive and affective components of self-reflection can be dissociated using func- tional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a simple paradigm in which subjects judged the personal relevance of personality characteristics that were either favorable (e.g., ''honest'') or unfavorable (e.g., ''lazy''), we found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and

J. M. Moran; C. N. Macrae; Todd F. Heatherton; C. L. Wyland; William M. Kelley

2006-01-01

287

Postidentification feedback affects real eyewitnesses.  

PubMed

Many studies of simulated eyewitness situations have shown that under certain laboratory conditions, people's confidence about their identifications predicts their accuracy, but that their reported confidence can be affected by telling them that they chose the suspect. In this study, eyewitnesses (n= 134) to real crimes took part in lineups at an identification suite in the United Kingdom and were asked questions about their memory both before and after they were told whether they had identified the suspect or a filler. Before the eyewitnesses were told whether they had identified the suspect or a filler, their responses to several questions reliably differentiated between those who identified the suspect and those who identified a filler. In addition, responses to the memory questions were affected by telling the eyewitnesses whether or not they had identified the suspect. These results show that postidentification feedback affects real eyewitnesses and highlight the importance of recording meta-memory variables before an eyewitness discovers whether he or she has identified the suspect. PMID:17425539

Wright, Daniel B; Skagerberg, Elin M

2007-02-01

288

Cortical control of affective networks.  

PubMed

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1-Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1-Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders. PMID:23325249

Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T; DeMaio, Kristine D; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E; Dzirasa, Kafui

2013-01-16

289

Cortical Control of Affective Networks  

PubMed Central

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have emerged as therapeutic modalities for treatment refractory depression; however, little remains known regarding the circuitry that mediates the therapeutic effect of these approaches. Here we show that direct optogenetic stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) descending projection neurons in mice engineered to express Chr2 in layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1–Chr2 mice) models an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to a forced-swim test. Furthermore, we show that this PFC stimulation induces a long-lasting suppression of anxiety-like behavior (but not conditioned social avoidance) in socially stressed Thy1–Chr2 mice: an effect that is observed >10 d after the last stimulation. Finally, we use optogenetic stimulation and multicircuit recording techniques concurrently in Thy1–Chr2 mice to demonstrate that activation of cortical projection neurons entrains neural oscillatory activity and drives synchrony across limbic brain areas that regulate affect. Importantly, these neural oscillatory changes directly correlate with the temporally precise activation and suppression of limbic unit activity. Together, our findings show that the direct activation of cortical projection systems is sufficient to modulate activity across networks underlying affective regulation. They also suggest that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projection systems may serve as a viable therapeutic strategy for treating affective disorders.

Kumar, Sunil; Black, Sherilynn J.; Hultman, Rainbo; Szabo, Steven T.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Du, Jeanette; Katz, Brittany M.; Feng, Guoping; Covington, Herbert E.; Dzirasa, Kafui

2013-01-01

290

Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder  

SciTech Connect

Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. (The Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-08-01

291

Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

2008-01-01

292

Children's Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although parents and children are thought to influence one another's affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that children's affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers' depressive…

Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Feng, Xin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kovacs, Maria

2008-01-01

293

Earthworm species composition affects the soil bacterial community and net nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the effects of species diversity within taxonomic groups on nutrient cycling is important for understanding the role of soil biota in sustainable agriculture. We hypothesized that earthworm species specifically affect nitrogen mineralization, characteristically for their ecological group classifications, and that earthworm species interactions would affect mineralization through competition and facilitation effects. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate

Maria B. Postma-Blaauw; Jaap Bloem; Jack H. Faber; Jan Willem van Groenigen; Ron G. M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard

2006-01-01

294

Chemical factors affecting bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality characteristics affecting the toxicity of metals to aquatic life include pH, inorganic and organic ligands, and water hardness. Inorganic and organic ligands (negatively charged ions and molecules) control the ability of natural waters to bind metals which could adversely affect aquatic life. Hardness, a measure primarily of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), does not influence the bio-availability of

1988-01-01

295

Factors Affecting Spectral Regrowth in DS-CDMA Signals Due to PD-HPA Nonlinear Distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

When passed through a high power amplifier (HPA), downlink direct sequence-code division multiple access (DS- CDMA) signals result in additional out-of-band emissions, or spectral regrowth, which could affect adjacent channels. In this paper, we explore which characteristics of the input CDMA signal, in relation to the amplifier characteristics, contribute to spectral regrowth. These characteristics represent the key features of the

Tarek K. Helaly; Richard M. Dansereau; Mohamed El-Tanany

2010-01-01

296

Analysis of arterial subtrees affected by pulmonary emboli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is one of the most common causes of unexpected death in the U.S., it may also be one of the most preventable. Images acquired from 16-slice Computed Tomography (CT) machines of contrast-injected patients provide sufficient resolution for the localization and analysis of emboli located in segmental and sub-segmental arteries. After a PE is found, it is difficult to assess the local characteristics of the affected arterial tree without automation. We propose a method to compute characteristics of the local arterial tree given the location of a PE. The computed information localizes the portion of the arterial tree that is affected by the embolism. Our method is based on the segmentation of the arteries and veins followed by a localized tree computation at the given site. The method determines bifurcation points and the remaining arterial tree. A preliminary segmentation method is also demonstrated to locally eliminate over-segmentation of the arterial tree. The final result can then be used assess the affected lung volume and arterial supply. Initial tests revealed a good ability to compute local tree characteristics of selected sites.

Kiraly, Atilla P.; Pichon, Eric; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

2004-05-01

297

Customer retention: examining the roles of store affect and store loyalty as mediators in the management of retail strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a strategic view of the antecedents of loyalty through a model in which store affect and store loyalty mediate the effects of store characteristics on store outcomes and business performance. It is proposed that store atmosphere, store uniqueness, merchandise value and store familiarity are directly related to store affect and that store affect, operating via store loyalty,

Ipshita Ray; Larry Chiagouris

2009-01-01

298

The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming  

PubMed Central

Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006).

Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

2008-01-01

299

Characteristics of thermosiphon reboilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the operational characteristics of thermosiphon reboilers on the basis of an experimental and theoretical study. The operational responses to a variation of the driving temperature difference, the operating pressure and the liquid head in the inlet line are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the influence of several design parameters as length and diameter of the pipes is presented.

Stephan Arneth; Johann Stichlmair

2001-01-01

300

Characteristics of risky play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores what makes children's risky play risky. Risky play can generally be defined as thrilling and exciting forms of play that involve a risk of physical injury. Few, if any, studies have been conducted to explore what identifies play activity as risky. The present study aims to determine what characteristics to judge risky play by. Risky play in

Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter

2009-01-01

301

CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. Highly reactive o-quinones couple with phenolics and specific amino acids on proteins to form the characteristic browning products in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and leaf tissues of plant...

302

Study of Collision Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on the details of 134 collisions were collected from the files of IMCO and USCG from 1944 to 1975. Cases are identified by number or name, flag, type, tonnage and characteristics. Information lists repair costs, location of casualty, weather, cause o...

A. S. Zahn

1977-01-01

303

Wave Types and Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is an introduction to waves and their associated characteristics. Several types of waves are presented, from the common wind wave to the rare tsunami wave. The basic physical, mathematical, and statistical traits of waves are discussed, along with how they change once waves become swell. This material serves as a building block to subsequent modules on wave generation, propagation, and dissipation.

Spangler, Tim

2003-07-01

304

Characteristics of European basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon characteristics of some sedimentary basins in Europe are displayed by a series of transparent overlays. Combinations of these overlays provide rapid information on existing relationships among basin type, tectonic framework, exploratory effort, source and reservoir rocks, cumulative production, remaining recoverable reserves, and licensed areas as of January 1, 1988. Data were processed from Petroconsultants' data base and plotted on

B. M. Popescu; T. Orasianu

1988-01-01

305

Children’s Affect Expression and Frontal EEG Asymmetry: Transactional Associations with Mothers’ Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although parents and children are thought to influence one another’s affect and behavior, few studies have examined the direction\\u000a of effects from children to parents, particularly with respect to parental psychopathology. We tested the hypothesis that\\u000a children’s affective characteristics are associated with the course of mothers’ depressive symptoms. Children’s affect expression\\u000a was observed during a series of mother–child interaction tasks,

Erika E. Forbes; Daniel S. Shaw; Jennifer S. Silk; Xin Feng; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Nathan A. Fox; Maria Kovacs

2008-01-01

306

Effects of an affect bridge for age regression.  

PubMed

The authors tested tailored hypnotic inductions for age regression with an affect bridge to access meaning-laden events. They used emotional intensity, spontaneity, elaboration, and transitional-object measures to assess the genuineness of the topographic shift to primary process characteristic of hypnotic age regression. An affect bridge was used to access stressful events within the age range of 3 to 6 years. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C was administered to determine high hypnotizables-reals, (n = 8, scores 9-12) and low hypnotizables-simulators, (n = 8, scores 3 or less). The groups behaved differently on frequency of transitional objects, spontaneity, and intensity but not on elaboration. The hypnotizable-reals but not the simulators produced a plethora of primary-process childlike affective responses that could not be produced by the role-playing simulators. PMID:20182998

Christensen, Ciara; Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

2009-10-01

307

Implementation of a School-Based Prevention Program: Effects of Counselor and School Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore 2 broad categories of factors that could influence the intervention dissemination process: individual interventionist characteristics and school-level characteristics. Counselors from 32 schools received training in the Coping Power youth violence prevention intervention. Interventionist characteristics found to affect the implementation process included counselors’ agreeableness and conscientiousness. Counselor agreeableness was positively associated with completion of session objectives, the number

John E. Lochman; Nicole P. Powell; Caroline Lewczyk Boxmeyer; Lixin Qu; Karen C. Wells; Michael Windle

2009-01-01

308

Influence of students' characteristics and feelings on cognitive achievement in religious education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas educational research has provided evidence that students' characteristics affect their performance, at this stage little is known about which characteristics influence their learning processes and achievement in religious education. This article looks into characteristics that influence students' cognitive achievement in religious education on the basis of an educational intervention involving religious and other stories and everyday experiences of present-day

Theo van der Zee; Chris Hermans; C. A. J. Aarnoutse

2008-01-01

309

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

310

How Hazardous Substances Affect People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students gain an appreciation for how scientists determine the human health effects of hazardous substances. Students also demonstrate how hazardous substances can affect the health of test animals. They will discover that toxicology is the study of the effects of poisons on living organisms and that scientists conduct a variety of studies to discover toxicological information about hazardous substances. Students will also learn about two of the most common types of studies, which are epidemiological studies, matching disease and other adverse health effects in humans with possible causes, and animal toxicological studies.

311

[Affective disorders specific to ageing].  

PubMed

With time, affects evolution can lead old people to a pathological organisation of their own mental universe. A general feeling of ill-being (syndrome of ageing badly) may appears and must be differentiated from an usual depressive syndrome. Post-traumatic disorders indicate a current or an old inability to metabolise painful life events. The "syndrome de glissement" (failure-to-thrive) generate not only bedridden state often irreversible but also guilt or depressive symptoms in caregivers. Those particular forms of ageing determine the relation with the practitioner and can induce feeling of dissatisfaction or hostility. PMID:15253287

Pellerin, Jérôme

2004-04-15

312

Neuroactive steroids and affective disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroactive steroids modulate neurotransmission through modulation of specific neurotransmitter receptors such as gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors. Preclinical studies suggested that neuroactive steroids may modulate anxiety and depression-related behaviour and may contribute to the therapeutical effects of antidepressant drugs. Attenuations of such neuroactive steroids have been observed during major depression and in several anxiety disorders, suggesting a pathophysiological role in such psychiatric conditions. In panic disorder patients a dysequilibrium of neuroactive steroid composition has been observed, which may represent a counterregulatory mechanism against the occurrence of spontaneous panic attacks. Furthermore, alterations of 3alpha-reduced pregnane steroids during major depression were corrected by successful treatment with antidepressant drugs. However in contrast, non-pharmacological antidepressant treatment strategies did not affect neuroactive steroid composition. In addition, changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations after mirtazapine therapy occurred independently from the clinical response, thereby suggesting that changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations more likely reflect direct pharmacological effects of antidepressants rather than clinical improvement in general. Nevertheless, the effects of antidepressant pharmacotherapy on the composition of neuroactive steroids may contribute to the alleviation of certain depressive symptoms, such as amelioration of anxiety, inner tension or sleep disturbances. Moreover, first studies investigating the therapeutical effects of dehydroepiandrosterone revealed promising results in the treatment of major depression. In conclusion, neuroactive steroids are important endogenous modulators of depression and anxiety and may provide a basis for development of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:16831459

Eser, D; Schüle, C; Baghai, T C; Romeo, E; Uzunov, D P; Rupprecht, R

2006-07-10

313

Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil.  

PubMed

One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified), Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation. PMID:24031246

Borges, Maria Tereza; Nascimento, Antônio Galvăo; Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

2008-09-01

314

Proximity operations considerations affecting spacecraft design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience from several recent spacecraft development programs, such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) has shown the need for factoring proximity operations considerations into the vehicle design process. Proximity operations, those orbital maneuvers and procedures which involve operation of two or more spacecraft at ranges of less than one nautical mile, are essential to the construction, servicing, and operation of complex spacecraft. Typical proximity operations considerations which drive spacecraft design may be broken into two broad categories; flight profile characteristics and concerns, and use of various spacecraft systems during proximity operations. Proximity operations flight profile concerns include the following: (1) relative approach/separation line; (2) relative orientation of the vehicles; (3) relative translational and rotational rates; (4) vehicle interaction, in the form of thruster plume impingement, mating or demating operations, or uncontrolled contact/collision; and (5) active vehicle piloting. Spacecraft systems used during proximity operations include the following: (1) sensors, such as radar, laser ranging devices, or optical ranging systems; (2) effector hardware, such as thrusters; (3) flight control software; and (4) mating hardware, needed for docking or berthing operations. A discussion of how these factors affect vehicle design follows, addressing both active and passive/cooperative vehicles.

Staas, Steven K.

315

Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles.  

PubMed

Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 ?m Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 ?m totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns. PMID:22939204

Destefano, Joseph J; Schuster, Stephanie A; Lawhorn, Jason M; Kirkland, Joseph J

2012-08-17

316

Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles?  

PubMed Central

Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 ?m Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 ?m totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns.

DeStefano, Joseph J.; Schuster, Stephanie A.; Lawhorn, Jason M.; Kirkland, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

317

Characteristic and Ehrhart Polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let A be a subspace arrangement and let ?(A,t) be the characteristic polynomial of its intersection lattice L( A). We show that if the subspaces in A are taken from \\u000a$${\\\\mathcal{L}}({\\\\mathcal{B}}_n)$$\\u000a, where \\u000a$${\\\\mathcal{B}}_n$$\\u000a is the type B Weyl arrangement, then ?(A,t) counts a certain set of lattice points. One can use this result to study the partial factorization of

Andreas Blass; Bruce E. Sagan

1998-01-01

318

Cold Front Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will study animations of several atmospheric variables (air temperature, dew point, solar radiation, rainfall, and wind) to investigate the characteristics of weather produced by a cold front passage. Working in small groups, they will view animations from two different cases, identify patterns and changes, and answer questions about what they see. Links to a student worksheet, to the animations, and to viewing software are provided.

319

Characteristics of healthcare wastes  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly facilitate comparative analyses among different facilities, studies and countries.

Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)], E-mail: ludiaz@calrecovery.com; Eggerth, L.L. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States); Enkhtsetseg, Sh. [Ministry of Health, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Savage, G.M. [CalRecovery, Inc., Concord, California (United States)

2008-07-01

320

Characteristics of Danish estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review various aspects of the structure and functioning of Danish estuaries from data collected by the National Monitoring\\u000a Program and from information in published sources. We present data on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics\\u000a of estuaries in Denmark, we evaluate the functioning of these systems as filters and transformers of nutrients and we evaluate\\u000a the outlook for Danish

Daniel J. Conley; Hanne Kaas; Flemming Mřhlenberg; Bjarke Rasmussen; Jřrgen Windolf; Flemming Mohlenberg; Jorgen Windolf

2000-01-01

321

Prey Food Quality Affects Flagellate Ingestion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flagellate feeding efficiency appears to depend on morphological characteristics of prey such as cell size and motility, as\\u000a well as on other characteristics such as digestibility and cell surface characteristics. Bacteria of varying morphological\\u000a characteristics (cell size) and mineral nutrient characteristics or food quality (as determined by the C:N:P ratio) were obtained\\u000a by growing Pseudomonas fluorescens in chemostats at four

S. Paul Shannon; Thomas H. Chrzanowski; James P. Grover

2007-01-01

322

Quantifying ice sheet flow characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances have been made in describing ice sheet motion, but in situ rheology (characteristics that affect the flow) of the ice has been hard to measure in the field. Gillet-Chaulet et al. show that they can measure ice rheology and strain rates in situ using a phase-sensitive radar. They used the technique on the Greenland ice sheet to quantify the rheology there. The researchers were able to achieve sufficient resolution to measure a flow phenomenon known as the Raymond effect, in which the ice sheet shows horizontal variations of the vertical strain rate pattern, sometimes creating anticlines in radar-detected stratigraphic layers that are known as Raymond arches. This effect is due to a highly viscous plug of nearly stagnant ice under an ice ridge. The study is, the researchers believe, the first direct confirmation of the Raymond effect. Their results suggest that laboratory ice studies do not capture the full range of ice flow that exists in nature, so additional field studies are needed. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL049843, 2011)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-02-01

323

NUTRIENT BIOAVAILABILITY IN SALT AFFECTED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt affected soils limit crop yields around the world. Knowledge of how nutrient availability is affected in plants growing on salt affected soils is important in adopting appropriate management practices to satisfy plants’ nutritional requirements and improve yields to meet food demands of increasing world populations. In the salt affected environment plants required to absorb essential nutrients from a dilute

N. K. Fageria; H. R. Gheyi; A. Moreira

2011-01-01

324

Characteristics of environmental cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four environmental-cracking mechanisms that affect gas-transmission pipelines were studied: (1) stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) at the external surface of the pipe, (2) SCC at the inside of the pipe, (3) hydrogen-stress cracking, and (4) stepwise cracking or blistering. Each of these mechanisms causes a unique combination of features apparent in the failed pipe. For example, a jagged fracture covered with a

Fessler

1979-01-01

325

[Psychopharmacotherapy of bipolar affective diseases].  

PubMed

The broadening of the classification systems for manic-depressive illness towards a spectrum of bipolar disorders implicates a more differentiated use of pharmacotherapies. However, many questions still remain open. This implies that all consensus guidelines and recommendations have to be considered as preliminary. On the other hand, research in the last decade has developed many new treatment alternatives, both for mood stabilizers and antidepressants as well as antipsychotics. These recommendations, which have been developed in the process of two consensus meetings, try to consider the broadening of the concept of bipolar disorder by differentiating between subgroups according to acute symptomatology and characteristics of the long-term course, e.g., rapid cycling. In particular, the emerging role and new indications of mood stabilizing antiepileptic drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and new antidepressants will be discussed. PMID:11975062

Grunze, H; Walden, J; Dittmann, S; Berger, M; Bergmann, A; Bräunig, P; Dose, M; Emrich, H M; Gastpar, M; Greil, W; Krüger, S; Möller, H J; Uebelhack, R

2002-01-01

326

Patient characteristics and hospital quality for colorectal cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess associations of patient characteristics with quality-related characteristics of the hospitals where they were treated for colorectal cancer and the role of these associations in disparities in treatment quality affecting vulnerable patient groups or variations across health plans. Setting. Population-based cancer registry in California. Participants. A total of 38 237 patients diagnosed with stage I-III (non-metastatic) colorectal cancer

WEI ZHANG; JOHN Z. AYANIAN; ALAN M. ZASLAVSKY

2006-01-01

327

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.

Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia

2010-01-01

328

Does diet really affect acne?  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods. PMID:20361171

Ferdowsian, H R; Levin, S

2010-03-01

329

Affect and the computer game player: the effect of gender, personality, and game reinforcement structure on affective responses to computer game-play.  

PubMed

Previous research on computer games has tended to concentrate on their more negative effects (e.g., addiction, increased aggression). This study departs from the traditional clinical and social learning explanations for these behavioral phenomena and examines the effect of personality, in-game reinforcement characteristics, gender, and skill on the emotional state of the game-player. Results demonstrated that in-game reinforcement characteristics and skill significantly effect a number of affective measures (most notably excitement and frustration). The implications of the impact of game-play on affect are discussed with reference to the concepts of "addiction" and "aggression." PMID:16780398

Chumbley, Justin; Griffiths, Mark

2006-06-01

330

Unsteady Flow Characteristics in a 90 Degree Elbow Affected by Developed, Undeveloped and Swirling Inflow Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements in a 90 degree elbow of which the curvature radius coincides with its inner diameter were examined for the cases of inflow from a long pipe, short pipe and swirl generator. Ensemble averaged flow distribution at the Reynolds number of 320000 based on the inner pipe diameter and bulk velocity shows that shortening the upstream pipe length to 4.9D from 10D induces the flow separation downstream of the elbow. Detailed observation suggests that shortening upstream pipe weakens the Prandtl's secondary flow of the first kind. Our swirl generator induced a swirling inflow with the non-dimensional angular momentum of 0.12 based on the inner pipe diameter and bulk velocity. The circumferential velocity distribution formed a shape like a Rankine combined vortex at the elbow inlet, and the accelerated axial velocity was observed at the vortex center. The axial velocity distribution however was found to be almost the same as that of the non-swirl inflow case in the latter half of the elbow. Frequency analyses showed that the Strouhal number by vortex shedding from the boundary layer occurring at the inner side of the elbow become 0.5, except for 0.6 in the case of the long pipe. The change of the Strouhal number is probably related with the boundary layer width and the local flow velocity.

Iwamoto, Yukiharu; Kondo, Manabu; Minamiura, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Hidemasa

331

Biochemical and physical factors affecting discoloration characteristics of 19 bovine muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steaks from muscles (n=19 from nine beef carcasses) were evaluated over the course of retail display (0-, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-d) for objective measures of discoloration (metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, L*-, a*-, and b*-values), reducing ability (metmyoglobin reductase activity (MRA), resistance to induced metmyoglobin formation (RIMF), and nitric oxide metmyoglobin reducing ability (NORA)), oxygen consumption rate (OCR), oxygen penetration depth,

D. R. McKenna; P. D. Mies; B. E. Baird; K. D. Pfeiffer; J. W. Ellebracht; J. W. Savell

2005-01-01

332

An examination of contextual factors and individual characteristics affecting technology implementation decisions in auditing  

Microsoft Academic Search

While computer-assisted audit techniques (CAATs) have the potential to increase efficiency and effectiveness of audit engagements, research in this area suggests that such techniques are under-utilized in public accounting. We propose that this condition is due to performance evaluation pressure and the use of budgets for multiple purposes, which result in the misalignment of firm and individual employee goals. We

Mary B. Curtis; Elizabeth A. Payne

2008-01-01

333

Calculation of Synchronous Machine Constants Reactances and Time Constants Affecting Transient Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the theory of synchronous machines have introduced a large number of new constants. The method of symmetrical components requires sequence reactances, and an accurate theory of transients requires transient and subtransient reactances and time constants. Most of the published discussion on the constants has been concerned with the application, rather than the calculation of values. In this

L. A. Kilgore

1931-01-01

334

ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

335

Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

2009-01-01

336

Student Characteristics Affecting the Decision to Enroll in a Community College: Economic Rationale and Empirical Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a probit model to examine determinants of U.S. college students' choice of attendance at two-year community colleges compared to a four-year college. The empirical work was based on the latest National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The set of explanatory variables included academic performance, students' involvement in…

Joshi, Prathibha V.; Beck, Kris A.; Nsiah, Christian

2009-01-01

337

What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures…

Giglio, Kate

2010-01-01

338

Germination and some metabolic characteristics in green gram seedlings as affected by sodium carbonate and bicarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 at equal conductivities (2, 4 and 6 S cm?1) on germination, seedling growth and some metabolites were studied in two cultivars of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Varsha and cv. Pusa Baiskhi) in Petri dishes and sand culture. With increasing conductivity both the salts depressed\\u000a germination, length of shoot and root and their mass.

B. K. Garg; O. P. Garg

1982-01-01

339

Investigation of formulation factors affecting in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a galantamine transdermal system.  

PubMed

Because of low treatment compliance with the Alzheimer disease patients, there have been clinical needs for the alternative administration route to effective and well-tolerated approaches of galantamine (Small and Dubois, 2007). In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patches with galantamine were prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro permeation studies indicated that DT-2510 was the most suitable pressure-sensitive-adhesive and oleic acid was the most promising enhancer for galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch. The optimized galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch could be physicochemically stable for 28 days at 40 °C/75% RH. The in vivo studies of the optimized galantamine drug-in-adhesive patch showed high absolute bioavailability of around 80% and sustained effect on the drug plasma levels for 24 h. The in vitro and in vivo studies of galantamine drug-in-adhesive patches with different pressure-sensitive-adhesive functional groups showed a strong correlation between the skin permeation rate and the area under the curve. The results suggest that the transdermal application of galantamine drug-in-adhesive patches might be the alternative dosage form to have good efficacy and tolerability for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22771734

Park, Chun-Woong; Son, Dao-Danh; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Tack-Oon; Ha, Jung-Myung; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

2012-07-05

340

Timing and extent of tissue removal affect reproduction characteristics of an invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response of the invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum to experimental removal of tissues was studied in the Czech Republic. The study aimed at determining (i) how efficiently\\u000a plants respond, in terms of quantity and quality of produced fruit, to the removal of different amounts of generative and\\/or\\u000a vegetative tissues; and (ii) whether regeneration ability depends on the time of treatment. Total number

Petr Pyšek; Lukáš Krinke; Vojt?ch Jarošík; Irena Perglová; Jan Pergl; Lenka Moravcová

2007-01-01

341

Physical and chemical characteristics of topographically affected airflow in an open borehole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole UZ6S, on the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, has exhaled approximately 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of gas annually during winter months for three successive years. The flow arises from thermal-topographic effects. The average composition of the exhausted gas is: N{sub 2} = 78%, O{sub 2} = 21%, Ar = 0.94%, CO{sub 2} = 0.125%, and CH{sub 4} = 0.2 ppMv. The CO{sub 2} has the following isotopic signature: {sup 14}C = 108.5 percent modern carbon (pmc), and {delta}{sup 13}C = 17.1 per mil. In the thirty-month observation period, there has been a net flux to the atmosphere of approximately 40 m{sup 3} of liquid water and 1150 kg of carbon. The gas flowing from UZ6S appears to originate in the soil and/or shallow unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain crest. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Thorstenson, D.C.; Woodward, J.C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA); Weeks, E.P. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (USA); Haas, H. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA). Radiocarbon Lab.

1989-12-31

342

Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Affective Evaluation of Social Studies Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigerian secondary schools are under pressure to make their impact on society through the development of values that promote civic responsibility (Iyamu and Otote, 2003). Nwankwo (2000) posits that human attitude is the greatest dimension of any national development issue. Education is one of the active media for influencing this attitude. The…

Otote, Celia O.; Omo-Ojugo, Matthew

2009-01-01

343

Cytochemical staining characteristics of lymph nodes from normal and lymphoma-affected dogs.  

PubMed

Frozen sections and imprint smears were used to evaluate the presence and pattern of cytochemical staining reactions in the B- and T-cell regions of lymph nodes from normal dogs and dogs with lymphoma. Staining procedures evaluated included peroxidase (PER), Sudan black B (SBB), naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase (NBE), acid phosphatase (ACP), and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP). In normal lymph nodes, macrophages and some lymphocytes within the interfollicular (T-cell) region and medulla stained positive with ACP and NBE. Smaller numbers of macrophages also occurred sporadically within the germinal follicles. Cells positive for PER, SBB, and CAE were scattered infrequently throughout all regions of the normal lymph node, consistent with granulocytes and mast cells. The LAP stained cells were predominantly and prominently located within the mantle zone of secondary follicles and to a much lesser extent within the germinal centers, compatible with B-cell lymphocytes derived from follicular center cells. Of the 12 dogs with lymphoma, 7 cases (4 immunoblastic, 2 large noncleaved, 1 small noncleaved) stained diffusely positive with LAP, 4 cases (all lymphoblastic) had numerous focally positive lymphocytes using ACP and NBE, and 1 case (immunoblastic) did not stain positive with any of the cytochemical reactions. Cytochemical staining of canine lymph nodes with NBE, ACP, and LAP proved useful in distinguishing between B- or T-cell regions and detecting different cell types of canine lymphoma. PMID:12671804

Raskin, Rose E.; Nipper, Marlin N.

1992-01-01

344

EFFECTS OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON PASTURE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT LOADS IN SURFACE WATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate cattle grazing effects on the potential for sediment and nutrient loading of surface waters, forage cover, sward height, and mass and manure cover were measured in pastures with different grazing management systems. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures were assigned one of three treat...

345

Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of Depression in 10- and 11YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of emotion experiences, attribution style, and intellectual performance were regressed on an index of childhood depression. The results indicated that the depressed children were like depressed adults in that they reported experiencing a pattern of emotions including sadness, anger, self-directed hostility, and shame, and they tended to explain negative events in terms of internal, stable, and global causes. The

Samuel H. Blumberg; Carroll E. Izard

1985-01-01

346

A Preliminary Study of Factors Affecting Magnesium Dry Cell Performance Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary investigations were carried out to determine the cell parameters that influence the 'delayed action' of 'N' size magnesium dry cells when subjected to the duty cycle and drain rate encountered in the AN/PRT-4 radio set. High concentrations (5N...

D. B. Wood

1965-01-01

347

Honeybee Pollination Affects Fruit Characteristics of Sweet Pepper Grown Under Net-Houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern agriculture, many high-value cash crops that were formerly cultivated in open fields are now grown in greenhouses and net-houses. While changing the cultivation environment, attention is needed to ensure adequate pollen transfer to the stigma due to absence of wind, isolation from wild pollinators and low viability of reproductive organs due to the extreme temperature under those conditions.

Arnon Dag; Yoram Zvieli; Ohad Afik; Yonatan Elkind

2008-01-01

348

Hydrological characteristics of some volcanic materials as affected by particle size distribution and internal porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of internally porous inorganic amendments have been recently introduced to replace peat in rootzone mixes used for golf greens and sports fields. In Italy, volcanic rocks provide a large availability of internally porous materials such as pumice, lapillus and zeolite. Volcanic sands are currently used as substitutes of silica sand. In order to assess the suitability of these

M. Volterrani; S. Magni

2012-01-01

349

Evaluation of Geometric and Operational Characteristics Affecting the Safety of Six-Lane Divided Roadways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of this project is to improve the safety of six-lane divided roadways in the State of Florida by mitigating the high crash rates on these roadways (as compared to four-lane divided roadways). To attain this goal, the overall objective of thi...

H. Huang R. Mussa S. Challa T. Petritsch

2007-01-01

350

Characteristics of cellulase preparations affecting the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellulase, Spezyme CP from Genencor, widely used for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol, contained substances inhibitory to the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca P2, emphasising the need to check for inhibition effects in SSF experimentation. Also, the preparation contained enough ß-glucosidase activity to prevent cellobiose accumulation in SSF with a conventional non-cellobiose fermenting yeast: this

Helen Golias; Geoffrey J. Dumsday; Neville B. Pamment

2000-01-01

351

Paternal Heredity and Housing Characteristics Affect Childhood Asthma and Allergy Morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A birth cohort was initiated when each pregnant woman was asked for her own and her husband's history of asthma and allergic diseases at the time of recruitment. They were further inquired to verify their housing conditions, and current health status of children 3 to 5 years old at the time of interview. Paternal history was the most significant risk

Nai-Yun Hsu; Jiu-Yao Wang; Pei-Chih Wu; Huey-Jen Su

2012-01-01

352

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29\\u000a wetlands in areas with low (?1) acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in south-eastern Maine. We documented bird, pair, and brood use during 1982– 1984 and in\\u000a 1982 we sampled 10 wetlands with a sweep net to collect invertebrates. We related mean numbers of invertebrates

Jerry R. Longcore; Daniel G. McAuley; Grey W. Pendelton; Carolyn Reid Bennatti; Terry M. Mingo; Kenneth L. Stromborg

353

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29\\u000a wetlands in areas with low (?1) acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in southeastern Maine. We documented bird, pair, and brood use during 1982–1984 and in\\u000a 1982 we sampled 10 wetlands with a sweep net to collect invertebrates. We related mean numbers of invertebrates per

Jerry R. Longcore; Daniel G. McAuley; Grey W. Pendelton; Carolyn Reid Bennatti; Terry M. Mingo; Kenneth L. Stromborg

2006-01-01

354

Crystallization characteristics of hydrogenated canola oil as affected by addition of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of palm oil at levels of 5, 10 and 15% to selectively and nonselectively hydrogenated canola oil increased the time\\u000a of isothermal crystallization at 20?C and delayed the appearance of the isothermal crystallization peak as determined by DSC.\\u000a The degree of supercooling was also increased. Addition of palm oil to canola oil before selective or nonselective hydrogenation\\u000a decreased the

Peck Hong Yap; J. M. deMan; L. deMan

1989-01-01

355

Program characteristics and organizational factors affecting the implementation of a school-based indicated prevention program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconnecting Youth (RY) is a school-based drug prevention program designed to address academic, substance use and mood manage- ment goals among youth at risk of dropping out of high school. This paper presents the or- ganizational factors and RY program charac- teristics that either promoted or hindered the implementation of the program during a ran- domized controlled effectiveness trial in

Samruddhi Thaker; Allan Steckler; Victoria Sanchez; Shereen Khatapoush; John Rose; Denise Dion Hallfors

2008-01-01

356

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

Not Available

1992-07-01

357

Estimation of illumination characteristics.  

PubMed

The description of the relation between the one-parameter subgroups of a group and the differential operators in the Lie-algebra of the group is one of the major topics in Lie-theory. We use this framework to derive a partial differential equation which describes the relation between the time-change of the spectral characteristics of the illumination source and the change of the color pixels in an image. We introduce and justify the usage of conical coordinate systems in color space. We also derive the differential equation describing the illumination change and illustrate the algorithm with some simulation examples. PMID:18249676

Lenz, R

2001-01-01

358

How do disaster characteristics influence risk perception?  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to examine how risk perception is influenced by the type of disaster (flood or landslide) and victim characteristics. The data reported here are based on the National Risk Perception Survey (NRPS) that was administered for the victims and the general public in Taiwan in 2004. In that year, many towns in Taiwan were seriously affected by floods and landslides, resulting in huge economic losses and fatalities. The primary findings are: (1) the victims and the general public are concerned about the different potential hazards that might affect their residential area, (2) the negative associations between the sense of controllability and the perceived impact is high for landslide victims, but not for flood victims, and (3) disaster type, gender, and previously experienced disasters are good predictors of victims' attitudes toward natural disasters. PMID:18643821

Ho, Ming-Chou; Shaw, Daigee; Lin, Shuyeu; Chiu, Yao-Chu

2008-06-01

359

Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms of Asian AGA patients, and management based on algorithmic guidelines for AGA are discussed. This review may be useful for dermatologists in clinical practice for diagnosing and designing management approaches for Asian patients with AGA.

Lee, Hae-Jin

2012-01-01

360

Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability.  

PubMed

Ostrich eggs often have low hatchability (HATCH) rates because they do not lose sufficient weight during incubation. Because egg size, eggshell porosity and thickness (THICK), and length of preincubation egg storage are known to affect egg weight loss during incubation (EWL) and HATCH of chicken eggs, these factors were examined using ostrich eggs. The effects of eggshell porosity (number of large pores per cm2 of shell; LP); and THICK on EWL and HATCH were assessed by categorizing the eggs as having either low, intermediate, or high LP or low, intermediate, or high THICK. Mean EWL was higher (P<0.05) in eggs of the high LP group when compared with eggs in either the low or intermediate LP groups that lost similar amounts of weight during incubation. Mean HATCH was also higher (more than 25%; P<0.10) in eggs with high LP when compared with the HATCH found in eggs having low LP. Eggs from the intermediate LP group had an intermediate HATCH response. Moreover, numbers of LP were positively correlated to both EWL (r2 = 0.64; P<0.0001) and HATCH (r2 = 0.25; P<0.03). Inverse relationships existed between THICK and EWL and between THICK and HATCH according to the order (P< 0.05): eggs of low THICK, highest mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of intermediate THICK, intermediate mean EWL and HATCH > eggs of highest THICK, lowest mean EWL and HATCH. Shell thickness was not correlated to either EWL or HATCH. The influence of egg size on mean LP, THICK, EWL, HATCH, and chick weight (CWT) was assessed. Although THICK was unaffected by egg size, higher LP (P<0.10), EWL (P<0.05), and HATCH (P<0.10) were found in medium-sized eggs when compared with either small or large eggs. The CWT was associated with egg size (P<0.05) according to the order: large eggs, highest CWT > medium eggs, intermediate CWT > small eggs, lowest CWT. Neither EWL nor HATCH was affected by length of preincubation egg storage. Collectively, our findings suggest that 1) ostrich eggs that possess low LP and increased THICK hatched poorly, 2) intermediate-sized eggs hatch best, 3) large eggs produced large chicks, and 4) ostrich eggs can be stored under conditions typically used in the poultry industry for a minimum of 10 d without negatively impacting HATCH. PMID:10515354

Gonzalez, A; Satterlee, D G; Moharer, F; Cadd, G G

1999-09-01

361

Dimensions of Hallucinations and Delusions in Affective and Nonaffective Illnesses  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho ?0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption.

Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

2013-01-01

362

Modelling fire affected ecosystem restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems is usually ascribed to the seasonal climate, that is characterized by the alternation between mild temperatures and abundant rainfall in Spring and Autumn, and the high temperatures and scarce rainfall producing severe water deficit in Summer. Many factors influence watershed response altered by forest fire forcing: rainfall intensity, fire intensity, vegetation cover, soil properties and moisture content, the time interval between the fire and a rainfall episode and its associated rain rate. The fire changed soil propreties and the burned vegetation cover and the consequent soil surface exposition to high raindrops impacts are found to trigger increasing overland flow, so accelerating soil erosion. Post fire water erosion usually strongly increases in the time interval ranging from the fire extinction to the first year after it. Its persistence is strictly connected to the soil and vegetation restoration, the last occurring at different time scales. In this context, a new model aimed to analyse fire affected ecosystem restoration is presented. It is a spatially distributed model accounting of the hydrological fluxes generation and propagation, the water erosion and of the vegetation dynamic connected both to hydrological cycle and erosion. The model is able to take into account the diverse fire effects persistance of its various components (soil and vegetation) at different time scales. The application to the case study of Rio Mannu basin, a typical Mediterranean ecosystem site located in Sardinia, Italy, highlights modelling capability in studying ecosystem restoration.

Rulli, M.; Santini, M.; Rosso, R.

2011-12-01

363

Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.  

PubMed

Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

1995-01-01

364

Neighborhood phylodiversity affects plant performance.  

PubMed

Facilitation and competition are ecological interactions that are crucial for the organization of plant communities. Facilitative interactions tend to occur among distantly related species, while the strength of competition tends to decrease with phylogenetic distance. The balance between both types of interactions will ultimately determine the specific composition of multispecies associations. Although multispecies patches are the arena in which coexistence develops among different phylogenetic groups within communities, the specific processes that occur across life stages have not been explored. Here we study how different species, in composing discrete patches in central Mexico, exert competitive or facilitative effects on seeds and seedlings. We relate these interactions to phylogenetic relationships among nurse species and beneficiary species, and among members of the patches. Survivorship and growth rates of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis were highly positively related to increasing phylogenetic distance to different nurse species, to the presence of related species in patches, and to mean phylogenetic distances to the rest of the species in the patch. Each of these three elements influenced N. mezcalaensis differently, with different nurse species varying substantially in their early effects on emergence, and the nearest relatives and species composition of patches varying in their late effects on survival and growth. Our results emphasize that evolutionary relationships among co-occurring species in vegetation clumps exert direct and indirect effects on plants, affecting individual performance and species coexistence. PMID:21302836

Castillo, Juan Pablo; Verdú, Miguel; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

2010-12-01

365

Characteristics of Business Owners Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau has released the results of the 1992 Characteristics of Business Owners Survey (CBO). These results provide data for comparing the "selected economic, demographic, and sociological characteristics" of business owners.

1997-01-01

366

[Harmful practices affecting women's health].  

PubMed

The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

1990-07-01

367

Does Timing of Alcohol Administration Affect Sleep?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To explore the time of day effects of alcohol on sleep, we examined sleep following alcohol administered at four times of day and three homeostatic loads during a 20-hr forced desynchrony (FD) protocol. Participants: Twenty-six healthy young adults (21–25 yrs) were studied. Design: Participants were dosed at 4 clock times: 0400 (n = 6; 2 females), 1600 (n = 7; 4 females), 1000 (n = 6; 1 female) or 2200 (n = 7; 2 females). Participants slept 2300 to 0800 for at least 12 nights before the in-lab FD study. Double blind placebo and alcohol (vodka tonic targeting 0.05g% concentration) beverages were each administered three times during FD at different homeostatic loads: low (4.25 or 2.24 hrs awake), medium (8.25 or 6.25 hrs awake), high (12.25 or 10.25 hrs awake) in the 0400 and 1600 or 1000 and 2200 groups, respectively. Sleep was staged and subjected to spectral analysis. Measurements and Results: Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) confirmed targeted maximal levels. At bedtime, BrAC was 0 in the low and medium homeostatic load conditions; however, at high homeostatic load, BrAC was still measurable. Spectral characteristics of sleep were unaffected with alcohol at any time of day. Few alcohol related changes were seen for sleep stages; however, with alcohol given at 0400 at a high homeostatic load there was an increase in wake. Conclusions: These data lend support to the idea that alcohol may be disruptive to sleep; however, our findings are inconsistent with the idea that a low dose of alcohol is a useful sleep aid when attempting to sleep at an adverse circadian phase. Citation: Van Reen E; Tarokh L; Rupp TL; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Does timing of alcohol administration affect sleep? SLEEP 2011;34(2):195-205.

Van Reen, Eliza; Tarokh, Leila; Rupp, Tracy L.; Seifer, Ron; Carskadon, Mary A.

2011-01-01

368

Factors Affecting Transformation of Bacillus licheniformis  

PubMed Central

Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and Harold B. Stull. Factors affecting transformation of Bacillus licheniformis. J. Bacteriol. 91:1012–1020. 1966.—Transformation systems involving two types of transformable mutants of Bacillus licheniformis 9945A were compared. Each system required its specific growth medium, but a single transformation medium could be used for both. Cells from a culture of optimal age were not competent, at least to any great extent, but they developed competence during incubation in a transformation medium. With each system, 3 to 5% of the recipient cells were transformed upon exposure to wild-type deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for 2 to 3 hr. When competent cells were exposed to DNA for 30 min, 1 to 2% of them were transformed. The data are interpreted to mean that cells were heterogeneous with respect to development of competence, and when properly grown cells were incubated in transformation medium some of them gained competence, whereas others lost it. If DNA was present during the entire period, the cells were transformed as they became competent and the transformants accumulated. However, during any short period of exposure to DNA, only those cells that were competent at the time were potential transformants. The high frequencies of transformation obtained in these studies made it feasible to prepare marked strains by transforming markers into recipient cells. These experiments demonstrated that the characteristics of the two transformation systems could not be attributed to specific nutritional markers. Presumably, each of the two series of highly transformable auxotrophic mutants also carried at least one other mutation that resulted in development of competence under the specific conditions.

Thorne, Curtis B.; Stull, Harold B.

1966-01-01

369

Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized.

Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornelissen, G.; Halberg, F.

2008-01-01

370

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

2012-01-01

371

Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

2012-01-01

372

ABAIS: Affect and Belief Adaptive Interface System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe an Affect and Belief Adaptive Interface System (ABAIS) designed to compensate for performance biases caused by users' affective states and active beliefs. The ABMS architecture implements an adaptive methodology consisting of four steps: sensi...

E. Hudlicka J. Billingsley

1999-01-01

373

Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol ...

374

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19

375

Characteristics of tau oligomers.  

PubMed

In Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies, microtubule-associated protein tau becomes hyperphosphorylated, undergoes conformational changes, aggregates, eventually becoming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). As accumulating evidence suggests that NFTs themselves may not be toxic, attention is now turning toward the role of intermediate tau oligomers in AD pathophysiology. Sarkosyl extraction is a standard protocol for investigating insoluble tau aggregates in brains. There is a growing consensus that sarkosyl-insoluble tau correlates with the pathological features of tauopathy. While sarkosyl-insoluble tau from tauopathy brains has been well characterized as a pool of filamentous tau, other dimers, multimers, and granules of tau are much less well understood. There are protocols for identifying these tau oligomers. In this mini review, we discuss the characteristics of tau oligomers isolated via different methods and materials. PMID:23882258

Ren, Yan; Sahara, Naruhiko

2013-07-19

376

The Role of Affect in Creative Minds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a How do affective states influence the way that we perform creative thinking? It is almost a truism that creativity is associated\\u000a with feelings of positive affect, but it is less obvious how to discern the effects of affect in naturalistic episodes of\\u000a creative activities. I present a methodology to examine the representation of affect through language. I will then present

Andy Dong

377

Inspiration: Core Characteristics, Component Processes, Antecedents, and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the core characteristics, component processes, antecedents, and function of state inspiration. In Studies 1 and 2, inspiration was contrasted with baseline experience and activated positive affect (PA) using a vivid recall methodology. Results supported the tripartite conceptualization of inspiration. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that inspiration may be decomposed into separate processes related to being inspired \\

Todd M. Thrash; Andrew J. Elliot

2004-01-01

378

Filtering characteristics of thin, planar 3D printed element arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic arrays of metallic elements have been popular in printed antenna designs for the past two decades. For these applications the elements are individually excited and the array factor is the primary design consideration, affecting directly the radiation pattern characteristics of the array. Therefore, in these applications, the element lattice and excitation distribution is of primary importance, while the interelement

Harry Contopanagos; C. Kyriazidou; W. Merrill; Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos

1999-01-01

379

Shrinkage Characteristics and Porosity of Pears during Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high moisture content of pears (about 80%) results in a high degree of shrinkage when drying takes place, which strongly affects the fruit structure and quality. The aim of the present work was to study the shrinkage characteristics of pears during air drying by evaluating their dimensions and volume along the drying process and by predicting particle and bulk

R. P. F. Guiné; M. A. Ramos; M. Figueiredo

2006-01-01

380

Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses…

Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2005-01-01

381

Characteristics of Infantile Autism: Moving Toward Earlier Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early detection of autism plays an important role in enhancing developmental outcomes for affected children. Identifying potential characteristics of the disorder evident during infancy and toddlerhood aids our efforts to screen for such symptoms, which may lead to earlier and more accurate diagnoses. This review examines the literature on…

Goin, R. P.; Myers, B. J.

2004-01-01

382

The impact of organisational characteristics on corporate visual identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a research model to investigate corporate visual identity (CVI) management from an organisational perspective. It is assumed that characteristics of the organisation and of the way a CVI is managed will affect consistency of CVI. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model was tested in a survey carried out among employees in 20

Annette L. M. van den Bosch; Wim J. L. Elving; Menno D. T. de Jong

2006-01-01

383

Moon surface thermal characteristics for moon orbiting spacecraft thermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal characteristics of the funar surface are of great importance for the calculation of the surface heat flux affecting a lunar orbiting spacecraft. This paper aims to collate the existing information from the literature and systematically arrange the data in a readily usable way. Two simple surface temperature mathematical models are deyeloped, to simulate steady state and transient behaviour.

Giuseppe D. Racca

1995-01-01

384

Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banner ads function as both image and direct response advertising. Industry wisdom assumes that banner ad characteristics affect the viewer's recall and clicks; however, most evidence is anecdotal. This study examines the viewer's cognitive response as a function of banner ad size and type in a lab experiment. The study finds that animated banner ads result in quicker response and

Hairong Li; Janice L. Bukovac

1999-01-01

385

Childhood behavioral characteristics and adult brain morphology in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that many schizophrenia patients manifest behavioral dysfunction long before the onset of clinical symptoms of illness. Some show signs of motor and socioemotional deficit as early as infancy. The present study examines the relations among childhood neuromotor, affective and behavior characteristics, and the association of these factors with adult brain morphology (MRI) in schizophrenia patients. Data

Elaine F. Walker; Richard R. J. Lewine; Craig Neumann

1996-01-01

386

Student Mathematics Achievement Test Scores, Dropout Rates, and Teacher Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the relationship between teacher quality and California high school student mathematics achievement, investigating student dropout rates in conjunction with faculty characteristics. Results suggest that poverty strongly affects student achievement. A direct relationship exists between teacher experience and preparation and student…

Fetler, Mark

2001-01-01

387

Polyphenol Oxidase: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Browning Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase, a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments in wounded tissues. This enzymatic mechanism causes post harvest losses and mainly affects tropical fruits. In this article, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from different plants are reviewed and information about conventional and alternative methods to inactivate this enzyme is presented. Characterization of

Christiane Queiroz; Maria Lúcia Mendes Lopes; Eliane Fialho; Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita

2008-01-01

388

Progressive Right Frontotemporal Degeneration: Clinical, Neuropsychological and SPECT Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral, neuropsychological and single photon emission computerized tomography characteristics of 5 patients with progressive degeneration of the right hemisphere are described. In all, the brain regions with greatest involvement were right-frontal and temporal. Psychosis, compulsions and behavioral disinhibition were the dominant, and often first, symptoms. Affect was flattened and the patients seemed distant and remote. Neuropsychological testing did not

Bruce L. Miller; Linda Chang; Ismael Mena; Kyle Boone; Ira M. Lesser

1993-01-01

389

Top Management Team Characteristics and Innovation in Nursing Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how demographic characteristics of the top management team in 236 nursing homes can affect the adoption of innovations. Results indicate that managers of non-chain nursing homes showed a greater association between demographic factors and innovation. Job tenure, educational background, and professional involvement were important…

Castle, Nicholas G.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

1997-01-01

390

Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: A protocol analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protocol analysis examines the content of virtual experience in e-commerce, as concurrently verbalized by a sample of 30 participants while interacting with four 3-D products. Thirteen different types of psychological activities were observed and classified into five characteristics of virtual experience: active process, presence, involvement, enjoyment, and affordances. As a result, virtual experience is vivid, involving, active, affective psychological

Hairong Li; Terry Daugherty; Frank Biocca

2001-01-01

391

The study of hydrophilic characteristics of ethylene glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the way to measure ethylene glycol resistance (Omega). The electronic sensing of hydrophilic characteristics was design to measure ethylene glycol moisture contain in real-time. Many liquids contain the glycol such as brake fluid, antifreeze and cosmetics. The percent of water contain may affect those liquids functions. It will measure the ethylene glycol resistance (Omega) and could be

M. J. Kao; D. C. Tien; C. S. Jwo; T. T. Tsung

2005-01-01

392

The study of hydrophilic characteristics of ethylene glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the way to measure ethylene glycol resistance (?). The electronic sensing of hydrophilic characteristics was design to measure ethylene glycol moisture contain in real-time. Many liquids contain the glycol such as brake fluid, antifreeze and cosmetics. The percent of water contain may affect those liquids functions. It will measure the ethylene glycol resistance (?) and could be

M J Kao; D C Tien; C S Jwo; T T Tsung

2005-01-01

393

Characteristics of Persons Approving of Physician-Assisted Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the characteristics and attitudes of non-terminally ill persons who support physician-assisted death (PAD) along with their expectations and preferences for care in the future. Participants (N=101) completed a survey assessing current affect and attitudes and those expected if terminally ill. Participants' responses…

Blevins, Dean; Preston, Thomas A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

2005-01-01

394

Deformation characteristics and eigenfrequencies of press-fit acetabular cups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElastic deformation of press-fitted acetabular cups during implantation provides primary stability. Excessive deformation can lead to chipping or improper seating of ceramic inlays and is dictated by cup stiffness, which also affects its vibrational characteristics. Purpose was to investigate the influence of cup design on deformation during press-fitting and on vibration properties.

Arne Hothan; Gerd Huber; Cornelius Weiss; Norbert Hoffmann; Michael Morlock

2011-01-01

395

Textual and nontextual characteristics of scientific papers: Neglected science indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citation rates of scientific papers, long used by numerous sociologists of science to measure the influence of individual scientists and the diffusion of knowledge, are shown to be partly affected by the various structural characteristics of these papers. Based on an analysis of 221 scientific papers in three cocitation clusters, between 15 and 35 percent of the variation in

W. E. Snizek; K. Oehler; N. C. Mullins

1991-01-01

396

CHARACTERISTICS OF ZEOLITE WASHCOATS ON CORDIERITE MONOLITHS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several preparation variables were analyzed which might affect the characteristics of zeolite coatings on cordierite monolith structures obtained by was hcoating. It was found that zeolite type, suspension concentration, number of immersions, solvent, particle size, and additives impinge on coating quality. When the suspension concentration is increased, a non-linear increment of the load is obtained. At the same time, the

J. M. Zamaro; M. A. Ulla; E. E. Miró

397

Switching characteristics of LD transceivers for optical TCM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

LD transceivers for a TCM (time-compression multiplexing) scheme are promising for bidirectional transmission and economical optical subscriber networks. This paper describes LD switching characteristics when cycling between transmitter and receiver states. An LD equivalent circuit model is discussed based on detailed observations of the LD discharge properties during switching operations. It Is confirmed that the LD current-blocking layers significantly affect

Hiroki Yamada; Kenji Sato; Kenji Okada

1994-01-01

398

Effects of Performers' External Characteristics on Performance Evaluations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that fairness has been a major concern in the field of music adjudication. Reviews the research literature to reveal information about three external characteristics (race, gender, and physical attractiveness) that may affect judges' performance evaluations and influence fairness of music adjudication. Includes references. (CMK)

Bermingham, Gudrun A.

2000-01-01

399

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same- valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii, which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

J. IAN

400

Affective video content representation and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks into a new direction in video content analysis - the representation and modeling of affective video content . The affective content of a given video clip can be defined as the intensity and type of feeling or emotion (both are referred to as affect) that are expected to arise in the user while watching that clip. The

Alan Hanjalic; Li-qun Xu

2005-01-01

401

An Affect Control Theory of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

Shank, Daniel B.

2010-01-01

402

Kindergarten theory: Childhood, affect, critical thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current notions of affect are often underpinned by unacknowledged assumptions about spontaneity, materiality and immediacy. Childhood, which has traditionally been associated with these concepts (and for this reason has not been much debated within critical theory), helps us reconsider the political impact of affect theory. This is both because feminist theory has recently reconceptualized childhood and because positing affect as

Daniela Caselli

2010-01-01

403

Affective and Psychiatric Disorders in Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraintestinal clinical manifestations have been reported in celiac disease (CD). Among them, growing evidence suggests the association between CD and affective and psychiatric disorders. In this review the most frequent affective and psychiatric disorders associated with CD and the possible mechanisms involved in these associations were analyzed. The available data suggest that screening for CD in patients with affective

Giovanni Addolorato; Lorenzo Leggio; Cristina D’Angelo; Antonio Mirijello; Anna Ferrulli; Silvia Cardone; Luisa Vonghia; Ludovico Abenavoli; Veruscka Leso; Antonio Nesci; Salvatore Piano; Esmeralda Capristo; Giovanni Gasbarrini

2008-01-01

404

The Effects of Diffuse and Distinct Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of suboptimal priming studies, it was shown that both affective and nonaffective reactions to a stimulus may occur without awareness. Moreover, it was demonstrated that affective information is detected earlier than nonaffective information. Therefore, early reactions to an affect-laden stimulus (e.g., a smiling man) are cognitively unappraised and thus diffuse (e. g., \\

Diederik A. Stapel; Willem Koomen; Kirsten I. Ruys

2002-01-01

405

Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

2010-01-01

406

The affective auditory verbal learning test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of emotion is hindered by the lack of tests for affect perception or comprehension. One solution is to develop affective versions of well-known tests. Using an index of word norms (Toglia & Battig, 1978), positively and negatively valenced word lists were developed as alternate forms of the affectively neutral Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVL; Rey, 1964). Participants (N=102)

Katharine A. Snyder; David W. Harrison

1997-01-01

407

Personalized MTV Affective Analysis Using User Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, MTV has become an important favorite pastime to peo- ple. Affective analysis which can extract the affective states contained in MTVs could be a potential and promising solution for efficient and intelligent MTV access. One of the most challenging and insufficiently covered problems of af- fective analysis is that affective understanding is personal and various among users. Consequently,

Shiliang Zhang; Qingming Huang; Qi Tian; Shuqiang Jiang; Wen Gao

2008-01-01

408

Analysis of Factors Affecting Employee's Occupational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research mainly examines the factors that affect an employee's occupational commitment. Respondents of the questionnaire were all insurance agents, and a total of 246 valid questionnaires were completed. After going through correlation and regression analysis of the collected data, it is implied that insurance agents' affective occupational commitment, is higher than their affective organizational commitment. Also, their organizational commitment

C. C. Chen; Y. H. Yang; S. T. Hsiung

2009-01-01

409

Affective Mapping between Music and Color Combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method to realize the media conversion between music and image according to the feeling (affects) has been proposed. This research focus on color combination and corresponded affects evoked from music with color combination in subjective assessment. As the result, the affective mapping tables between music and color combination have been obtained and the reliability of

M. Kawanobe

2005-01-01

410

Scalable multimodal fusion for continuous affect sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of affective interfaces lies in the fusion of emotional information coming from different modalities. This paper proposes a scalable methodology for fusing multiple affect sensing modules, allowing the subsequent addition of new modules without having to retrain the existing ones. It relies on a 2-dimensional affective model and is able to output a continuous emotional path characterizing the

Isabelle Hupont; Sergio Ballano; Sandra Baldassarri; Eva Cerezo

2011-01-01

411

Towards a Learning Companion that Recognizes Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports work in progress to build a Learning Companion, a computerized system sensitive to the affective aspects of learning, which facilitates the child's own efforts at learning. Learning related to science, math, engineering, and technology naturally involves failure and a host of associated affective responses. This article describes techniques and tools being developed to recognize affective states important

Ashish Kapoor; Selene Mota; Rosalind W. Picard

2001-01-01

412

Affective multimodal mirror: sensing and eliciting laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a component to present audiovisual affective feedback that should keep or bring the user

Willem A. Melder; David A. van Leeuwen; Khiet P. Truong; Mark A. Neerincx; Marten Den Uyl; Lodewijk R. Loos

2007-01-01

413

Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

2005-01-01

414

Measuring Affective Development in a Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective development is considered an important outcome of compensatory programs. This study examines interactions among program, cognitive, and affective variables over an extended time period. Affective dimensions considered for measurement include attitudes toward school, self-concept, achievement motivation, and internal-external control.…

Melaragno, Ralph J.

415

Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.  

PubMed

Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue. PMID:15219110

Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

2004-06-01

416

Psychopathy and affect consciousness in young criminal offenders.  

PubMed

A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize and tolerate the feeling and describe how they believe it is expressed in their posture and verbal expressions). Psychopathy is assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, and affect consciousness is assessed with a semistructured interview. Additionally, risk for criminal behavior, moral reasoning, cognitive distortions, and attachment style in the participants was assessed. The participants are 47 adolescent boys who were treated at juvenile delinquency homes. The results indicate that boys with higher ratings of psychopathy had lower consciousness of shame feelings and lower empathy scores. The results in combination with qualitative analyses of the interview answers are interpreted as indicating that consciousness of shame is specifically problematic for psychopathic adolescents. PMID:18162637

Holmqvist, Rolf

2008-02-01

417

Teacher Retention: Teacher Characteristics, School Characteristics, Organizational Characteristics, and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The researcher utilized block-entry regression analysis to determine the impacts of teacher characteristics, school characteristics, organizational characteristics, and teacher efficacy on retention in teaching from 782 teacher surveys. Findings indicated that 83.50% of participants planned to teach until retirement. Wald statistics indicated…

Hughes, Gail D.

2012-01-01

418

Characteristic time model validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental program for validation of the semi-empirical Characteristic Time Model (CTM) is described. A two-dimensional turbulent shear layer is generated in the experimental test section using a two-stream, vertically downflowing wind tunnel with a flat pre-filming airblast atomizer fitted along its centerline. This facility simulates the shear layer around the recirculation zone found in the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor. Experimental results are used to investigate CTM parameters for turbulent mixing and droplet lifetime and to examine current finite difference modeling techniques. Global mixing times evaluated at the origin of the shear layer and defined in terms of geometric macroscale and a reference velocity are compared with the locally measured values of turbulent mixing time. The results demonstrate that these global times, as defined for the CTM, do in fact accurately represent the events occurring on a local scale, as hypothesized. Modifications to the mixing time parameter to improve existing correlations are proposed. Due to restrictions imposed by the facility and instrumentation, validation of the droplet lifetime parameter was not possible. Measurements were restricted to mean spray diameters. These data and others demonstrate that current correlations for Sauter mean diameter do not adequately account for changes in atomizer geometry or liquid properties.

Tallio, K. V.; Prior, J. C., Jr.; Mellor, A. M.

1988-09-01

419

The factor affecting job stress and psychosocial well-being of prison officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to find out the factors affecting job stress and psychosocial well-being of the prison officers. This study was performed on 217 prison officers working in prison from February 2005 with questionnaires which were composed of general characteristics, job characteristics, stress factors and psychosocial well-being. The mean score of job stress and psychosocial well-being of prison officers were

Jung-Wan Koo; Hyun-Jung Kim

2006-01-01

420

Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Sedimentary Soft Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil under the engineering seismic base layer is treated as elastic material in the engineering practice, however, evidence that its nonlinear behavior affects surface response begins to appear. Test data on dynamic deformation characteristics and tri-axial compression test on sedimentary soft rock are collected and compiled to consider its nonlinearity. In addition, nonlinear characteristics of soft rock and note on practical use are described. Static tri-axial compression test of the sample taken by means of diamond core drill is first carried out by using a LDT (Local deformation transducer), and shear modulus is found to keep nearly constant up to strain of about 10-3 for the undisturbed sample, whereas that decreases significantly even at strain of 10-5. Secondly, dynamic deformation test data on Pleistocene and Tertiary soft rock with SPT-N value greater than 30 or shear wave velocity greater than 300 m/s is collected and compiled. It is found that there exist data that shows similar behavior of static test described in the preceding. These samples is supposed be undisturbed, which means there exists many disturbed samples even if they are retrieved by, so called, undisturbed sampling method. Shear modulus at shear strain of 10-3, which is used as index of nonlinearity, is independent from effective confining stress, but it has positive correlation with plastic index. Finally, dynamic deformation characteristics of undisturbed samples are shown to be modeled by Ramberg-Osgood model well.

Fukumoto, Shun'ichi; Yoshida, Nozomu; Sahara, Mamoru

421

Bloom's syndrome. III. Analysis of the chromosome aberration characteristic of this disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatid interchange between somatic chromosomes, a phenomenon occasionally observed in normal lymphocytes in culture, occurs with a greatly increased frequency in Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes. Highly characteristic interchanges occur at apparently homologous sites on homologous chromosomes and affect certain regions preferentially.

James German; Luisella P. Crippa; David Bloom

1974-01-01

422

Analysis of Regime Transition: The Characteristics, Mechanism and Types of Change in Modern Political Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is an anslysis of regime transition in modern political systems. These transitions can occur gradually or dramatically and may lead to changes whose basic characteristics are significant enough to affect the type of government. This thesis ana...

S. A. Weidie

1993-01-01

423

Interactions of Metacognition With Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The “metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning” (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task × Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like characteristics such as cognitive ability, metacognitive knowledge and skills, self-concept, perceptions of control,

Anastasia Efklides

2011-01-01

424

FACTORS AFFECTING THE TRAINING NEEDS AND BARRIERS OF SCHOOL-AGE CARE ADMINISTRATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological system theory, the extent to which individual, program and community-level variables affected the training barriers and training preferences of school-age care administrators was examined through a survey of 201 school-age administrators. The training topics directors preferred were significantly correlated with the problems they experienced in their programs, suggesting that program characteristics may affect training preferences. In contrast,

LAKEISHA MARIE BLAND

425

Characteristics Data Base  

SciTech Connect

The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-08-01

426

Affect and the Functional Bases of Behavior: On the Dimensional Structure of Affective Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the dimensional structure of affect usually are based on results of factor analyses. Disagreements focus largely on issues of measurement and measurement er - ror. I argue that the structure of affect is not discussed meaningfully without considering functional implications of affects. A functional analysis is outlined in which approach and incentive-related affects (both positive and negative) are

Charles S. Carver

2001-01-01

427

Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

2011-01-01

428

Characteristics of Ethical Business Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from\\u000a a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: Mission- and Values-Driven, Stakeholder\\u000a Balance, Leadership Effectiveness, Process Integrity, and Long-term Perspective. We propose that these characteristics be\\u000a used as a foundation of a comprehensive model that can be engaged to

Alexandre Ardichvili; James A. Mitchell; Douglas Jondle

2009-01-01

429

End-stage renal disease: Factors affecting referral decisions by family physicians in Canada, the United States, and Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to determine how patient age, sex, creatinine level, and comorbidity affect referral decisions for the treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and whether these decisions are affected by physician characteristics in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Britain. A vignette-based questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of family physicians in Ontario, Canada

Ruth Wilson; Marshall Godwin; Rachelle Seguin; Peter Burrows; Patrick Caulfield; Edwin Toffelmire; Ross Morton; Peter White; Mary Rogerson; George Eisele; Gene Bont

2001-01-01

430

Audio-visual affective expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

2007-11-01

431

Measuring gay and lesbian group affect.  

PubMed

There is a large literature in psychology on how affect toward social groups affects person perception. This literature is applicable to political science, where increasingly, political candidates from non-traditional groups-women, African Americans and gays and lesbians- are running for public office and entering the political arena. In this paper we explore the components of group affect as it relates to these evaluations. Specifically, we examine gay and lesbian candidates, since they are increasingly visible in politics, and Americans typically have strong affect toward and strong stereotypes about gays and lesbians. Using factor analysis in LISREL, we estimate a confirmatory factor analysis to better understand homosexual affect. The results illustrate that it is necessary to consider gay and lesbian affect as a three-factor latent model to reduce measurement error. Hence, this work should guide future research dealing with gay and lesbian political candidates and candidates belonging to other non-traditional groups. PMID:16048899

Fogarty, Brian J; Pettis, Gregory A

2005-01-01

432

Residential-appliance load characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

Kohler, J.

1982-04-01

433

Affect and memory in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-dependent theory of the relationship between affective states and memory holds that recall will be best when the affective state at recall matches that during learning. Sequential happy, neutral, and sad affective states that were either consistent (e.g., Happy-Happy) or inconsistent (e.g., Sad-Neutral) were experimentally induced in preschool children prior to encoding and then again prior to retrieval (free

S. Wayne Duncan; Christine M. Todd; Marion Perlmutter; John C. Masters

1985-01-01

434

Image and Video Processing for Affective Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in the research area of affective computing have broadened the range of application areas of its findings,\\u000a and additionally, as the state of the art advances in affective computing, other related research areas (computer vision,\\u000a pattern recognition, etc.) discover new challenges that are related to image and video processing related to the task of automatic\\u000a affective analysis. Although

Maja Pantic; George Caridakis

435

Measuring Gay and Lesbian Group Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large literature in psychology on how affect toward social groups affects person perception. This literature is applicable to political science, where increasingly, political candidates from non-traditional groups-women, African Americans and gays and lesbians-are running for public office and entering the political arena. In this paper we explore the components of group affect as it relates to these

Brian J. Fogarty; Gregory A. Pettis

2005-01-01

436

Voice characteristics of acromegaly.  

PubMed

Acromegaly's effect on voice is still indefinite. We aimed to define acoustic characteristics of patients with acromegaly. Cross-sectional case-control study was designed. Thirty-seven patients with acromegaly and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Fundamental frequency (F0) and measurements related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the obtained voice sample were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Absolute jitter (Jita) and jitter percent (Jitt), shimmer in decibel and shimmer percent, noise to harmonic ratio and soft phonation index, fundamental frequency tremor frequency and frequency tremor intensity index represented the parameters related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the voice sample, respectively. Patients with acromegaly, especially the uncontrolled patients, exhibited significant differences in frequency perturbation measurements. Jitt of all patients and Jita of uncontrolled patients were significantly higher than that of control group (p = 0.044 and p = 0.043, respectively). Jitter which is a measure of frequency perturbation can be assumed as an indicator of hoarse and deepened voice. Jita of all patients and Jitt of uncontrolled patients were elevated, but not reaching a statistical significance. Controlled and active patients had similar analysis of acoustic parameters. In the correlation analysis, shimmer and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) was found to be positively correlated in all patients with acromegaly and in female patients. When the p value is adjusted according to Bonferroni correction regarding the use of ten parameters for acoustic analysis (so adjusted p is <0.005), all the statistically significant findings become insignificant. Considering the parameters test different properties of voice, it is reasonable to pay attention to the findings. Patients with acromegaly have increased frequency perturbations measures, but this increase is non-significant according to Bonferroni correction. This may be perceptually sensed as hoarse voice. Amplitude perturbations within the voice of the patients with acromegaly are positively correlated with IGF-1 levels, this correlation is also non-significant according to Bonferroni correction. PMID:23389327

Aydin, Kadriye; Turkyilmaz, Didem; Ozturk, Burak; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Ozgen, Burce; Unal, Faruk; Erbas, Tomris

2013-02-07

437

Exploring Nonresponse Bias in a Health Survey Using Neighborhood Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined potential nonresponse bias in a large-scale, population-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey in California and its association with the response rate. Methods. We used California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data and US Census data and linked the two data sets at the census tract level. We compared a broad range of neighborhood characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents to CHIS. We projected individual-level nonresponse bias using the neighborhood characteristics. Results. We found little to no substantial difference in neighborhood characteristics between respondents and nonrespondents. The response propensity of the CHIS sample was similarly distributed across these characteristics. The projected nonresponse bias appeared very small. Conclusions. The response rate in CHIS did not result in significant nonresponse bias and did not substantially affect the level of data representativeness, and it is not valid to focus on response rates alone in determining the quality of survey data.

Brown, E. Richard; Grant, David; Belin, Thomas R.; Brick, J. Michael

2009-01-01

438

Acute lesions that impair affective empathy.  

PubMed

Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy--making inferences about how another person feels--engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

Leigh, Richard; Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E

2013-07-03

439

Positive Affect and Negative Affect as Modulators of Cognition and Motivation: The rediscovery of affect in achievement goal theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central hypothesis of classical motivation theory is that affect underlies motivation and its behavioural manifestations. However, this has been largely ignored in the past 30 years because social cognitivism has been the dominant theory. As a result, studies have concentrated on social cognitive processes when analysing those factors that determine and maintain performance?related behaviour. In recent years affect has

Gunnar Bjřrnebekk

2008-01-01

440

The Impact of Negative Affect on Performance Standards: Evidence for an Affect-as-Information Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the influence of negative affect on self-regulatory cognition, including the mechanism by which negative affect may induce comparatively higher standards for performance. Both studies tested affect-as-information theory using a discounting manipulation. As predicted, induced negative affect generated comparatively higher minimal performance standards except under conditions in which the mood induction procedure was made highly salient. Negative affect

Walter D. Scott; Daniel Cervone

2002-01-01

441

The Communication of Sensation and Affect Amongst Dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from current anthropological theory of affect, this thesis explores the communication of sensation and affect amongst professional dancers. According to Brian Massumi, affect is about the body's ability to be affected and to affect others. Affecting others opens one to being personally affected and visa versa. Teresa Brennan argues that bodies are porous and receptive to affective non-verbal transmissions.

Evadne Kelly

2008-01-01

442

Mutation affecting taste perception in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANALYSIS of mutant organisms can elucidate by contrast the development of the normal phenotype and this approach can be used to break down behavioural characteristics into their embryological and physiological components. Taste in insects is a characteristic suitable for such a study. Genetic analysis of taste in Drosophila melanogaster can complement the electrophysiological and anatomical information on taste organs of

Raphael Falk; Judith Atidia

1975-01-01

443

Nurses' perception of smart IV pump technology characteristics and quality of working life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology implementation in health care is increasing. The characteristics of the technology may affect user quality of working life (QWL) which has implications for technology use and job retention. We examined the relationship between technology characteristics of the new Smart intravenous infusion pump and nurse QWL at a U.S. academic hospital. Pump reliability predicted nurse organizational commitment and job satisfaction.

T. B. Wetterneck; P. Carayonb; A. Schoofs Hundtb; S. Krausd

444

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:

Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs

1991-01-01

445

Newspaper advertisement characteristics and consumer preferences for apples: A mimic model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural latent variable model is used to simultaneously determine the affect of newspaper advertisement characteristics on consumer preferences for apples and on demand for apple varieties. The advertisement characteristics considered included size, color, and logos. The estimated apple preference variable is an important explanatory variable in apple variety demand. Model specifications that exclude the variable tend to overstate own-price

Paul M. Patterson; Timothy J. Richards

2000-01-01

446

Characteristics of Infantile AutismMoving ToWard Earlier Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of autism plays an important role in enhancing developmental outcomes for affected children. Identifying potential characteristics of the disorder evident during infancy and toddlerhood aids our efforts to screen for such symptoms, Which may lead to earlier and more accurate diagnoses. This revieW examines the literature on detection of autistic characteristics in infants and toddlers, prior to a

Robin P. Goin; Barbara J. Myers

2004-01-01

447

The Impact of Job Characteristics on Social and Human Service Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The work environment characteristics of job stress, job variety, job autonomy, and supervision are theorized to affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of social and human service workers. Most research to date has focused upon the impact of these variables on job satisfaction, with little attention being paid to organizational commitment. To determine the effects these characteristics have

Reva I. Allen; Eric G. Lambert; Sudershan Pasupuleti; Terry Cluse-Tolar; Lois A. Ventura

2004-01-01

448

Effect of Air gap variation on characteristics of an Axial flux hysteresis motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial flux hysteresis motor (AFHM) such as other types of hysteresis motor is self-starting synchronous motor that use the hysteresis characteristics of magnetic materials. It is known that the magnetic characteristics of hysteresis motor could be easily affected by air gap and structure dimensions variation. Air gap length plays an important role in flux distribution in hysteresis ring that can

Mohammad Modarres; Abolfazl Vahedi; Mohammadreza Ghazanchaei

2010-01-01

449

Effects of low atmospheric pressure on combustion characteristics of polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion characteristics of polymers are affected significantly by low atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration at high altitude. In this study, vertical downward experiments aimed at investigating these characteristics, including mass loss rate (burning rate), flame temperature, flame spread rate, and flame height for polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate having different thicknesses were conducted at elevations of 2295 m (77.4 kPa) in

Junhui Gong; Lizhong Yang; Xiaodong Zhou; Zhihua Deng; Gao Lei; Wenjun Wang

2012-01-01

450

Families, schools, individual characteristics, and young adults’ outcomes: Social and cultural group differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderation-mediation model was developed to investigate relationships among adolescents’ family, school learning environments, individual characteristics, and measures of the academic, affective, and social outcomes of young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth. The findings indicated that: (1) adolescents’ family backgrounds, family and school capital, and individual characteristics combined

Kevin Marjoribanks

2004-01-01

451

The marginal willingness to pay for health-related food characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumers often face a trade-off between taste and nutrition. This paper examines how consumers value food characteristics that simultaneously affect taste and nutritional value. As a case study, we focus on Swedish consumer preferences for food characteristics in breakfast cereals, hard bread, and potato products. We estimate the value attached to fat, fiber, salt, and sugar and the value

Linda Thunström; Gordon Rausser

2008-01-01

452

Environmental Factors Related to the Distribution, Abundance, and Life History Characteristics of Mountain Whitefish in Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni are a broadly distributed native salmonid in western North America, but comparatively little investigation has been made regarding their population characteristics. We surveyed 2,043 study sites to assess whether physiochemical stream conditions affected mountain whitefish distribution and abundance in southern Idaho, and at 20 of these sites life history characteristics were also estimated. A total of

Kevin A. Meyer; F. Steven Elle; James A. Lamansky Jr

2009-01-01

453

Influence of trailing edge tab on moment characteristics of NACA 23012 airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of predicted and measured aerodynamic characteristics of the original NACA 23012 airfoil and an airfoil with a trailing edge tab is presented. XFOIL code is used for prediction. It is shown that the modification of the airfoils only on the upper side at the trailing edge affects practically only moment characteristics. An example of the airfoil modification with

E. Lasauskas; Th. Lutz; M. Dietz

2007-01-01

454

Effects of local and regional landscape characteristics on wildlife distribution across managed forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impacts of local and regional landscape characteristics on spatial distributions of wildlife species is vital for achieving ecological and economic sustainability of forested landscapes. This understanding is important because wildlife species such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have the potential to affect forest dynamics differently across space. Here, we quantify the effects of local and regional landscape characteristics

James D. A. Millington; Michael B. Walters; Megan S. Matonis; Jianguo Liu

2010-01-01

455

The social value effect on individual characteristics of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to examine the effect of social value to individual characteristic (need for uniqueness and attitude toward luxury fashion brands). Other than that, it also aims to examine the effect of social value on the cognitive-affective model (perceived quality and emotional value) through individual characteristic of Saudi women's purchase intention towards luxury fashion brand. The researcher will study

Amani Aqeel

2012-01-01

456

Geometric Analysis and Manufacturing Considerations for Optimizing the Characteristics of a Twisted Pair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometry of a twisted pair largely determines its electrical characteristics. To improve and refine the value of these characteristics according to preset values, the optimization of the manufacturing processes requires comprehensive knowledge of twisted pair geometry and of how electrical magnitudes are affected by the construction features of the twisted pair. This paper studies the relation between the length

Alfonso Lago; Carlos M. Penalver; Jorge Marcos; JesÚs Doval-Gandoy; AndrÉs Melendez; Óscar Lopez; FÉlix Santiago; Francisco D. Freijedo; JosÉ Manuel Vilas; JosÉ Carlos Lorenzo

2009-01-01

457

Characteristics of Black Postsecondary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is presented of the social and economic characteristics of black students, 16 years old and over, enrolled in college or a noncollegiate postsecondary institution, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau's 1976 Survey of Income and Education. After a reviewing of characteristics of the black population in the United States in the…

Hill, Susan; And Others

458

Evaluator Characteristics and Methodological Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses the central question "How do evaluators' background characteristics relate to their evaluation design choices?" Evaluators were provided with a fictitious description of a school-based program and asked to design an evaluation of that program. Relevant background characteristics such as level of experience, methodological…

Azzam, Tarek

2011-01-01

459

Combustion characteristics of boron nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of boron nanoparticles in the post flame region of a flat flame burner has been conducted. Boron is attractive as a fuel or a fuel supplement in propellants and explosives due to its high heats of combustion on both a gravimetric and volumetric basis. A relatively large database exists for combustion characteristics of

Gregory Young; Kyle Sullivan; Michael R. Zachariah; Kenneth Yu

2009-01-01

460

Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

1981-01-01

461

Behavior characteristics of schizophrenic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight prominent behavior characteristics of schizophrenic and schizoid children have been enumerated as the result of prolonged observation of 14 such patients in a children's neuropsychiatric hospital. A working definition of the various characteristics is presented, and the significance of each is discussed. The results of the study should clarify the diagnosis of childhood schizophrenia and furnish the basis

Charles Bradley; Margaret Bowen

1941-01-01

462

Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

1981-01-01

463

Teachers' Job Characteristics and Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To test the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation, 247 Quebec teachers completed the Job Diagnostic Survey. Results demonstrated the utility of the model and the instrument for the teaching profession. Psychological states influenced the relationship between job characteristics and motivation/satisfaction outcomes. (SK)|

Barnabe, Clermont; Burns, Mildred

1994-01-01

464

Transient characteristics of rocket turbopumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient characteristics of high-speed, high-pressure cryogenic turbopumps for rocket engines were examined experimentally by starting and stopping several rocket turbopumps rapidly by gas turbine drive. Aspects of transient characteristics studied were instantaneous pump head coefficient and pump efficiency, cavitation growth in the inducer during rapid acceleration, effects of the starting mode related to the propulsion system mission, and transient behavior

Takashi Shimura; Mitsuo Watanabe

1990-01-01

465

General characteristics of civil forfeiture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper attempts to clarify and describe the general characteristics of civil forfeiture as a new national and international tool in the fight against organized crime. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes and compares the civil forfeiture legislations of five counties – the USA, Great Britain, Ireland, Bulgaria and Serbia and draws conclusions on the general characteristics of this

Nikolay Nikolov

2011-01-01

466

The Effects of Job Characteristics and Gender On Hourly Employees' Personal Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of several job characteristics on the sense of personal responsibility experienced by male and female assembly line employees. Role clarity, task identity, freedom, and task significance all affected women's perceptions that they were responsible for their work, and role clarity and task identity affected men's perceptions. The results suggested that the patterns by which job

Jean M. Bartunek

1986-01-01

467

The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease.  

PubMed

The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice.All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

2011-03-23

468

Dissociation between affective sharing and emotion understanding in juvenile psychopaths.  

PubMed

Empathy dysfunction is one of the core characteristics of youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. How such a dysfunction is associated with abnormal neural processing, however, remains to be determined. This study combined assessment of Hare Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version, pressure pain threshold, and event-related brain potentials elicited by the perception of people in pain in 15 young offenders with low CU traits (LCU), 13 with high CU traits (HCU), and 15 typically developing controls. Compared to the controls, LCU and HCU had higher pain thresholds. Although only the central late positive potential (LPP) was reduced in LCU, both the frontal N120 and central LPP were diminished in HCU. When exposed to situations in which someone was harmed by another, HCU retained the LPP, and this response was significantly correlated with their psychopathic traits and pain thresholds. Both groups had no deficit in sensorimotor resonance as assessed by mu suppression. These results demonstrate that youth with HCU exhibit atypical neural dynamics of pain empathy processing in the early stage of affective arousal, which is coupled with their relative insensitivity to actual pain. Their capacity to understand intentionality, however, was not affected. Such uncoupling between affective arousal and emotion understanding may contribute to instigating aggressive behaviors in juvenile psychopaths. PMID:22559135

Cheng, Yawei; Hung, An-Yi; Decety, Jean

2012-05-01

469

Affect in the "Communicative" Classroom: A Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on affective variables and classroom second language learning suggests that: (1) affective variables are context-sensitive in at least two ways; (2) attitudes are contagious, and the general attitude of students can be influenced from various directions; (3) research in pragmatics, discourse analysis, and communicative functions…

Acton, William

470

Mutations affecting meiosis in Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty mutants affecting meiosis and two affecting caryogamy were isolated in Podospora anserina. Growth and mitosis of these mutants were normal. Eighteen of them were studied by both light and electron microscopy so as to determine precisely how the behaviour of the chromosomes and\\/or the structure of the kinetic apparatus were altered.

J. M. Simonet; D. Zickler

1972-01-01

471

How Does Organizational Commitment Affect Organizational Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational commitment plays an important role in technological innovation, which has three components, namely affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. This paper takes the enterprises of Zhejiang, China as the investigated objects, applies the structural equation model to analyze whether and how the three components of organizational commitment affect organizational innovation. The results of the research as follows: (1)

Lin Ming; Zhang Zhao Ying

2010-01-01

472

Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

2011-01-01

473

Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)…

Degner, Juliane

2011-01-01

474

Affective Equality: Who cares&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings are not just economic actors, devoid of relationality; rather, they are interdependent and dependent with a deep capacity for moral feeling and attaching. The presumption that people are mere units of labour, movable from one country to another as production requires, is, therefore, an institutionalized form of affective injustice. As love, care and solidarity involve work, affective inequalities

Kathleen Lynch

2009-01-01

475

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity Via Commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing

Sabrina Golonka; Zachary Estes

2009-01-01

476

Update on genetic disorders affecting white matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of diseases affecting white matter has changed dramatically with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Classical leukodystrophies, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and Krabbe’s disease, account for only a small number of inherited diseases that affect white matter. Magnetic resonance imaging has clarified genetic disorders that result in white matter changes or leukoencephalopathies. The term leukoencephalopathy is used to